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Sample records for age adjusted prevalence

  1. International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A D; Hecht, C A; Hook, E B

    1999-05-01

    Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant). We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to under-ascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than +/-25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations. PMID:10353785

  2. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  3. Loneliness and Adjustment to Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Robert O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two studies examined loneliness in older adults (N=177). Loneliness was found to be related to poor psychological adjustment and to dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. It was also related to fears, expectations, and personality characteristics likely to inhibit the restoration of personal support networks after a stressful life…

  4. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not...

  5. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  6. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  7. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  8. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  9. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  10. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section 229.51 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT...

  11. Prevalence, correlates, and costs of patients with poor adjustment to mixed cancers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lorna; Downe-Wamboldt, Barbara; Melanson, Patricia; Coulter, Lynn; Keefe, Janice; Singleton, Jerome; Bell, David

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 2% to 3% of the Canadian society has experienced cancer. Literature indicates that there is poor adjustment to chronic illness. Individuals with poor adjustment to chronic illness have been found to disproportionately use more health services. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates, and costs associated with poor adjustment to mixed cancer. A consecutive sample (n = 171) of breast, lung, and prostate cancer patients at the Nova Scotia Regional Cancer Center were surveyed. Twenty-eight percent of the cancer group showed fair to poor adjustment to illness using the Psychological Adjustment to Illness Self-report Scale Psychological Adjustment to Illness Self-Report Scale raw score. Poor adjustment was moderately correlated with depression (r = 0.50, P < .0001) and evasive coping (r = 0.38, P < .0001) and unrelated to demographic variables. Depression explained 25% of the variance in poor adjustment to illness in regression analysis. Cancer patients with fair to poor adjustment to illness had statistically significantly higher annual healthcare expenditures (P < .002) than those with good adjustment to illness. Expenditure findings agree with previous literature on chronic illnesses. The prevalence of fair to poor adjustment in this cancer population using the Psychological Adjustment to Illness Self-Report Scale measure is similar to that reported for chronic illness to date, suggesting that only those with better adjustment consented to this study. PMID:16557115

  12. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  13. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing. PMID:23499263

  14. The changing prevalence of comorbidity across the age spectrum.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Jay F; Vlahiotis, Anna; Barrett, Laurel B; Flood, Kellie L; Spitznagel, Edward L; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the research was to demonstrate that comorbid health conditions disproportionately affect elderly cancer patients. Descriptive analyses and stacked area charts were used to examine the prevalence and severity of comorbid ailments by age of 27,506 newly diagnosed patients treated at one of eight cancer centers between 1998 and 2003. Hypertension was the most common ailment in all patients, diabetes was the second most prevalent ailment in middle-aged patients, and previous solid tumor(s) were the second most prevalent ailment in patients aged 74 and older. Although the prevalence and severity of comorbid ailments including dementia and congestive heart failure increased with age, some comorbidities such as HIV/AIDS and obesity decreased. Advances in cancer interventions have increased survivorship, but the impact of the changing prevalence and severity of comorbidities at different ages has implications for targeted research into targeted clinical and psychosocial interventions. PMID:18375141

  15. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  16. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  17. Relative Age Effects in Athletic Sprinting and Corrective Adjustments as a Solution for Their Removal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Relative Age Effects (RAEs) refer to the selection and performance differentials between children and youth who are categorized in annual-age groups. In the context of Swiss 60m athletic sprinting, 7761 male athletes aged 8 – 15 years were analysed, with this study examining whether: (i) RAE prevalence changed across annual age groups and according to performance level (i.e., all athletes, Top 50%, 25% & 10%); (ii) whether the relationship between relative age and performance could be quantified, and corrective adjustments applied to test if RAEs could be removed. Part one identified that when all athletes were included, typical RAEs were evident, with smaller comparative effect sizes, and progressively reduced with older age groups. However, RAE effect sizes increased linearly according to performance level (i.e., all athletes – Top 10%) regardless of age group. In part two, all athletes born in each quartile, and within each annual age group, were entered into linear regression analyses. Results identified that an almost one year relative age difference resulted in mean expected performance differences of 10.1% at age 8, 8.4% at 9, 6.8% at 10, 6.4% at 11, 6.0% at 12, 6.3% at 13, 6.7% at 14, and 5.3% at 15. Correction adjustments were then calculated according to day, month, quarter, and year, and used to demonstrate that RAEs can be effectively removed from all performance levels, and from Swiss junior sprinting more broadly. Such procedures could hold significant implications for sport participation as well as for performance assessment, evaluation, and selection during athlete development. PMID:25844642

  18. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area: DERIVA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) in Spain, and the existing information shows important variations depending on the geographical setting and the methodology employed. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CI in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area, and to analyze its associated risk factors. Methods Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional, home questionnaire-based study; Setting: Populational, urban setting. Participants: The reference population comprised over-65s living in the city of Salamanca (Spain) in 2009. Randomized sampling stratified according to health district was carried out, and a total of 480 people were selected. In all, 327 patients were interviewed (68.10%), with a mean age of 76.35 years (SD: 7.33). Women accounted for 64.5% of the total. Measurements: A home health questionnaire was used to obtain the following data: age, sex, educational level, family structure, morbidity and functionality. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. The prevalence data were compared with those of the European population, with direct adjustment for age and sex. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment - no dementia (CIND), and dementia. Results The prevalence of CI among these over-65s was 19% (14.7% CIND and 4.3% dementia). The age-and sex-adjusted global prevalence of CI was 14.9%. CI increased with age (p < 0.001) and decreased with increasing educational level (p < 0.001). Significant risk factors were found with the multivariate analyses: age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03-1.12), anxiety-depression (OR = 3.47, 95%CI: 1.61-7.51) and diabetes (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.02-4.18). In turn, years of education was found to be a protective factor (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.70-0.90). Although CI was more frequent among women and in people living without a partner, these characteristics were not significantly associated with CI risk

  19. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  20. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Zarghami, Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Rajaee, Neda; Rasoulinejad, Seyed Elahe; Mikaniki, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in elderly population in the developing countries. Previous epidemiological studies revealed various potential modifiable risk factors for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AMD among elderly living in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional study came from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), the first comprehensive cohort study of the health of people aged 60 years and over in Amirkola, North of Iran. The prevalence of AMD was estimated and its risk was determined using logistic regression analysis (LRA) with regard to variables such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Results: Five hundred and five participants with mean age of 71.55±5.9 (ranged 60-89) years entered the study. The prevalence of AMD was 17.6%. There was a significant association between AMD and smoking (P<0.001) but no association was seen with AMD and age, level of education, history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Multiple LRAs revealed that smoking increased AMD by odds ratio of 5.03 (95% confidence interval 2.47-10.23 p<0.001) as compared to nonsmokers Conclusion: According to our findings, the prevalence of AMD was relatively high and smoking increased the risk of AMD in the elderly population. PMID:26644880

  1. PAFS: population-adjusted frequency of sensitization. (I) Influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    1996-06-01

    Sensitization rates are influenced by sex and age. Crude rates from different departments cannot be compared without taking into account these variables. However, the influence of sex and age has never been considered quantitatively. In 2 hypothetical populations with identical age-specific sensitizations rates, but differing age distributions, the influence of age on the overall sensitization rate (crude rate) is demonstrated. Furthermore, by an abstract reflection on rates, the influence of the proportions of a population category (e.g., age) on crude rates is shown (crude rate = sigma (category-specific rate x proportion of population in category)). To account for differing distributions of sex and age, we propose 2 ways. Sex-specific rates should be presented separately. Age-specific rates should be standardized. The standard rate is defined as: SR = sigma (category specific rate x proportion of standard population in category). Using a standard population with a rectangular structure (i.e., with equal proportions in each of the category (age) specific groups), the standardized rate is the arithmetic average of the category (age) specific rate. Only for simple routine evaluations can a standard population with 2 equal groups be used, namely over 39 years and under 40 years. The standardized rate can easily be calculated as SR: (positive rate (%under 40 + positive rate (%) over 39)/2. The general rule should be to use a "rectangular" standard population with 9 age groups of a 10-year sequence. By using the standardization procedure; remaining differences found in different departments can no longer be attributed to age and sex. Other factors, such as selection of patients or real epidemiological differences, can then be discussed. The application of population-adjusted frequency of sensitization (PAFS) in any publication on prevalences of sensitization is highly recommended. PMID:8879920

  2. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John; Stack, Jim; Moran, Rachel; Feeney, Joanne; Kenny, Rose Anne; Peto, Tunde; Dooley, Cara; O'Halloran, Aisling M; Cronin, Hilary; Beatty, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains the most common cause of visual loss among subjects over 50 years of age in the developed world. The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing (TILDA) is a population-based study of subjects aged 50 years or older, designed to investigate factors that influence ageing, and has enabled this investigation of the prevalence of AMD in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Methods Data collected from a nationally representative sample of community-living older adults aged 50 years and over in ROI over the period November 2009 to July 2011. 5035 participants attended the TILDA health centre for assessment. Retinal photographs were obtained in 4859 of these participants. Retinal grading was performed in a masked fashion using a modified version of the International Classification and Grading System for AMD. Results Adjusting for lower response rates among older subjects, the estimated overall prevalence of any AMD was 7.2% (95% CI 6.5% to 7.9%) in the population aged 50 years or older. The estimated prevalence of early AMD was 6.6% (95% CI 5.9% to 7.3%), and the estimated prevalence of late AMD was 0.6% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.8%). Statistically significant associations with AMD included increasing age and family history of the condition. Conclusions This is the first study to provide prevalence estimates of AMD in ROI and will inform eye care professionals and policymakers involved in the delivery and planning of care for those afflicted with this condition. PMID:25712825

  3. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  4. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction factor... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor...

  5. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  6. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  7. Prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in middle aged British men.

    PubMed Central

    Shaper, A G; Cook, D G; Walker, M; Macfarlane, P W

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease was determined by an administered questionnaire and electrocardiography in 7735 men aged 40-59 years drawn at random from general practices in 24 British towns. Overall, one quarter of these men had some evidence of ischaemic heart disease on questionnaire or electrocardiogram or both. On questionnaire, 14% of men had possible myocardial infarction or angina, with considerable overlap of the two syndromes. The prevalence of possible myocardial infarction combined with angina and of definite angina only showed a fourfold increase over the age range studied. Electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease (definite or possible) was present in 15% of men, there being myocardial infarction in 4.2% and myocardial ischaemia in 10.3%. Electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial infarction increased fourfold over the age range studied. There was considerable overlap of questionnaire and electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease. Nevertheless, more than half of those with possible myocardial infarction combined with angina had no resting electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease, and half of those with definite myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram had no history of chest pain at any time. This national population based study strongly suggests that the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in middle aged British men is greater than has been indicated by previous studies based on occupational groups. PMID:6732989

  8. The Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Hearing Impairment in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lasisi, Akeem O; Abiona, Taiwo; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    This cohort study of persons aged 65 years and over, conducted in the Yoruba-speaking regions of Nigeria determines the prevalence and correlates of hearing impairment (HI) in the elderly population. Self-reports of HI and its putative risk factors among several indices were obtained using face-to-face interviews. HI was based on self-report, complemented by observer’s evaluation. HI was found in 79, giving a prevalence of 6.1%. Gender difference was not significant but increasing age was associated with higher prevalence. Logistic regression analysis that adjusted for age and sex, revealed that history of recurrent suppurative otitis media (OR=4.6, CI=2.3-8.9, P=0.01) and head injury (OR=2.2, CI=1.1-4.3, P=0.02) and current hypertension (OR=2.1, CI=1.2-3.6, P=0.01) were significantly associated with HI. No identifiable risk factors were found in 32 (40.5%) of the respondents. We conclude that the prevalence of HI among the elderly in Nigeria is comparable to reports from other countries. Identified risk factors were preventable or controllable. The large proportion of elderly with no identifiable risk factors, presumably presbyacusis, suggests a need for further study. The strategies for control of these risk factors and hearing aid support should be integrated into health care policy initiative for elderly persons in the sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20307358

  9. Estimating adjusted prevalence ratio in clustered cross-sectional epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos Antônio ST; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Oliveira, Nelson F; Cunha, Sérgio; Barreto, Maurício L; do Carmo, Maria Beatriz B; Moncayo, Ana-Lucia; Rodrigues, Laura C; Cooper, Philip J; Amorim, Leila D

    2008-01-01

    Background Many epidemiologic studies report the odds ratio as a measure of association for cross-sectional studies with common outcomes. In such cases, the prevalence ratios may not be inferred from the estimated odds ratios. This paper overviews the most commonly used procedures to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios and extends the discussion to the analysis of clustered cross-sectional studies. Methods Prevalence ratios(PR) were estimated using logistic models with random effects. Their 95% confidence intervals were obtained using delta method and clustered bootstrap. The performance of these approaches was evaluated through simulation studies. Using data from two studies with health-related outcomes in children, we discuss the interpretation of the measures of association and their implications. Results The results from data analysis highlighted major differences between estimated OR and PR. Results from simulation studies indicate an improved performance of delta method compared to bootstrap when there are small number of clusters. Conclusion We recommend the use of logistic model with random effects for analysis of clustered data. The choice of method to estimate confidence intervals for PR (delta or bootstrap method) should be based on study design. PMID:19087281

  10. Prevalence of smoking and age of initiation in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on tobacco use in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, used an interview questionnaire based on World Health Organization guidelines. The study in 2000 included 2120 participants aged 15 to 86 years. More than a quarter (27.2%) were current smokers (25.5% daily smokers and 1.7% occasional smokers) and 3.5% were ex-smokers. Current smokers spent 23.1% of their family income on tobacco. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among men (48.5%) than women (1.5%) and the mean age of initiation of smoking was lower among men (18.1 years) than women (22.6 years). The high prevalence of tobacco use among men is of concern, so too is the likelihood that tobacco use will increase among women. Further research is needed into factors that prevent people from starting smoking and assist them stopping smoking. PMID:15603046

  11. Global Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age Births.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction is found both in babies who are preterm or full-term, and in either case has important adverse effects on subsequent survival, health, growth and development. Fetal growth restriction is usually assessed by comparing the weight of the newborn with the expected weight for the child's gestational age using less than the 10th centile of a reference population for fetal growth as the threshold for being called small for gestational age (SGA). We estimate that in 2010 32.4 million babies were born SGA in low- and middle-income countries, constituting 27% of all live births. The estimated prevalence of SGA is highest in South Asia and in Sahelian countries of Africa. India has the world's largest number of SGA births, 12.8 million in 2010, due to the large number of births and the high proportion, 46.9%, of births that are SGA. The prevalence of SGA births is approximately double the prevalence of low-birthweight births (using the common indicator of <2,500 g birthweight) globally and in the world's regions. Thus, given the adverse effects of being born SGA, even weighing 2,500 g or more, it is important that maternal, neonatal and child health programs seek and use information on gestational age as well as birthweight to appropriately assess the newborn's risks and direct care. PMID:26111558

  12. The Relation of Age to Personality Adjustment among DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meck, Donald S.; Baither, Rick

    1980-01-01

    Involved the assessment of perceived adjustment among individuals court assigned to DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) classes. Individuals 25 years and younger reported significantly higher levels of perceived maladjustment and emotional upset. Sex was related to interpersonal behavior. (Author)

  13. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models

    PubMed Central

    Ziadinov, I.; Mathis, A.; Trachsel, D.; Rysmukhambetova, A.; Abdyjaparov, T. A.; Kuttubaev, O. T.; Deplazes, P.; Torgerson, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single target PCR) to improve the diagnostic sensitivity by confirming the presence of Echinococcus spp. and to identify E. granulosus strains. A total of 83 (18%) dogs had either E. granulosus adults in purge material and/or E. granulosus eggs in their faeces as confirmed by PCR. Three genotypes of E. granulosus: G1, G4 and the G6/7 complex were shown to be present in these dogs through subsequent sequence analysis. Purge analysis combined with PCR identified 50 dogs that were infected with adult E. multilocularis and/or had E. multilocularis eggs in their faeces (11%). Bayesian techniques were employed to estimate the true prevalence, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the procedures used and the transmission parameters. The sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of echinococcosis in dogs was rather low, with a value of 38% (Credible intervals (CIs) 27–50%) for E. granulosus and 21% (CIs 11–34%) for E. multilocularis. The specificity of arecoline purgation was assumed to be 100%. The sensitivity of coproscopy followed by PCR of the isolated eggs was calculated as 78% (CIs 57–87%) for E. granulosus and 50% (CIs 29–72%) for E. multilocularis with specificity of 93% (CIs 88–96%) and 100% (CIs 97–100), respectively. The 93% specificity of the coprological-PCR for E. granulosus could suggest coprophagia rather than true infections. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures, the estimated true prevalence of infection of

  14. Lower prevalence of psychiatric conditions when negative age stereotypes are resisted.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Pilver, Corey E; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Older military veterans are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders than same-aged non-veterans. However, little is known about factors that may protect older veterans from developing these disorders. We considered whether an association exists between the potentially stress-reducing factor of resistance to negative age stereotypes and lower prevalence of the following outcomes among older veterans: suicidal ideation, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants consisted of 2031 veterans, aged 55 or older, who were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, a nationally representative survey of American veterans. The prevalence of all three outcomes was found to be significantly lower among participants who fully resisted negative age stereotypes, compared to those who fully accepted them: suicidal ideation, 5.0% vs. 30.1%; anxiety, 3.6% vs. 34.9%; and PTSD, 2.0% vs. 18.5%, respectively. The associations followed a graded linear pattern and persisted after adjustment for relevant covariates, including age, combat experience, personality, and physical health. These findings suggest that developing resistance to negative age stereotypes could provide older individuals with a path to greater mental health. PMID:25189737

  15. Respiratory hospitalizations of children living near a hazardous industrial site adjusted for prevalent dust: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nirel, Ronit; Maimon, Nimrod; Fireman, Elizabeth; Agami, Sarit; Eyal, Arnona; Peretz, Alon

    2015-03-01

    The Neot Hovav Industrial Park (IP), located in southern Israel, hosts 23 chemical industry facilities and the national site for treatment of hazardous waste. Yet, information about its impact on the health of local population has been mostly ecological, focused on Bedouins and did not control for possible confounding effect of prevalent dust storms. This case-control study examined whether living near the IP could lead to increased risk of pediatric hospitalization for respiratory diseases. Cases (n=3608) were residents of the Be'er Sheva sub-district aged 0-14 years who were admitted for respiratory illnesses between 2004 and 2009. These were compared to children admitted for non-respiratory conditions (n=3058). Home addresses were geocoded and the distances from the IP to the child's residence were calculated. The association between hospitalization and residential distance from the IP was examined for three age groups (0-1, 2-6, 7-14) by logistic regressions adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, urbanity and temperature. We found that infants in the first year of life who lived within 10 km of the IP had increased risk of respiratory hospitalization when compared with those living >20 km from the IP (adjusted odds ratio, OR=2.07, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.19-3.59). In models with both distance from the IP and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM(10)) the estimated risk was modestly attenuated (OR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.09-3.51). Elevated risk was also observed for children 2-5 years of age but with no statistical significance (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.76-1.76). Our findings suggest that residential proximity to a hazardous industrial site may contribute to early life respiratory admissions, beyond that of prevailing PM(10). PMID:25547415

  16. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  17. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  18. School Entry Age and Future Adjustment of Inner City Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William R.

    Randomly selected fourth grade teachers completed the Peterson and Quay Behavior Problem Checklist on 304 inner city children classified according to their age at entry into kindergarten. Findings revealed that earlier entry age children (children who were comparatively young when they started school) scored highest on the conduct subtest of the…

  19. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  20. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes. PMID:26497989

  1. Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A in Santiago, Chile: risk factors and shift in age of infection among children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fix, Alan D; Martin, Oriana San; Gallicchio, Lisa; Vial, Pablo A; Lagos, Rosanna

    2002-05-01

    Transition from high to lower endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may portend increased public health burden with the shift of infection to older ages and increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes age-specific prevalence of antibodies to HAV (anti-HAV) among children and young adults in Santiago, Chile, compared with previous prevalence data and assesses factors predictive for anti-HAV. In 1998, a serosurvey was performed in Metropolitan Santiago, designed to enroll a representative, age-stratified population on the basis of area of residence. A total of 784 individuals (age range, 1-24 years) were enrolled. Anti-HAV prevalence by year of life was as follows: ages 1 to 4, 12.5%; 5 to 9, 26.2%; 10 to 14, 43.4%; 15 to 19, 57.4%; 20 to 24, 73.9%. Adjusting for age, factors associated (inversely) with anti-HAV included residential areas of higher socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, and household characteristics of potable water, municipal sewage system, and the presence of a toilet or refrigerator in the house. In logistic regression analysis, only maternal years of education and residence in areas of higher SES remained independently associated with anti-HAV. Excluding those from higher SES areas, comparison of the age-specific anti-HAV prevalence data from previous studies of similar methodology in areas of lower SES revealed consistent decreases across all age groups; the age-standardized prevalence for this age range (1-24 years) dropped from 53.7% in 1990 to 40.6% in 1998. In light of the growing pool of susceptible individuals at older ages, with HAV continuing to circulate in the communities, evaluation of the feasibility of vaccination programs would be judicious. PMID:12201603

  2. The Prevalence of Cyber Bullying Victimization and Its Relationship to Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007) and…

  3. Prevalence of ADHD in Qatari School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Lori G; Kamal, Madeeha

    2014-01-10

    Objective: The purpose of this quantitative survey study is to provide current accurate estimates of the number of students with ADHD in Qatar Independent and English Medium Private Schools, so that adequate support will be available to assist in the educational growth and development of these students. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study of teacher observational ratings used a standardized rating scale. Teachers completed the SNAP-IV. Rating Scales for more than 5,000 students from Qatar Independent Schools and private English Medium Schools between November 2011 and November 2012 in Qatar Grades 1 through 12. Results: Results align with and extend the previous study of ADHD in Qatar and the current worldwide prevalence. Conclusion: Enhanced analyses were conducted to identify differences between age groups, genders, and between Private and Independent Schools. Implications for teachers, administrators, and medical personnel are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) X-XX). PMID:24412969

  4. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing is a cornerstone of efforts to combat the HIV epidemic, and testing conducted as part of surveillance provides invaluable data on the spread of infection and the effectiveness of campaigns to reduce the transmission of HIV. However, participation in HIV testing can be low, and if respondents systematically select not to be tested because they know or suspect they are HIV positive (and fear disclosure), standard approaches to deal with missing data will fail to remove selection bias. We implemented Heckman-type selection models, which can be used to adjust for missing data that are not missing at random, and established the extent of selection bias in a population-based HIV survey in an HIV hyperendemic community in rural South Africa. Methods We used data from a population-based HIV survey carried out in 2009 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In this survey, 5565 women (35%) and 2567 men (27%) provided blood for an HIV test. We accounted for missing data using interviewer identity as a selection variable which predicted consent to HIV testing but was unlikely to be independently associated with HIV status. Our approach involved using this selection variable to examine the HIV status of residents who would ordinarily refuse to test, except that they were allocated a persuasive interviewer. Our copula model allows for flexibility when modelling the dependence structure between HIV survey participation and HIV status. Results For women, our selection model generated an HIV prevalence estimate of 33% (95% CI 27–40) for all people eligible to consent to HIV testing in the survey. This estimate is higher than the estimate of 24% generated when only information from respondents who participated in testing is used in the analysis, and the estimate of 27% when imputation analysis is used to predict missing data on HIV status. For men, we found an HIV prevalence of 25% (95% CI 15–35) using the selection model, compared to 16% among those who

  5. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  6. [Dementia in Belgium: prevalence in aged patients consulting in general practice].

    PubMed

    Kurz, X; Scuvée-Moreau, J; Salmon, E; Pepin, J L; Ventura, M; Dresse, A

    2001-12-01

    Early detection of dementia is an important element for the efficacy of therapies currently proposed to slow down disease progression. This detection mainly relies on general practitioners. In order to estimate the impact of dementia on health services, we have estimated from the data of the NAtional Dementia Economic Study (NADES) the prevalence rate of dementia in patients aged > or = 65 years living at home and consulting in general practice. The study population was based on the sampling of consecutive patients consulting a general practitioner, irrespective of the reason and location of the consultation. The diagnosis of dementia was based on the CAMDEX performed at home in patients presenting > or = 3 warning signs of dementia. The prevalence rate of dementia among 2.234 registered patients living at home was 14.3% (CI95: 12.6-16.0). In age groups 65-74, 75-84 and > or = 85 years, it was 7.0%, 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively, in men, and 6.1%, 15.8% and 25.2%, respectively, in women. The percentage of demented with mild, mild to moderate, moderate and severe dementia was 35.0%, 38.8%, 13.1% and 13.1%, respectively. After adjusting for the age and sex distribution of the Belgian population, the prevalence rate in patients aged > or = 65 years was estimated at 11.3%. A diagnosis of dementia had already been made by a specialist in 41.5% of patients with dementia, with figures of 19.3%, 34.3%, 41.9% and 60.9% according to the severity of disease (mild, mild to moderate, moderate, severe). The onset of first symptoms had preceded the diagnosis by an average of 1 year. Our results show a high prevalence rate of dementia in the elderly living at home consulting in general practice, and less than half of the patients had previously been diagnosed. It is possible that a systematic detection will not be performed as long as specific treatments are not made widely available. PMID:11820036

  7. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  8. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  9. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  10. The Relationship between Dimensions of Interparental Conflict and Adjustment in College-Age Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents research from a recently completed study investigating the relationship between college-age offsprings' perceptions of several dimensions of interparental conflict and indicants of adjustment. Analysis revealed that frequency of interparental conflict was the most important predictor of depression, externalizing behavior problems, and…

  11. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  12. Post-Retirement Adjustment: Effective Coping with the Stresses of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.

    A study was conducted to examine the role of positive and negative life circumstances and individual coping factors in the psychological adjustment of older individuals. Interviews were conducted with 32 men and 32 women between the ages of 65 and 75 who were retired from mid-level or managerial jobs at the University of Texas. Most of the…

  13. Disparities in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its Components Among University Employees by Age, Gender and Occupation

    PubMed Central

    Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Wu, Gui-Rong; Shen, Li-Ye; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a known risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and type II diabetes is an emerging epidemic in China. Studies carried out on the general population indicate a varied clustering of cardiovascular risks in many parts of the country. However, there is limited data on its prevalence in the working population. Workplace can serve as an important place for prevention, control and management of CVD risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MS and its components among University workers, and determine how the prevalence varied according to sex and occupation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2,428 University employees (22-60 years) who received an annual clinical examination at the University hospital. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), and lipid profiles were measured. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III modified criteria. Results: Overall prevalence of MS was 6.1%, higher in males (5.1%) than females (1.1%), and increased with age. The most prevalent MS components in all workers were hypertension (37.9%) and hypertryglyceridemia (20.8%), corresponding rates in males were 28.3% and 16.1% while females had a prevalence of 9.6% and 4.7%. After adjustment for age, administrative work was associated (p<0.05) with increased hypertension (odds ratio (OR) =1.474; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.146-1.896) and hyperglycemia (OR=1.469; 95% CI, 1.082-1.993) in male workers, and with hypertension (OR=1.492; 95% CI, 1.071-2.080) in females. However, prevalence of hypertryglyceridemia was lower (OR=0.390; 95% CI, 0.204-0.746) in female administrators compared to those in academics. Obesity, MS and reduced High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol prevalence was not different (p>0.05) between the two occupations in both sexes. Conclusions: Prevalence of MS and its components was higher in male workers than

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China. PMID:27029785

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China. PMID:27029785

  16. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use. An Adjustment for Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Methods: Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed “Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO),” the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Measurements and Main Results: Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15–21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24–32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Conclusions: Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre

  17. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered. PMID:26645381

  18. Improving adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Population estimates projects a significant increase in the geriatric population making elderly trauma patients more common. The geriatric trauma patients experience higher incidence of pre-existing medical conditions, impaired age-dependent physiologic reserve, use potent drugs and suffer from trauma system related shortcomings that influence outcomes. To improve adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care, several initiatives should be implemented. Decision-makers should make system revisions and introduce advanced point-of-care initiatives to improve outcome after trauma for the elderly. PMID:23343340

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban; Avis, Nancy; Kravitz, Howard M.; Cordal, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic differences in significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged women before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, health-related, and psychosocial characteristics. Methods. Racial/ethnic differences in unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regressions. Results. Twenty-four percent of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher. Unadjusted prevalence varied by race/ethnicity (P < .0001). After adjustment for covariates, racial/ethnic differences overall were no longer significant. Conclusions. Hispanic and African American women had the highest odds, and Chinese and Japanese women had the lowest odds, for a CES-D score of 16 or higher. This variation is in part because of health-related and psychosocial factors that are linked to socioeconomic status. PMID:15284047

  20. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. PMID:25721885

  1. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  2. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  3. Prevalence of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Old Persons. Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Fridbert; Arnarsson, Arsaell; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Meuer, Stacy M; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence and signs of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an old cohort. Design Population based cohort study Participants We included 5,272 persons 66 years and older, randomly sampled from the Reykjavik area. Methods Fundus images were taken through dilated pupils using a 45°digital camera and were graded for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Main outcome measure Age-related macular degenerationin an old cohort. Results Mean age of participants was 76 years. The prevalence of early AMD was 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0–13.9) for those 66–74 year old and 36% (95% CI 30.9–41.1) for those 85 years and older. The prevalence of exudative AMD was 3.3% (95% CI 2.8–3.8) and for pure geographic atrophy 2.4% (95% CI 2.0–2.8). The highest prevalence for late AMD was among those 85 years and older 11.4% (95% CI 8.2–14.5) for exudative AMD and 7.6% (95% CI 4.8–10.4) for pure geographic atrophy. Conclusion Persons 85 years and older have 10-fold higher prevalence of late AMD than those 70–74 years old. The high prevalence of late AMD in the oldest age-group and expected increase of old people in the western world in coming years call for improved preventive measures and novel treatments. PMID:21126770

  4. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Salehi, Mansour; Rasoulain, Maryam; Naserbakht, Morteza; Salarifar, Mohammad Hosien

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. Methods In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. Results Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. Conclusion A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances. PMID:22952526

  5. A Dimensional Liability Model of Age Differences in Mental Disorder Prevalence: Evidence from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  6. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  7. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation among Boys and Men Assessed Annually from Ages 9 to 29 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Pears, Katherine C.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 206 boys (90% Caucasian), self-reported suicidal ideation (SI; ages 12 to 29) and parent-reported youth suicidal talk (ages 9 to 20) were assessed annually by questionnaire. One-week point prevalence of self-reported SI ranged from 2.6% to 16.3%. New cases emerged across adolescence; by age 29, 57.3% self-reported SI at least once.…

  8. Prevalence and Incidence of Memory Complaints in Employed Compared to Non-Employed Aged 55–64 Years and the Role of Employment Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC) in 55–64-year-olds. Methods Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525) and employment characteristics (n = 1071) with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline). Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526) and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain) with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up). Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits). Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population. Results At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC. Conclusions Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55–64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work. PMID:25742133

  9. Capitation funding: population, age, and mortality adjustments for regional and district health authorities in England.

    PubMed

    Raftery, J

    1993-10-30

    This study examined the three components (population projection, age, and mortality weights) in the national funding formula for hospital and community health services in regions and districts. The age cost weights, based on national average age use profiles of 29 programs, emphasized births and elderly age groups. The results of the application of the formula (mid year population projections by age group, age cost weights for each age group of total population, and adjustment to total population by the square root of the all cause standardized mortality ratio among those aged under 75 years) were as follows. The application to the 1997 population regionally showed many changes. Changes in population share for regional health authorities were due more to age weights and mortality and ranged from -9% in the Northwest Region to 6% in the South Western Region. At the District level the changes ranged from -17% to 28%. There were 99 districts that lost funding and 87 districts that gained funding. All regions had some of both districts, except the Northern Region and South Western Regions which had only 3 district losers. In North East Thames, there were only losers with the exception of one district. South East Thames had the widest disparity in gainers and losers from -15% to 28% and in the South West from -14% to 27%. Population projection effects indicated that new towns were gainers of funding and older areas were losers. The share from population projections ranged from -16% to 31%. The age cost weight's effects ranged from -20% to 30%. Some districts were affected greatly: gainers were seaside resorts with large elderly populations. The mortality weight's effects ranged from -9% to 14%. Northern districts and inner city London districts tended to be gainers. The conclusion was that age weights accounted for the bulk of gains. The methodology should be reexamined with attention to the age cost weights and dramatic changes in funding at the district level that are

  10. Age-related decline and diagnostic performance of more and less prevalent clinical cases.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Christina; Landry, Marjolaine; Xhignesse, Marianne; Voyer, Gilles; Tremblay-Lavoie, Stéphanie; Mamede, Sílvia; Schmidt, Henk; Rikers, Remy

    2016-08-01

    Since cognitive abilities have been shown to decrease with age, it is expected that older physicians would not perform as well as their younger counterparts on clinical cases unless their expertise can counteract the cognitive effects of aging. However, studies on the topic have shown contradictory results. This study aimed to further investigate the effect of aging on physicians' diagnostic accuracy when diagnosing prevalent and less prevalent cases based on clinical vignettes. A mixed design was used to assess the influence of case prevalence (high vs. low) as a within-subjects factor, and age group as a between subjects factor (<30; n = 23, 30-39; n = 19, 40-49; n = 27, >50 years old; n = 19) on the diagnostic accuracy of 65 family physicians and 25 residents. Repeated Measure ANOVA revealed a significant effect of case prevalence (p < .001) and age group (p < .001). Post-hoc analyses revealed that younger physicians showed the best performance. This study did not demonstrate the positive effect of experience in older physicians. In line with previous studies on expertise development, findings of the present study suggest that skills should be actively maintained to assure a high performance level throughout one's lifespan. If not, performance level could gradually decline with age. PMID:26584578

  11. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  12. The prevalence of lacunar infarct decreases with aging in the elderly: a case-controlled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiyou; He, Wenbo; Peng, Chuan-yong; Zhou, Jin; Xu, Qi-lan; Wu, Zong-shan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Lacunar infarct (LI) is well known as a heterogeneous primary disorder of cerebral small vessel. Compelling results have demonstrated that age is a risk factor to the prevalence of LI. However, the relationship between age and the prevalence of LI remains obscure. It is essential to note the relationship between age and the prevalence of LI through more clinical data. Methods A total of 3,500 patients were included in the case-controlled study. All data were collected from the Examination Center of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Lu’an People’s Hospital from January 2014 to December 2015. A primary discharge diagnosis of LI was done, and all subjects were evaluated as retrospective data. The relationship between the risk factors and the prevalence of diabetes and the relationship between age and the prevalence of diabetes was analyzed. A chi-square test was used to analyze the associations between different variables. A one-way analysis of variance was used to test the equality of three or more means at one time by using variances. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value of <0.05. Results The one-way analysis of variance demonstrated that the prevalence of LI increased with age before 60 years and decreased with age after 69 years. The same results were found in both the male and the female subjects. These results showed that the age-related risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, cerebral infarct, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and drinking) have no relationship with the prevalence of LI on the basis of age. There is a significant difference among the different age ranges (P=0.0006). Two-tailed P-value (unpaired t-test) showed the mean significant difference between 30–39 years and 40–49 years (P=0.009) and between 70–79 years and 80–100 years (P=0.0196). F-test (to compare variances) demonstrated that the variances of the different age ranges are significantly different between 30–39 years and 40–49 years (P=0

  13. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  14. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  15. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  16. Friendships with Co-Participants in Organized Activities: Prevalence, Quality, Friends' Characteristics, and Associations with Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…

  17. Prevalence of hypospadias in Italy according to severity, gestational age and birthweight: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ghirri, Paolo; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Bertelloni, Silvano; Pardi, Daniela; Celandroni, Amerigo; Cocchi, Guido; Danieli, Roberto; De Santis, Luisa; Di Stefano, Maria C; Gerola, Orietta; Giuffrè, Mario; Gragnani, Giuseppe S; Magnani, Cinzia; Meossi, Cristiano; Merusi, Ilaria; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tumini, Stefano; Corsello, Giovanni; Boldrini, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a congenital displacement of the urethral meatus in male newborns, being either an isolated defect at birth or a sign of sexual development disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rate of hypospadias in different Districts of Italy, in order to make a comparison with other countries all over the world. Methods We reviewed all the newborns file records (years 2001–2004) in 15 Italian Hospitals. Results We found an overall hypospadias prevalence rate of 3.066 ± 0.99 per 1000 live births (82.48% mild hypospadias, 17.52% moderate-severe). In newborns Small for Gestational Age (birthweight < 10th percentile) of any gestational age the prevalence rate of hypospadias was 6.25 per 1000 live births. Performing multivariate logistic regression analysis for different degrees of hypospadias according to severity, being born SGA remained the only risk factor for moderate-severe hypospadias (p = 0.00898) but not for mild forms (p > 0.1). Conclusion In our sample the prevalence of hypospadias results as high as reported in previous European and American studies (3–4 per 1000 live births). Pathogenesis of isolated hypospadias is multifactorial (genetic, endocrine and environmental factors): however, the prevalence rate of hypospadias is higher in infants born small for gestational age than in newborns with normal birth weight. PMID:19558700

  18. Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in young pregnant women, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Cheng, Yvonne KY; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young pregnant women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, and to determine whether an increase in prevalence occurs during adolescence. Methods HBV prevalence was quantified using data from routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 10 808 women aged 25 years or younger born in Hong Kong SAR and managed at a single hospital between 1998 and 2011. The effect on prevalence of maternal age, parity and birth before or after HBV vaccine availability in 1984 was assessed, using Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings Overall, 7.5% of women were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% in those aged ≤ 16 and 23 years, respectively. Women born in or after 1984 and those younger than 18 years of age were less likely to be HBsAg-positive (odds ratio, OR: 0.679; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.578–0.797) and (OR: 0.311; 95% CI: 0.160–0.604), respectively. For women born before 1984, there was no association between HBsAg carriage and being younger than 18 years of age (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.262–1.370) Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of HBsAg carriage was influenced more by the woman being 18 years old or older (adjusted OR, aOR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.46–5.47) than being born before 1984 (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21–1.67). Conclusion Immunity to HBV in young pregnant women who had been vaccinated as neonates decreased in late adolescence. PMID:25378739

  19. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  20. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  1. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  2. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School-Age Children in Afar Area, Northeastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, Abraham; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Levecke, Bruno; Legesse, Mengistu; Negash, Yohannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Erko, Berhanu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection was determined among school-age children living in the Middle and Lower Awash Valley, Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Between February and May 2014, urine samples were collected from 885 school-age children (5-16 years of age) from the Middle (n = 632; 4 villages) and Lower (n = 253; 3 villages) Awash Valley. All samples were processed using urine filtration to detect and quantify S. haematobium eggs. In addition, a subset of the urine samples was tested for hematuria using a urine dipstick (n = 556). The overall prevalence was 20.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 18.1%, 23.5%), based on urine filtration but the prevalence considerably varied across villages both in the Middle (from 12.5% to 37.0%) and Lower Awash Valley (from 0 to 5.3%). The overall mean urine egg count (UEC) among the infected children was 4.0 eggs/10 ml of urine (95% CI = 2.43, 5.52). The infection intensity varied from 0.4 eggs/10 ml of urine to 7.7 eggs/10 ml of urine in the Middle Awash Valley, and from 0 to 1.1 eggs/10 ml of urine in Lower Awash Valley. Age and sex were not associated with S. haematobium infection based on the multivariable logistic regression model. The prevalence of hematuria was 56.3% (95% CI = 52.2%, 60.4%) among a subset of the study participants (556) examined using the urine dipstick. The prevalence of hematuria also varies with villages from 8.3% to 93.2%. In conclusion, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the Middle Awash Valley was high and it varies across villages. Hence, children living in the present study villages of the Middle Awash Valley need to be treated with praziquantel to reduce morbidity and disrupt transmission. PMID:26252615

  3. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  4. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Standing Reach Tasks Among Middle-Aged Adults With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chow, Daniel H K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibited premature anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) with high variability and excessive activity in the frontal plane. To better understand the effects of gross motor functioning level on APAs over the life course, the authors examined the presence and consistency of APAs in 11 adults with diplegia at 2 functioning levels against 8 age-matched healthy adults during unilateral and bilateral reaching. Results revealed an anticipatory vertical torque (TZ) and an increased likelihood of APAs during bilateral reaching for the lower functioning group. It is postulated that APAs may first emerge in TZ in CP. Results also indicated an excessive premovement postural activity in the frontal plane in both CP groups. PMID:26730748

  5. Age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care: the swiss fire project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background General practitioners often care for patients with several concurrent chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity). Recent data suggest that multimorbidity might be observed more often than isolated diseases in primary care. We explored the age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity and compared these estimates to the prevalence estimates of other common specific diseases found in Swiss primary care. Methods We analyzed data from the Swiss FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC Research using Electronic Medical Record) project database, representing a total of 509,656 primary care encounters in 98,152 adult patients between January 1, 2009 and July 31, 2011. For each encounter, medical problems were encoded using the second version of the International Classification of primary Care (ICPC-2). We defined chronic health conditions using 147 pre-specified ICPC-2 codes and defined multimorbidity as 1) two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 rubrics, 2) two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 chapters, and 3) two or more medical specialties involved in patient care. We compared the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity defined by the three methodologies with the prevalence estimates of common diseases encountered in primary care. Results Overall, the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity were similar for the three different definitions (15% [95%CI 11-18%], 13% [95%CI 10-16%], and 14% [95%CI 11-17%], respectively), and were higher than the prevalence estimates of any specific chronic health condition (hypertension, uncomplicated 9% [95%CI 7-11%], back syndrome with and without radiating pain 6% [95%CI 5-7%], non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 3% [95%CI 3-4%]), and degenerative joint disease 3% [95%CI 2%-4%]). The prevalence estimates of multimorbidity rose more than 20-fold with age, from 2% (95%CI 1-2%) in those aged 20–29 years, to 38% (95%CI 31-44%) in those aged 80 or more years. The prevalence estimates of

  6. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  7. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  8. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.233 Adjustment of your... computation base years are 1951 through 1980 which are years after 1950 up to the year he reached age 62. We will use his 25 computation base years with the highest earnings to compute his average monthly...

  9. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  10. Evolution of obesity prevalence in France: an age-period-cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Charles, Marie Aline; Ducimetière, Pierre; Basdevant, Arnaud; Eschwege, Evelyne; Heude, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background A rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity has been reported in France since 1990. We investigated the impact of birth cohort on the changes in obesity prevalence after taking into account age and survey period. Methods We analyzed data from four national surveys in 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. For each survey, self-reported data on weight and height were recorded on mailed questionnaires sent to a sample of 20 000 households, representative of the French population. Obesity was defined according to WHO criteria, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. We modeled the prevalence of obesity using logistic regression with age, cohort and period as explanatory variables. As these variables are linearly dependent, only nonlinear effects can be estimated uniquely and interpreted, after including specific chosen constraints in the models. Results There was a progressive increase in the prevalence of obesity between 1997 and 2006, attributable either to a period or to a cohort effect. There was a substantial departure from a linear trend for the cohort effect only, which appeared to be stronger in women: there was an acceleration in the prevalence of obesity with birth cohort for individuals born after the mid-1960s, in both sexes. Conclusions Our results are consistent with previous studies in other countries. Compared with older generations, men and women born in the late 1960s may have been subject to early exposures that increased their lifelong susceptibility to obesity. PMID:20375843

  11. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Chinese Children aged 1–7 ys

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yifeng; Li, Ping; Tang, Jianping; Han, Xiuping; Zou, Xiaoyan; Xu, Gang; Xu, Zigang; Wei, Fenglei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Min; Xiao, Fengli; Zong, Wenkai; Shen, Chunping; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Jianzhong; Luo, Yongqi; Chang, Jing; Sheng, Nan; Dong, Chun; Zhang, Duo; Dai, Xing; Zhou, Jinjie; Meng, Chi; Niu, Hongxi; Shi, Xuemei; Zhang, Xinglian; Xiang, Juan; Xu, Haitao; Ran, Qin; Zhou, Yi; Li, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Ruhong; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Hua; Gu, Heng; Ma, Lin; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Up to date, there has been no face-to-face nation-wide study in China. We aim to explore the prevalence of clinical diagnosed AD in children aged 1–7 ys in China. Twelve metropolises were chosen from different areas of China. In each region, we selected 4–10 kindergartens and 2–5 vaccination clinics randomly. A complete history-taking and skin examination were performed by dermatologists. The definite diagnosis of AD and the severity were determined by two or three dermatologists. All criteria concerned in UK diagnosis criteria, characteristic presentation of AD and atypical manifestations were recorded in detail. A total of 13998 children from 84 kindergartens and 40 vaccination clinics were included. The prevalence of AD was 12.94% by clinical diagnosis of dermatologists overall, with 74.6% of mild AD. Comparatively, prevalence of AD based on UK diagnostic criteria was 4.76%. This is the first face-to-face nation-wide study in Chinese children aged 1–7 ys, revealing that the prevalence of AD in children is closer to that of wealthier nations. PMID:27432148

  12. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Chinese Children aged 1-7 ys.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yifeng; Li, Ping; Tang, Jianping; Han, Xiuping; Zou, Xiaoyan; Xu, Gang; Xu, Zigang; Wei, Fenglei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Min; Xiao, Fengli; Zong, Wenkai; Shen, Chunping; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Jianzhong; Luo, Yongqi; Chang, Jing; Sheng, Nan; Dong, Chun; Zhang, Duo; Dai, Xing; Zhou, Jinjie; Meng, Chi; Niu, Hongxi; Shi, Xuemei; Zhang, Xinglian; Xiang, Juan; Xu, Haitao; Ran, Qin; Zhou, Yi; Li, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Ruhong; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Hua; Gu, Heng; Ma, Lin; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing worldwide. Up to date, there has been no face-to-face nation-wide study in China. We aim to explore the prevalence of clinical diagnosed AD in children aged 1-7 ys in China. Twelve metropolises were chosen from different areas of China. In each region, we selected 4-10 kindergartens and 2-5 vaccination clinics randomly. A complete history-taking and skin examination were performed by dermatologists. The definite diagnosis of AD and the severity were determined by two or three dermatologists. All criteria concerned in UK diagnosis criteria, characteristic presentation of AD and atypical manifestations were recorded in detail. A total of 13998 children from 84 kindergartens and 40 vaccination clinics were included. The prevalence of AD was 12.94% by clinical diagnosis of dermatologists overall, with 74.6% of mild AD. Comparatively, prevalence of AD based on UK diagnostic criteria was 4.76%. This is the first face-to-face nation-wide study in Chinese children aged 1-7 ys, revealing that the prevalence of AD in children is closer to that of wealthier nations. PMID:27432148

  13. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  14. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation. PMID:26852293

  15. Prevalence of Anemia among Tribal Women of Reproductive Age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Majeed, Jazeel Abdul; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Pattanshetty, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years). Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3). Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 – 11.6), with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5%) were severely anemic, 33 (19.4%) were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9%) were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia. PMID:26664839

  16. Aging: progressive decline in fitness due to the rising deleteriome adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-08-01

    Different theories posit that aging is caused by molecular damage, genetic programs, continued development, hyperfunction, antagonistic pleiotropy alleles, mutations, trade-offs, incomplete repair, etc. Here, I discuss that these ideas can be conceptually unified as they capture particular facets of aging, while being incomplete. Their respective deleterious effects impact fitness at different levels of biological organization, adjusting progression through aging, rather than causing it. Living is associated with a myriad of deleterious processes, both random and deterministic, which are caused by imperfectness, exhibit cumulative properties, and represent the indirect effects of biological functions at all levels, from simple molecules to systems. From this, I derive the deleteriome, which encompasses cumulative deleterious age-related changes and represents the biological age. The organismal deleteriome consists of the deleteriomes of cells, organs, and systems, which change along roughly synchronized trajectories and may be assessed through biomarkers of aging. Aging is then a progressive decline in fitness due to the increasing deleteriome, adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes. This model allows integration of diverse aging concepts, provides insights into the nature of aging, and suggests how lifespan may be adjusted during evolution and in experimental models. PMID:27060562

  17. The Age Related Prevalence of Aggression and Self-Injury in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Louise; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse statistically published data regarding the age related prevalence of aggression and self-injury in persons with intellectual disability. Studies including prevalence data for aggression and/or self-injury broken down by age band were identified and relative risk analyses conducted to generate indices of age…

  18. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  19. Prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fracture in Spanish women over age 45.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Artigas, José M; López-Prats, Fernando; Mesa, Manuel; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in Spanish women over 45 years of age, based on the selection of a nationwide sample. An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted during 2006, in all of Spain's regions. The sample analyzed was of 5000 individuals, representative of the female population over age 45 in Spain. A questionnaire was used to determine which factors are most often associated with vertebral fractures. We also assessed whether the Prevalent Vertebral Fracture Index, proposed by Vogt, is useful in indicating a possible osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Five hundred orthopedic surgeons, from various Spanish regions, were trained in different aspects of the study: inclusion and exclusion criteria, management of the risk factor questionnaire, and implementation of the Vogt questionnaire. The number of fracture cases was 1549 (31.79%). 528 Women (34.08%) had a single vertebral fracture, and 1021 (65.92%) had multiple vertebral fractures. The following factors were statistically significantly associated with vertebral fracture: age, late menarche, early menopause, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, height loss, daily physical activity, corticosteroid therapy, personal history of osteoporotic fracture and previous diagnosis of osteoporosis. The differences in Vogt score according to age and fracture status were statistically significant. The conclusion of the study is that vertebral osteoporotic fracture in the female Spanish population is frequent. The high prevalence in the Spanish population older than 60 years is probably related to malnutrition in the period from 1936 to 1952. PMID:25577153

  20. Prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population: effect of age and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HLA-B27 genotyping is commonly used to support a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A recent study has suggested that HLA-B27 may adversely affect longevity. The objectives of this study were to determine, for the first time, the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population, and to test whether HLA-B27 prevalence declines with age. Methods 117 Caucasian controls, 111 New Zealand Māori controls, and 176 AS patients were directly genotyped for HLA-B27 using PCR-SSP. These participants and a further 1103 Caucasian controls were genotyped for the HLA-B27 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4349859 and rs116488202. All AS patients testing positive for HLA-B27 of New Zealand Māori ancestry underwent high resolution typing to determine sub-allele status. Results HLA-B27 prevalence was 9.2% in New Zealand Caucasian controls and 6.5% in Māori controls. No decline in HLA-B27 prevalence with age was detected in Caucasian controls (p = 0.92). Concordance between HLA-B27 and SNP genotypes was 98.7-99.3% in Caucasians and 76.9-86% in Māori. Of the 14 AS patients of Māori ancestry, 1 was negative for HLA-B27, 10 were positive for HLAB*2705, and 3 positive for HLAB*2704. All cases of genotype discordance were explained by the presence of HLAB*2704. Conclusions HLA-B27 prevalence in New Zealand Caucasians is consistent with that of Northern European populations and did not decline with increasing age. In Māori with AS who were HLA-B27 positive, 76.9% were positive for HLA-B*2705, suggesting that genetic susceptibility to AS in Māori is primarily due to admixture with Caucasians. PMID:24286455

  1. The prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in rural-urban India, Sankara Nethralaya Rural-Urban Age-related Macular degeneration study, Report No. 1.

    PubMed

    Raman, R; Pal, S S; Ganesan, S; Gella, L; Vaitheeswaran, K; Sharma, T

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo report the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rates of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) and associated risk factors in rural and urban Indian population.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in South India between 2009 and 2011. Of the 6617 subjects ≥60 years enumerated ones, 5495 (83.04%) participated in the eye examination. A detailed history including data on demographic, socioeconomic, and ocular history was obtained. Participants underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including 30° 3-field photograph as per Age-Related Eye Disease Study protocol. The ARM was graded according to the International ARM Epidemiological Study Group.ResultsAge- and gender-adjusted prevalence of early ARM was 20.91% (20.86-20.94) in the rural population and 16.37% (16.32-16.42) in the urban population. Similarly, the prevalence of late ARM was 2.26% (2.24-2.29) and 2.32% (2.29-2.34) in the rural and urban population, respectively. In both rural and urban populations, risk factors that were related to both early and late ARM were age, per year increase (OR, range 1.00-1.08); middle socioeconomic status (OR, range 1.05-1.83); and smokeless tobacco (OR, range 1.11-2.21). Protective factor in both was the presence of diabetes mellitus in all ARM (OR, range 0.34-0.83). Risk factors, only in the rural arm, were female gender (OR, range 1.06-1.64), past smoker (OR, 1.14), and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (OR, 1.03).ConclusionsThe study reports smokessless tobacco as a risk factor for both early and late ARM and identified a higher prevalence of early ARM in the rural population compared with urban population. PMID:26915746

  2. PREVALENCE, CLINICAL AND LIFE-STYLE CORRELATE OF DIZZINESS AMONG THE COMMUNITY ELDERLY FROM THE IBADAN STUDY OF AGEING

    PubMed Central

    Lasisi, Akeem O; Gureje, Oye

    2011-01-01

    Dizziness has been reported to be preponderant among the elderly people, however, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors in the sub Saharan population. This longitudinal cohort study determines the prevalence of dizziness and the clinical and socio-epidemiological correlates in elderly persons residing in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria. Dizziness was reported 318/1299, representing a prevalence of 24.6%. They were made up of 197(58.5%) females and 121(41.5%) males, 39 (27.6%) were in the 65-69 years age range, 91 in the 70-74years age range, 66(26.8%) in the 75-79 years and 122(45.5%) were above 80 years. The majority of the subjects (253/318) (%) lived in rural-sub-urban, with no formal education in (172/318) (%) and more than two-third (213/318) were of low economic status. Balance test conducted in 1, 006 elderly subjects revealed poor balance (mean balance test score <3.3) in 93/250(37.2%) subjects with dizziness and 189/756(25%) subjects without dizziness(P=0.01). Logistic regression adjusting for age and gender revealed that the odds for poor balance were 1.5 times greater in elderly with dizziness. Low economic status (P=0.05) and smoking (P=0.01) were found to be significant in univariate analysis while logistic regression revealed smoking(OR=1.51, CI=1.17-1.95, P=0.01) and gender(OR=0.77, CI=0.59-0.99, P=0.05) as significant correlate of dizziness while none of age, residence or educational level was significant. Significant clinical correlates in the experience of dizziness included self report of suppurative otitis media (OR =2.07, CI=1.21- 3.52, P=0.01), head injury (OR=2.41, CI=1.61-3.61, P=0.00), recurrent rhinosinusitis (OR=2.97, CI=2.05-4.29,P=0.00), current hypertension(OR=1.43, CI=1.03-2.00, P=0.03) and transient ischemic attack(OR=1.97, CI=1.19-3.23, P=0.01), while diabetes mellitus(OR=1.50, CI= 0.83- 2.71, P= 0.18) was not. The high incidence of dizziness among the community elderly and significant correlation with

  3. Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European women aged over 80 years.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Olivier; Slomian, Justine; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Cavalier, Etienne; Gillain, Sophie; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in European women aged over 80 years. Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) were performed on 8532 European women with osteoporosis or osteopenia of which 1984 were aged over 80 years. European countries included in the study were: France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: <75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) and <50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml). Mean (SD) age of the patients was 83.4 (2.9) years, body mass index was 25.0 (4.0) kg/m(2) and level of 25(OH)D was 53.3 (26.7) nmol/L (21.4 [10.7] ng/ml). There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p<0.0001). In these women aged over 80 years, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 80.9% and 44.5% when considering cut-offs of 75 and 50 nmol/L, respectively. In the 397 (20.0%) patients taking supplemental vitamin D with or without supplemental calcium, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher than in the other patients (65.2 (29.2) nmol/L vs. 50.3 (25.2) nmol/L; P<0.001). This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy in old European women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. PMID:24784761

  4. Prevalence of ultrasound-determined cystic endometrial hyperplasia and the relationship with age in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Rachel; Whiteside, Helen; England, Gary C W

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential relationship between age and diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the bitches, 348 ultrasound examinations from 240 bitches (Labradors, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, Flat Coated Retrievers, or crosses of those breeds aged between 1.6 and 7.2 years at examination) were examined. A subpopulation of 32 bitches that had completed their breeding careers at 6 years or more of age was also identified. Of all, 18.3% of the bitches were diagnosed with CEH; these cases were newly diagnosed when bitches were between 2.5 years and 7.3 years of age. The proportion of ultrasound examinations in which CEH was identified increased from 6.8% of examinations on 2-year-old breeding bitches to 60.0% of examinations on 6-year-old bitches. Logistic regression identified a positive correlation between mean age at the examination and presence of CEH (χ(2) = 30.74, degrees of freedom = 1, P < 0.001). For 32 bitches that had completed their breeding career, the prevalence of CEH was 56.3%, age at the diagnosis ranged from 3.8 to 7.3 years, and the proportion of bitches affected with CEH increased from 6.3% at 3 years of age to 56.3% at 7 years of age. These data support the contention that the prevalence of CEH increases with age. PMID:27087536

  5. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  6. The Prevalence and Distribution of Aging-Friendly Human Resource Practices.

    PubMed

    Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B

    2015-07-01

    The aging of the workforce in the developed world has prompted organizations to implement human resource (HR) policies and practices encouraging older workers to defer retirement. However, little is known about the prevalence of such practices, and the organizational factors associated with their adoption. In this study, we used data collected from 2008 to 2009 from a national probability sample of retirement eligible workers in the United States (N = 407) to assess the prevalence of aging-friendly human resource practices (AFHRP), and their organizational predictors. Results indicate that employee wellness programs, unpaid leave, and reassignment based on physical needs are among the most prevalent AFHRP. However, in the vast majority of enterprises, AFHRP are limited. Results also indicate that projected organizational growth and a focus on internal labor market practices are positively associated with the adoption of AFHRP. Organizational size and the degree of unionization, while positively associated with aging-friendly benefits, were inversely associated with flexibility practices. PMID:26663609

  7. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  8. Prevalence of Airflow Obstruction in Nonsmoking Older Individuals Using Different Spirometric Criteria: The AGES Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Runarsdottir, Solrun Bjork; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence and characteristics of airway obstruction in older individuals varies widely with the definition used. We used a random sample of never smoking older population in Iceland to compare the prevalence and clinical profile of subjects diagnosed with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) based on different spirometric criteria. Material and methods The study uses data from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study, comprising survivors from the Reykjavik Study. Procedures included standardized questionnaires and pre-bronchodilator spirometry for measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Total of 495 individuals (150 men and 345 women) met study criteria. Mean age 77 years (range 66–92 years) using fixed ratio (FEV1/FVC < 70%) up to 29% of the population were diagnosed with COPD Stage I. The prevalence of COPD increased with age. Only 7 among 495 (1.4%) were diagnosed with COPD using FEV1/FVC LLN and FEV1 LLN. Conclusion Application of the GOLD criteria for diagnosis of COPD in older lifelong never smoking subjects identifies a substantial number of non-symptomatic subjects as having COPD. If airway obstruction is defined by FEV1/FVC and FEV1 being below the LLN using appropriate reference equations, only very few non-smoking older individuals fulfill the criteria for COPD. PMID:23875743

  9. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  10. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups. PMID:27200184

  11. A Review of Secondary Health Conditions in Post-Polio Syndrome: Prevalence and Effects of Aging

    PubMed Central

    McNalley, Thomas E.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Jensen, Mark P.; Truitt, Anjali R.; Schomer, Katherine G.; Baylor, Carolyn; Molton, Ivan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to better understand the prevalence and severity of secondary health conditions in individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS), and the association between these conditions and aging. Design A scoping literature review was conducted searching electronic databases for studies published from 1986 – 2011. The scoping review provided information regarding the prevalence and associations of secondary health conditions in PPS with age or other duration-related variables. Results The findings indicate that: (1) individuals with PPS experience a number of serious secondary health conditions; (2) the most common conditions or symptoms are fatigue, pain, respiratory and sleep complaints, and increased risk of falls; (3) reports of the associations between the frequency or severity of conditions and age-related factors are variable, perhaps because of methodological inconsistencies between studies; and (4) there is a marked lack of longitudinal research examining the natural course of health conditions in people aging with PPS. Conclusions Longitudinal research is needed to understand the course of health conditions and the impact of multiple secondary conditions in people aging with PPS. Efforts are also needed to develop and test the efficacy of interventions to prevent these health secondary conditions or reduce their negative impact. PMID:25122095

  12. Prevalence of coronary heart disease or stroke among workers aged <55 years--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interventions in communities and clinical settings. In workplace settings, cardiovascular disease can be addressed through a Total Worker Health program, which integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion. To identify workers likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period 2008-2012 to estimate the prevalence of a history of coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) among adults aged <55 years by selected characteristics, employment status, occupation category, and industry of employment. The results of that analysis showed that 1.9% of employed adults aged <55 years reported a history of CHD/stroke, compared with 2.5% of unemployed adults looking for work, and 6.3% of adults not in the labor force (e.g., unemployed adults who stopped looking for work, homemakers, students, retired persons, and disabled persons). Workers employed in service and blue collar occupations were more likely than those in white collar occupations to report a history of CHD/stroke. Two industry groups also had significantly higher adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for CHD/stroke: Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services* and Accommodation and Food Service.† Workers in these occupation and industry groups might especially benefit from a Total Worker Health approach to reducing the risk for CHD/stroke. PMID:25078653

  13. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  14. Prevalence and Impact of Pain among Older Adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States (US). Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7,601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the US. Pain did not vary across age groups (P=0.21) and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy-responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P<0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain [adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.72 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.56–1.90)]. Participants with 1, 2, 3, and >4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other confounders (P<0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the US in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

  15. The Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Age of Onset of Social Anxiety Disorder among U.S. Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Antonio; Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-Nan; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objective Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is increasingly being recognized as a prevalent, unremitting, and highly comorbid disorder1 yet studies focusing on this disorder among U.S. Latinos and immigrant populations are not available. This article evaluates ethnic differences in the prevalence, comorbidity, and age of onset of SAD. Cultural and contextual factors associated with risk of SAD are also examined within the Latino population. Method Data are analyzed using the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Both studies utilized the World Mental Health – Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which estimates the prevalence of lifetime and 12-month psychiatric disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. Results Latinos (LAT) reported lower lifetime and 12-month SAD prevalence and a later age of onset than U.S.-born non-Latino Whites (NLW). On the other hand, LAT diagnosed with 12-month SAD reported higher impairment across home, work, and relationship domains than their NLW counterparts. Overall, high SAD comorbidity was found with depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders among both ethnic groups. However, relative to NLW, LAT who entered the U.S. after the age of 21 were less likely to have lifetime SAD comorbidity with drug abuse and dependence and more likely to report lifetime SAD comorbidity with agoraphobia. Conclusion Varied trajectories of SAD risk are present across ethnicity and nativity groups. Clinicians must consider how culture and ethnicity shape these different presentations and determine treatment options accordingly. Outreach efforts are needed to reach immigrant Latinos, and those with comorbid SAD and Agoraphobia in particular. PMID:21899817

  16. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  17. 20 CFR 404.233 - Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of your guaranteed alternative when you become entitled after age 62. 404.233 Section 404.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... insurance benefits in April 1981. He had no social security earnings before 1951 and his year-by-year...

  18. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  19. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  20. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  1. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to University: Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Perceived Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…

  2. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account. PMID:26339507

  3. Prevalence of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Tehran: An Age-Specific Serological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Mohajel, Nasir; Keyvani, Hossein; Nasimi, Maryam; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Several new types of polyomavirus have been discovered in recent years mainly because of the recent state-of-the-art detection technologies. Among the polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has attracted the most attention because of its possible role in the etiology of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but lethal form of skin cancer. Objectives This study aimed to determine age-specific seroprevalence of MCPyV in Tehran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we collected 440 serum samples from healthy individuals 2 to 78 years of age who visited the Pasteur Institute’s clinic in Tehran, Iran, using a convenience sampling strategy. We developed a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses VP1, the major capsid protein of MCPyV, to detect and quantitate serum antibodies to MCPyV. We compared the prevalence of MCPyV between males and females and across eight age groups. Results A total of 255 (57.9%) of the serum samples were MCPyV positive. The seroprevalence in children under 10 years of age was 25%. The seroprevalence increased to 56% over the next decade of life (10 - 19 years of age). The seroprevalence rate in males and females was 56.1% and 59.7% respectively, and a binary logistic regression showed no significant difference between males and females (P = 0.77). However, the prevalence of MCPyV increased with age (P = 0.012). Conclusions Our results suggest that human exposure to MCPyV occurs throughout life. The MCPyV antibody levels remained high among older adults in our population, consistent with reports from other populations. PMID:27437129

  4. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  5. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank T.; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  6. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  7. Does cultural assimilation influence prevalence and presentation of depressive symptoms in older Japanese-American men? The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Nobuharu; Takeshita, Junji; Ahmed, Iqbal; Chen, Randi; Petrovitch, Helen; Ross, G. Webster; Masaki, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sociocultural factors have been implicated in affecting prevalence, incidence, and diagnosis of depression but previous studies have included heterogeneous ethnic populations. We studied the influence of cultural assimilation on the prevalence and presentation of depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men. Method This analysis was based on 3,139 Japanese-American men aged 71–93 years who were participants in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study between 1991 and 1993. We created a Cultural Assimilation Scale (CAS) using 8 questions assessing the degree of Japanese identity and lifestyle compared to a Western one. Subjects were divided into tertiles of CAS score for analysis. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was measured using an 11-question version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale questionnaire (CESD-11), and presence of depressive symptoms was defined as score ≥ 9. Results Prevalent depressive symptoms did not reach a statistically significant association with CAS tertiles (Western 10.8%, Mixed 9.6%, Japanese 8.5%). However after adjusting for demographic, functional and disease factors, the most culturally Japanese group had significantly lower odds for prevalent depressive symptoms, compared to the most Western group. Among the subset of subjects with a high CESD-11 score, there were no significant differences in both mean psychological scores and mean somatic scores between the three Cultural Assimilation Scale groups. Conclusions Prevalent depressive symptoms were significantly lower among elderly Japanese-American men who were most culturally Japanese, compared to more Westernized men. Improving knowledge and understanding about the pathogenesis of depression will have important public health implications. PMID:21358388

  8. Construction Industry Apprentices' Substance Use: A Survey of Prevalence Rates, Reasons for Use, and Regional and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Corney, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence rates and reasons for substance use were studied in a sample of 172 male construction industry apprentices who had a mean age of 20 years. Results were compared with those of men in similar age groups in Victoria, and regional and age differences were explored. Findings indicate that more metropolitan apprentices had experimented with…

  9. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions in Children Aged 5-11 Years in Cambridgeshire, UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children (ages 5-11) in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Using 1999 data from public records, screening instruments, educational psychology and special education needs coordinator records, a prevalence of almost 0.6% was found, with a ratio of 4:1 males to females. (Contains…

  10. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  11. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M; Narendran, Parth

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population - the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  12. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  13. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  14. Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 Years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Nagin, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems. PMID:26311619

  15. Medication Underuse in Aging Outpatients with Cardiovascular Disease: Prevalence, Determinants, and Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Meid, Andreas D.; Quinzler, Renate; Freigofas, Julia; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schöttker, Ben; Holleczek, Bernd; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut; Brenner, Hermann; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in older people, and the impact of being exposed or not exposed to preventive cardiovascular medicines is accordingly high. Underutilization of beneficial drugs is common, but prevalence estimates differ across settings, knowledge on predictors is limited, and clinical consequences are rarely investigated. Methods Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study, we assessed the prevalence, determinants, and outcomes of medication underuse based on cardiovascular criteria from Screening Tool To Alert to Right Treatment (START). Results Medication underuse was present in 69.1% of 1454 included participants (mean age 71.1 ± 6.1 years) and was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio: 2.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.24–3.63]), body mass index (1.03 [1.01–1.07] per kg/m2), and inversely with the number of prescribed drugs (0.84 [0.79–0.88] per drug). Using this information for adjustment in a follow-up evaluation (mean follow-up time 2.24 years) on cardiovascular and competing outcomes, we found no association of medication underuse with cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal) (hazard ratio: 1.00 [0.65–1.56]), but observed a significant association of medication underuse with competing deaths from non-cardiovascular causes (2.52 [1.01–6.30]). Conclusion Medication underuse was associated with frailty and adverse non-cardiovascular clinical outcomes. This may suggest that cardiovascular drugs were withheld because of serious co-morbidity or that concurrent illness can preclude benefit from cardiovascular prevention. In the latter case, adapted prescribing criteria should be developed and evaluated in those patients. PMID:26288222

  16. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social and school adjustment: the moderating roles of age and parenting.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of 2,463 students who were in the first to ninth grade in northern Taiwan. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were inversely associated with academic performance and positively associated with social adjustment problems. Further, children's age and maternal parenting moderated the associations between ADHD symptoms and school and social adjustment. For example, maternal overprotection moderated the relation between hyperactivity and negative peer relationships (i.e., difficulty forming and maintaining friendships), such that this relation was stronger for children who experienced higher levels of overprotection than children who did not. Moreover, children's age moderated the association between attention problems and decreased academic performance, such that this association was stronger for older children and adolescents than for younger children. Furthermore, children's age and maternal affection interacted to influence the association between attention problems and school social problems (i.e., bullying, aggression, and peer rejection) with maternal affection acting as a buffer for older children (grades 4-6) only. These findings are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective. PMID:21858455

  17. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  18. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  19. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Geographic Atrophy among Elderly Japanese with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sakurada, Yoichi; Yoneyama, Seigo; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Tanabe, Naohiko; Kikushima, Wataru; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Kume, Atsuki; Kubota, Takeo; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of geographic atrophy (GA) among elderly Japanese with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a clinic-based study. Methods Two-hundred and ninety consecutive patients with advanced AMD were classified into typical neovascular AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) or geographic atrophy (GA). Genetic variants of ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) and CFH I62V (rs800292) were genotyped using TaqMan Genotyping Assays. The clinical and genetic characteristics were compared between patients with and without GA. Results The number of patients diagnosed as having typical neovascular AMD, PCV, RAP and GA were 98 (33.8%), 151 (52.1%), 22 (7.5%) and 19 (6.6%), respectively. Of 19 patients with GA, 13 patients (68.4%) had unilateral GA with exudative AMD in the contralateral eye. Patients with GA were significantly older, with a higher prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen, bilateral involvement of advanced AMD and T-allele frequency of ARMS2 A69S compared with those with typical AMD and PCV; although there were no differences in the genetic and clinical characteristics among patients with GA and RAP. Conclusions The prevalence of GA was 6.6% among elderly Japanese with AMD. Patients with GA and RAP exhibited genetic and clinical similarities. PMID:26918864

  20. Prevalence of aging population in the Middle East and its implications on cancer incidence and care

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, R. R.; Atli, T.; Al-Mandhari, Z.; Oudrhiri, M.; Balducci, L.; Silbermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eastern population is aging rapidly, and as aging is the main risk factor for cancer, the incidence and prevalence of that disease are increasing among all the populations in the region. These developments represent huge challenges to national and community-based health services. At the current state of affairs, most Middle Eastern countries require the cooperation of international agencies in order to cope with such new challenges to their health systems. The focus and emphasis in facing these changing circumstances lie in the education and training of professionals, mainly physicians and nurses, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health services. It is imperative that these training initiatives include clinical practice, with priority given to the creation of multidisciplinary teams both at the cancer centers and for home-based services. PMID:24001758

  1. Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: the moderating roles of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion. PMID:22960068

  2. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  3. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  4. Children conceived by gamete donation: psychological adjustment and mother-child relationships at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-04-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in nondisclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families, suggesting that families may benefit from openness about the child's genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  5. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. PMID:24439665

  6. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: a prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators. PMID:25510905

  7. Post Eclosion Age Predicts the Prevalence of Midgut Trypanosome Infections in Glossina

    PubMed Central

    Walshe, Deirdre P.; Lehane, Michael J.; Haines, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    The teneral phenomenon, as observed in Glossina sp., refers to the increased susceptibility of the fly to trypanosome infection when the first bloodmeal taken is trypanosome-infected. In recent years, the term teneral has gradually become synonymous with unfed, and thus fails to consider the age of the newly emerged fly at the time the first bloodmeal is taken. Furthermore, conflicting evidence exists of the effect of the age of the teneral fly post eclosion when it is given the infected first bloodmeal in determining the infection prevalence. This study demonstrates that it is not the feeding history of the fly but rather the age (hours after eclosion of the fly from the puparium) of the fly when it takes the first (infective) bloodmeal that determines the level of fly susceptibility to trypanosome infection. We examine this phenomenon in male and female flies from two distinct tsetse clades (Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina palpalis palpalis) infected with two salivarian trypanosome species, Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei brucei and Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense using Fisher's exact test to examine differences in infection rates. Teneral tsetse aged less than 24 hours post-eclosion (h.p.e.) are twice as susceptible to trypanosome infection as flies aged 48 h.p.e. This trend is conserved across sex, vector clade and parasite species. The life cycle stage of the parasite fed to the fly (mammalian versus insect form trypanosomes) does not alter this age-related bias in infection. Reducing the numbers of parasites fed to 48 h.p.e., but not to 24 h.p.e. flies, increases teneral refractoriness. The importance of this phenomenon in disease biology in the field as well as the necessity of employing flies of consistent age in laboratory-based infection studies is discussed. PMID:22087240

  8. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  10. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  11. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  12. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  13. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  14. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  15. Prevalence and knowledge of hepatitis C in a middle-aged population, Dunedin, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Vermunt, Jane; Fraser, Margaret; Herbison, Peter; Wiles, Anna; Schlup, Martin; Schultz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in those most at risk of advanced liver disease and to identify gaps in knowledge of HCV. METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to randomly selected residents aged 40-59 to assess the extent of their general knowledge about HCV. The questionnaire assessed demographics, the extent of general knowledge about viral hepatitis, potential risks for infection and the prevalence of risk factors associated with increased progression of liver fibrosis. Anonymised residual laboratory blood samples from 40-59 years old people from Dunedin taken in hospital or in the community, were tested for HCV antibodies and alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Linear regression was performed to examine whether the demographics sex, age, socio-economic status, qualification level and occupation sector (categorical variables) were predictors of level of general knowledge about hepatitis. For the demographics that were found to be significant predictors of score outcome, multiple regression analysis was used to determine independent effects. χ2 tests were used to compare our selected sample and our responder population demographics, to the demographics of the entire 40-59 years old population in Dunedin using the 2006 NZ census data. Exact confidence intervals for the proportion positive for HCV and HBV were calculated using the binomial distribution. RESULTS: The response rate to the mailed questionnaire was 431/1400 (30.8%). On average 59.4% questions were answered correctly. Predictors for higher scores, indicating greater knowledge about symptoms and transmission included sex (female, P < 0.01), higher level of qualification (P < 0.000) and occupation sector (P < 0.000). Sharing intravenous drug utensils was a known risk factor for disease transmission (94.4%), but the sharing of common household items such as a toothbrush was not. 93% of the population were

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia among primary and middle school-aged students: a school-based study in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Yang, J; Mai, J; Du, X; Guo, Y; Li, P; Yue, Y; Tang, D; Lu, C; Zhang, W-H

    2016-06-01

    PurposeTo estimate the prevalence of myopia among primary and middle school-aged students in Guangzhou and to explore the potentially contributing factors to myopia.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on a sample of students in grades 1-6 and grades 7-9. Data were collected from refractive error measurements and a structured questionnaire.ResultsA total of 3055 participants were involved in this analysis, and the overall prevalence of myopia was 47.4% (95% confidence interval (CI)= 45.6-49.2%). The prevalence of myopia in students increased along with the growth of grade level; the prevalence of myopia in students in grade 1 was only 0.2%, as it increased to 38.8% in students in grade 3, and the rate was the highest (68.4%) in students in grade 9. Girls were at a higher risk of myopia than boys (adjusted odds ratio=1.22, 95% CI=1.04-1.44). Both male and female students whose distance of reading was longer than 25 cm were less likely to have myopia and who have one or two myopic parents were at a higher risk of myopia. In addition, reading for pleasure more than 2 h per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.84, 95% CI=1.09-3.12) was only positively associated with myopia in boys and spending time watching television per week was only positively associated with myopia in girls.ConclusionMyopia in students is a significant public health problem in Guangzhou. Female gender, higher grade, longer time spent for near work, shorter distance of near work, and parental myopia were shown to be associated with the increasing risk of myopia in children. PMID:26965016

  17. Prevalence, Type, Distribution, and Severity of Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gestational Age: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himpens, E.; Van den Broeck, C.; Oostra, A.; Calders, P.; Vanhaesebrouck, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to determine the relationship between gestational age (GA) and prevalence, type, distribution, and severity of cerebral palsy (CP). Epidemiological studies with cohorts expressed by GA were assessed. A comprehensive meta-analysis and meta-regression was performed on four fetal age categories. Studies of children with CP…

  18. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  20. Prevalence and predictors of habitual snoring in a sample of Saudi middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring among a sample of middle-aged Saudi adults, and its potential predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 until June 2013 in randomly selected Saudi Schools in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The enrolled subjects were 2682 school employees (aged 30-60 years, 52.1% females) who were randomly selected and interviewed. The questionnaire used for the interview included: the Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire to assess for snoring, medical history, and socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure readings were recorded using standard methods. Results: Forty percent of the 2682 enrolled subjects were snorers: 23.5% were habitual snorers, 16.6% were moderate snorers, and 59.9%, were non-snorers. A multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of snoring were ageing, male gender, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, family history of both snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, water-pipe smoking, and consanguinity. Conclusion: This study shows that snoring is a common condition among the Saudi population. Previously reported risk factors were reemphasized but consanguinity was identified as a new independent predictive risk factor of snoring. Exploring snoring history should be part of the clinical evaluation. PMID:26219441

  1. Age and gender differences among Australian suicide ideators: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, A Kate; Anstey, Kaarin J; Rodgers, Bryan; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in an Australian population sample at three stages of adulthood. Random sampling of a community acquired 7485 participants. Cohorts were 20 to 24, 40 to 44, or 60 to 64 years old. Twelve-month prevalence of suicidal ideation was 8.2%. Suicidal ideation was highest among the youngest cohort. Males with chronic physical illness were more prone to suicidal ideation, as were those aged 20 to 24 and 60 to 64. Furthermore, under-employed subjects 60 to 64 years old were seven times more likely to experience suicidal ideation than their counterparts working full-time. Childhood adversity and rumination had positive associations with suicidality; however, considering oneself more masterful was linked with lower levels of suicidal ideation. Contrary to clinical and popular views, our results highlight that proximal non-mental health variables such as employment, physical health, social factors, and personality are equally important to experiencing suicidal ideation as symptoms of psychological distress. PMID:17299300

  2. Prevalence of caries among preschool-aged children in a central Anatolian population

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Damla; Dülgergil, Çoruh T.; Mutluay, Abidin T.; Yıldırım, Işıl; Hamidi, Mehmet M.; Çolak, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a particularly destructive form of tooth decay that afflicts young children. The etiology and associated factors of ECC should be studied adequately to overcome this health hazard. The aim of this study was to determine caries prevalence and its consequences in toddlers in an Anatolian city, Kırıkkale. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in family medicine centers by three calibrated dentists during a period of 6 months. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth), and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS). Results: Totally 3171 toddlers were included (52% males and 48% females). The mean age was 25.8 ± 10.1 months. The prevalence of ECC in preschool children was 17.3%, while the mean df(t) was 0.63 ± 1.79. ECC increased significantly with age. Dental caries were mostly observed in primary maxillary central teeth. Occlusal and buccal surfaces were the most affected sites. The difference in distribution of caries between maxilla and mandibula was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: When compared to other data obtained from various epidemiologic studies, the toddlers living in Kırıkkale city center had a significant caries level. This observation had clearly suggested that early preventive measures should urgently be put into effect all over the city. PMID:24082726

  3. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Etiology of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Lee, Paul C.; Pauls, David L.; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A.; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A.; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M.; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each TS-associated comorbidity or their etiologic relationship to TS. Objective To characterize the lifetime prevalence, clinical associations, ages of highest risk, and etiology of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional structured diagnostic interviews conducted between April 1, 1992, and December 31, 2008, of participants with TS (n = 1374) and TS-unaffected family members (n = 1142). Main Outcomes and Measures Lifetime prevalence of comorbid DSM-IV-TR disorders, their heritabilities, ages of maximal risk, and associations with symptom severity, age at onset, and parental psychiatric history. Results The lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS was 85.7%; 57.7% of the population had 2 or more psychiatric disorders. The mean (SD) number of lifetime comorbid diagnoses was 2.1 (1.6); the mean number was 0.9 (1.3) when obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were excluded, and 72.1% of the individuals met the criteria for OCD or ADHD. Other disorders, including mood, anxiety, and disruptive behavior, each occurred in approximately 30% of the participants. The age of greatest risk for the onset of most comorbid psychiatric disorders was between 4 and 10 years, with the exception of eating and substance use disorders, which began in adolescence (interquartile range, 15–19 years for both). Tourette syndrome was associated with increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.9; P = .04) and decreased risk of substance use disorders (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; P = .02) independent from comorbid OCD and ADHD; however, high rates

  4. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  5. National sample survey organization survey report: An estimation of prevalence of mental illness and its association with age in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Indian population suffers with significant burden of mental illness. The prevalence rate and its association with age and other demographic indicators are needed for planning purpose. Objective: This study attempted to calculate age-wise prevalence of mental illness for rural and urban settings, and its association with age. Materials and Methods: Data published in National Sample Survey Organization (2002) report on disability is used for the analysis. Spearman correlation for strength of association, z-test for difference in prevalence, and regression statistics for predicting the prevalence rate of mental illness are used. Result: Overall population have 14.9/1000 prevalence of mental illness. It is higher in rural setting 17.1/1000 than urban 12.7/1000 (P < 0.001). There is a strong correlation found with age in rural (ϱ = 0.910, P = 0.001) and urban (ϱ = 0.940, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Results of this study confirm other epidemiological research in India. Large-population epidemiological studies are recommended. PMID:25552851

  6. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dL, is a global public health problem. According to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda. PMID:26055748

  7. Age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 genotypes in cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Qeadan, Fares; Gravitt, Patti E; Blaakaer, Jan

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer has been reported to decline with age in some papers. However, whether this decline in proportion of cancers positive for HPV16/18 is consistently observed across studies remains to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify papers reporting data on age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer and to summarize the results. We employed MEDLINE and Embase for a systematic literature search and thereby identified a total of 644 papers published in the period 1999-2015, of which 15 papers, reporting cross-sectional data, were included for review (11,526 cervical cancers). The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer declined significantly with age (ρ = -0.83, p = 0.04) from 74.8% (95% CI 67.6-80.8) in women aged 30-39 years to 56.8% (95% CI 43.9-68.8) in women aged ≥70 years. As the HPV16/18 positive cancers are prevented in fully vaccinated cohorts, the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer is anticipated to change, with a shift in peak incidence rate to older ages. It will be important for integrated vaccination and screening strategies to consider predicted change in the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer. PMID:26661889

  8. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  9. Joint versus maternal custody for families with latency age boys: parent characteristics and child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Shiller, V M

    1986-07-01

    Families with boys aged 6-11 in joint and maternal physical custody were interviewed 1-6 years following the parental separation. According to ratings made by parents and teachers, boys in joint custody had fewer behavioral difficulties than their maternal custody counterparts. Joint custody parents also evidenced some strengths compared to parents with maternal physical custody. PMID:3740232

  10. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a highly prevalent age-dependent phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls using extra- and intracranial colour Doppler sonography. Methods We examined 146 MS patients, presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, or primary progressive MS, and 38 healthy controls. Sonographic examination was performed according to Zamboni’s protocol and was performed by three independent sonographers. The results of sonographic examination were compared with clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results CCSVI, defined as the presence of at least two positive Zamboni’s criteria, was found in 76% of MS patients and 16% of control subjects. B-mode anomalies of internal jugular veins, such as stenosis, malformed valves, annuli, and septa were the most common lesions detected in MS patients (80.8%) and controls (47.4%). We observed a positive correlation between sonographic diagnosis of CCSVI and the patients’ age (p = 0.003). However, such a correlation was not found in controls (p = 0.635). Notably, no significant correlations were found between sonographic signs of CCSVI and clinical characteristics of MS, except for absent flow in the jugular veins, which was found more often in primary (p<0.005) and secondary (p<0.05) progressive patients compared with non-progressive patients. Absent flow in jugular veins was significantly correlated with patients’ age (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Sonographically defined CCSVI is common in MS patients. However, CCSVI appears to be primarily associated with the patient’s age, and poorly correlated with the clinical course of the disease. PMID:23406210

  11. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among healthy school-age Cree children

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Dewailly, Eric; Côté, Suzanne; Johnson-Down, Louise; Morin, Suzanne; Dodin, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First Nations children are at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency and rickets. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the correlations between fat mass, parathyroid hormone and dietary habits with serum vitamin D level in a random sample of Cree children eight to 14 years of age. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and additional information regarding anthropometrics and dietary habits were obtained from participants in two Cree communities. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <30 nmol/L and <50 nmol/L, respectively. Proportions to estimate the vitamin D status were weighted to account for the complex sampling design, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to estimate the associations of milk and fish intake, parathyroid hormone and fat mass with serum 25(OH)D levels. RESULTS: Data from 52 healthy Cree children (mean [± SD] age 11.1±2.0 years; 27 boys) were included in the analyses. The median serum 25(OH)D level was 52.4 nmol/L (range 22.1 nmol/L to 102.7 nmol/L). Forty-three percent (95% CI 29% to 58%) and 81% (95% CI 70% to 92%) of Cree children had vitamin D levels <50 nmol/L and <75 nmol/L, respectively. Vitamin D intake was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D levels. Obese children had lower vitamin D levels; however, the difference was nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: There may be a substantial proportion of Cree children who are vitamin D deficient. Increasing age, lower dietary vitamin D intake and, possibly, higher body mass index were associated with decreased vitamin D levels; however, causality cannot be inferred. PMID:24665228

  12. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  13. Adjusting for car occupant injury liability in relation to age, speed limit, and gender-specific driver crash involvement risk.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael; Frith, William

    2004-12-01

    It is well established that older drivers' fragility is an important factor associated with higher levels of fatal crash involvement for older drivers. There has been less research on age-related fragility with respect to the sort of minor injuries that are more common in injury crashes. This study estimates a quantity that is related to injury fragility: the probability that a driver or a passenger of that driver will be injured in crashes involving two cars. The effects of other factors apart from drivers' fragility are included in this measure, including the fragility of the passengers, the crashworthiness of cars driven, seatbelt use by the occupants, and characteristics of crashes (including configuration and impact speed). The car occupant injury liability estimates appropriately includes these factors to adjust risk curves by age, gender, and speed limit accounting for overrepresentation in crashes associated with fragility and these other factors. PMID:15545071

  14. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  15. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  16. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  17. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  18. Influence of age on the prevalence and components of the metabolic syndrome and the association with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Devers, Marion C; Campbell, Stewart; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective The significance of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is debated. We investigated whether MS component (by ATPIII and IDF definitions) clustering and any association between MS and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) varied with age. Research design and methods In all, 1429 adults (≥25 years) from randomly selected households in rural Victoria, Australia, were assessed for components of MS and prevalent CVD. The expected prevalence of MS was calculated following a simple probabilistic model using the prevalence of each MS component. Results The observed prevalence of MS was greater than expected: 27.0% vs 21.2% (ATPIII) and 36.0% vs 30.1% (IDF; p<0.0001), based on the prevalence of individual components. There was significant clustering of 4 and 5 MS components in participants <65 years (p<0.0001). CVD was more prevalent in MS participants, 13.5% (IDF), 14.5% (ATPIII) versus 5.3% (no MS) p<0.0001. The OR for CVD in MS participants was greatest in those <45 years OR (95% CI): IDF 17.5 (1.8 to 172); ATPIII 24.3(2.4 to 241), p<0.001 for both, and was not significant in those >65 years. The prevalence of MS (ATPIII) with normal waist circumference (WC) was less than expected (4.8% vs 7.9%, p<0.002). Low levels of high-density lipoprotein and high triglyceride were less common in older MS participants. Conclusions ATPIII MS is rare among those with a normal WC. MS components cluster most markedly among those aged <65 years, who also experience substantially greater rates of CVD. Younger patients with MS may warrant more aggressive CVD preventative treatment than suggested by the summation of their individual risk factors. PMID:27158519

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Cameroon: A Multistage, Stratified Cluster Sampling Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (<5 years) in Cameroon, based on weight-for-height index, has doubled between 1991 and 2006. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Methods Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13–24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25–36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. Conclusion This study underlines a high prevalence of

  20. Ages at Onset of 5 Cardiometabolic Diseases Adjusting for Nonsusceptibility: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Yuh-Chyuan; Chen, Chen-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2016-09-01

    To shed light on the etiology of metabolic syndrome development, it is important to understand whether its 5 component disorders follow certain onset sequences. To explore disease progression of the syndrome, we studied the ages at onset of 5 cardiometabolic diseases: abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia. In analyzing longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Two-Township Study (1989-2002) in Taiwan, we adjusted for nonsusceptibility, utilizing the logistic-accelerated failure time location-scale mixture regression models for left-truncated and interval-censored data to simultaneously estimate the associations of township and sex with the susceptibility probability and the age-at-onset distribution of susceptible individuals for each disease. We then validated the onset sequences of 5 cardiometabolic diseases by comparing the overall probability density curves across township-sex strata. Visualization of these curves indicates that women tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity and hypo-α-lipoproteinemia in young adulthood, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia in middle age, and diabetes later; men tended to have onsets of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in young adulthood, hypertension in middle age, and diabetes later. Different onset patterns of abdominal obesity, hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, and male hypertension were identified between townships. Our proposed method provides a novel strategy for investigating both pathogenesis and preventive measures of complex syndromes. PMID:27543092

  1. Estimated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Panamanian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…

  2. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  3. Disparity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence among Taiwan National Health Insurance Enrollees: Age, Gender and Urbanization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chiang, Po-Huang; Lin, Lam-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Taiwan while examining the effects of age, gender, and urbanization on ASD occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 895,639 random health insurance claimants who claimed medical services in the year 2007. Autism was defined…

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 19 years: Comparison between the United States and Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its risk factors, and obesity in adolescents in the United States (US) and Korea. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and 2005 Korea NHANES for adolescents aged 12-19 yr i...

  5. [Elderly residents in homes for the aged: adjustment in the light of Callista Roy].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria Célia de; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; de Galiza, Francisca Tereza; Nogueira, Jéssica de Menezes; Onofre, Marília Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adaptation of elderly individuals voluntarily reside in Institution for the Aged (LTCF) in the city of Fortaleza-CE, based on the theoretical model of Roy. Descriptive study, in a IPLI involving thirteen elderly residents. Data collect was through interviews in the months of October and December 2011 and organized by thematic content analysis. The following themes has emerged: I Physical subdivided into body sensation and body image; Staff and I, subdivided into self-consistency and auto ideal be moral-ethical-spiritual. Thus, the option to live in ILPI not effectively changed the lives of elderly people. They managed to adapt to the local and coexist well with internal and external stimuli. PMID:25590880

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  7. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (2.2%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea. PMID:26807709

  8. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p < 0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: -0.332, 0.036; p = 0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: -0.533, -0.237; p < 0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: -0.563, -0.203; p < 0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. PMID:25934087

  9. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Genaro G.; Arias-Merino, Elva D.; Flores-Saiffe, María E.; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60. PMID:23243421

  10. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60. PMID:23243421

  11. Cohort and Age Effects of Mass Drug Administration on Prevalence of Trachoma: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Nakul; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Gaydos, Charlotte; Dize, Laura; Quinn, Thomas C.; West, Sheila K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Mass drug administration (MDA) is part of the SAFE strategy for trachoma elimination. This study examined the effect of three annual MDAs on prevalence of trachoma among 13 longitudinal cohorts of Tanzanian children. Methods. Children younger than 10 years were assigned to cohorts based on age at baseline and followed annually for 3 years, with newborns assigned to new cohorts over time. Annual MDA consisted of topical tetracycline for children younger than 6 months and oral azithromycin for those 6 months and older. Follicular trachoma (TF) and Chlamydia trachomatis infection status were assessed annually before the next MDA. Prevalence and risk factors for TF and infection at each age were compared across cohorts. Results. At each survey, most age groups and cohorts had MDA coverage of more than 80% and showed decreased TF prevalence after every MDA. One cohort had consistently lower coverage, higher-than-expected TF and infection at ages 6 and 7, and elevated risk of TF at age 7 relative to the preceding cohort in spite of receiving one additional MDA (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0–5.2). Cohorts aged 1 or older at baseline generally showed reductions in TF and infection after each MDA, whereas younger cohorts showed decreased infection but increased TF over time. Successive cohorts of never-treated children younger than 1 year showed sequential TF and infection reductions with each MDA (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Multiple MDAs significantly reduce trachoma prevalence and appear to increasingly protect children born into these communities. The youngest children show declining/stable rates of infection but increasing rates of trachoma, which may reflect longer duration of clinical signs. PMID:24448262

  12. Age and Sex Variation In Prevalence Of Chronic Medical Conditions In Older Residents of U.S. Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly L.; Boscardin, W. John; Steinman, Michael A.; Schwartz, Janice B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate patterns in prevalences of chronic medical conditions over the agespan of long-term stay nursing home residents and between the sexes with data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING U.S. nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample comprising 11,788 long-term stay residents (3003 (25%) men and 8785 women) aged 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) was used to group ICD-9 codes to identify the 20 most prevalent chronic medical conditions. SAS survey procedures were used to account for design effects of stratification and clustering to generate nationally representative estimates of prevalences of medical conditions. RESULTS Average age was 84 y, with women older than men (85 vs. 81, p=0.02) with 67% of women ages 80–95. Women required more ADL assistance. The most frequent chronic medical conditions were hypertension (53, 56%: men, women), dementia (45, 52%), depression (31, 37%), arthritis (26, 35%), diabetes mellitus (26, 23%), gastrointestinal reflux -GERD (23, 23%), atherosclerosis (24, 20%), congestive heart failure -CHF (18, 21%), cerebrovascular disease (24, 19%) and anemia (17, 20%). Sex differences in prevalences existed for all but constipation, GERD, and hypertension. Diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, and lipid disorders decreased with age in men and women. Atrial fibrillation, anemia, arthritis, CHF, and dementia, and thyroid disease increased with age in both men and women. Age-related patterns differed between the sexes for diabetes, hypertension, and Parkinson’s disease. CONCLUSION The profile of chronic medical conditions varies over the agespan of nursing home residents and differs between men and women. This knowledge should guide educational and care efforts in long-term care. PMID:22463062

  13. Prevalence, topographic and morphometric features of femoral cam-type deformity: changes in relation to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avalos, R; Leyva-Villegas, J I; Sánchez-Mejorada, G; Reynaga-Obregón, J; Galindo-de León, S; Vílchez-Cavazos, F; Espinosa-Uribe, A G; Acosta-Olivo, C; de la Garza-Castro, O; Guzmán-Avilan, R I; Elizondo-Omaña, R E; Guzmán-López, S

    2016-09-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is a frequent cause of pain and in recent years considered to be a precursor of premature hip osteoarthritis. The structural abnormalities which characterize FAI syndrome, such as the cam-type deformity, are associated with morphological alterations that may lead to hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and topographic and morphometric features of the cam deformity in a series of 326 femur specimens obtained from a Mexican population, as well as changes in prevalence in relation to age and gender. The specimens were subdivided into groups according to gender and age. A standardized photograph of the proximal femur of each specimen was taken, and the photograph was used to determine the alpha angle using a computer program; the location of the lesion was determined by quadrant and the morphometric characteristics were determined by direct observation. The overall prevalence of cam deformities in the femur specimens was 29.8 % (97/326), with a prevalence by gender of 35.2 % (64/182) in men and 22.9 % (33/144) in women. The mean alpha angle was 54.6° ± 8.5° in all of the osteological specimens and 65.6° ± 7.5° in those specimens exhibiting a cam deformity. Cam deformities were found topographically in the anterior-superior quadrant of the femoral head-neck junction in 86.6 % (84/97) of the femurs. Deformities were found in 28.2 % of the right femurs and 31.3 % of the left femurs. The prevalence of cam deformity was higher in the femur specimens of young men and in those of middle-aged and older women. There were no significant differences in this deformity in relation to the alpha angle according to age and gender. PMID:26573638

  14. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital

  15. Effect of acidified feed on the prevalence of Salmonella in market-age pigs.

    PubMed

    Creus, E; Pérez, J F; Peralta, B; Baucells, F; Mateu, E

    2007-01-01

    Two trials were carried out to determine the effect of feed acidification upon Salmonella carriage in market-age pigs. In the first trial, the administration for the last 14 weeks of the fattening period of a commercial pelleted feed added with 0.6% lactic acid plus 0.6% formic acid (Lac-Formic-1.2) was compared to an unacidified standard diet (STD). A second experiment was carried out in two herds of growing pigs (Herd I, 3000 pigs; Herd II, 900 pigs) in which three different diets were assayed during the last 8-9 weeks of the fattening period: a diet containing 0.8% formic acid (Formic-0.8), a diet containing 0.4% lactic acid plus 0.4% formic acid (Lac-Formic-0.8) and a STD. In the first experiment, serological evolution of the infection was examined by ELISA and microbiological cultures (rectal samples and mesenteric lymph nodes) were also done. Feed intake by pen and the individual weight of the animals were also measured. In the second trial, blood, rectal samples and mesenteric lymph nodes were collected at slaughter in both herds (30 pigs per experimental group). In the first experiment, the acidified diet (Lac-Formic-1.2) reduced Salmonella carriers in mesenteric lymph nodes (Fisher's exact P < 0.01). In the second trial, Lac-Formic-0.8 diet significantly reduced Salmonella seroprevalence compared to the STD (P = 0.001) in both herds. Also Lac-Formic-0.8 and Formic-0.8 diets in Herd II showed a lower faecal excretion and Salmonella carriage in mesenteric lymph nodes than the STD (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the administration of a combination of lactic and formic acids at the levels used in this study could be used to reduce Salmonella prevalence in finishing pigs. PMID:17894642

  16. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  17. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  18. Middle-Aged and Mobility-Limited: Prevalence of Disability and Symptom Attributions in a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, Elizabeth A; Huppert, Felicia A; Guralnik, Jack M; Melzer, David

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb mobility disabilities are well understood in older people, but the causes in middle age have attracted little attention. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of mobility disabilities among noninstitutionalized adults in England and to compare the disabling symptoms reported by middle-aged and older people. DESIGN Cross-sectional data from the 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Mobility disability was identified by level of reported difficulty walking a quarter mile. PARTICIPANTS Eleven thousand two hundred sixteen respondents aged 50 years and older living in private households in 2002. RESULTS The prevalence of difficulty walking a quarter mile increases sharply with age, but even in the middle-aged (50 to 64 years age-group) 18% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16% to 19%) of men and 19% (95% CI: 17% to 20%) of women reported some degree of difficulty. Of the 16 main symptoms reported as causing mobility disability in middle age, 2 dominated: pain in the leg or the foot (43%; 95% CI: 40% to 46%) and shortness of breath/dyspnea (21%; 95% CI: 18% to 23%). Fatigue or tiredness, and stability problems were cited by only 5% and 6%, respectively. These proportions were slightly different from those in the 65 to 79-year age group: 40%, 23%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Mobility (walking) disabilities in the middle-aged are relatively common. The symptoms reported as causes in this age group differ little from those reported by older groups, and are dominated by lower limb pain and shortness of breath. More clinical attention paid to disabling symptoms may lead to disability reductions in later life. PMID:16970558

  19. The Impact of Case Definition on ADHD Prevalence Estimates in Community-Based Samples of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Robert E.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Danielson, Melissa L.; Cuffe, Steven P.; Wolraich, Mark L.; Visser, Susanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of varying ADHD diagnostic criteria, including new DSM-5 criteria, on prevalence estimates. Method Parent and teacher reports identified ADHD high and low screen children from elementary schools in two states that produced a diverse overall sample. The parent interview stage included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children – IV (DISC-IV), and up to four additional follow-up interviews. Weighted prevalence estimates, accounting for complex sampling, quantified the impact of varying ADHD criteria using baseline and the final follow-up interview data. Results At baseline 1060 caregivers were interviewed; 656 had at least one follow-up interview. Teachers and parents reported six or more ADHD symptoms for 20.5% (95% CI: 18.1%–23.2%) and 29.8% (CI: 24.5%–35.6%) of children respectively, with criteria for impairment and onset by age seven (DSM-IV) reducing these proportions to 16.3% (CI: 14.7%–18.0%) and 17.5% (CI: 13.3%–22.8%); requiring at least four teacher-reported symptoms reduced the parent-reported prevalence to 8.9% (CI: 7.4%–10.6%). Revising age of onset to 12 years per DSM-5 increased this estimate to 11.3% (CI: 9.5%–13.3%), with a similar increase seen at follow-up: 8.2% with age seven onset (CI: 5.9%–11.2%) versus 13.0% (CI: 7.6%–21.4%) with onset by age 12. Reducing the number of symptoms required for those aged 17 and older increased the estimate to 13.1% (CI: 7.7%–21.5%). Conclusion These findings quantify the impact on prevalence estimates of varying case definition criteria for ADHD. Further research of impairment ratings and data from multiple informants is required to better inform clinicians conducting diagnostic assessments. DSM-5 changes in age of onset and number of symptoms required for older adolescents appear to increase prevalence estimates, although the full impact is uncertain due to the age of our sample. PMID:25524790

  20. State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Black, Lindsey I

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and care management of multiple (two or more) chronic conditions (MCC) are important public health concerns (1). Approximately 25% of U.S. adults have diagnoses of MCC (2). Care management of MCC presents a challenge to both patients and providers because of the substantial costs associated with treating more than one condition and the traditional care strategies that focus on single conditions as opposed to enhanced care coordination (3,4). Maintaining surveillance, targeting service delivery, and projecting resources are all important to meet this challenge, and these actions can be informed by identifying state and other regional variations in MCC prevalence (5,6). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate prevalence of MCC (defined as two or more of 10 diagnosed chronic conditions) for each U.S. state and region by age and sex. Significant state and regional variation in MCC prevalence was found, with state-level estimates ranging from 19.0% in Colorado to 38.2% in Kentucky. MCC prevalence also varied by region, ranging from 21.4% in the Pacific region to 34.5% in the East South Central region. The prevalence of MCC was higher among women than among men within certain U.S. regions, and was higher in older persons in all regions. Such findings further the research and surveillance objectives stated in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publication, Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework (1). Furthermore, geographic disparities in MCC prevalence can inform state-level surveillance programs and groups targeting service delivery or allocating resources for MCC prevention activities. PMID:27467707

  1. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  2. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Alenghat, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  3. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  4. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pangani, Ismail N.; Kiplamai, Festus K.; Kamau, Jane W.; Onywera, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8–13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8–13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p < 0.001), and across age groups of 8–10 and 11–13 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies. PMID:27403343

  6. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8-13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pangani, Ismail N; Kiplamai, Festus K; Kamau, Jane W; Onywera, Vincent O

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8-13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8-13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p < 0.001), and across age groups of 8-10 and 11-13 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies. PMID:27403343

  7. [The prevalence of anemia among children and women of reproductive age in Kazakhstan and basis of its prevention].

    PubMed

    Smagulova, I E; Sharmanov, T Sh; Balgimekov, Sh A

    2013-01-01

    Results of the study on the prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age and children, residing in the various regions of Kazakhstan, are presented in the article. Representational sampling which takes into account the divisional principle of medical service of children population in each of the 14th areas, Astana and Almaty cities has been implemented. Research involved participation of 1303 women at the age of 15-49 years, and of 1318 children, 353 (26.8%) of whom were in the age of 6 up to 23 months, and 985 (73.2%) were in the age range of 24-59 months. 89 women were pregnant, which constituted 6.8%. The average hemoglobin level in the blood of pregnant women was 11.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL, which was significantly lower compared to that of non-pregnant women, for whom the figure was 12.1 +/- 1.6 g/dL. The average level of hemoglobin in the blood of children in the age range of 6-23 months was 10.7 +/- 1.4 g/dL, and was significantly lower than that of children in the age range of 24-59 months, for whom the figure was, in average, 11.5 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p < 0.05). The rate of prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women was 43.8%, among non-pregnant women--39.0%, among children aged 6-59 months--35.2%. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was significantly higher in children aged 6-23 months (53.3%) compared with children aged 24-59 months (28.8%). As for degree of severity of anemia, mild form prevailed in all of the examined groups: children--53.6%, pregnant women--51.2% and non-pregnant--77.2%. Moderate anemia was mostly diagnosed in children in the age range of 6 to 23 months and in pregnant women (50.5 and 43.6% relatively). Comprehensive program of prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia among children and women includes food fortification, supplementation of target groups with iron preparation and folic acid, food diversification, monitoring and evaluation of program execution, as well as training of medical students and medical

  8. Age at initiation & prevalence of tobacco use among school children in Noida, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Raj; Sardana, Sarita; Gupta, Sanjay; Sehgal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Tobacco use among school children is becoming a serious problem in developing countries. The early age of initiation underscores the urgent need to intervene and protect this vulnerable group from falling prey to this addiction. The present study was thus undertaken to assess the prevalence of tobacco habits among school children, determine the age of initiation of these habits, and compare the age of initiation between students who were more than 15 and ≤ 15 yr of age. Methods: Data on tobacco use were collected from 4786 students of class 7 to 12 (age: 11-19 yr) studying in different private and government schools of Noida city during July- December 2005, through cluster and random sampling using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Any kind of tobacco use was found in 537 (11.2%) students; 419 (8.8%) were ‘ever smokers (including current smokers)’ 219 (4.6%) were ‘ever tobacco chewers (including current chewers)’, 179 (3.7%) were ‘exclusive smokers’ and 118 (2.5%) were ‘exclusive tobacco chewers’. The mean age of initiation of these habits was around 12.4 yr. More than 50 per cent of tobacco chewers reported use of khaini at least once. Nearly 70 per cent of boys and 80 per cent of girls ≤ 15 yr initiated the habit of tobacco before the age of 11 yr. A significant early uptake of tobacco chewing was reported from private school students as compared to government school students (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Tobacco addiction is emerging as a big threat among children. Our findings indicate a recent downward shift in the age at initiation of tobacco uptake and rising prevalence among girls. Such data need to be collected from different parts of the country to develop anti-tobacco campaigns and take policy decision. PMID:21441684

  9. Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shi, Wen-Qi; Cao, Yi; He, Li-Ping; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2014-12-28

    The association between serum carotenoids and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, and little is known about this relationship in the Chinese population. The present study examined the association between serum carotenoid concentrations and the MetS in Chinese adults. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in which 2148 subjects (1547 women and 601 men) aged 50-75 years were recruited in urban Guangzhou, China. Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, glucose and serum carotenoids (α-, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) were examined. We found dose-response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0.31 (95% CI 0.20, 0.47) for α-carotene, 0.23 (95% CI 0.15, 0.36) for β-carotene, 0.44 (95% CI 0.29, 0.67) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.39 (95% CI 0.26, 0.58) for lycopene, 0.28 (95% CI 0.18, 0.44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0.19 (95% CI 0.12, 0.30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0.001-0.023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. PMID:25345663

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values in older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geersing, G J; Koek, H L; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Janssen, Kristel J M; Douma, Renée A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer testing in older patients (>50 years) with suspected venous thromboembolism, using conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values. Design Systematic review and bivariate random effects meta-analysis. Data sources We searched Medline and Embase for studies published before 21 June 2012 and we contacted the authors of primary studies. Study selection Primary studies that enrolled older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism in whom D-dimer testing, using both conventional (500 µg/L) and age adjusted (age×10 µg/L) cut-off values, and reference testing were performed. For patients with a non-high clinical probability, 2×2 tables were reconstructed and stratified by age category and applied D-dimer cut-off level. Results 13 cohorts including 12 497 patients with a non-high clinical probability were included in the meta-analysis. The specificity of the conventional cut-off value decreased with increasing age, from 57.6% (95% confidence interval 51.4% to 63.6%) in patients aged 51-60 years to 39.4% (33.5% to 45.6%) in those aged 61-70, 24.5% (20.0% to 29.7% in those aged 71-80, and 14.7% (11.3% to 18.6%) in those aged >80. Age adjusted cut-off values revealed higher specificities over all age categories: 62.3% (56.2% to 68.0%), 49.5% (43.2% to 55.8%), 44.2% (38.0% to 50.5%), and 35.2% (29.4% to 41.5%), respectively. Sensitivities of the age adjusted cut-off remained above 97% in all age categories. Conclusions The application of age adjusted cut-off values for D-dimer tests substantially increases specificity without modifying sensitivity, thereby improving the clinical utility of D-dimer testing in patients aged 50 or more with a non-high clinical probability. PMID:23645857

  11. [Prevalence of severe visual impairement in school-age children in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Czeizel, E; Métneki, J; Vitéz, M

    1991-09-15

    The recorded prevalence of 6 to 14 year-old children with severe visual handicap was 0.43 per 1000 in Hungary, 1983/84. The territorial distribution showed significant difference in prevalences, the highest figures were found in two entities with three special institutions for severely visually handicapped children. Thus, the recorded figures are underascertained and the estimated rates are 0.52-0.60 and 0.21 per 1000 for children with severe visual handicap and, within it, blindness, respectively. PMID:1923476

  12. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Cataract Surgery among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michal Szymon; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence of age-related eye diseases and cataract surgery among older adults in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1107 women and men of predominantly Caucasian origin were successfully enumerated and recruited for the study. All selected subjects were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. Results. Overall 8.04% (95% CI 6.44–9.64) subjects had cataract surgery in either eye. After excluding subjects with bilateral cataract surgery, the prevalence of cataract was 12.10% (95% CI 10.18–14.03). AMD was found in 4.33% (95% CI 3.14–5.54 ) of all subjects. Of them 3.25% (95% CI 2.21–4.30 ) had early AMD and 1.08% (95% CI 0.47–1.69) had late AMD. Various types of glaucoma were diagnosed in 5.51% (95% CI 4.17–6.85) of subjects and 2.62% (95% CI 1.68–3.56) had OHT. The prevalence rates of DR and myopic macular degeneration were 1.72% (95% CI 0.95–2.48) and 0.45% (95% CI 0.06–0.85), respectively. All multiple logistic regression models were only significantly associated with older age. The highest rate of visual impairment was observed among subjects with retinal diseases. Conclusions. The study revealed high prevalence of age-related eye diseases in this older population. PMID:25789169

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.55 p <0.05), stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23–1.63 p<0.05), presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93–6.56 p<0.05), having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47–2.01 p<0.05) and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10–1.40 P<0.05) were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65–0.90 p<0.05) and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76–0.98 p<0.05) were associated with reduced odds of IDA. Conclusion The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation

  14. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K

    2016-09-01

    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures. PMID:27173496

  15. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (≤ 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9%) than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%). Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of <5 months and ≥5 months of age (12.8% and 11.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed strong spatio-temporal variations in prevalences of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and

  16. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults 20 Years of Age and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2003–2006 by R. Bethene Ervin, Ph.D., R.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Abstract Introduction Objective —The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome as well as the ...

  17. Prevalence of Diagnosed Tourette Syndrome in Persons Aged 6-17 Years--United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is an inheritable, childhood-onset neurologic disorder marked by persistent multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic. Tics are involuntary, repetitive, stereotypic movements or vocalizations that are usually sudden and rapid and often can be suppressed for short periods. The prevalence of TS is uncertain; the broad…

  18. Prevalence of a few variant dental features in children aged 11–16 years in Davangere, a city in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, P.; Kirthiga, M.; Sasalwad, Shilpa; Nagaveni, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Variations in morphology of shape of teeth have always been of interest to dentists from ancient times. But to our surprise, till date, no studies related to the prevalence of dental features have been conducted in any part of the world. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of a few variant dental features in a group of children aged from 11 to 16 years in the city of Davangere that belongs to the state of Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted where children aged 11–16 years were selected (both girls and boys) and type III clinical examination was done. They were checked for the following features – Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped maxillary 2nd molar, 5-cusped maxillary 1st molar, 4-cusped mandibular 1st molar, 5-cusped mandibular 2nd molar, cusp 6 present in mandibular 1st molar, and 7-cusped mandibular 1st molar. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: Around 99.3% of the school children examined had at least one of the dental variations that were examined in relation to the shape of teeth. Conclusions: This study definitely provides us with baseline data, but further epidemiological studies are required to determine the prevalence of the above mentioned dental anomalies. PMID:27051217

  19. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  20. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  1. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  2. Prevalence, disclosure and interpretations of sexual activities in a sample of Canadian college-aged blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mair, M; Barrett, S P; Campbell, T; Ditto, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, level of disclosure, and interpretations of sexual activities in a sample of 123 college-aged blood donors in Montreal, Quebec. Within six months of their donation, participants completed an anonymous questionnaire designed to assess sexual definitions, levels of disclosure to sexual partners, as well as prevalence of various blood safety behavioural risks. Responses indicated that (1) there was a lack of consensus regarding what constitutes 'sex', (2) levels of sexual disclosure varied widely, and (3) participants engaged in numerous blood safety behavioural risk activities. These results are discussed with respect to their implications for how people think about sex, particularly in the blood donation context. Suggestions to improve specific blood donor screening questions are also presented. PMID:12816668

  3. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  4. Prevalence of the developmental defects of the enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Rathy; Saji, Ajish M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district and to examine the etiological factors associated with the developmental defects of the enamel (DDE). Materials and Methods: A total of 2,500 children from 10 urban and 10 rural schools were examined using modified DDE criteria for recording enamel defects. Ten index permanent teeth were screened for the DDE. Results: The overall prevalence of the DDE was found to be 32% and the prevalence is higher in urban schools (34.3%) compared to rural schools (29.6%). The most common tooth affected by the defect was maxillary right lateral incisor (P = 28.6%) and the tooth least affected was maxillary right first premolar (P = 3%). The most common deformity was demarcated opacities (P = 28.76%) and the least common deformity was combination of diffuse opacities and hypoplasia and combination of demarcated, diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia (P = 0%). There was a very high significant association between DDE and the mothers’ pregnancy age, illness during pregnancy for mother, medication taken during pregnancy by mother, prematurity of birth, intubation done during prematurity, birth weight, systemic illness during the first 5 years of life, intake of drugs or chemicals during the first 5 years of life, nutritional status, and trauma or infection on deciduous teeth and dental caries. Conclusions: The study population showed a prevalence of 32% and very high significant association between perinatal, natal, and postnatal etiological factors. It indicates the need for educating the population about the risk factors for the DDE. PMID:27011929

  5. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  6. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  7. Intellectual and Emotional Development and School Adjustment in Preterm Children at 6 and 7 Years of Age. Continuation of a Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria

    1984-01-01

    Continues a previous five-year follow-up of preterm and full-term children by studying the continuity in their intellectual and emotional development. Prematurity was predictive for school adjustment at ages six and seven only when regression was performed on the preterm group, but failed to be predictive when mixed groups of preterm and full-term…

  8. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the older population: results from the multiple national studies on ageing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Qian, Dongfu; Hu, Dan

    2016-02-01

    The international comparisons that provided useful epidemiologic information of hypertension in the elderly people is still sparse; we aim to provide the latest international estimates on the burden of hypertension. These sampling methods of the selection of surveys mainly used multistage population registry; this cross-national study of 63,014 adults aged ≥50 years was from in four high-income countries, four upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), and three low-middle-income countries (LMICs). Overall, the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension among the adult population aged ≥50 years was 53.2% (51.9% of men and 54.3% of women). The high-income countries and UMICs had more or less twice the prevalence of hypertension compare with LMICs. The rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were 55.6%, 44.1%, and 17.1%, respectively, and awareness and control of hypertension were lowest in UMICs and treatment of hypertension was lowest in LMICs. Among this multiple national study population, hypertension was very common among elderly population. Even more worrisome is that the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were relatively low in UMICs and IMICs. These results indicate that improving the ability to control and prevention of hypertension in resource-limited settings is needed. PMID:26778770

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Kassahun; Shegaze, Mulugeta; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gesesew, Hailay; Markos, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007) of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Objective To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors. Results The overall prevalence of active trachoma cases was 224 (36.7%) consisting of 207 (92.4%) trachomatous follicles, eight (3.6%) trachomatous intense, and nine (4.0%) combination of trachomatous follicle and trachomatous intense. Inadequate knowledge of family head about trachoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.8 [95% CI: 1.9, 4.2]); ≤10 m latrine distance (AOR =1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.09, 2.4]); presence of above two preschool children (AOR =2.2 [95% CI: 1.3, 3.7]), flies

  10. Age-Related Decline and Diagnostic Performance of More and Less Prevalent Clinical Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Onge, Christina; Landry, Marjolaine; Xhignesse, Marianne; Voyer, Gilles; Tremblay-Lavoie, Stéphanie; Mamede, Sílvia; Schmidt, Henk; Rikers, Remy

    2016-01-01

    Since cognitive abilities have been shown to decrease with age, it is expected that older physicians would not perform as well as their younger counterparts on clinical cases unless their expertise can counteract the cognitive effects of aging. However, studies on the topic have shown contradictory results. This study aimed to further investigate…

  11. Prevalence of Spina Bifida Occulta and Its Relationship With Overactive Bladder in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and its relationship with the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) in middle-aged and elderly people in China. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out at 7 communities in Zhengzhou City, China from December 15, 2013 to June 10, 2014, where residents aged over 40 years were randomly selected to participate. All of the participants underwent lumbosacral radiographic analysis and relevant laboratory tests. A questionnaire including basic information, past medical history and present illness, and the OAB symptom score was filled out by all participants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis with a P-value of <0.05 denoting statistical significance. Results: A total of 1,061 subjects were qualified for the final statistical analysis (58.8±11.7 years; male, 471 [44.4%]; female, 590 [55.6%]). The overall prevalence of SBO was 15.1% (160 of 1,061): 18.3% (86 of 471) in men and 12.5% (74 of 590) in women. Among these subjects, 13.7% (145 of 1,061) had OAB: 13.2% (62 of 471) in men and 14.1% (83 of 590) in women. The results of logistic regression showed that age, SBO, history of cerebral infarction (HCI), and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while sex, history of childhood enuresis (HCE), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were not (P>0.05). In men, age, SBO, and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, HCI, and benign prostate hyperplasia were not (P>0.05). In women, age, SBO, and HCI were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, vaginal delivery, and constipation were not (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of SBO is high and it is related to OAB in middle-aged and elderly people in China. PMID:27377948

  12. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age.

    PubMed

    Vinueza-Burgos, Christian; Cevallos, María; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%) followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5%) and S. Corvallis (1.6%). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador. PMID:27414038

  13. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age

    PubMed Central

    Cevallos, María; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%) followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5%) and S. Corvallis (1.6%). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador. PMID:27414038

  14. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  15. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  16. High prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia among Mozambican children <5 years of age admitted to hospital with clinical severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lanaspa, M; O'Callaghan-Gordo, C; Machevo, S; Madrid, L; Nhampossa, T; Acácio, S; de la Horra, C; Friaza, V; Campano, E; Alonso, P L; Calderón, E J; Roca, A; Bassat, Q

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to describe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prevalence and features in children from sub-Saharan Africa and to investigate PCP-associated risk factors. During 2006-2007 we used molecular methods to test children younger than 5 years old admitted with severe pneumonia to a hospital in southern Mozambique for Pneumocystis infection. We recruited 834 children. PCP prevalence was 6.8% and HIV prevalence was 25.7%. The in-hospital and delayed mortality were significantly higher among children with PCP (20.8% vs. 10.2%, p 0.021, and 11.5% vs. 3.6%, p 0.044, respectively). Clinical features were mostly overlapping between the two groups. Independent risk factors for PCP were age less than a year (odds ratio (OR) 6.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86-21.65), HIV infection (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.70), grunting (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.04-6.73) and digital clubbing (OR 10.75, 95% CI 1.21-95.56). PCP is a common and life-threatening cause of severe pneumonia in Mozambican children. Mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention should be strengthened. Better diagnostic tools are needed. PMID:26231980

  17. Prevalence of Age-Related Changes in Ovine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs during Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nisolle, Jean-François; Bihin, Benoît; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Neveu, Fabienne; Clegg, Peter; Dugdale, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaoqing; Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Ovine models are used to study intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The objective of the current study was to assess the naturally occurring age-related changes of the IVD that can be diagnosed by CT and MRI in the lumbar spine of sheep. We used CT and T2-weighted MR images to score the IVD (L6S1 to L1L2) in 41 sheep (age, 6 mo to 11 y) that were euthanized for reasons not related to musculoskeletal disease. T2 mapping and measurement of T2 time of L6S1 to L2L3 were performed in 22 of the sheep. Degenerative changes manifested as early as 2 y of age and occurred at every IVD level. Discs were more severely damaged in older sheep. The age effect of the L6S1 IVD was larger than the average age effect for the other IVD. The current study provides evidence that lesions similar to those encountered in humans can be identified by CT and MRI in lumbar spine of sheep. Ideally, research animals should be assessed at the initiation of preclinical trials to determine the extent of prevalent degenerative changes. The ovine lumbosacral disc seems particularly prone to degeneration and might be a favorable anatomic site for studying IVD degeneration. PMID:27538861

  18. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Daly, Mark J.; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Methods Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin–mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. Results All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6 – 8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6 –75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4 –9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently

  19. Ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on birth prevalence of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnood, B; Pryde, P; Wall, S; Singh, J; Mittendorf, R; Lee, K S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on the risk of Down syndrome might reflect differences in use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. METHODS: Maternal age-specific odds of Down syndrome and amniocentesis use were compared among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites via birth data for the years 1989 to 1991. RESULTS: The odds ratio and population attributable risk of Down syndrome due to maternal age of 35 years or older were highest for Mexican Americans, intermediate for African Americans, and lowest for non-Hispanic Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age has a greater impact on the risk of Down syndrome for African American and, particularly, Mexican American women than for non-Hispanic White women. This difference in impact might reflect lower availability or use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. PMID:11076250

  20. Age related susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni infection in a high prevalance population.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, N J; Koornhof, H J; Bokkenheuser, V D; Mayet, Z; Rosen, E U

    1983-01-01

    In a year long prospective study of diarrhoea in children under 2 years of age in Soweto, South Africa, Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 18 of 60 children under 9 months of age with diarrhoea, compared with 4 of 60 age matched controls. In the older children, 16 of 51 children with diarrhoea and 17 of 51 control children excreted this organism in their faeces. These results indicate a change in susceptibility to C jejuni in children over 9 months of age. Campylobacter enteritis in the young children was usually mild, without macroscopic blood in the faeces, and prolonged excretion of the organism after acute attacks was not infrequent. Breast feeding did not seem to protect against colonisation with C jejuni. PMID:6614976

  1. Prevalence of skin disorders in primary and secondary school age children in Canakkale, Turkey: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Kılıc, Sevilay Oguz; Isık, Selda; Haydar Ertekin, Yusuf; Tekin, Murat; Cevizci, Sibel; Ogretmen, Zerrin; Topaloglu, Naci; Sahin, Erkan Melih; Cıbık, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin lesions may be of dermatological importance, affect appearance, and cause problems communicating with peers and may be especially more significant in childhood. Aim Information on the prevalence of pediatric dermatoses in Western Turkey. This study was aimed to define the existing data. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Canakkale, Turkey, in September-December 2013. It involved 1,957 students from five randomly selected primary and secondary schools. Each student was interviewed for age, gender, and family history, and a dermatologic examination was performed by a dermatologist. Data were coded and analyzed. Results Of the students, 79.9% revealed at least one dermatosis. The most common disease was benign neoplasms (76%), followed by pigmentary disorders (26.8%), and xerosis (5.8%). In primary schools, the acquired melanocytic nevus, hypopigmented macule, and xerosis; in secondary school the acne was statistically significantly more common. Acne and xerosis was more common in girls, and pityriasis alba was statistically more common in boys. Students who had at least one dermatosis were positively correlated with monthly income. Conclusions In Turkish school age children, the prevalence of dermatosis is 79.9%. It may be due to not using preventive means for adequate protection from the sun and other environmental factors. Infectious dermatosis and atopic dermatitis are rare and it may depend on the adequacy of public health work. PMID:27512351

  2. Prevalence of Anaemia and Associated Factors among Children below Five Years of Age in Cape Verde, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Semedo, Rosa M.L.; Santos, Marta M.A.S.; Baião, Mirian R.; Luiz, Ronir R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study estimated the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in a probability sample of 993 children aged 6-59 months in Cape Verde, West Africa. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated from a hierarchical model for multiple analysis to assess the association between anaemia and explanatory variables. The prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% (95% CI 47.7-55.8). Children who resided within poor household conditions (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.06-3.71) were below 24 months of age (OR 3.23; 95% CI 2.03-5.15) and recently experienced diarrhoea (OR 1.58; 95% CI 0.99-2.50) were at high risk of anaemia. Anaemia should be considered a serious public-health concern in Cape Verde, mainly for children below 24 months. Further, special consideration should be given to children who have experienced recent diarrhoea and belong to families residing in poor household conditions. PMID:25895198

  3. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

  4. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    PubMed

    Doulougou, B; Gomez, F; Alvarado, B; Guerra, R O; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J; Zunzunegui, M V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in the elderly populations of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Approximately 200 men and 200 women aged 65-74 years were recruited at each site (n=1995) during IMIAS' 2012 baseline survey at five cities: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken at participants' homes. Hypertension prevalence ranged from 53.4% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 83.5% in Tirana. Diabetes and obesity were identified as risk factors in all cities. More than two-thirds of hypertensive participants were aware of their condition (from 67.3% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 85.4% in Tirana); women were more aware than men. Awareness was positively associated with diabetes in Kingston, Manizales and Natal. Though most of those aware of their hypertensive condition were being treated pharmacologically, associations between awareness and physical activity and refraining from smoking were weak. Control among treated hypertensive participants was low, especially in Tirana and Natal. Diabetes and physical inactivity were associated with poor hypertension control. Hypertension is common in the older populations of IMIAS. Diabetes is strongly associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness and lack of control of hypertension. The fact that awareness is not strongly associated with healthy behaviours suggests that antihypertensive medication is not accompanied by non-pharmacological therapies. Improved health behaviours could strengthen hypertension control. Efforts should be made to increase men's awareness of hypertension. Hypertension control in diabetic patients is a challenge. PMID:25833704

  5. [Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Remission from the Ages of 20 to 50].

    PubMed

    Angst, Jules; Rufer, Michael; Fineberg, Naomi; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2015-11-25

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience recurrent obsessive and/or compulsive thoughts and behaviours which cause them distress, and significantly impair their daily lives. The disorder is thought to have a chronic course and a low rate of remission, as evidenced by mainly clinical samples. Longitudinal psychiatric epidemiological studies are few and far between. This article presents the findings relating to OCD from one such study, the Zurich Study: OCD defined according to DSM-5 criteria had a high prevalence rate and frequently a chronic course but it had a long-term remission rate of almost 60%, which is higher than hitherto believed. OCD was generally highly comorbid with other disorders and particularly closely associated with social phobia. PMID:26602849

  6. Age-dependant prevalence of endoparasites in young dogs and cats up to one year of age.

    PubMed

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2013-08-01

    The results of parasitological examination of faecal samples from 1,206 cats and 2,319 dogs of known age up to one year were analysed. Eggs of Toxocara canis were detected in dogs for the first time at the beginning of the 3rd week, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. at the beginning of the 4th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (52.5 %) were demonstrated in the 12th week, I. canis (30.0 %) in the 15th week, I. ohioensis complex (44.0 %) in the 6th week, Isospora spp. (50.0 %) in the 7th week and T. canis (22.2 %) in the 4th week p.p. Co-infections with Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (28.0 %), T. canis + Isospora spp. 16.0 %) and T. canis + Giardia spp. (12.0 %) were mainly seen in the 6th week p.p. In cats, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. were seen from the 3rd week and eggs of Toxocara cati from the 5th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (66.7 %) were demonstrated in the 11th week, Isospora spp. (33.3 %) and I. felis (33.3 %) in the 15th week, I. rivolta (10.3 %) in the 10th week and T. cati (11.4 %) in the 8th week p.p. Co-infections with T. cati + Isospora spp. (9.1 %) were found in the 5th week, Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (8.2 %) in the 12th week and T. cati + Giardia spp. (2.5 %) in the 22nd week p.p. PMID:23779224

  7. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  8. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  9. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    PubMed Central

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  10. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in Chile in 2013.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Janepsy; Cárcamo, Marcela; Seoane, Mabel; Pidal, Paola; Cavada, Gabriel; Puentes, Rodrigo; Terrazas, Solana; Araya, Pamela; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana B; Manríquez, Macarena; Hormazábal, Juan C; Ayala, Salvador; Valenzuela, María T

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Chile experienced an increase in the number of cases of IMD caused by Neisseria meningitidis group W. This epidemiological scenario prompted authorities to implement prevention strategies. As part of these strategies, the Institute of Public Heath of Chile conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 10-19 years. The identification of presumptive N. meningitidis strains was performed by testing carbohydrate utilization in the National Reference Laboratory at the ISP. Association of meningococcal carriage with risk factors was analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio. Selected variables were included in a logistic model for risk analyses. The prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 6.5% (CI: 5.7-7.3%). Older age (carriers: 14.2±0.29 vs. non-carriers: 13.8±0.08 years old; p=0.009), cohabitation with children (carriers: 0.9±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.7±0.03; p=0.028), number of smoking cohabitants (carriers: 0.55±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.44±0.03) and frequent attendance to crowded social venues (carriers: 49% vs. non-carriers: 37%; p=0.008) were determined to favor carriage. Statistical modeling showed that meningococcal carriage was associated with older age (OR: 1.077, p-value: 0.002) and cohabitation with children (OR: 1.182, p-value: 0.02). PMID:26819097

  11. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  12. Prevalence and features of migraine in Japanese junior high school students aged 12-15 yr.

    PubMed

    Ando, Naoki; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Teramoto, Jun; Kobayashi, Satoru; Hattori, Ayako; Togari, Hajime

    2007-09-01

    Migraine is the most common cause of recurrent headache among children and adolescents resulting in missing of school and disabling their daily life. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and clinical features of headache in junior high school children in Japan. In December 2004, questionnaires were sent to 14 junior high schools. There were multiple-choice type questions on headache, mainly migraine. The questionnaires were given during school hours, and 6472 answers were obtained. One thousand four hundred seventy-eight (22.8%) students experienced severe headache and 476 (7.4%) had consulted physicians. Three hundred thirteen (4.8%) were identified as having migraine based on the ICHD-II criteria, consisting of 110/3346 boys (3.3%) and 203/3126 girls (6.5%): 91 (29.1%) with aura and 222 (70.9%) without aura. In about half of the children the migraine attacks were of short duration, ranging from 1 to 3 h. There were 36 boys (1.1%) and 45 girls (1.4%) who had shorter attacks of less than 1 h, whom we did not diagnose as having migraine according to the ICHD-II criteria. Although migraine is common among schoolchildren, it is often under- or miss-diagnosed since the clinical figure for childhood migraine differs from that for adults. PMID:17321091

  13. High Prevalence of Superior Labral Tears Diagnosed by MRI in Middle-Aged Patients With Asymptomatic Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, Randy; Reuss, Bryan L.; Burkhart, Bradd G.; Butterfield, Matt; Wu, James Y.; McLean, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of superior labral surgery has increased in the past decade in the United States, and a contributing factor could be an increased rate of superior labral tears diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior MRI studies of the asymptomatic shoulder have focused on rotator cuff pathology or pathology in a narrow and specific group of athletes. Labral abnormalities have not previously been thoroughly evaluated in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of superior labral tears diagnosed by MRI in the asymptomatic shoulders of middle-aged people (age range, 45-60 years). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 53 asymptomatic adults (age range, 45-60 years) with no history of surgery or injury to either shoulder were included in the study. Physical examinations of all shoulders were performed. Noncontrast MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 1 randomly determined shoulder of each subject. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the purpose of the study and ages of the subjects evaluated each MRI. Results: Radiologists interpreted the MRIs as consistent with superior labral tears in 55% and 72% of the cohort. Comparison of the radiological evaluations of the superior labra were moderate (κ = 0.410, P = .033). There were no differences in readings for superior labral tear regarding age (P = .87), sex (P = .41), whether the dominant shoulder underwent MRI (P = .99), whether the subject worked a physical job (P = .08), or whether the subject participated in overhead sports for a period of 1 year (P = .62). Conclusion: Superior labral tears are diagnosed with high frequency using MRI in 45- to 60-year-old individuals with asymptomatic shoulders. These shoulder MRI findings in middle-aged populations emphasize the need for supporting clinical judgment when making treatment decisions for this patient population. Clinical Relevance: To avoid

  14. An Examination of Relations among Taiwanese Elementary-Aged Children's Effortful Control, Social Relationships, and Adjustment at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among Taiwanese elementary school children's effortful control, social relationships and their adjustment at school. Data were gathered on 407 third- to sixth-grade children (81 third graders, 79 fourth graders, 116 fifth graders, and 131 sixth graders) attending three low- to…

  15. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…

  16. Disease burden of congenital cytomegalovirus infection at school entry age: study design, participation rate and birth prevalence.

    PubMed

    Korndewal, M J; Vossen, A C T M; Cremer, J; VAN Binnendijk, R S; Kroes, A C M; VAN DER Sande, M A B; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M; DE Melker, H E

    2016-05-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) may lead to symptoms at birth and long-term consequences. We present a nationwide, retrospective cohort study on the outcome of cCMV up to age 6 years. For this study we identified cCMV, using polymerase chain reaction, by analysing dried blood spots, which are taken shortly after birth for neonatal screening. The group of children with cCMV were compared to a group of children who were cCMV negative at birth. Data were collected about their health and development up to age 6 years. Parents of 73 693 children were invited to participate, and 32 486 (44·1%) gave informed consent for testing of their child's dried blood spot for CMV. Of the 31 484 dried blood spots tested, 156 (0·5%) were positive for cCMV. Of these, four (2·6%) children had been diagnosed with cCMV prior to this study. This unique retrospective nationwide study permits the estimation of long-term sequelae of cCMV up to the age of 6 years. The birth prevalence of cCMV in this study was 0·5%, which is in line with prior estimates. Most (97·4%) children with cCMV had not been diagnosed earlier, indicating under-diagnosis of cCMV. PMID:26554756

  17. Prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms continues to increase in the Finnish working-age population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, we published epidemiological data from 1972 to 2005 that suggested an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among the working-age population. The results were based on the National FINRISK (FR) Study samples of the Finnish adult population aged 25-64, and on the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys (FQWLS), carried out among Finnish salary earners. Both of these ongoing studies have since provided two new estimates of insomnia-related symptoms. Chronic insomnia-related symptoms were 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.7), 9.6% (95% CI 8.8-10.4) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 9.1% (95% CI 8.3-10.0), 9.2% (95% CI 8.4-10.1) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. Occasional insomnia-related symptoms were 45.3% (95% CI 44.1-46.6), 42.5% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 40.3% (95% CI 38.8-41.7), 44.8% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. The new estimates further strengthen the interpretation of the ongoing increase in occasional insomnia-related symptoms among the Finnish general adult population. The increase in occasional symptoms was most prominent among employees. However, chronic insomnia symptoms showed no further increase. PMID:26868677

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  19. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  20. Trends in the Prevalence of Morbid and Severe Obesity in Australian Children Aged 7-15 Years, 1985-2012

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Sarah P.; Baur, Louise A.; Jones, Aimee M. D.; Hardy, Louise L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Children with severe obesity have greater risk of adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess trends in the prevalence of morbid and severe obesity in Australian children between 1985 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis of four national Australian cross-sectional surveys of measured height/weight in 7–15 year olds: Australian Health and Fitness Survey 1985 (n = 8,486), National Nutrition Survey 1995 (n = 1,541), the National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 (n = 2,585) and the National Health Survey 2012 (n = 2,940). International Obesity Taskforce cut-point was used for morbid obesity (equivalent to a BMI ≥35kg/m2 at age 18 years). Severe obesity class 2 was defined as BMI ≥120% and <140% of the 95th percentile of the CDC 2000 growth charts or a BMI ≥35 and <40, and severe obesity class 3 as BMI ≥140% of the 95th percentile or a BMI ≥40. Results Between 1985 and 2012 the prevalence of morbid obesity increased from 0.2% to 1.8%, class 2 severe obesity from 0.3% to 2.0%, and class 3 from 0.1% to 0.5%. Children with morbid obesity represented 11.3% of children with obesity in 1985 and increased to 22.5% in 2012 (P = 0.005). Children with severe obesity represented 19.3% of children with obesity in 1985 and increased to 32.0% in 2012 (P = 0.016). The greatest increase was observed between 1995 and 2007. The proportion of children who were classified as morbidly or severely obese was not significantly different between 2007 and 2012, nor was it significantly different between age and sex groups. Conclusion Prevalence of morbid and severe obesity among children is low, but has significantly increased between 1985 and 2012. In contrast to overweight and obese children, children with morbid obesity require tertiary intervention. Failure to treat these children will have significant implications for the individual child and community. PMID:27171503

  1. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  2. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  3. Prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors: Moderating effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls. PMID:23336350

  4. Prevalence of autoantibodies to endocrine organs in girls with Ullrich-Turner syndrome aged 5-14 years.

    PubMed

    Glück, M; Attanasio, A; Speer, U; Butenandt, O; Tietze, H U; Scherbaum, W A

    1992-01-01

    Endocrine function tests and a broad panel of autoantibodies to endocrine organs were assessed in 77 patients aged 5-14 years with Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS), who were included in the German UTS Multicenter Study. None of these patients had abnormal pituitary, thyroid or adrenocortical function, as assessed by the adequate hormone tests. Antibodies to thyroid microsomes were found in 3 of the 77 (3.9%), antibodies to thyroglobulin in 0/77, antibodies to adrenocortical cells in 1/77 (1.3%), gastric parietal cell antibodies in 2/77 (2.6%), and anterior pituitary cell antibodies in 3/77 (3.9%) probands. These prevalences were not significantly higher than those obtained in 154 age- and sex-matched normal control children when 2 control subjects were assigned to each patient with UTS. Our data do not show an increase in serological signs of endocrine autoimmunity in young patients with UTS suggesting that a putative association of these syndromes does not exist from birth and is not usually present in childhood. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that UTS is associated with factors that render these patients more susceptible to endocrine autoimmunity later in life. PMID:1306841

  5. Socioeconomic status, body mass index and prevalence of underweight and overweight among Polish girls aged 7-18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence. PMID:23768733

  6. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  7. Prevalence of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Yang, Shanshan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of passive smoking in China and a series of subgroup, trend and sensitivity analyses were conducted in this study. Data source The systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 46 studies with 381 580 non-smokers, estimated the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in China. All studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Results The pooled prevalence of passive smoking was 48.7% (95% CI 44.8% to 52.5%) and was relatively stable from 1995 to 2013. The prevalence in the subgroups of gender, area, age and time varied from 35.1% (95% CI 31.8% to 38.3%) in the elderly (≥60 years) to 48.6% (95% CI 42.9% to 54.2%) in urban areas. The prevalence was lower in the elderly (≥60 years) than in those between 15 and 59 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81). The difference between females and males in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.74 and OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58, respectively). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was found among males from 2002 to 2010. Heterogeneity was high in all pooled estimates (I2>98%, p<0.001). Conclusions The high and stable prevalence of passive smoking in China is raising increasing national concern regarding specific research and tobacco control programmes. Attention should be focused on young, middle-aged and male non-smokers regardless of region. PMID:27059465

  8. The prevalence of using iodine-containing supplements is low among reproductive-age women, NHANES 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Gahche, Jaime J; Bailey, Regan L; Mirel, Lisa B; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-06-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999-2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 μg iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 μg/d from supplements; the median value was 144 μg/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15-39 y. The median UIC was 148 μg/L for pregnant women and 133 μg/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 μg/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) and Associated Hearing Impairment Among School-aged Children in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Muftah, Salem; Mackenzie, Ian; Faragher, Brian; Brabin, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is one of the leading causes of preventable disabling hearing impairment (DHI) in developing countries. Early detection and management complements advances made in other survival programs, improves work capacity, and enhances learning opportunities for school children. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CSOM and associated DHI among school children aged six to 16 years in Socotra Island, Yemen. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community-based survey, from 20 April 2011 to 20 June 2011. The study procedures involved completing a questionnaire, an otoscopic ear examination, an audiometric test of hearing, and tuning fork tests for the type of DHI. Results A total of 686 children were interviewed and examined for CSOM and associated DHI of CSOM cases. The prevalence of CSOM was 7.4%, (95% CI 5.5–9.4). CSOM status was significantly associated with DHI (p=0.001), but no significant associations were found between demographic characteristics and CSOM status. Logistic regression identified four significant independent contributing factors: history of ear discharge in the last 12 months (odds ratio (OR) 7.8, 95% CI 3.9–15.6); swimming in local pools (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.4–25.4); recurrent respiratory tract infection more than three times per year (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.5–11.0); and overcrowding with more than three families per house (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.7–11.5). . Conclusion The burden of CSOM in the children studied indicates a high level of DHI in these communities within Yemen. A history of ear discharge, swimming in local pools, recurrent respiratory infections, and overcrowded housing were the strongest predictors for CSOM. There is a need for better ear care and screening programs for early detection and management of this disease. PMID:26421117

  10. Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits In Non-Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Morphology, Prevalence, Topography, And Biogenesis Model

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine A.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Sloan, Kenneth R.; McGwin, Gerald; Medeiros, Nancy E.; Spaide, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the morphology, prevalence, and topography of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), a candidate histological correlate of reticular pseudodrusen, with reference to basal linear deposit (BlinD), a specific lesion of age-related macular degeneration (AMD); to propose a biogenesis model for both lesions. Methods Donor eyes with median death-to-preservation of 2:40 hr were post-fixed in osmium tannic acid paraphenylenediamine and prepared for macula-wide high-resolution digital sections. Annotated thicknesses of 21 chorioretinal layers were determined at standard locations in sections through the fovea and the superior perifovea. Results In 22 eyes of 20 Caucasian donors (83.1 ± 7.7 years), SDD appeared as isolated or confluent drusenoid dollops punctuated by tufts of RPE apical processes and associated with photoreceptor perturbation. SDD and BlinD were detected in 85.0% and 90.0% of non-neovascular AMD donors, respectively. SDD was thick (median, 9.4 µm) and more abundant in perifovea than fovea (p<0.0001). BlinD was thin (median, 2.1 µm) and more abundant in fovea than perifovea (p<0.0001). Conclusion SDD and BlinD prevalence in AMD eyes are both high. SDD's organized morphology, topography, and impact on surrounding photoreceptors imply specific processes of biogenesis. Contrasting topographies of SDD and BlinD suggest relationships with differentiable aspects of rod and cone physiology, respectively. A 2-lesion, 2-compartment biogenesis model incorporating outer retinal lipid homeostasis is presented. PMID:23266879

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression in Korean American Elderly: Findings from the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Kim B.; Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Hochang Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and identify the predictors of depression among community-dwelling Korean American elderly (KAE). Design A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey using a two-step sampling strategy to obtain a representative community sample. Setting We recruited study participants at religious, service, and business establishments in the KA community (26 churches, 6 senior centers, 2 medical daycare centers, 1 supermarket). Participants Community-dwelling first-generation KAE (n=1,118; mean age ±SD; 70.5 ±7.0 years; female: 67.2%). Measurements Trained bilingual nurses and community health workers interviewed participants face-to-face for demographic information, chronic conditions, and depression using the Korean versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). Results 30.3% of KAEs were classified as having either mild (PHQ-9K score = 5 to 9; n=218, 19.5%) or clinical depression (PHQ-9K score >=10; n = 120, 10.8%), respectively. One of seven KAE (n=164, 14.7%) endorsed thoughts of death or self-injury, but only 63 (5.7%) reported utilizing mental health services. We also identified several predictors of depression, including living arrangement (living alone vs. living with family/spouse); having chronic conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, digestive disorders, or chronic bronchitis; years of education; and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high prevalence of depression among KAE and a low level of mental health service utilization. Because there are urgent needs for culturally and contextually relevant interventions, we also discuss the feasibility of community-based interventions to reduce the burden of depression, which should be incorporated into a management system for multiple chronic conditions. PMID:25554484

  12. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Pre-School-Aged and School-Aged Children in an Urban Slum: A Cross-Sectional Study of Prevalence, Distribution, and Associated Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie M.; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Odero, Kennedy O.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Ruth, Laird J.; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm < 0.1%. The STH infection prevalence ranged from 22% to 71% between sub-village sectors. The PSAC have similar STH prevalences to SAC and should receive deworming. Small areas can contain heterogeneous prevalences; determinants of STH infection should be characterized and slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. PMID:25157123

  13. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  14. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. PMID:27626474

  15. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among People Aged 15 to 89 Years Inhabiting the Department of Casanare (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Fredy Roberto Salazar; Trujillo Güiza, Martha Liliana; Escobar Martínez, Magally del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a sample of inhabitants from a region considered to be at high risk of natural transmission of Chagas disease in Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects from 5 municipalities, recruited in urban and rural locations, distributed by gender according to the demographic information available. Socio-demographic information, history of potential exposure to insect vectors, blood donating, as well as symptoms suggesting cardiac disease were collected using a questionnaire. After giving written informed consent, blood specimens were obtained from 486 people to determine the serologic evidence of past exposure to T. cruzi. Infection was diagnosed when two different tests (ELISA and IHA) were positive. The seroprevalence of antibodies against T. cruzi was 16.91% considering an estimated population of 44,355 aged between 15 and 89 years (95%IC: 13.72 to 20.01). The factors significantly associated with the infection were: 1- Housing materials like vegetable material, adobe or unfinished brick walls; 2- The fact of having previous tests for Chagas disease (regardless of the result). Of note, the mean ages among infected and not infected participants were significantly different (49.19 vs. 41.66, p≤0.0001). Among the studied municipalities, the one with the highest frequency of T. cruzi infection was Nunchia, with 31.15% of the surveyed subjects. Therefore it may be concluded that T. cruzi infection is highly prevalent in the north region of Casanare, in Colombia. PMID:23505592

  16. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  17. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  18. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  19. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P < .001), whereas mild anemia (hemoglobin: 100-110 g/dL) decreased from 29.0% to 16.7%, 18.1%, and 15.4%, respectively (P < .001). Among infants aged 6 to 23 months, 95% had regularly been fed YYB during the observation period. Regression analysis showed that the duration of YYB consumption and number of sachets consumed per week correlated positively with hemoglobin levels and negatively with anemia rates. Home food fortification with YYB is feasible and effective for nutrition promotion among IYC in high-risk regions of China. PMID:26612420

  20. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  1. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  2. Temporal trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity prevalence among economically-active working-age adults in Scotland between 1995 and 2011: a population-based repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity has been an alarming public health issue in the UK. Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity have been well-studied, however limited studies addressed inequality trends over time and none of them in Scotland. Methods We used nationally-representative data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) across four time points between 1995 and 2010/2011. Respondents were economically active adults aged 16–65 years (N=27 059, 12 218 men). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was assessed by highest educational qualification, occupational social class and household income (2003 and 2010/2011 only) as well as a composite SEP score. We carried out sex-stratified logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, self-rated general health and physical activity) and we computed the relative index of inequality (RII). Results Between 1995 and 2010/2011, obesity prevalence increased in both men (from 17% in 1995 to 30.2% in 2010/2011, 2010/2011 OR of obesity compared with 1995=2.07; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.34) and women (from 18.4% to 30.2%; OR=1.85; 95% CI 1.66 to 2.07). Increase in obesity prevalence was observed across all socioeconomic strata, within which the most rapid increase was among males from the highest socioeconomic groups. RII showed that educational inequalities in obesity narrowed for both men (p=0.007) and women (p=0.008). Income inequalities in obesity between 2003 and 2010/2011 in women were also reduced (p=0.046) on the relative scale. Conclusions Obesity prevalence in Scotland increased substantially between 1995 and 2010/2011, although socioeconomic inequalities have decreased due to the more rapid increase in the higher socioeconomic strata. PMID:26088806

  3. Prevalence and Incidence of HIV Infection, Trends, and Risk Factors Among Persons Aged 15–64 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimanga, Davies O.; Ogola, Samuel; Umuro, Mamo; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Kimondo, Lucy; Murithi, Patrick; Muttunga, James; Waruiru, Wanjiru; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Sharrif, Shahnaaz; De Cock, Kevin M.; (UK), FRCP; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhanced HIV surveillance using demographic, behavioral, and biologic data from national surveys can provide information to evaluate and respond to HIV epidemics efficiently. Methods From October 2012 to February 2013, we conducted a 2-stage cluster sampling survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years in 9 geographic regions in Kenya. Participants answered questionnaires and provided blood for HIV testing. We estimated HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, described trends in HIV prevalence over the past 5 years, and identified factors associated with HIV infection. This analysis was restricted to persons aged 15–64 years. Results HIV prevalence was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 6.3] in 2012, a significant decrease from 2007, when HIV prevalence, excluding the North Eastern region, was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6 to 7.9). HIV incidence was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9) in 2012. Among women, factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included being aged 35–39 years, divorced or separated, from urban residences and Nyanza region, self-perceiving a moderate risk of HIV infection, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and reporting 4 or more lifetime number of partners. Among men, widowhood, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and lack of circumcision were associated with undiagnosed HIV infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence has declined in Kenya since 2007. With improved access to treatment, HIV prevalence has become more challenging to interpret without data on new infections and mortality. Correlates of undiagnosed HIV infection provide important information on where to prioritize prevention interventions to reduce transmission of HIV in the broader population. PMID:24445338

  4. The prevalence and pattern of cavitated carious lesions in primary dentition among children under 5 years age in Sirsa, Haryana (India)

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Anshul; Punhani, Neha; Bala, Madhu; Arora, Suraj; Gill, Gurdeep Singh; Dewan, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence and pattern of cavitated carious lesions in primary dentition in children below 5 years of age in Sirsa, Haryana. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of dental caries in primary dentition and compute data for planning anticipatory programs in children aged less than 5 years. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among children attending the outpatient department of pedodontics, JCD Dental College, Sirsa, Haryana (India) from April to December 2014. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 576 children of both sexes (311 males and 265 females) up to 5 years of age. Dentition status and treatment proforma (WHO, 1997) was used to assess the prevalence of cavitated carious lesions. Selection of children for the study was done by simple random sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and t-test were used to compute data for statistical analysis. Results: 33.85% of children in the study population showed presence of cavitated carious lesions. Males showed slightly higher prevalence of cavitated carious lesions than females (P = 0.35). Incidence of caries was higher in mandibular arch in both the sexes (males P = 0.9, females P = 0.7) and in posterior teeth (both sex wise and arch wise). Higher caries prevalence was noticed in maxillary anterior teeth (P = 0.04) and mandibular posterior teeth (P = 0.7). Primary second molars showed highest caries prevalence (P = 0.39) in both the arches and sexes. Conclusion: The mean prevalence of cavitated carious lesions in primary dentition was found to be 33.85%. Males were more affected than females. Mandibular molars and maxillary anterior teeth were the predominantly affected teeth. Mandibular anterior teeth were least affected. The increase in incidence of cavitated carious lesions shows that there is necessity of implementing dental health awareness programs and modifications in types of food consumed are needed to eliminate the cause of decay

  5. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among children (1-10 years of age) – Findings of a mid-term report from Northwest India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, SK; Kashyap, V; Bhardwaj, AK; Kumar, D; Chander, V

    2015-01-01

    Background: India is the second most populous country of the world. A large portion of the population of this country is below 20 years of age but still there is a paucity of information about the prevalence and incidence of many developmental disorders. This study was planned to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the selected areas (tribal, rural, and urban) of a northern state of India, Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A cross-sectional two-phase study was conducted covering all the children in the range of 1-10 years of age. Phase one included screening of all the children in the age group of 1-10 years, with the help of an indigenous assessment tool for autism. The sociodemographic profile of the participants was also recorded during phase one. Phase two involved the clinical evaluation of individuals who were suspected of autism on screening. Results: The results show a prevalence rate of 0.9/1000. The highest prevalence rate was observed in the rural area. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status (SES) may be one of the fundamental indicators for ASDs in India. PMID:26440394

  6. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  7. Prevalence, associations, and predictors of apathy in adult survivors of infantile (<5 years of age) posterior fossa brain tumors†

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Cliodhna; Watson, Peter; Spoudeas, Helen A.; Hawkins, Michael M.; Walker, David A.; Clare, Isabel C. H.; Holland, Anthony J.; Ring, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Apathy is associated with pervasive and disadvantageous effects on daily functioning. It has been observed transiently in some children after surgery for posterior fossa tumors. In this study, our objective was to examine prevalence, associations, and predictors of apathy in adult survivors of an infantile posterior fossa brain tumor (PFT). Methods One hundred seventeen adult survivors of a childhood PFT diagnosed before age 5 years and 60 of their siblings were assessed in a cross-sectional study a mean of 32 years (range, 18–53 years) after survivors' initial tumor diagnoses, using the Marin Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for psychiatric disorders. Results Marin Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence reached or exceeded a criterion score for clinically significant apathy in 35% of survivors, compared with 18% in a sibling comparison group. In both siblings and survivors, apathy was associated with lower verbal and full-scale IQ and, among survivors, with having undergone partial rather than total tumor resection (independent of irradiation status). Apathy was not related to presence of concurrent International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, depression. Female sex was associated with late apathy after a PFT, with increased likelihood of women reaching the apathy criterion relative to men if they were survivors. Conclusions Clinically significant and potentially treatable apathy occurs relatively commonly in adult survivors of an infantile childhood PFT, particularly women. Clinicians, including those managing posterior fossa pathology in very young children, should be aware of this association, and future research should clarify whether specific treatment-related variables are implicated in increasing this risk of apathy. PMID:23502428

  8. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  9. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  10. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  11. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael B; Wegmueller, Rita; Tschannen, Andreas B; Hurrell, Richard F

    2007-05-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) estimate the riboflavin content of the local diet; and (3) determine if riboflavin deficiency predicts anaemia and/or iron deficiency. In 5- to 15-year-old children (n 281), height, weight, haemoglobin (Hb), whole blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC), serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP) and prevalence of Plasmodium spp. (asymptomatic malaria) and Schistosoma haematobium (bilharziosis) infections were measured. Three-day weighed food records were kept in twenty-four households. Prevalence of anaemia in the sample was 52%; 59% were iron-deficient based on an elevated ZPP concentration, and 36% suffered from iron deficiency anaemia. Plasmodium parasitaemia was found in 49% of the children. Nineteen percent of the children were infected with S. haematobium. Median riboflavin intake in 5- to 15-year-old children from the food records was 0.42 mg/d, approximately 47% of the estimated average requirement for this age group. Prevalence of riboflavin deficiency was 65%, as defined by an EGRAC value > 1.2. Age, elevated CRP and iron deficiency were significant predictors of Hb. Riboflavin-deficient children free of malaria were more likely to be iron deficient (odds ratio; 3.07; 95% CI 1.12, 8.41). In conclusion, nearly two-thirds of school-age children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire are mildly riboflavin deficient. Riboflavin deficiency did not predict Hb and/or anaemia, but did predict iron deficiency among children free of malaria. PMID:17381972

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients from Northeastern Brazil: association with disease activity, nephritis, smoking, and age.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marta Maria das Chagas; Xavier de Oliveira, Ídila Mont'Alverne; Ribeiro, Ádilla Thaysa Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune inflammatory disease, is associated with an increased prevalence of accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a set of cardiovascular risk factors in SLE patients, which may lead to a proinflammatory condition and increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS in a cohort of SLE patients versus healthy controls, and to analyze the association of clinical and demographic factors. SLE patients (n = 146) treated at a Northeast Brazilian university hospital were evaluated with regard to demographic, clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric parameters and compared to controls (n = 101). MetS was diagnosed according to the definition of 2005 NCEP/ATP III. The average age of SLE patients was 41.7 ± 12.5 years, and 91.8 % were female. MetS was significantly more prevalent in SLE patients (45.2 %) than in controls (32.7 %; p = 0.04). The MetS components such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly more prevalent in SLE. In the univariate analysis, MetS in SLE patients was associated with age, disease duration, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index, smoking, menopause, nephritis, cyclophosphamide use, prednisone dose, and chloroquine use, which appeared to have a protective effect. In the logistic regression analysis, age, disease activity, nephritis, and smoking were statistically significant. The prevalence of MetS observed in our cohort of SLE patients from Northeastern Brazil is higher than controls. MetS components should be routinely investigated to minimize the occurrence of MetS and associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26149124

  13. Impact of Age, Season, and Flowing vs. Stagnant Water Habitat on Avian Influenza Prevalence in Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, B; Marché, S; Houdart, P; van den Berg, T; Vangeluwe, D

    2016-05-01

    Due to their probable role in the spread of Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, and in order to explore its implication in the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus epidemiology, mute swans represent one particular wild bird species specifically targeted in the avian influenza (AI) surveillance elaborated in Belgium. A total of 640 individual mute swans have been sampled during a 4-yr AI surveillance program (2007-2010) to determine the AI seroprevalence and viroprevalence in this species; all were analyzed through age, temporal, and habitat (flowing and stagnant water) factors. Using a nucleoprotein (NP)-based ELISA, a global antibody prevalence of 35% has been found and was characterized by two peaks in the winter and the summer that might be indicative of a greater LPAI virus circulation in the autumn than in the spring. A significantly higher antibody prevalence was detected in adult swans (53.8%) as compared to juveniles (15.5%). In contrast, a low prevalence of infection (2.7%) was found, mainly in juvenile mute swans and only during the autumn migration period. Interestingly, an impact of water habitat was observed based on the comparison of the antibody prevalence and prevalence of infection from swan populations living on stagnant water vs. flowing water, suggesting that stagnant water provides a more-favorable environment for LPAI persistence and transmission. PMID:27309074

  14. Estimated prevalence of antenatal depression in the US population.

    PubMed

    Ashley, June M; Harper, Bridgette D; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; LoBello, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of minor and major depression among pregnant women in the USA. Also, we compare prevalence of depression among pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for relevant covariates. A population-representative sample of pregnant women (n = 3010) surveyed for the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was compared to a sample of women who were not pregnant (n = 68,620). Binary logistic regression was used to determine prevalence ratios of depression for pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for the effects of age, race, annual income, employment status, educational level, marital status, general health, and availability of emotional support. Depression was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). The prevalence of major depression was no greater among pregnant women (6.1 %) compared to non-pregnant women (7 %; adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) .8 and 1.5). The prevalence of minor depression was greater among pregnant women (16.6 %) compared to non-pregnant women (11.4 %; adjusted PR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2 and 1.9). Prevalence ratios are adjusted for the effects of covariates noted above. Prevalence of major depression is not associated with pregnancy, but minor depression is more likely among women who are pregnant. PMID:26687691

  15. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  16. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Indonesian Adults Aged ≥40 Years: Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS)

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah Al; Reid, Christopher; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing Indonesia in the 21st century. Understanding the socioeconomic inequalities associated with hypertension is essential for designing effective intervention strategies. The aim of the current study was to use sub-nationally representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indonesian adults. Methods We investigated factors associated with hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and control using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurements, collected from 9755 respondents aged 40 years and up in the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS 4). Results Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension among the study participants was 47.8% (95% CI: 46.8, 48.9), of which almost 70% were undiagnosed. Hypertension was significantly higher in women than men (52.3% versus 43.1%, p-value<0.001). Prevalence of hypertension increased significantly with ageing (Pfor trend <0.001). Over 91% (men: 92.1%, women: 90.0%) of hypertension cases were uncontrolled. Gender, education and socioeconomic status had differential impact on the diagnosis of hypertension and in receiving treatment. Conclusions Overall, less than a third were aware of their hypertension and a quarter of those on medication had their blood pressure effectively controlled. Men and those of younger age were more vulnerable to have undiagnosed and untreated hypertension. Substantial effort should be given to improve awareness about the condition and making provision for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27556532

  17. Time Trends in Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity Not Only due to Aging: Data from General Practices and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Gijsen, Ronald; Stirbu, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C; Schellevis, Francois G; Picavet, H. Susan J; Hoeymans, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common and expected to rise over the coming years. The objective of this study is to examine the time trend in the prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity over the period 2001 till 2011 in the Netherlands, and the extent to which this can be ascribed to the aging of the population. Methods Monitoring study, using two data sources: 1) medical records of patients listed in a nationally representative network of general practices over the period 2002–2011, and 2) national health interview surveys over the period 2001–2011. Regression models were used to study trends in the prevalence-rates over time, with and without standardization for age. Results An increase from 34.9% to 41.8% (p<0.01) in the prevalence of chronic diseases was observed in the general practice registration over the period 2004–2011 and from 41.0% to 46.6% (p<0.01) based on self-reported diseases over the period 2001–2011. Multimorbidity increased from 12.7% to 16.2% (p<0.01) and from 14.3% to 17.5% (p<0.01), respectively. Aging of the population explained part of these trends: about one-fifth based on general practice data, and one-third for chronic diseases and half of the trend for multimorbidity based on health surveys. Conclusions The prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity increased over the period 2001–2011. Aging of the population only explained part of the increase, implying that other factors such as health care and society-related developments are responsible for a substantial part of this rise. PMID:27482903

  18. Prevalence and Factors of Addictive Internet Use among Adolescents in Wuhan, China: Interactions of Parental Relationship with Age and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianhua; Chen, Xinguang; Han, Juan; Meng, Heng; Luo, Jianghong; Nydegger, Liesl; Wu, Hanrong

    2013-01-01

    Purposes This study examined the prevalence of addictive Internet use and analyzed the role of parental relationship in affecting this behavior among a random sample of adolescents in Wuhan, China. Methods Students (n = 1,101) were randomly selected from four schools, including 638 boys and 463 girls with a mean age of 13.8 (standard deviation = 1.2) years. Addictive Internet use, parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity were measured by validated instruments. Prevalence rate, ANOVA and multiple linear regression method were used to analyze the level of Internet addiction and its association with parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity, as well as the interaction of parental relationship with chronological age and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Results The prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 13.5% (16.5% for boys and 9.5% for girls, p<0.01). Compared to non-addictive users, addictive Internet users were scored significantly lower on parental relationships and significantly higher on hyperactivity-impulsivity. Interaction analysis indicated that better parental relationship was associated with more reductions in risk of addictive Internet use for younger students than for older students, and with more risk of Internet addiction among higher than among lower hyperactivity-impulsivity students. Conclusions Findings of this study indicate that adolescent addictive Internet use is a significant public health threat in China. Prevention interventions targeting parental relationship must consider adolescent’s age and hyperactivity-impulsivity tendency. PMID:23596525

  19. Prevalence of Self-Neglect across Gender, Race, and Socioeconomic Status: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.; Evans, Denis A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-neglect is the behavior of an elderly person that threatens his/her own health and safety, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the scope of the self-neglect in the community population remains unclear. We examined the prevalence of self-neglect and its specific behaviors of hoarding, hygiene and other environmental hazards in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A population-based cohort study conducted from 2007 to 2010 in a single cycle in a geographically defined community of 4 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Ill., USA. Participant's personal and home environment was rated on hoarding, personal hygiene, house in need of repair, unsanitary conditions, and inadequate utility. Prevalence estimates were presented across gender, race/ethnicity, education and income levels. Results There were 4,627 older adults in the cohort. The prevalence of self-neglect and specific personal and environmental hazards varied significantly by race/ethnicity and by levels of education and income. For race/ethnicity, black older adults (men 13.2%; women 10.9%) had a significantly higher prevalence of self-neglect than white older adults (men 2.4%; women 2.6%). For those with less than high school education, the prevalence of the self-neglect was 14.7% in men and 10.9% in women. For those with an annual income of less than USD 15,000, the prevalence of self-neglect was 21.7% in men and 15.3% in women. Conclusion The prevalence of self-neglect and specific behaviors of hoarding, poor hygiene, and other environmental hazards are higher among black older adults and among those with lower levels of education and income. PMID:22189358

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of dry eye: Our experience in patients above 40 years of age at a Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Suchi; Jani, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Context: Dry eye is a very common as well as under-diagnosed ocular disorder. It is not only troublesome in terms of its symptoms but also imposes a great financial burden. Aims: To determine the prevalence of dry eye in ophthalmology out-patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital and its association with various clinico-epidemiological factors. Settings and Design: A hospital-based study at a Tertiary Care Center was conducted including 400 out-patients of age 40 years and above. Materials and Methods: Patients were consecutively selected and underwent a routine ophthalmological examination along with tear film break-up time (TBUT) as a screening tool for detecting the presence of dry eye. Statistical Analysis: We performed a descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval. Results: The mean age of the study population was 58.6 years. The overall prevalence of dry eye was found to be 54.3%. An association was found between dry eye prevalence and outdoor workers, participants working indoor using air conditioners, housewives, diabetics, patients who have undergone previous ocular surgery and those with meibomian gland dysfunction. Conclusions: Dry eye is a very common condition with a high prevalence among the elderly. We recommend the screening of all out-patients by TBUT, which is a simple test to perform and examination of lids for meibomian gland disease, which if present can be treated. Further studies are needed to establish uniform diagnostic criteria for dry eye, which will help to get more concrete prevalence data, as well as its etiological factors. PMID:26903719

  1. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  2. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  3. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Affecting Factors among Individuals Aged 30 and over in Balçova District of İzmir

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Ahmet; Şimşek, Hatice; Doğanay, Sinem; Günay, Türkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to an increase twice as much in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and four times as much in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence since the second half of the 20th century. Aims: This study aims to determine and discuss the prevalence of the MetS and co- factors among individuals at the age of 30 and over in Balcova district of İzmir province according to the American National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and InternationalDiabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data obtained from the Balcova Heart Project in İzmir were used in the study. The dependent variable of the study is MetS existence. The independent variables were socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, and marital status), self-perceived economic status, physical activity, smoking status, healthy nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of MetS was 36.9% according to the diagnostic criteria of IDF, while it was 27.4% according to ATP III criteria. According to the both criteria, increasing age, low education, poor economic status perception, physical inactivity, and obesity increase the risk of MetS. Apart from the IDF criteria, being female and a current smoker increase the risk of the MetS in the NCEP-ATP III. Conclusion: Compared to educational studies of MetS as of today, which are community and health-oriented studies, it is challenging that the prevalence of MetS was found to be high for both criteria in our study. Therefore, in particular, primary health care doctors must be prompted to protect the public against DM and CVD in particular. PMID:27308078

  4. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  5. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Brück, Katharina; Stel, Vianda S; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J

    2016-07-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  6. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied. PMID:26735707

  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Children under Five Years of Age with Emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    G/hiwot, Yirgalem; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2%) and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5%) infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1%) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6%) does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana infections are

  8. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. Methods We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg–400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Results Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Conclusions Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects. PMID:23289920

  9. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. PMID:25832130

  10. PRECISION IN ESTIMATES OF DISABILITY PREVALENCE FOR THE POPULATION AGED 65 AND OVER IN THE UNITED STATES BY RACE AND ETHNICITY

    PubMed Central

    SIORDIA, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Populations are aging worldwide. In the United States (US), the older adult (aged ≥65) population will increase rapidly in the decades to come. Identifying public health needs in older adults requires that sample-derived estimates of disability prevalence be produced using transparent methodologies. Objectives Produce estimates of disabilities for the US older adult population by race and ethnicity and present measures on the ‘level of precision’ in the estimates. Design Cross-sectional study used American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Setting Community dwelling population aged ≥65 in US. Participants The 1,494,893 actual survey participants (unweighted count) are said to represent 40,496,512 individuals after population weights are applied (weighted count). From the weighted counts, the average age is 75, about 56% are females, and most (80%) are Non-Latino-Whites (NLW). Results Qualitative comparisons provide some evidence that except for hearing, disability prevalence is highest in Non-Latino-Blacks along the following disability items: independent living (25%); ambulatory (34%); self-care (15%); cognitive (11%); and vision (11%). Person inflation ratios, width of 95% confidence interval, and rates of allocations are smaller in NLWs than all the other race-ethnic groups—suggesting disability estimates for NLWs merit the highest level of confidence. Conclusions Improving measures of health in the older adult population requires that efforts continue to highlight how estimates of disability prevalence have the potential to vary in precision and as a function of various known and unknown factors. PMID:26258112

  11. Few Preschool Boys and Girls with ADHD Are Well-Adjusted during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n = 96) and without (n = 26) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4-6 years of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD/CD, and depression/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference…

  12. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity and the associated factors in urban population aged 20-70 years, in the north of Iran: a population-based study and regression approach.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, K O; Heidari, B

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an undesirable outcome of changing of lifestyle and behaviours. It is also reversible predisposing factor for the development of several debilitating diseases. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence rate of obesity, overweight, central obesity and their associated factors in the north of Iran. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 1800 women and 1800 men with respective mean ages of 37.5 +/- 13.0 and 38.5 +/- 14.2 years of urban population aged 20-70 years living in the north of Iran. The demographic and lifestyle data, in particular, age, gender, marital status, marriage age, family history of obesity, educational level, occupation, occupational and leisure time physical activity, duration of exercise per week, parity and the number of children were collected with a designed questionnaire. Diagnosis of obesity and central obesity were confirmed by the WHO standard recommended method by determining of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval. Over half of the study subjects were at educational levels of high school or higher; 79.4% of population was married and 35.3% had a family history of parental obesity. The majority of subjects in particular women had none or low levels of physical activity. The overall prevalence rates of obesity and overweight were 18.8% and 34.8% respectively. The overall prevalence rate of central obesity was 28.3%. The rate of obesity in women was higher than men (P < 0.0001). In both genders, particularly in the women, the rate of obesity was raised by increasing age. There was an inverse relation between the risk of obesity and marriage age, the high level of education (OR = 0.19, P < 0.0001), severe occupational activity (OR = 0.44, P < 0.0001), the level of exercise (in subjects with 3-4 h exercise per week, OR = 0.58, P < 0.001) and leisure time activity. Marriage

  13. Predictive value of the age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index on perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Rudy S.; Leitao, Mario M.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Gardner, Ginger J.; Long Roche, Kara C.; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A.; Jewell, Elizabeth L.; Brown, Carol L.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Charlson, Mary E.; Chi, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of the Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity index (ACCI) to predict perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Data were analyzed for all patients with stage IIIB-IV EOC who underwent primary cytoreduction from 1/2001–1/2010 at our institution. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4. Clinical and survival outcomes were assessed and compared. Results We identified 567 patients; 199 (35%) had an ACCI of 0–1, 271 (48%) had an ACCI of 2–3, and 97 (17%) had an ACCI of ≥4. The ACCI was significantly associated with the rate of complete gross resection (0–1=44%, 2–3=32%, and ≥4=32%; p=0.02), but was not associated with the rate of minor (47% vs 47% vs 43%, p=0.84) or major (18% vs 19% vs 16%, p=0.8) complications. The ACCI was also significantly associated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median PFS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 20.3, 16, and 15.4 months, respectively (p=0.02). Median OS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 65.3, 49.9, and 42.3 months, respectively (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, the ACCI remained a significant prognostic factor for both PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p<0.001). Conclusions The ACCI was not associated with perioperative complications in patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for advanced EOC, but was a significant predictor of PFS and OS. Prospective clinical trials in ovarian cancer should consider stratifying for an age-comorbidity covariate. PMID:26037900

  14. Shifting Prevalence of Gallbladder Polyps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated the population-adjusted prevalence of gallbladder polyps (GBP). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in GBP prevalence and risk factors at a single health screening center in Korea from 2002 to 2012. Of 48,591 adults who underwent health screening between 2002 and 2012, 14,250 age- and gender-matched subjects were randomly selected to evaluate prevalence. Risk factors were analyzed between the GBP-positive and GBP-negative groups during 2002-2004 (Period A) and 2010-2012 (Period B). The annual prevalence of GBP over the 11-yr period was 5.4%. Annual prevalence increased from 3.8% in Period A to 7.1% in Period B. Male gender and obesity were independent risk factors for GBP in both periods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was a risk factor for GBP in Period A but not in Period B. The risk factors for GBP changed from HBsAg positivity to lipid profile abnormalities. Other variables including age, hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and liver function tests did not correlate with GBP. In conclusion, GBP prevalence is increasing and risk factors for GBP have changed in Korea. More attention should be paid to this issue in the future. PMID:25246743

  15. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) type II among Iranian elderly population and its association with other age-related diseases, 2012.

    PubMed

    Taheri Tanjani, Parisa; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Esmail Mottlagh, Mohammad; Najafi, Farid

    2015-01-01

    DM type II is one of the most common chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of DM and its association with other age-related diseases in Iran, 2012. In this cross-sectional study, people aged 60 years and over were selected using multistage sampling method. Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Activity of Daily Living (ADL), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 items) questionnaires were used. History of common disorders was taken through self-report, medical records and the results of clinical examinations. A total of 1350 old people were studied. DM type II was found in 297 (22.0%) subjects and 371 (27.5%) of subjects were not aware of their DM status. Hypertension (55.6%), high serum cholesterol (51.8%), malnutrition (40.1%), Alzheimer's disease (16.9%), weight loss within past year (16.1%), weight gain within past year (11.7%), frailty (64.6%), insomnia (50.1%), and vision problems (62.6%) were significantly more common in diabetics. Those who were not aware of their status of DM either were between diabetics and non-diabetics or more similar to non-diabetics. Considering high prevalence of age-related diseases among Iranian elderly people, in particular women and those with DM type II, preventive measures are recommended so as to decrease and control DM type II and its consequent complications. PMID:25623857

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0), and Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain. PMID:27445628

  17. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  18. A 5-year survey of biopsy proven kidney diseases in Lebanon: significant variation in prevalence of primary glomerular diseases by age, population structure and consanguinity

    PubMed Central

    Karnib, Hussein H.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Aftimos, Georges; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Saad, Reem; Gemayel, Elias; Masri, Badiaa; Assaad, Shafika; Badr, Kamal F.; Ziyadeh, Fuad N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Differences in epidemiology of kidney disease across the Middle East may arise from variations in indication for biopsy, environmental exposure and socio-economic status. The Lebanese population is composed of different ethnicities, with distinct ancestry and religion, enabling comparison of their effect on the prevalence of kidney disease within a confined geographic setting and uniform practices. Here we report 5 years’ detailed epidemiology of renal diseases, based on histological diagnosis, in a sample from three large pathology centres in Lebanon. Methods. Records of renal biopsies analysed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital and the Institut National de Pathologie from January 2003 till December 2007 were retrospectively examined. We recorded the following data for each patient: age, gender, indication for renal biopsy and histopathological diagnosis. Religious affiliation and parents’ consanguinity were recorded when feasible. Results. The mean age at renal biopsy was 36.76 ± 20 years (range 1–84). The most common diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN; 20%), followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (13.2%). While there were no differences in age, gender or indications for biopsy among different religious affiliations, mesangioproliferative GN was significantly more frequent among Muslims (P = 0.039) and offspring of consanguineous unions (P = 0.036). On the other hand, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was most prevalent in Christians (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Variation in the distribution of diagnoses between Muslim and Christian groups likely reflects differences in population structure and ancestry. In particular, the increased prevalence of mesangioproliferative GN among offspring of consanguineous unions in Muslims suggests a recessive genetic component to this disease which may be identified via homozygosity mapping. These findings have important

  19. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    KESSLER, RONALD C; ANGERMEYER, MATTHIAS; ANTHONY, JAMES C; DE GRAAF, RON; DEMYTTENAERE, KOEN; GASQUET, ISABELLE; DE GIROLAMO, GIOVANNI; GLUZMAN, SEMYON; GUREJE, OYE; HARO, JOSEP MARIA; KAWAKAMI, NORITO; KARAM, AIMEE; LEVINSON, DAPHNA; MEDINA MORA, MARIA ELENA; OAKLEY BROWNE, MARK A; POSADA-VILLA, JOSÉ; STEIN, DAN J; ADLEY TSANG, CHEUK HIM; AGUILAR-GAXIOLA, SERGIO; ALONSO, JORDI; LEE, SING; HEERINGA, STEVEN; PENNELL, BETH-ELLEN; BERGLUND, PATRICIA; GRUBER, MICHAEL J; PETUKHOVA, MARIA; CHATTERJI, SOMNATH; ÜSTÜN, T. BEDIRHAN

    2007-01-01

    Data are presented on the lifetime prevalence, projected lifetime risk, and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Face-to-face community surveys were conducted in seventeen countries in Africa, Asia, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East. The combined numbers of respondents were 85,052. Lifetime prevalence, projected lifetime risk, and age of onset of DSM-IV disorders were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a fully-structured lay administered diagnostic interview. Survival analysis was used to estimate lifetime risk. Median and inter-quartile range (IQR) of age of onset is very early for some anxiety disorders (7-14, IQR: 8-11) and impulse control disorders (7-15, IQR: 11-12). The age-of-onset distribution is later for mood disorders (29-43, IQR: 35-40), other anxiety disorders (24-50, IQR: 31-41), and substance use disorders (18-29, IQR: 21-26). Median and IQR lifetime prevalence estimates are: anxiety disorders 4.8-31.0% (IQR: 9.9-16.7%), mood disorders 3.3-21.4% (IQR: 9.8-15.8%), impulse control disorders 0.3-25.0% (IQR: 3.1-5.7%), substance use disorders 1.3-15.0% (IQR: 4.8-9.6%), and any disorder 12.0-47.4% (IQR: 18.1-36.1%). Projected lifetime risk is proportionally between 17% and 69% higher than estimated lifetime prevalence (IQR: 28-44%), with the highest ratios in countries exposed to sectarian violence (Israel, Nigeria, and South Africa), and a general tendency for projected risk to be highest in recent cohorts in all countries. These results document clearly that mental disorders are commonly occurring. As many mental disorders begin in childhood or adolescents, interventions aimed at early detection and treatment might help reduce the persistence or severity of primary disorders and prevent the subsequent onset of secondary disorders. PMID:18188442

  20. Cruel Intentions? HIV Prevalence and Criminalization During an Age of Mass Incarceration, U.S. 1999 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Bryan L; Hoppe, Trevor A; Maziarka, Kristen D

    2016-04-01

    A 2014 U.S. Department of Justice Best Practices Report advocates that states eliminate HIV-specific criminal penalties except under 2 conditions: when a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive person intentionally commits a sex crime or transmits the virus by engaging in behavior that poses a significant risk of transmission, regardless of actual transmission. We assess the premise of these exceptions to understand whether these best practices are based on scientific evidence about the population at risk of infection and the risk of sexual violence by HIV-positive individuals. We employ nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), the Survey of Inmates in State, Federal, and Local Jails (SISFLJ), and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). Data from the CPS, SISFLJ, and NHANES are weighted and combined to analyze bias in the population at risk of HIV. Linear probability models are employed to estimate the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates are incarcerated for violent or sexual offenses, net of socioeconomic factors. We find significant measurement bias in HIV prevalence rates. The selection of national surveys for population denominators distorts contemporary estimates of HIV prevalence by 7% to 20%. Our findings also illustrate that HIV-positive inmates are 10 percentage-points less likely to be incarcerated for violent offenses than HIV-negative inmates. National best practice guidelines may undermine effective social policy that aims to curtail stigma within HIV-positive communities because scientific evidence neither include inmates into prevalence denominators (as a measure of the population at risk) nor assess the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates commit violent or sexual crimes. PMID:27100418

  1. Cruel Intentions? HIV Prevalence and Criminalization During an Age of Mass Incarceration, U.S. 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Bryan L.; Hoppe, Trevor A.; Maziarka, Kristen D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 2014 U.S. Department of Justice Best Practices Report advocates that states eliminate HIV-specific criminal penalties except under 2 conditions: when a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive person intentionally commits a sex crime or transmits the virus by engaging in behavior that poses a significant risk of transmission, regardless of actual transmission. We assess the premise of these exceptions to understand whether these best practices are based on scientific evidence about the population at risk of infection and the risk of sexual violence by HIV-positive individuals. We employ nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), the Survey of Inmates in State, Federal, and Local Jails (SISFLJ), and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). Data from the CPS, SISFLJ, and NHANES are weighted and combined to analyze bias in the population at risk of HIV. Linear probability models are employed to estimate the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates are incarcerated for violent or sexual offenses, net of socioeconomic factors. We find significant measurement bias in HIV prevalence rates. The selection of national surveys for population denominators distorts contemporary estimates of HIV prevalence by 7% to 20%. Our findings also illustrate that HIV-positive inmates are 10 percentage-points less likely to be incarcerated for violent offenses than HIV-negative inmates. National best practice guidelines may undermine effective social policy that aims to curtail stigma within HIV-positive communities because scientific evidence neither include inmates into prevalence denominators (as a measure of the population at risk) nor assess the likelihood that HIV-positive inmates commit violent or sexual crimes. PMID:27100418

  2. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects. IV. The prevalence of abnormal scans in smokers 30 to 49 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Kapitan, K.S.; Brewer, N.S.; Ashburn, W.L.; Hartman, M.T.; Moser, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of ventilation-perfusion scans in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is limited by the wide range of pulmonary diseases that are associated with abnormal scans, and by the largely undetermined prevalence of abnormal scans in persons without cardiopulmonary disease. In prior studies, we found perfusion defects to be rarely present in young persons and in older nonsmokers. To determine if normal older smokers have a higher prevalence of abnormal ventilation and perfusion scans, we performed six-view /sup 99m/Tc perfusion (Q) scans and /sup 133/Xe ventilation (V) scans in 40 subjects 30 to 49 yr of age who had no known cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject had undergone a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and posteroanterior chest roentgenogram prior to scanning. All V and Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by two experienced readers. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect on two views. One subject had a matched subsegmental defect, and one subject had delayed washout from a subsegmental area of the right upper lobe during V scanning, with a normal Q scan. We conclude that abnormal V and Q scans are uncommon among normal smokers 30 to 49 yr of age.

  3. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Unsal, Alaettin; Arslantas, Didem

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73). The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each). The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70). In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05). Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women. PMID:25083180

  4. Prevalence of Clinical Anxiety, Clinical Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Chinese Young and Middle-Aged Patients with Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Gao, You-Shui; He, Hai-Yan; Jin, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression in Chinese young and mid-aged patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) and to analyze their potential risk factors. Methods Two hundred and sixteen Chinese patients with ONFH were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional study from January 2010 to December 2010. The Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to assess the prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression. An additional questionnaire containing seventeen items of potential risk factors was completed by all patients. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to reveal potential risk factors of anxiety and depression. Results The prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression was 20.4% and 21.8% in Chinese young and middle-aged patients with ONFH, respectively. Binary regression analysis showed that independent risk factors correlated with high incidence of clinical anxiety included involved femoral head (OR = 3.168, 95% CI: 1.496 - 6.708) and stages of ONFH (ORIV-V / II = 5.383, 95% CI: 1.664-17.416). Independent risk factors correlated with high incidence of depression included gender (OR = 2.853, 95% CI: 1.467-5.778), comorbid diseases (OR = 4.243, 95% CI: 1.940-9.278) and stages of the disease (OR IV-V/II = 16.963, 95% CI: 4.404-65.331). Conclusions Patients with bilateral ONFH are inclined to have clinical anxiety, while female patients and patients with comorbid diseases might tend to get clinical depression. Advanced stages of ONFH are independent risk factors for both clinical anxiety and clinical depression. PMID:25789850

  5. Age Variation in the Prevalence of "DSM-IV" Disorders in Cases of Suicide of Middle-Aged and Older Persons in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Wyder, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Data concerning 127 persons aged 35 years or above who died by suicide (as determined in consecutive cases by a Sydney coroner) were analyzed. Psychological autopsy (PA) interviews were conducted in 52 cases, and details were compared with the 75 cases where data were available only from coroner's files (CF). Most characteristics of the two groups…

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Low Back Pain Among Professional Drivers in Kano, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Rufa'i, Adamu Ahmad; Sa'idu, Isma'ila Adamu; Ahmad, Rufa'i Yusuf; Elmi, Omar Salad; Aliyu, Salamatu Umar; Jajere, Abdurrahman Mohammed; Digil, Abbas Abdullahi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of low back pain (LBP) among professional drivers in Nigeria. Two hundred male drivers aged 19-64 years were recruited in the study. Data regarding prevalence, individual risk factors, and impact of LBP were obtained. The prevalence rate of LBP was 73.5%, and LBP have affected the driving performance of up to 74% drivers. After adjustment for age, LBP prevalence was associated with driving for >15 hours/day (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]): (0.04; 0.01, 0.20), driving car (5.52; 1.55, 19.64), and driving bus (10.49; 2.63, 41.82). No association was found between LBP prevalence and years spent driving. The study found that high prevalence of LBP affected the performance of a substantial percentage of the participants. PMID:24219691

  7. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Virués-Ortega, Javier; Vega, Saturio; Seijo-Martínez, Manuel; Saz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Laso, Angel; Reñé, Ramón; de las Heras, Susana Pérez; Mateos, Raimundo; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Manubens, José María; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; López-Pousa, Secundino; Lobo, Antonio; Reglà, Jordi Llinàs; Gascón, Jordi; García, Francisco José; Fernández-Martínez, Manuel; Boix, Raquel; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Bergareche, Alberto; Benito-León, Julián; de Arce, Ana; del Barrio, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008). Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above) was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia). Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted. PMID:19840375

  8. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  9. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  10. VISION PROBLEMS IN THE U.S.-PREVALENCE OF ADULT VISION IMPAIRMENT AND AGE-RELATED EYE DISEASES IN AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leading causes of vision impairment and blindness in the United States. Diabetic retinopathy? Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? Cataract? Glaucoma? The Vision Problems in the U.S. study was the result of a 2001 consensus meeting, convened by the National Eye Institute and ...

  11. Higher prevalence of X-ray selected AGN in intermediate-age galaxies up to z ˜ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Barro, Guillermo; Aird, James; Ferreras, Ignacio; Cava, Antonio; Cardiel, Nicolás; Esquej, Pilar; Gallego, Jesús; Nandra, Kirpal; Rodríguez-Zaurín, Javier

    2014-10-01

    We analyse the stellar populations in the host galaxies of 53 X-ray selected optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 0.34 < z < 1.07 with ultradeep (mAB = 26.5, 3σ) optical medium-band (R ˜ 50) photometry from the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS). The spectral resolution of SHARDS allows us to consistently measure the strength of the 4000 Å break, Dn(4000), a reliable age indicator for stellar populations. We confirm that most X-ray selected moderate-luminosity AGN (LX < 1044 erg s-1) are hosted by massive galaxies (typically M* >1010.5 M⊙) and that the observed fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN increases with the stellar mass. A careful selection of random control samples of inactive galaxies allows us to remove the stellar mass and redshift dependences of the AGN fraction to explore trends with several stellar age indicators. We find no significant differences in the distribution of the rest-frame U - V colour for AGN hosts and inactive galaxies, in agreement with previous results. However, we find significantly shallower 4000 Å breaks in AGN hosts, indicative of younger stellar populations. With the help of a model-independent determination of the extinction, we obtain extinction-corrected U - V colours and light-weighted average stellar ages. We find that AGN hosts have younger stellar populations and higher extinction compared to inactive galaxies with the same stellar mass and at the same redshift. We find a highly significant excess of AGN hosts with Dn(4000) ˜ 1.4 and light-weighted average stellar ages of 300-500 Myr, as well as a deficit of AGN in intrinsic red galaxies. We interpret failure in recognizing these trends in previous studies as a consequence of the balancing effect in observed colours of the age-extinction degeneracy.

  12. The age-specific prevalence of human parvovirus immunity in Victoria, Australia compared with other parts of the world.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, H. A.; Siebert, D.; Hammond, R.; Leydon, J.; Kiely, P.; Maskill, W.

    2000-01-01

    The age-specific immunity to human parvovirus infection was estimated in Victoria, Australia using prospectively collected samples from the Royal Children's Hospital, the Royal Women's Hospital and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service and from sera stored at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL). All testing was performed at VIDRL using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Biotrin). Of the 824 sera tested, 28% of those drawn from people aged 0-9 years contained protective antibodies to human parvovirus. This rose to 51% in the next decade of life. There was then a slow rise to about 78% immunity over 50 years of age. An analysis of all requests for parvovirus serology at VIDRL from 1992 to 1998 suggested that parvovirus tended to occur in 4-year cycles, with 2 epidemic years followed by 2 endemic years. A review of published reports of parvovirus immunity suggested that parvovirus infection may be more common, with a correspondingly higher proportion of the community immune, in temperate as opposed to tropical countries. PMID:10982069

  13. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  14. Prevalence and identification of abnormal lipoprotein levels in a biracial population aged 23 to 35 years (the CARDIA Study). The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Gidding, S S; Liu, K; Bild, D E; Flack, J; Gardin, J; Ruth, K J; Oberman, A

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the prevalence of abnormal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in young adults to determine the ability of National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) guidelines to identify persons with elevated LDL cholesterol, to compare other algorithms with those of the ATP, and to determine the contributions of race, gender, and other coronary artery disease risk factors to identifying patients with elevated LDL and low HDL cholesterol. The cohort was population-based, aged 23 to 35 years, and included relatively equal numbers of blacks and whites, and men and women. The prevalence of LDL cholesterol > or = 160 mg/dl (> 4.1 mmol/L) was 5% in black women, 4% in white women, 10% in black men, and 9% in white men. ATP identified most participants with elevated LDL cholesterol (range: 58.8% of white men to 70.7% of black women). Lipoprotein panels would have been required in 6% to 7% of women and to 15% to 18% of men. Algorithms that used nonlipid risk factors required more lipoprotein panels and identified fewer additional participants at risk. The prevalence of HDL cholesterol < 35 mg/dl (0.9 mmol/L) was 3% in women, 7% in black men, and 13% in white men. Algorithms that used nonlipid risk factors before measuring HDL cholesterol would require HDL cholesterol measurements in 35% of whites and 56% of blacks, but reduced sensitivity for identifying low HDL cholesterol (range: 58% in white men to 93% in black women). In young adults, algorithms based on nonlipid risk factors and family history have lower sensitivity, and increase rather than decrease the number of fasting lipoprotein panels required when compared with ATP levels. PMID:8759809

  15. Agent-Based Model Forecasts Aging of the Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago and Changing Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infections.

    PubMed

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010-2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(± 2)% to 36(± 5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(± 5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(± 1) to 40(± 2) with a corresponding increase from 59(± 2)% to 80(± 6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our studies highlight the importance of analyzing subpopulations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities. PMID:26421722

  16. Agent-Based Model Forecasts Aging of the Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago and Changing Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infections

    PubMed Central

    Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010–2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(±2)% to 36(±5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(±5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(±1) to 40(±2) with a corresponding increase from 59(±2)% to 80(±6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our studies highlight the importance of analyzing subpopulations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities. PMID:26421722

  17. The Association Between Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors and the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Middle-Aged and Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older men. Methods The subjects included 445 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or dialysis treatment, who were not taking medications. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and were defined as follows: 1) lack of habitual moderate exercise, 2) lack of daily physical activity, 3) slow walking speed, 4) fast eating speed, 5) late-night dinner, 6) bedtime snacking, and 7) skipping breakfast. The participants were divided into four categories, which were classified into quartile distributions based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (0–1, 2, 3, and ≥4 unhealthy behaviors). Results According to a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria) was found to be significantly higher in the ≥4 group than in the 0–1 group (OR 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51–14.40). Moreover, subjects’ lack of habitual moderate exercise (OR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.13–8.32) and presence of late-night dinner (OR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.40–5.75) and bedtime snacking behaviors (OR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.27–6.45) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD. Conclusions These results suggest that an accumulation of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, especially those related to lack of habitual moderate exercise and presence of late-night dinner and bedtime snacking may be associated with the prevalence of CKD. PMID:26947951

  18. Deconstructing the age-prevalence curve of alcohol dependence: why "maturing out" is only a small piece of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Vergés, Alvaro; Jackson, Kristina M; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Grant, Julia D; Trull, Timothy J; Wood, Phillip K; Sher, Kenneth J

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that heavy alcohol use and alcohol dependence (AD) tend to increase in adolescence and emerging adulthood and then show a large decline in the late 20s, a phenomenon called maturing out. This decline has been explained as an effect of "role incompatibility" in which involvement in new roles and activities interferes with a heavy drinking lifestyle. However, maturing out has been conceived mostly as a decrease in offset, with little attention paid to reductions in new onset or recurrence across decades of life. Moreover, although role incompatibility processes have been studied with young samples, little is known about the effect of life transitions (e.g., marriage, parenthood, changes in employment status) on AD later in life and whether similar effects are observed. Using longitudinal data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative epidemiologic survey, we examined the patterns of stability and change in AD across the life span and the differential effect of life transitions on AD across different age strata. Results showed that persistence of AD tended to increase with age, although not dramatically, and that onset and recurrence tended to decrease with age. Moreover, the effects of life transitions on the course of AD varied across the life span and were different for men and women. These results indicate that life transitions differentially affect the patterns of stability and change in younger versus older people, have a different impact for men and women, and highlight the need to consider the unique aspects of each stage of adult development on the course of AD. PMID:22060948

  19. High Prevalence of Skin Diseases and Need for Treatment in a Middle-Aged Population. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Auvinen, Juha; Hägg, Päivi M.; Wikström, Erika; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of skin diseases a whole-body skin examination was performed for 1,932 members (46-years of age) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966), which is a comprehensive longitudinal research program (N = 12,058). A high prevalence of all skin diseases needing treatment was found (N = 1,158). Half of the cases of skin findings were evaluated to be serious enough to require diagnostic evaluation, treatment or follow-up either in a general health care, occupational health care or a secondary care setting. The remaining half were thought to be slight and self-treatment was advised. Males (70%) had more skin diseases needing treatment than females (52%) (P<0.001). The most common skin finding was a benign skin tumor, which was found in every cohort member. Skin infections (44%), eczemas (27%) and sebaceous gland diseases (27%) were the most common skin diseases in the cohort. Moreover, skin infections and eczemas were more commonly seen in the group with low education compared to those with high education (P<0.005). The results strengthen the postulate that skin diseases are common in an adult population. PMID:24911008

  20. Group B streptococcus serotype prevalence in reproductive-age women at a tertiary care military medical center relative to global serotype distribution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype (Ia, Ib, II-IX) correlates with pathogen virulence and clinical prognosis. Epidemiological studies of seroprevalence are an important metric for determining the proportion of serotypes in a given population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of individual GBS serotypes at Madigan Healthcare System (Madigan), the largest military tertiary healthcare facility in the Pacific Northwestern United States, and to compare seroprevalences with international locations. Methods To determine serotype distribution at Madigan, we obtained GBS isolates from standard-of-care anogenital swabs from 207 women of indeterminate gravidity between ages 18-40 during a five month interval. Serotype was determined using a recently described molecular method of polymerase chain reaction by capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) genes associated with pathogen virulence. Results Serotypes Ia, III, and V were the most prevalent (28%, 27%, and 17%, respectively). A systematic review of global GBS seroprevalence, meta-analysis, and statistical comparison revealed strikingly similar serodistibution at Madigan relative to civilian-sector populations in Canada and the United States. Serotype Ia was the only serotype consistently higher in North American populations relative to other geographic regions (p < 0.005). The number of non-typeable isolates was significantly lower in the study (p < 0.005). Conclusion This study establishes PCR-based serotyping as a viable strategy for GBS epidemiological surveillance. Our results suggest that GBS seroprevalence remains stable in North America over the past two decades. PMID:21106080

  1. Sex-Specific Prevalence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Middle-Aged Population of China: A Subgroup Analysis of the 2007–2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaojun; Xing, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Wenhui; Wang, Na; Xie, Lingding; Yang, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    The sex difference in the prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among the middle-aged population in China remain largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed differences in the prevalence of diabetes, self-reported CVDs, and some CVD risk factors among men and women in the middle-aged population (30–49 years) and in individuals aged 50 years and older using data from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study of 2007–2008. Middle-aged men appeared to have significantly a higher prevalence of diabetes and self-reported CVDs than middle-aged women (8.07% vs 5.06% for diabetes, P < 0.001; 0.64% vs 0.22% for CVDs, P < 0.001). Men also showed higher rates of central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia than women (all P < 0.01). Compared with women, men were more likely to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes but less likely to be under diet control. The sex-specific differences in prediabetes, CVD, and CVD risk factors between men and women were diminished or even reversed in the population aged 50 years and older. No sex-specific differences were found in the prevalences of a family history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension (P > 0.05) in middle-aged population. Specific strategies to reduce modifiable risk factors for the prevention and control of diabetes and CVD may be warranted in this population. PMID:26406982

  2. Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stensson, M; Koch, G; Coric, S; Abrahamsson, T R; Jenmalm, M C; Birkhed, D; Wendt, L-K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on oral health, at age 9 years, of daily oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri, strain ATCC 55730, to mothers during the last month of gestation and to children through the first year of life. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving 113 children: 60 in the probiotic and 53 in the placebo group. The subjects underwent clinical and radiographic examination of the primary dentition and carious lesions, plaque and gingivitis were recorded. Saliva and plaque were sampled for determination of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) in saliva and plaque as well as salivary secretory IgA (SIgA). Forty-nine (82%) children in the probiotic group and 31 (58%) in the placebo group were caries-free (p < 0.01). The prevalence of approximal caries lesions was lower in the probiotic group (0.67 ± 1.61 vs. 1.53 ± 2.64; p < 0.05) and there were fewer sites with gingivitis compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to frequency of toothbrushing, plaque and dietary habits, but to intake of fluoride supplements (p < 0.05). There were no intergroup differences with respect to L. reuteri, MS, LB or SIgA in saliva. Within the limitation of this study it seems that daily supplementation with L. reuteri from birth and during the first year of life is associated with reduced caries prevalence and gingivitis score in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. PMID:24296746

  3. The association between smoking and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis aged 30 to 49 years

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking may exacerbate and cause psoriasis. Moreover, smokers are more likely to develop insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim To assess the prevalence of MS and its components in patients with psoriasis, who smoke, compared with the general Polish population of smokers. Material and methods We studied 29 patients with psoriasis (female = 9, male = 20), smokers, aged 30 to 49 years. Metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed using the IDF definition and compared to the results obtained in a representative sample of adult Poles in the NATPOL 2011 study in the same age group, including smokers. Results The results have shown that patients with psoriasis are more likely to be smokers (p < 0.0034) and the frequency of smoking in men is approximately 25% higher than in males of the control group (p < 0.0017). The prevalence of MS in patients with psoriasis who smoke was 27.58% and in the control group 25.2% (p > 0.05). Mean body mass index was 26.07 kg/m2 in psoriasis patients and 25.59 kg/m2 in the control group (p > 0.05), and abdominal obesity was 88.82 cm and 90.02 cm (p > 0.05), respectively. There were no differences in hypertension (34.48% vs. 31.6%, p < 0.05) and mean HOMA-IR (1.80 vs. 1.77, p > 0.05). In lipid parameters, the differences were observed only in women with psoriasis – higher levels of HDL, triglycerides and ApoB/ApoA1 index compared with addicted women in the control group. Conclusions Men with psoriasis are more often addicted to smoking. Women with psoriasis who smoke have often disturbances of the lipid profile. PMID:26759540

  4. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  5. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  6. Prevalence, characteristics, and survival of frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Katrina M.; Patterson, Karalyn; Vázquez Rodríquez, Patricia; Wehmann, Eileen; Wilcox, Alicia; Lansdall, Claire J.; Dawson, Kate E.; Wiggins, Julie; Mead, Simon; Brayne, Carol; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the lifetime risk, prevalence, incidence, and mortality of the principal clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) using revised diagnostic criteria and including intermediate clinical phenotypes. Methods: Multisource referral over 2 years to identify all diagnosed or suspected cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in 2 UK counties (population 1.69 million). Diagnostic confirmation used current consensus diagnostic criteria after interview and reexamination. Results were adjusted to the 2013 European standard population. Results: The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS was 10.8/100,000. The incidence and mortality were very similar, at 1.61/100,000 and 1.56/100,000 person-years, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk is 1 in 742. Survival following diagnosis varied widely: from PSP 2.9 years to semantic variant FTD 9.1 years. Age-adjusted prevalence peaked between 65 and 69 years at 42.6/100,000: the age-adjusted prevalence for persons older than 65 years is double the prevalence for those between 40 and 64 years. Fifteen percent of those screened had a relevant genetic mutation. Conclusions: Key features of this study include the revised diagnostic criteria with improved specificity and sensitivity, an unrestricted age range, and simultaneous assessment of multiple FTLD syndromes. The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS increases beyond 65 years, with frequent genetic causes. The time from onset to diagnosis and from diagnosis to death varies widely among syndromes, emphasizing the challenge and importance of accurate and timely diagnosis. A high index of suspicion for FTLD syndromes is required by clinicians, even for older patients. PMID:27037234

  7. 20 CFR 404.412 - After my benefits are reduced for age when and how will adjustments to that reduction be made?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'s benefit, any month before attainment of full retirement age for which she or he was not entitled... records to identify when an individual has attained full retirement age and one or more months described... with the month of attainment of full retirement age. In the case of widow's or widower's benefits,...

  8. The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (P<0.05). Age was not retained in the multivariable model, and the impact of sex on the presence of B. procyonis varied with land use and season. For example, from March to June, suburban/urban male raccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment. PMID:25098302

  9. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  10. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  11. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  12. ASSESSING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CARIES PREVALENCE AND BODY MASS INDEX AND NUTRITIONAL DATA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6-12 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Arunakul, Malee; Srisuchat, Natchanon; Chotthanakarn, Nutcha; Praisuwanna, Nathaporn; Luckamnuyporn, Natasan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to examine associations between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) and diet in 6 to 12 year old children. One hundred subjects were included in the study. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), height and weight were examined in each subject. The primary caregiver for each subject completed a diet questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a chi-square test, a Fisher's exact test, a Kruskal-Wallis test and an independent sample t-test. Associations between variables and caries were examined using a Spearman's correlation with significance set at a p-value < 0.05. The mean age, BMI and number of DMFT were 9.21 ± 2.1 years old, 18.52 ± 4.8 kg/m2, and 4.03 ± 4.36, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI, 24% were overweight, and 9% were underweight. Twenty-three percent of subjects had no dental caries (DMFT score = 0), 23% had moderate to many caries (DMFT scores = 3.1-6.9), 22% had very many caries (DMFT scores ≥ 7), 17% had few caries (DMFT scores < 3). Overweight and underweight children did not have a significantly different number of DMFT than normal weight children. The number of DMFT did not correlate with reported sugar (R = -0.128) or carbohydrate (R = -0.174) consumption. There was no significant association between BMI and dental caries and amount of sugar and carbohydrate consumption and dental caries. PMID:27086436

  13. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and its Associated Factors in Women Aged 40–65 Years with 11 Years or More of Formal Education: A Population-Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L. R.; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M.; Osis, Maria J.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Conde, Délio M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in middle-aged women with 11 years or more of formal education. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out using an anonymous, self-response questionnaire. A total of 315 Brazilian-born women, 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of schooling, participated in the study. The instrument used in the evaluation was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was calculated from the mean score of sexual responsiveness (pleasure in sexual activities, excitation and orgasm), frequency of sexual activities and libido. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were evaluated. Poisson multiple regression analysis was carried out and the prevalence ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 35.9% among our study population. Multiple regression analysis showed that sexual dysfunction was positively associated with older age (prevalence ratios=1.04; 95%CI:1.01–1.07) and with the presence of hot flashes (prevalence ratios=1.37; 95%CI:1.04–1.80). Having a sexual partner (PR=0.47; 95%CI:0.34–0.65) and feeling well or excellent (prevalence ratios= 0.68; 95%CI: 0.52–0.88) were factors associated with lower sexual dysfunction scores. CONCLUSIONS Sexual dysfunction was present in more than one-third of women that were 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. Within that age group, older age and hot flashes were associated with higher sexual dysfunction scores, whereas feeling well and having a sexual partner were associated with better sexuality. PMID:19061000

  14. Epidemiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) among Adults and Children Aged ≥5 Years in a High HIV-Prevalence Setting, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Cheryl; Walaza, Sibongile; Moyes, Jocelyn; Groome, Michelle; Tempia, Stefano; Pretorius, Marthi; Hellferscee, Orienka; Dawood, Halima; Haffejee, Summaya; Variava, Ebrahim; Kahn, Kathleen; Tshangela, Akhona; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Cohen, Adam L.; Kgokong, Babatyi; Venter, Marietjie; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are few published studies describing severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) epidemiology amongst older children and adults from high HIV-prevalence settings. We aimed to describe SARI epidemiology amongst individuals aged ≥5 years in South Africa. Methods We conducted prospective surveillance for individuals with SARI from 2009–2012. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten viruses, and blood for pneumococcal DNA. Cumulative annual SARI incidence was estimated at one site with population denominators. Findings We enrolled 7193 individuals, 9% (621/7067) tested positive for influenza and 9% (600/6519) for pneumococcus. HIV-prevalence was 74% (4663/6334). Among HIV-infected individuals with available data, 41% of 2629 were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The annual SARI hospitalisation incidence ranged from 325-617/100,000 population. HIV-infected individuals experienced a 13–19 times greater SARI incidence than HIV-uninfected individuals (p<0.001). On multivariable analysis, compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, HIV-infected individuals were more likely to be receiving tuberculosis treatment (odds ratio (OR):1.7; 95%CI:1.1–2.7), have pneumococcal infection (OR 2.4; 95%CI:1.7–3.3) be hospitalised for >7 days rather than <2 days (OR1.7; 95%CI:1.2–2.2) and had a higher case-fatality ratio (8% vs 5%;OR1.7; 95%CI:1.2–2.3), but were less likely to be infected with influenza (OR 0.6; 95%CI:0.5–0.8). On multivariable analysis, independent risk indicators associated with death included HIV infection (OR 1.8;95%CI:1.3–2.4), increasing age-group, receiving mechanical ventilation (OR 6.5; 95%CI:1.3–32.0) and supplemental-oxygen therapy (OR 2.6; 95%CI:2.1–3.2). Conclusion The burden of hospitalized SARI amongst individuals aged ≥5 years is high in South Africa. HIV-infected individuals are the most important risk group for SARI hospitalization and mortality in this setting. PMID:25706880

  15. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667

  16. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50-1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66-1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  17. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  18. Custodial Grandmothers' Psychological Distress, Dysfunctional Parenting, and Grandchildren's Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory C.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Richardson, Rhonda A.

    2009-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model (FSM) with hypothesized linkages between family contextual factors, custodial grandmothers' psychological distress, parenting practices, and grandchildren's adjustment was tested with structural equation modeling. Interview data from 733 custodial grandmothers of grandchildren between ages 4-17 revealed that the effect of grandmothers' distress on grandchildren's adjustment was mediated by dysfunctional parenting, especially regarding externalizing problems. The effects of contextual factors on grandchildren's adjustment were also indirect. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant across grandmothers' race and age, as well as grandchildren's gender and age. Group differences were more prevalent regarding the magnitude of latent means for model constructs. We conclude that parenting models like the FSM are useful for investigating custodial grandfamilies. PMID:19266869

  19. Assessment of growth performance, immune responses, serum metabolites, and prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chicks submitted to early-age water restriction.

    PubMed

    Toghyani, Mehdi; Toghyani, Majid; Shahryar, Habib Aghdam; Zamanizad, Mehdi

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two methods of early-age water restriction on performance, some immune responses, serum metabolites, and prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chicks. One-hundred-eighty-seven-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to three treatments with four replicates based on a completely randomized design. Treatments included the control group, where birds had free access to water, and water-restricted groups, where access to water was limited to three 2-h periods (WRT1) or a 12-h period (WRT2) per day from days 7 to 17. Chicks in the control group were significantly heavier (P < 0.05) at 17 and 46 days of age compared to the restricted birds. In the WRT2 group, feed intake decreased significantly over the 17- to 28-day period while feed conversion ratio was poorer during water restriction (P < 0.05). Antibody titers against Newcastle and SRBC were higher (P < 0.05) for chicks with ad libitum access to water. Birds in the restricted groups exhibited a higher heterophil to lymphocyte ratio compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The treatments had no significant impact on serum metabolites including protein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Walking ability, tibial dyschondroplasia, foot pad, hock burn, and valgus/varus angulation were not significantly influenced by water restriction. In conclusion, the current results indicate that early-age water restriction negatively influenced productive traits and immunological responses of broiler chicks and failed to have any favorable impacts on leg health. PMID:21455695

  20. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  1. Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11 – 17 years) in Sudan and South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Atari, Dominic Odwa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in Sudan and South Sudan. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries. PMID:25404978

  2. Agent-based model forecasts aging of the population of people who inject drugs in metropolitan Chicago and changing prevalence of hepatitis C infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E.; Kaderali, Lars

    2015-09-30

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010–2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(±2)% to 36(±5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(±5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(±1) to 40(±2) with a corresponding increase from 59(±2)% to 80(±6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our research highlight the importance of analyzing sub-populations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.

  3. Agent-based model forecasts aging of the population of people who inject drugs in metropolitan Chicago and changing prevalence of hepatitis C infections

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E.; Kaderali, Lars

    2015-09-30

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID tomore » build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010–2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(±2)% to 36(±5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(±5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(±1) to 40(±2) with a corresponding increase from 59(±2)% to 80(±6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our research highlight the importance of analyzing sub-populations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.« less

  4. Stroke prevalence among the Spanish elderly: an analysis based on screening surveys

    PubMed Central

    Boix, Raquel; del Barrio, José Luis; Saz, Pedro; Reñé, Ramón; Manubens, José María; Lobo, Antonio; Gascón, Jordi; de Arce, Ana; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Bergareche, Alberto; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background This study sought to describe stroke prevalence in Spanish elderly populations and compare it against that of other European countries. Methods We identified screening surveys -both published and unpublished- in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality requirements and targeted prevalence of stroke in populations aged 70 years and over. Surveys covering seven geographically different populations with prevalence years in the period 1991–2002 were selected, and the respective authors were then asked to provide descriptions of the methodology and raw age-specific data by completing a questionnaire. In addition, five reported screening surveys in European populations furnished useful data for comparison purposes. Prevalence data were combined, using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The overall study population, resident in central and north-eastern Spain, totalled 10,647 persons and yielded 715 cases. Age-adjusted prevalences, using the European standard population, were 7.3% for men, 5.6% for women, and 6.4% for both sexes. Prevalence was significantly lower in women, OR 0.79 95% CI 0.68–0.93, increased with age, particularly among women, and displayed a threefold spatial variation with statistically significant differences. Prevalences were highest, 8.7%, in suburban, and lowest, 3.8%, in rural populations. Compared to pooled Spanish populations, statistically significant differences were seen in eight Italian populations, OR 1.39 95%CI (1.18–1.64), and in Kungsholmen, Sweden, OR 0.40 95%CI (0.27–0.58). Conclusion Prevalence in central and north-eastern Spain is higher in males and in suburban areas, and displays a threefold geographic variation, with women constituting the majority of elderly stroke sufferers. Compared to reported European data, stroke prevalence in Spain can be said to be medium and presents similar age- and sex-specific traits. PMID:17042941

  5. Association between Hypertension and the Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans. Methods A total 17,128 participants (age ≥20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70–0.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70–0.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.68–0.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63–0.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively). Conclusions Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association. PMID:26393797

  6. Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne; Clarke, Siân; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko; Lusingu, John; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. Methods and Findings Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  7. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  8. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in children in Cyprus during three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013): age distribution, seasonality and association between prevalent genotypes and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, C; Richter, J; Koliou, M; Kalogirou, N; Georgiou, E; Christodoulou, C

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized children in Cyprus over three successive seasons (2010-2013) and the association between prevalent genotypes and disease severity. RSV infections had a circulation pattern from December to March. Most RSV-positive children (83%) were aged <2 years. Genotyping of RSV isolates showed that during the first winter season of the study (2010-2011), the only RSV genotype circulating was GA2 (RSV-A), followed by genotype BA (RSV-B) in the next winter season with only few sporadic cases of GA2. During the last winter season of the study (2012-2013) the newly emerged RSV genotype ON1 (RSV-A) was virtually the only circulating genotype. Children infected with genotype ON1 suffered a significantly milder illness compared to infections with genotypes GA2 and BA with a higher percentage of BA-infected children requiring oxygen. Our findings are in contrast to the majority of published reports that suggest RSV-A causes more severe illness than RSV-B. Therefore, further investigation of the association between RSV genotypes and disease severity is required, as it might affect treatment strategies in the future. PMID:24476750

  9. Interhospital differences and case-mix in a nationwide prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, M; Ollgren, J; Lyytikäinen, O

    2010-10-01

    A prevalence survey is a time-saving and useful tool for obtaining an overview of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) either in a single hospital or nationally. Direct comparison of prevalence rates is difficult. We evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on hospital-specific prevalences. All five tertiary care, all 15 secondary care and 10 (25% of 40) other acute care hospitals took part in the first national prevalence survey in Finland in 2005. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria served to define HCAI. The information collected included demographic characteristics, severity of the underlying disease, use of catheters and a respirator, and previous surgery. Patients with HCAI related to another hospital were excluded. Case-mix-adjusted HCAI prevalences were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for HCAI risk and an indirect standardisation method. Altogether, 587 (7.2%) of 8118 adult patients had at least one infection; hospital-specific prevalences ranged between 1.9% and 12.6%. Risk factors for HCAI that were previously known or identified by univariate analysis (age, male gender, intensive care, high Charlson comorbidity and McCabe indices, respirator, central venous or urinary catheters, and surgery during stay) were included in the multivariate analysis for standardisation. Case-mix-adjusted prevalences varied between 2.6% and 17.0%, and ranked the hospitals differently from the observed rates. In 11 (38%) hospitals, the observed prevalence rank was lower than predicted by the case-mix-adjusted figure. Case-mix should be taken into consideration in the interhospital comparison of prevalence rates. PMID:20663587

  10. Prevalence of Parkinson Disease Among the Navajo; a Preliminary Examination

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Paul H.; Zhao, Hongwei; Bartley, Denise; Sims, LT James G.; Begay, Mae-Gilene; Richardson, Sarah Pirio; Lewis, Johnnye; Rowland, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of Parkinson disease (PD) varies by geographic location and ethnicity, but has never been studied among the Navajo. METHODS Period prevalence was calculated using the number of people diagnosed with PD in the Shiprock Service Unit Indian Health Service database during 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009 as the numerator, and the number seen for any reason as the denominator. Age-standardized rates were calculated using the 2000 US population. RESULTS During 2005–2009, 126 people were seen with PD (crude prevalence = 203.7/100,000 population). The age-adjusted rate was 335.9 (95% C. I. 277.8–394.0) overall, 438.5 (95% C.I. 336.5–540.5) in men and 259.7 (95% C.I. 192.8–326.7; p=0.004) in women. The adjusted rate increased with age: 788.8 (95% C.I. 652.0–925.7) for age 40 and above to 1964.9 (95% C.I. 1613.7–2316.1) for age 60 and above. Adjusted rates were 246.6 (95% C.I. 187.2–306.0) in 1995–1999 and 284.7 (95% C.I. 227.0–342.4) in 2000–2004. CONCLUSION Parkinson disease appears common among the Navajo. Estimates increased with age and time, and were higher in men. In-person interviews are needed to confirm these estimates, and to determine incidence, quality of care, and risk factors for PD among the Navajo. PMID:23938348

  11. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  12. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  13. Changes in the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, Its Risk Factors, and Their Associations as a Function of Age Cohort in a Finnish Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Toni; Sariola, Heikki; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined (1) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences as a function of cohort and gender, (2) the prevalence of factors associated with CSA as a function of cohort and whether the association of these factors with CSA remained the same irrespective of cohort, and (3) whether any cohort differences could be…

  14. Incidence and prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an HMO of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Mariela; Vicens, Jimena; Giunta, Diego Hernán; Rugiero, Marcelo; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Few epidemiological studies have been published in Latin America. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ALS in an HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) of Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina. The population studied was affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, whose distribution across age and gender strata is similar to the population of Buenos Aires. Cases were detected from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Incidence density (ID) and prevalence for ALS were estimated for the whole period and at 31 December 2010, respectively. During the seven-year study period, the crude ID estimated was 3.17 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 2.24-4.48) and the age-adjusted ID for the Buenos Aires population was 2.23 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.45-3.01). Point prevalence at 31 December 2010 was 8.86 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 4.05-13.68). Mean age at diagnosis was 72.29 years (SD 8.5). In conclusion, estimated age-adjusted ID and prevalence of ALS were similar to the incidence and prevalence rates found in other geographical areas. PMID:23834086

  15. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  16. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  17. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among immigrant Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Mora, Dana C; Miles, Christopher M; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    This paper evaluates the variability in the prevalence of epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, low back pain, and lower extremity pathology among immigrant Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Data were collected from a study among 272 farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Participants were recruited in eastern and central North Carolina. A physical examination was conducted by trained physicians. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Latino manual workers is high compared with other workers in similar occupations. Non-farmworkers (49%) had a higher prevalence of MSDs than farmworkers (35%). Epicondylitis (20.2%) and rotator cuff syndrome (19.1%) were most prevalent. Age was found to be significant among those who had epicondylitis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04) and lower extremity pathology (AOR = 1.07). Latino immigrant manual workers have high prevalence of MSDs. Further studies are needed to identify possible factors that make these populations more vulnerable to MSDs. PMID:25454715

  18. Prevalence and distribution of cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) among the aged population and the analysis of socio-demographic characteristics: the community-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ma; Qu, Yi Cheng; Wang, Ting; Yin, Jiong; Bai, Jing Xu; Ding, Qi Han

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology on "cognitive impairment no dementia" (CIND) and its natural history are of great importance for understanding the transition from normal aging to dementia. Epidemiologic studies of CIND, however, are limited in China. The goal of our study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of CIND in the aged population and analyze socio-demographic factors. To accomplish this, we performed cluster random sampling of 6192 people aged over 65 years in Taiyuan, a metropolitan city located in northern China. Socio-demographic factors were surveyed by self-administered questionnaires. Neuropsychologic testing consisting of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Boston Naming Test, Trail Making Tests A and B, Block Design, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Visual Reproduction, Logical Memory, letter and category fluency, the National Adult Reading Test, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the "state" section of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was also obtained. Pearson chi statistics and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the relationship between CIND and socio-demographic factors. Logistic regression modeling was undertaken to identify potential risk factors. Results showed that an overall prevalence of CIND was 9.70% (95% confidence intervals: 9.62%-9.77%). Univariate analyses showed that the prevalence of CIND differed significantly according to age, sex, education level, monthly household income, and marital status (P<0.01), but not by occupational achievement (P>0.05). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, age, sex, marital status, educational level, and occupation were significantly associated with increased risk for CIND (P<0.01). This study confirms the high prevalence of CIND among the elderly population of China, similar to previous epidemiologic studies in other countries. Nearly all socio-demographic characteristics are associated with CIND. The putative risk factors identified merit further study. PMID

  19. Iron status in Danes 1994. II: Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload in 1319 Danish women aged 40-70 years. Influence of blood donation, alcohol intake and iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Iron status, i.e. serum ferritin and haemoglobin (Hb) levels, was assessed in a population survey in 1994 (Dan-Monica 10) comprising 1319 Caucasian Danish women in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60 and 70 years. In the entire series, ferritin levels increased significantly from 40 years to 60 years of age. The prevalence of small iron stores (ferritin 16-32 microg/l), depleted iron stores (ferritin < 16 microg/l) and of iron deficiency anaemia (ferritin < 13 microg/l and Hb < 121 g/l) decreased steadily with age. Blood donors (n = 109) had lower ferritin levels than non-donors (P<0.0001). Ferritin levels in donors were inversely correlated with the cumulated number of lifetime phlebotomies (r(s) = -0.25, P<0.01). Ferritin levels in non-donors (n = 1208) were low in 40-year-old women (median 40 microg/l) and increased to a median of 95 microg/l in 60- and 70-year-old women (P<0.0001). In non-donors 40 years of age, the prevalence of small iron stores was 40.4%, the prevalence of depleted iron stores 10.8% and the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia 2.16%. The prevalence of iron overload (ferritin >300 microg/l) was 1.54%. Ferritin levels in 60- and 70-year-old non-donors were correlated with the body mass index (r(s) =0.11, P=0.01). Ferritin levels in 50- to 60-year-old non-donors were correlated with alcohol intake (r(s)=0.23, P<0.0001). In the entire series, 37.5% of non-donors took supplemental ferrous iron (median 14 mg iron per day). Iron supplements had a significant positive influence on iron status in 40-year-old premenopausal non-donors but no effect in postmenopausal women or in donors. Non-donors (n = 170) treated with acetylsalicylic acid had lower ferritin levels (median 55 microg/l) than non-treated (n = 1038; median 75 microg/l) (P<0.0001). Compared with the Dan-Monica 1 iron status survey in 1984, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia was unchanged, whereas the prevalence of iron overload displayed a slight increase. The 1987

  20. Prevalence and incidence of blindness and other degrees of sight impairment in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well-defined region of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, M; Lee, A; Mohamed, Q; Fletcher, E; Sallam, A; Healy, R; Stratton, I; Tufail, A; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of blindness, sight impairment, and other visual acuity (VA) states in patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Gloucestershire. Methods Serial VA and injection data for all treatment-naive patients receiving their first intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for nAMD in the Gloucestershire National Health Service Ophthalmology department between 2008 and 2010 were extracted from an electronic medical record system. Results The prevalence of blindness (VA in the better-seeing eye ≤25 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters) at the time of first intravitreal injection was 0.8%, increasing to 3.5% after 3 years. The prevalence of sight impairment (VA in the better-seeing eye 26–39 ETDRS letters) increased from 4.1% at baseline to 5.5% after 3 years. The incidence of initiating ranibizumab treatment for nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 111 people per 100 000 population in 2009, and 97 people in 2010. The incidence of patients meeting the visual criteria for blindness and sight impairment registration from treated nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 3.5 and 9.7 people, respectively per 100 000 population in 2010. Conclusion This is the first real-world study on the incidence and prevalence of eligibility for blindness and sight impairment registration in treated nAMD in the UK based on VA data. The incidence and prevalence of eligibility for certification of blindness or sight impairment in patients treated with ranibizumab for nAMD is low in Gloucestershire, with only 3.6% of the incident population progressing to blindness in 2010. PMID:25592123

  1. Analysis of the prevalence of and factors associated with urinary incontinence among elderly people in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil: SABE Study (Health, Wellbeing and Aging).

    PubMed

    Tamanini, José Tadeu Nunes; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda A O; Santos, Jair L F; Laurenti, Ruy

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among elderly people living in São Paulo, Brazil and their associated risk factors. The Pan-American Health Organization and World Health Organization coordinated a multicenter study named Health, Wellbeing and Aging (SABE Study) in elderly people (over 60 years old) living in seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. In Brazil, the study was carried out in São Paulo in the year 2000. The total Brazilian sample included 2,143 people. The prevalence of self reported urinary incontinence was 11.8% among men and 26.2% for women. It was verified that among those reporting urinary incontinence, 37% also reported stroke and 34% depression. It was found that the greater the dependence that the elderly people presented, the greater the prevalence of urinary incontinence. The associated factors found were depression (odds ratio = 2.49), female (2.42), advanced age (2.35), important functional limitation (2.01). Urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom among the elderly population of the municipality of São Paulo, especially among women. The adoption of preventive measures can reduce the negative effects of urinary incontinence. PMID:19649416

  2. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  3. Adjusting for dependent comorbidity in the calculation of healthy life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, Colin D; Iburg, Kim M; Begg, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy – sometimes called health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) – is a form of health expectancy indicator that extends measures of life expectancy to account for the distribution of health states in the population. The World Health Organization has estimated healthy life expectancy for 192 WHO Member States using information from health interview surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The latter estimates loss of health by cause, age and sex for populations. Summation of prevalent years lived with disability (PYLD) across all causes would result in overestimation of the severity of the population average health state because of comorbidity between conditions. Earlier HALE calculations made adjustments for independent comorbidity in adding PYLD across causes. This paper presents a method for adjusting for dependent comorbidity using available empirical data. Methods Data from five large national health surveys were analysed by age and sex to estimate "dependent comorbidity" factors for pairs of conditions. These factors were defined as the ratio of the prevalence of people with both conditions to the product of the two total prevalences for each of the conditions. The resulting dependent comorbidity factors were used for all Member States to adjust for dependent comorbidity in summation of PYLD across all causes and in the calculation of HALE. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out for order effects in the proposed calculation method. Results There was surprising consistency in the dependent comorbidity factors across the five surveys. The improved estimation of dependent comorbidity resulted in reductions in total PYLD per capita ranging from a few per cent in younger adult ages to around 8% in the oldest age group (80 years and over) in developed countries and up to 15% in the oldest age group in the least developed countries. The effect of the dependent comorbidity adjustment on estimated healthy life

  4. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from the Age Range of 2 to 19 Years Old in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Niehues, Janaina R.; Gonzales, Ana Inês; Lemos, Robson R.; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013): Medline (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity) and (overweight) and (child) and (prevalence) and (Brazil). Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7%) and north (28.8%) of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4%) and south (10.4%). Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory. PMID:24995019

  5. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from the age range of 2 to 19 years old in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina R; Gonzales, Ana Inês; Lemos, Robson R; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013): Medline (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity) and (overweight) and (child) and (prevalence) and (Brazil). Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7%) and north (28.8%) of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4%) and south (10.4%). Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory. PMID:24995019

  6. Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Bartholomew, Michael L; Cheek, James E; Rowland, Andrew S

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unstudied among American Indians. Unique populations might harbor clues to elusive causes. We describe the incidence and prevalence of PD among Navajo people residing in the Navajo Nation, home to the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. We analyzed 2001-2011 inpatient and outpatient visit data for Navajo people obtained from the Indian Health Service, which provides health care to American Indian people living on the Navajo Reservation. Cases were defined by at least two inpatient or outpatient visits with the diagnosis of PD. Crude and age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated overall as well as by age, sex, region of residence, and time period. Five hundred twenty-four Navajo people with median age-at-onset of 74.0 years were diagnosed with PD during the study period, yielding an average annual crude incidence rate of 22.5/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 232.0 for patients 65 years of age or older and 302.0 for 80 years of age or older. Age-adjusted incidence was 35.9 overall (238.1 for ≥65 years), was higher in men than in women (47.5 vs. 27.7; P<0.001), varied by region (P=0.03), and was similar between time periods (2002-2004 vs. 2009-2011). The age-adjusted point prevalence rate was 261.0. The rate of PD among Navajo People appears to be as high as or higher than rates reported in many other populations. Rates increased to the highest age group, consistent with population-based studies. Further investigation is warranted to examine risk factors for PD in this remote population. PMID:25649219

  7. Prevalence of Head and Neck Tumors in Children under 12 Years of Age Referred to the Pathology Department of Children’s Hospital in Tabriz during a 10-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Shirin; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Mahmoudi, Seyed Mostafa; Emamverdizadeh, Parya; Noorazar, Seyed Gholamreza; Yasamineh, Neda; Lotfi, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Head and neck tumors are the most common complaints of people referring to different medical sections, especially in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of these tumors in children less than 12 years of age to provide a better perspective for future studies. Materials and methods. All the files in Department of Pathology at Tabriz Pediatric Hospital from 2001 to 2011 were screened for head and neck tumors in children under 12 years of age. Data including age and gender as well as the type, the location, and benign/malignant characteristic of the tumor were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 statistical software, using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results. A total of 160 cases were identified. Most of the tumors were benign (68%) and most of the tumors occurred in the neck region (41%). The most frequent benign and malignant tumors were lymphangioma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively. The majority of benign tumors were found in children younger than 2 years old (P=0.007), but there was no age predilection for malignant tumors. Conclusion. According to our results, benign tumors were more prevalent than malignant ones. Although a low rate of benign tumors in males shows that more attention should be paid to the early diagnosis of head and neck tumors. PMID:26236435

  8. Prevalence of sensory and cognitive disabilities and falls, and their relationships: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Gauchard, Gérome C; Deviterne, Dominique; Guillemin, Francis; Sanchez, Jésus; Perrin, Philippe P; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Chau, Nearkasen

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of sensory and cognitive disabilities and falls for various age groups, sexes, and socio-occupational categories, and their associations in the Lorraine population. The sample included 6,159 subjects, aged 15 years or more, randomly selected from the Lorraine population. They filled in a mailed questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, job, falls with physical injuries at the time of the survey, and sensory and cognitive disabilities. Data analysis was made via the adjusted odds ratios. The prevalences of sensory and cognitive disabilities were 3.0 and 4.7%, respectively, that of falls with physical injuries 2.4%: 1.2% for falls on the same level and 1.2% for falls to a lower level. Subjects aged over 70 were markedly affected, but the other age groups had relatively high prevalences as well; the workmen had the highest prevalence, followed by the foremen, farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, and employees. A twofold risk independently of age, sex and job was found for the subjects with sensory or cognitive disabilities for all falls combined. These findings show the high prevalences of sensory and cognitive disabilities and falls with physical injuries, and their strong associations in the general population. Preventive measures are needed to detect and follow up the persons with these disabilities, limit their risk of falls and reduce occupational hazards. PMID:16374036

  9. Prescription Errors in Older Individuals with an Intellectual Disability: Prevalence and Risk Factors in the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Rianne J.; van der Kaaij, Annemieke D. M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing pharmacotherapy for older individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) is a complex process, possibly leading to an increased risk of prescription errors. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of older individuals with an intellectual disability with at least one prescription error and (2) to identify…

  10. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  11. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  12. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  13. Asymptomatic rotavirus infections in England: prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gemma; Lopman, Ben; Rodrigues, Laura C; Tam, Clarence C

    2010-05-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of infectious intestinal disease in young children; a substantial prevalence of asymptomatic infection has been reported across all age groups. In this study, the authors determined characteristics of asymptomatic rotavirus infection and potential risk factors for infection. Healthy persons were recruited at random from the general population of England during the Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in England (1993-1996). Rotavirus infection was identified using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare exposures reported by participants with rotavirus infection with those of participants who tested negative. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing responses in the data set. The age-adjusted prevalence of asymptomatic rotavirus infection was 11%; prevalence was highest in children under age 18 years. Attendance at day care was a risk factor for asymptomatic rotavirus infection in children under age 5 years; living in a household with a baby that was still in diapers was a risk factor in older adults. The results suggest that asymptomatic rotavirus infection is transmitted through the same route as rotavirus infectious intestinal disease: person-to-person contact. More work is needed to understand the role of asymptomatic infections in transmission leading to rotavirus disease. PMID:20392863

  14. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  15. Prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Hogan, K; Hankins, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked seroprevalence study. SETTING: Newfoundland. PATIENTS: A total of 14911 women receiving prenatal care or undergoing an abortion, representing nearly all pregnancies in Newfoundland from Nov. 1, 1991, to Oct. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, as determined by enzyme immunoassay of leftover serum samples (initially obtained for routine screening) and confirmation of reactive samples by the Western blot technique, health region of residence, and age group. RESULTS: Of the 14911 serum samples 13 were positive for HIV, for an overall crude prevalence rate of 1 per 1147 or 8.7 per 10000 pregnant women (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7 to 14.9). Seven of the positive samples were from women residing in the Eastern Health Region of the province, for a crude prevalence rate of 1 per 376 or 26.6 per 10000 pregnant women (95% CI 10.7 to 54.8) for that region. All women found to be HIV positive were 15 to 29 years of age, the peak prevalence (20.8 per 10000 pregnant women [95% CI 9.5 to 39.4]) was observed among those 20 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence rate of 8.7 per 10 000 pregnant women in Newfoundland is the highest provincial rate recorded among those from similar studies in Canada. Although it may be concluded that there are an estimated 125 HIV-positive women of childbearing age in Newfoundland (95% CI 67 to 213), the age-adjusted estimate is 84 (95% CI 36 to 131). This study provides an independent confirmation of an outbreak of HIV infection among women in the Eastern Health Region of the province. PMID:8625023

  16. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  17. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.

    PubMed

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224

  18. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and its correlates among men attending primary care clinics in three countries: Pakistan, Egypt, and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shaeer, K Z M; Osegbe, D N; Siddiqui, S H; Razzaque, A; Glasser, D B; Jaguste, V

    2003-04-01

    The prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction (ED) in developing countries are largely unknown. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of ED in three countries (Pakistan, Egypt, Nigeria) that represent very different cultures. Men 35-70y of age seeking primary medical care answered a structured questionnaire adapted to reflect local cultures. Degree of ED was categorized as 'none,' 'mild,' 'moderate,' or 'complete.' The age-adjusted prevalence rates of ED among men attending primary care clinics was 57.4% in Nigeria, 63.6% in Egypt, and 80.8% in Pakistan. Older age, diabetes, peptic ulcers, prostate disease, depression-related symptoms, and caffeine consumption were independently associated with increased prevalence of ED, whereas being moderately active to very active at work (hard physical labor) and during leisure time (strenuous exercise) was associated with half the prevalence of moderate-to-complete ED. Our multicultural study demonstrates that in every country studied, high proportions of men older than age 35 have some degree of ED (57-81%). Both severity and prevalence increase consistently with age. Factors associated with ED are similar, but their distribution differs across countries. PMID:12825103

  19. Scabies and Impetigo Prevalence and Risk Factors in Fiji: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Lucia; Koroivueta, Josefa; Steer, Andrew C.; Kama, Mike; Kaldor, John M.; Wand, Handan; Hamid, Mohammed; Whitfeld, Margot J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scabies is recognised as a major public health problem in many countries, and is responsible for significant morbidity due to secondary bacterial infection of the skin causing impetigo, abscesses and cellulitis, that can in turn lead to serious systemic complications such as septicaemia, kidney disease and, potentially, rheumatic heart disease. Despite the apparent burden of disease in many countries, there have been few large-scale surveys of scabies prevalence or risk factors. We undertook a population-based survey in Fiji of scabies and impetigo to evaluate the magnitude of the problem and inform public health strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 75 communities, including villages and settlements in both urban and rural areas, were randomly selected from 305 communities across the four administrative divisions, and all residents in each location were invited to participate in skin examination by trained personnel. The study enrolled 10,887 participants. The prevalence of scabies was 23.6%, and when adjusted for age structure and geographic location based on census data, the estimated national prevalence was 18.5%. The prevalence was highest in children aged five to nine years (43.7%), followed by children aged less than five (36.5%), and there was also an indication of prevalence increasing again in older age. The prevalence of scabies was twice as high in iTaukei (indigenous) Fijians compared to Indo-Fijians. The prevalence of impetigo was 19.6%, with a peak in children aged five to nine years (34.2%). Scabies was very strongly associated with impetigo, with an estimated 93% population attributable risk. Conclusions As far as we are aware, this is the first national survey of scabies and impetigo ever conducted. We found that scabies occurs at high levels across all age groups, ethnicities, and geographical locations. Improved strategies are urgently needed to achieve control of scabies and its complications in endemic communities

  20. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kathleen N; Kim, Andrea A; Umuro, Mamo; Drobenuic, Jan; Williamson, John M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry S; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2016-08-01

    Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI was 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4-3.1%), corresponding to approximately 398,000 (CI = 261,000-602,000) with CHBI. CHBI is a major public health problem in Kenya, affecting approximately 400,000 persons. Knowing the HBV infection prevalence at baseline is important for planning and public health policy decision making and for monitoring the impact of viral hepatitis prevention programs. PMID:27273644

  1. Prevalence of Lebanese stroke survivors: A comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lahoud, Nathalie; Salameh, Pascale; Saleh, Nadine; Hosseini, Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its late burden has mainly been attributable to developing countries. Lebanon is one of these countries where epidemiological studies on stroke burden are scarce but necessary. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of stroke survivors among Lebanese inhabitants. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using randomly selected landline phone numbers on all governorates to retrieve data on stroke survivors and their sociodemographic characteristics. Results were then standardized over the Lebanese and the World Health Organization (WHO) world populations. A total of 6963 Lebanese inhabitants were included in the study; among these were 56 stroke survivors. This led to an adjusted stroke prevalence of 0.50% [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33-0.66%] and a world-standardized prevalence of 0.60% (95% CI=0.42-0.78%). A significantly higher stroke prevalence was found among older age groups and more socioeconomically privileged areas. Overall, the study showed a relatively higher prevalence of stroke in this sample of Lebanese inhabitants when compared to other developing countries. However, larger community-based studies with a clinical assessment of stroke cases are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26599284

  2. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela: a population-based study (DENSA).

    PubMed

    Morillo, L E; Díaz, J; Estevez, E; Costa, A; Méndez, H; Dávila, H; Medero, N; Rodriguez, N; Chaves, M; Vinueza, R; Ortiz, J A; Glasser, D B

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. A 49-item questionnaire was completed by 1946 men aged 40 years and older. The age-adjusted combined prevalence of minimal, moderate, and complete ED for all three countries was 53.4%, with 19.8% of all men reporting moderate to complete ED. Age was the variable most strongly linked to ED; the prevalence of complete ED increased markedly in men older than 79 y of age (31.9%) and 70-79 y (17.2%) compared with men aged 40-49 y (<3%). Several medical conditions, such as hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and diabetes, and the use of medications to treat these conditions were correlated with the prevalence of ED. This study corroborates earlier studies demonstrating that ED is very common, increases dramatically with age, and has multiple correlates, including some that are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:12161763

  3. Diabetes prevalence is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in US middle-aged Caucasian men and women: a cross-sectional analysis within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Fraser, David R; Ke, Liang; Tseng, Marilyn; Mason, Rebecca S; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Freedman, D Michal; Ahn, Jiyoung; Peters, Ulrike; McCarty, Catherine; Hollis, Bruce W; Ziegler, Regina G; Purdue, Mark P; Graubard, Barry I

    2011-08-01

    Hypovitaminosis D may be associated with diabetes, hypertension and CHD. However, because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca were collected from a baseline questionnaire. Results indicated that serum levels of 25(OH)D were low (< 50 nmol/l) in 29 % and very low (< 37 nmol/l) in 11 % of subjects. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and CHD was 7, 30 and 10 %, respectively. After adjustment for confounding by sex, geographical location, educational level, smoking history, BMI, physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥ 80 nmol/l were half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0·5 (95 % CI 0·3, 0·9)) compared with those who had 25(OH)D < 37 nmol/l. Those in the highest quartile of 1,25(OH)(2)D (≥ 103 pmol/l) were less than half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0·3 (95 % CI 0·1, 0·7)) than those in the lowest quartile (< 72 pmol/l). In conclusion, the independent associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D with diabetes prevalence in a large population are new findings, and thus warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies. PMID:21736838

  4. QuickStats: Prevalence* of Abnormal Cholesterol(†) Levels Among Young Persons Aged 6-19 Years, by Sex and Weight Status(§) - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    During 2011-2014, 21.0% of young persons aged 6-19 years had at least one of the three indicators of abnormal cholesterol. A larger percentage of persons categorized as obese (43.3%) had abnormal cholesterol than persons categorized as normal weight or overweight (13.8% and 22.3%, respectively). This pattern was found for both males and females. There were no significant differences between males and females in the prevalences of abnormal cholesterol within each of the weight status groups (e.g., males with obesity compared with females with obesity). PMID:27336214

  5. Prevalence of anemia and deficiency of iron, folic acid, and zinc in children younger than 2 years of age who use the health services provided by the Mexican Social Security Institute

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Ximena; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Muñoz, Sergio; Turnbull, Bernardo; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Ramos, Rosa I; González-Unzaga, Marco; Mendoza, María E; Martínez, Homero

    2007-01-01

    Background In Mexico, as in other developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are common in infants between 6 and 24 months of age and are an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and of iron, folic acid, and zinc deficiencies in Mexican children under 2 years of age who use the health care services provided by the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS). Methods A nationwide survey was conducted with a representative sample of children younger than 2 years of age, beneficiaries, and users of health care services provided by IMSS through its regular regimen (located in urban populations) and its Oportunidades program (services offered in rural areas). A subsample of 4,955 clinically healthy children was studied to determine their micronutrient status. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent of transferrin saturation, zinc, and folic acid. Descriptive statistics include point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the sample and projections for the larger population from which the sample was drawn. Results Twenty percent of children younger than 2 years of age had anemia, and 27.8% (rural) to 32.6% (urban) had iron deficiency; more than 50% of anemia was not associated with low ferritin concentrations. Iron stores were more depleted as age increased. Low serum zinc and folic acid deficiencies were 28% and 10%, respectively, in the urban areas, and 13% and 8%, respectively, in rural areas. The prevalence of simultaneous iron and zinc deficiencies was 9.2% and 2.7% in urban and rural areas. Children with anemia have higher percentages of folic acid deficiency than children with normal iron status. Conclusion Iron and zinc deficiencies constitute the principal micronutrient deficiencies in Mexican children younger than 2 years old who use the health care services provided by IMSS. Anemia not associated with low ferritin values was more prevalent than

  6. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  7. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  8. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

    PubMed

    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child <5 years of age was assessed with multivariate logistic regression adjusting for socioeconomic status, residence type, mother's age and education, family size, child's age and sex, immunization status and received vitamin A supplementation. Moderate levels (level 3) of practice and experience were associated with decreased diarrheal risk (adjusted OR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.75-0.98), but not for ARTIs. Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children <2 years of age. Maternal caretaking, especially agency, is strongly associated with lower prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in younger children. Interventions specifically designed to promote maternal autonomy and decision-making may lead to improved child health. PMID:25108503

  9. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  10. Ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940-1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, E; Silverstein, M; Sandborn, W; Tremaine, W; Harmsen, W; Zinsmeister, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—There is significant geographic variation in the reported incidence of ulcerative colitis.
AIMS—To update the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, examine temporal trends, and determine overall survival.
PATIENTS—All Olmsted County residents diagnosed with ulcerative colitis between 1940 and 1993 (incidence cases), and all residents with ulcerative colitis alive on 1 January 1991 (prevalence cases).
METHODS—Incidence and prevalence rates were adjusted using 1990 US census figures for whites. The effects of age, sex, and calendar year on incidence rates were evaluated using Poisson regression. Survival from diagnosis was compared with that expected for US north-central whites.
RESULTS—Between 1940 and 1993, 278 incidence cases were identified, for an adjusted incidence rate of 7.6 cases per 100 000 person years (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.7 to 8.5). On 1 January 1991, there were 218 residents with definite or probable ulcerative colitis, for an adjusted prevalence rate of 229 cases per 100 000 (95% CI, 198 to 260). Increased incidence rates were associated with later calendar years (p<0.002), younger age (p<0.0001), urban residence (p<0.0001), and male sex (p<0.003). Overall survival was similar to that expected (p>0.2).
CONCLUSIONS—The overall incidence rate of ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County increased until the 1970s, and remained stable thereafter. Incidence rates among men and urban residents were significantly higher. The prevalence rate in Rochester in 1991 was 19% higher than that in 1980. Overall survival was similar to that of the general population.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; incidence; prevalence; survival; prognosis; epidemiology PMID:10673294

  11. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws

  12. The prevalence of epigastric bruit.

    PubMed

    McSherry, J A

    1979-03-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of an epigastric bruit in a family practice population.Auscultation of the abdomen in the supine position was carried out on 567 consecutive unselected patients. A systolic bruit, localized to the epigastrium, was heard in 80 patients, none of whom had symptoms of intra-abdominal vascular disorder.The results are tabulated by age and sex, and show statistically significant differences in prevalence between males and females of similar ages, and also between different age groups of the same sex. The highest prevalence is in females aged between 10 and 34 years and no significant difference is found between pregnant and non-pregnant females of comparable age. PMID:541792

  13. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    PubMed

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  14. Prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Europe: the EUROPARKINSON Collaborative Study. European Community Concerted Action on the Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    de Rijk, M C; Tzourio, C; Breteler, M M; Dartigues, J F; Amaducci, L; Lopez-Pousa, S; Manubens-Bertran, J M; Alpérovitch, A; Rocca, W A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in five European populations that were surveyed with similar methodology and diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Joint analysis of five community surveys--Gironde (France), eight centres in Italy, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Girona (Spain), and Pamplona (Spain)--in which subjects were screened in person for parkinsonism. Overall, these surveys comprised 14,636 participants aged 65 years or older. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (per 100 population), age adjusted to the 1991 European standard population, was 2.3 for parkinsonism and 1.6 for Parkinson's disease. The overall prevalence of parkinsonism for the age groups 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and 85 to 89 years was respectively, 0.9, 1.5, 3.7, 5.0, and 5.1. The corresponding age specific figures for Parkinson's disease were 0.6, 1.0, 2.7, 3.6, and 3.5. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence figures did not differ significantly across studies, except for the French study in which prevalence was lower. Prevalence was similar in men and women. Overall, 24% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease were newly detected through the surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of both parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease increased with age, without significant differences between men and women. There was no convincing evidence for differences in prevalence across European countries. A substantial proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease went undetected in the general population. PMID:9010393

  15. Shared Sanitation and the Prevalence of Diarrhea in Young Children: Evidence from 51 Countries, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, James A.; Clasen, Thomas; Heijnen, Marieke; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Shared sanitation is defined as unimproved because of concerns that it creates unsanitary conditions; this policy is being reconsidered. We assessed whether sharing a toilet facility was associated with an increased prevalence of diarrhea among children < 5 years of age. We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 51 countries. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for diarrhea, comparing children from households that used a shared facility with children from households that used a non-shared facility, were estimated for each country and pooled across countries. Unadjusted PRs varied across countries, ranging from 2.15 to 0.65. The pooled PR was 1.09; differences in socioeconomic status explained approximately half of this increased prevalence (adjusted PR = 1.05). Shared sanitation appears to be a risk factor for diarrhea although differences in socioeconomic status are important. The heterogeneity across countries, however, suggests that the social and economic context is an important factor. PMID:24865679

  16. Choosing a standard for adjusted mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, F

    1996-01-01

    For over half a century, the standard for age-adjustment in mortality studies has been based on the total population according to the 1940 census. The question periodically arises, however, whether a more recent census population might now be more appropriate. Thus, a study using the six censuses from 1940 to 1990 was conducted to see the effect each of these populations would have on the age-adjusted (standardized) death rates. While the size of the age-adjusted rates was affected by the censal standard populations from 1940 to 1990, these populations hardly changed the proportional mortality by age, sex, cause-of-death and geographic area. It appears that a shift from the 1940 standard will not be necessary, although if more detailed comparisons are needed, age-specific death rates can always be used. The 1940 standard also has the advantage of being consistent with many earlier studies. PMID:8744891

  17. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lazio region, Italy: use of an algorithm based on health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Anna Maria; Colais, Paola; Agabiti, Nera; Mayer, Flavia; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Di Folco, Marta; Filippini, Graziella; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Giuliani, Manuela; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Nociti, Viviana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Compared with other areas of the country, very limited data are available on multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Central Italy. We aimed to estimate MS prevalence in the Lazio region and its geographical distribution using regional health information systems (HIS). To identify MS cases we used data from drug prescription, hospital discharge and ticket exemption registries. Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence estimates on December 31, 2011 were calculated. To compare MS prevalence between different areas within the region, we calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios using a multivariate Poisson regression model. Crude prevalence rate was 130.5/100,000 (95 % CI 127.5-133.5): 89.7/100,000 for males and 167.9/100,000 for females. The overall prevalence rate standardized to the European Standard Population was 119.6/100,000 (95 % CI 116.8-122.4). We observed significant differences in MS prevalence within the region, with estimates ranging from 96.3 (95 % CI 86.4-107.3) for Latina to 169.6 (95 % CI 147.6-194.9) for Rieti. Most districts close to the coast showed lower prevalence estimates compared to those situated in the eastern mountainous area of the region. In conclusion, this study produced a MS prevalence estimate at regional level using population-based health administrative databases. Our results showed the Lazio region is a high-risk area for MS, although with an uneven geographical distribution. While some limitations must be considered including possible prevalence underestimation, HIS represent a valuable source of information to measure the burden of SM, useful for epidemiological surveillance and healthcare planning. PMID:26886201

  18. Iron status in Danes updated 1994. I: prevalence of iron deficiency and iron overload in 1332 men aged 40-70 years. Influence Of blood donation, alcohol intake, and iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Ovesen, L; Byg, K; Graudal, N

    1999-09-01

    Iron status, S-ferritin, and hemoglobin (Hb) were assessed in a population survey in 1994 (DAN-MONICA 10) comprising 1332 Caucasian Danish men equally distributed in age cohorts of 40, 50, 60 and 70 years. Blood donors (n=186) had lower S-ferritin, median 76 microg/l, than nondonors, median 169 microg/l (p<0.0001). S-ferritin in donors was inversely correlated with the number of phlebotomies (r(s)=-0.57, p<0.0001). S-ferritin in nondonors (n=1146) was similar in men 40-60 years of age, median 176 microg/l, and subsequently decreased at 70 years of age to a median of 146 microg/l (p=0.01). In the entire series, the prevalence of small iron stores (S-ferritin 16-32 microg/l) was 2.7%, that of depleted iron stores (S-ferritin <16 microg/l) 0.45%, and that of iron deficiency anemia (S-ferritin <13 microg/l and Hb <129 g/l) 0.15%. Among nondonors, the prevalence of iron overload (S-ferritin >300 microg/l) was 20%. S-ferritin in nondonors correlated with body mass index (r(s)=0.19, p=0.0001) and with alcohol intake (r(s)=0.26, p=0.0001). In the entire series, 28% of the subjects took supplemental iron (median 14 mg ferrous iron daily). Iron supplements had no influence on iron status. Nondonors (n=170) treated with acetylsalicylic acid had lower S-ferritin, median 136 microg/l, than nontreated, median 169 microg/l (p<0.001) and those treated with H(2)-receptor antagonists (n=30) had lower S-ferritin, median 142 microg/l, than nontreated, median 171 microg/l (p<0.04). Compared with the DAN-MONICA 1 iron status survey of Danish men in 1984, the prevalences of iron depletion and iron deficiency anemia are unchanged whereas the prevalence of iron overload has increased significantly. In Denmark, iron fortification of flour was abolished in 1987. This apparently had no negative effect on iron status in men. PMID:10525826

  19. Radiation exposure, young age, and female gender are associated with high prevalence of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 in papillary thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuan; Li, Zhaoqu; He, Caiyun; Chen, Weichao; Fu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ankui

    2016-01-01

    Background RET/PTC rearrangements have been identified as a specific genetic event in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We conducted this meta-analysis to identify an enriched population who were more likely to occur RET/PTC fusion genes. Methods All relevant studies in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched up to June 2015. The studies found were screened according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. All analyses were performed using STATA software. Results Eventually, 38 eligible studies comprising 2395 participants were included. Overall analysis indicated that radiation exposure contributed to increased RET/PTC risk (OR = 2.82; 95%CI: 1.38–5.78, P = 0.005). Stratified analysis according to RET/PTC subtype and geographical area showed that this association was restricted to the RET/PTC3 subtype (OR = 8.30, 95%CI: 4.32–15.96, P < 0.001) in the Western population. In addition, age < 18 years, i.e., young age, was associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC3 (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.14–3.62, P = 0.017), especially in the radiation-exposure subpopulation (OR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.01–5.49, P = 0.048). The association between female gender and RET/PTC1 risk was more significant in the PTC patients without radiation exposure (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.04–2.74, P = 0.034). Conclusion Both radiation exposure and young age are associated with increased risk of RET/PTC3 and that female gender is associated with higher prevalence of RET/PTC1 in the subpopulation without radiation exposure. The RET/PTC status in combination with radiation exposure, age, and sex should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspicious PTC. PMID:26918339

  20. Prevalence of asthma in Portugal - The Portuguese National Asthma Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a frequent chronic respiratory disease in both children and adults. However, few data on asthma prevalence are available in Portugal. The Portuguese National Asthma Survey is the first nationwide study that uses standardized methods. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in the Portuguese population and to assess the association between ‘Current asthma’ and comorbidities such as upper airways disease. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based, telephone interview survey including all municipalities of Portugal was undertaken. Participants were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire based on the Portuguese version of the GA2LEN survey. ‘Current asthma’ was defined as self-reported lifetime asthma and at least one of 3 symptoms in the last 12 months: wheezing, waking with breathlessness or having an asthma attack. Results Data were obtained for 6 003 respondents, with mean age of 38.9 (95%CI 38.2-39.6) years and 57.3% females. In the Portuguese population, the prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ was 6.8% (95%CI 6.0-7.7) and of ‘Lifetime asthma’ was 10.5% (95%CI 9.5-11.6) Using GA2LEN definition for asthma, our prevalence estimate was 7.8% (95%CI 7.0-8.8). Rhinitis had a strong association with asthma (Adjusted OR 3.87, 95%CI 2.90-5.18) and the association between upper airway diseases and asthma was stronger in patients with both rhinitis and sinusitis (Adjusted OR 13.93, 95%CI 6.60-29.44). Conclusions Current asthma affects 695 000 Portuguese, with a prevalence of 6.8%. People who reported both rhinitis and sinusitis had the highest risk of having asthma. PMID:22931550

  1. Association between direct and indirect smoking and osteoarthritis prevalence in Koreans: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyungrae; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between smoking patterns and knee and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older with focus on knee OA. Design Cross-sectional study using nationally representative data. Setting Data were collected at portable Health Examination Centres in Korea. Participants Data of 9064 participants of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012) aged 50 years or older who received knee or hip joint X-rays out of 31 596 total surveyees were analysed. Primary outcome measures OA prevalence by smoking behaviour (current smoking, past smoking, indirect smoking and non-smoking). Secondary outcome measures Estimated risk of OA by smoking amount, period, pack-years and indirect smoking exposure time to assess the association between smoking-related factors and knee OA by calculating ORs and adjusting for covariates in a complex sampling design. A multinomial logistic regression analysis and backward elimination method was used. Results OA prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older was 13.9%, with prevalence about 3.5 times higher in women (men 5.7%, women 20.1%). ORs for knee and hip joint OA prevalence by smoking behaviour in male indirect-smokers were lower than those in non-smokers in age and sex (OR 0.271; 95% CI 0.088 to 0.828), and selective adjustments (OR 0.314; 95% CI 0.102 to 0.966). All other analyses for smoking behaviour and total OA prevalence, and knee OA prevalence were not significantly different. Associations between smoking amount, period, pack-years and knee OA prevalence were non-significant in ever-smokers. Associations between indirect smoking exposure time and knee OA prevalence were also non-significant. Conclusions This study found that though direct and previous smoking and OA prevalence were not associated, there was a weak relationship between indirect smoking and OA. PMID:26892791

  2. Is body mass index sensitively related to socio-economic status and to economic adjustment? A case study from the Congo.

    PubMed

    Delpeuch, F; Cornu, A; Massamba, J P; Traissac, P; Maire, B

    1994-11-01

    Several nutritional surveys based on representative samples from various urban and rural situations show that the Congo presents a situation of nutritional transition. There is a large prevalence of low body mass index (BMI) in adults from rural zones and this increases with age. There is, however, a large prevalence of high BMI in urban populations despite the persistence of some degree of chronic energy deficiency (CED), particularly at younger ages. Correspondence analysis and logistic regression were used to construct a socio-economic index and measure adjusted risk factors for CED. In rural areas, the major risk factors were old age, sex (women) and the absence of schooling; low economic status, a commonly shared factor, did not differentiate between households for CED. In Brazzaville, CED was linked to a young age (< 30 years) and, clearly, to poverty. The change in the prevalence of CED in mothers from the capital city during a period of economic adjustment showed an increased incidence in young mothers, and also showed that the disparity between low and high economic levels regarding CED had grown. Finally, there was a high level of correspondence between the mean values for the weight-for-height of children and the BMI categories of the mothers. There is a parallel evolution during the period of economic adjustment between the increase of wasting in infants and the increase of CED in mothers. Therefore BMI appears to be a potential core indicator for use in nutritional surveillance in the Congo. PMID:7843151

  3. Prevalence and correlates of substance use among trans*female youth ages 16–24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Chris; Santos, Glenn-Milo; McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance use is highly prevalent among transgender (trans*) females and has been associated with negative health outcomes, including HIV infection. Little is known about psychosocial risk factors that may influence the onset of substance use among trans*female youth, which can contribute to health disparities during adulthood. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of a study on HIV risk and resilience among trans*female youth (N=292). Prevalence of substance use was assessed and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, gender-related discrimination, parental drug or alcohol problems (PDAP) and multiple substance use outcomes. Results Most (69%) of the trans*female youth reported recent drug use. In multivariable analyses, those with PTSD had increased odds of drug use [AOR=1.94 (95%CI=1.09–3.44)]. Those who experienced gender-related discrimination had increased odds of drug use [AOR=2.28 (95%CI=1.17–4.44)], drug use concurrent with sex [AOR=2.35 (95%CI=1.11–4.98)] and use of multiple drugs [AOR=3.24 (95%CI=1.52–6.88)]. Those with psychological distress had increased odds of using multiple heavy drugs [AOR=2.27 (95%CI=1.01–5.12)]. Those with PDAP had increased odds of drugs use [AOR=2.62 (95%CI=1.43–4.82)], drug use concurrent with sex [AOR=2.01 (95%CI, 1.15–3.51)] and use of multiple drugs [AOR=2.10 (95%CI=1.22–3.62)]. Conclusions Substance use is highly prevalent among trans*female youth and was significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors. In order to effectively address substance use among trans*female youth, efforts must address coping related to gender-based discrimination and trauma. Furthermore, structural level interventions aiming to reduce stigma and gender-identity discrimination might also be effective. PMID:25548025

  4. [The prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus in rural urban population over 35 years of age in Lublin region (Eastern Poland)].

    PubMed

    Łopatyński, J; Mardarowicz, G; Nicer, T; Szcześniak, G; Król, H; Matej, A; Szydłowski, W; Paszkowski, J; Dabek, K; Zmurowska, B; Szyprowska-Grzegorczyk, E

    2001-09-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) has increased dramatically in the last decade. Data relating to the number of undetected cases of diabetes are underestimated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM 2, obesity, hypertension, and lipid disturbances in a representative group of urban and rural population in the Lublin region (Eastern Poland). The study was performed in 1998-2001. A two-layer draw was applied: two groups of 3000 people were drawn from the population of Lublin town and from the rural areas each comprising 100,000 inhabitants. In all subjects physical examination was performed and body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were obtained. Blood samples were taken from the basilic vein to estimate: blood glucose, lipids and insulin concentration. Venous blood glucose concentration was measured using a Glucotrend glucometer. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 75 g-glucose load was performed in subjects without previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus and when the fasting blood glucose was < 8.0 mmol/l (144 mg/l). The LDL-cholesterol level was calculated according to Friedewald formula. DM 2 was identified according to the WHO criteria from 1985. Obesity and hypertension were diagnosed according to the new WHO criteria (Body Mass Index > or = 30 kg/m2, blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg). 3782 subjects: 1809 in the rural area and 1973 in Lublin town were examined. The response rate among rural and urban population was 60.3% and 65.8% respectively. The prevalence of DM 2 was assessed in 17.6% of rural and in 14.1% of urban population. 75% of diabetics in the rural areas and 56% in the town were the newly diagnosed cases. We found impaired glucose tolerance in 30.3% of rural and in 21.6% of urban population, BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 in 30.8% and 30.1%, hypertension in 69.4% (29.2% newly diagnosed) and 68.6% (27.7% newly diagnosed), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol > or = 5.2 mmol/l (200 mg/dl)) in 66

  5. The Moderating Effect of Age on the 12-Month Prevalence of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Adults with a Lifetime History of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; Conwell, Yeates; Mohile, Supriya G.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine how age may modulate the association of a history of cancer with a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Design Population-based, cross-sectional surveys. Setting The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) occurred in the United States and were conducted in 2001-2003. Participants CPES included 16,423 adult participants, of whom 702 reported a cancer history. Measurements The Composite International Diagnostic Interview evaluated the presence of a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Results Among those with a cancer history, older adults (≥ 60 years old) were less likely than younger adults (18-59 years old) to have a 12-month history of an anxiety or depressive disorder. Compared to their peers without cancer, younger adults with a cancer history had more anxiety (23.8% vs. 13.9%) and depressive (16.0% vs. 9.5%) disorders, whereas older adults with a cancer history had lower levels of anxiety (3.7% vs. 6.3%) and depressive (1.9% vs. 3.9%) disorders. In multivariable modeling, there was a statistically significant interaction between age group and cancer history, with the risk for anxiety and depressive disorders elevated in the younger age group with a cancer history (OR=5.84 and OR=6.13, respectively), but decreased in the older age group with a cancer history (OR=0.55 and OR=0.45). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there is considerable age-dependent variation with regard to anxiety and depressive disorders in adults with a cancer history. Investigation of the mechanisms contributing to this apparent age differential in risk could have important mental illness treatment implications in this population. PMID:24080385

  6. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  7. Prevalence and treatment patterns of psoriatic arthritis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ogdie, Alexis; Langan, Sinéad; Love, Thorvardur; Haynes, Kevin; Shin, Daniel; Seminara, Nicole; Mehta, Nehal N.; Troxel, Andrea; Choi, Hyon; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PsA in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large population-based medical records database in the UK, to examine factors associated with prevalent PsA among patients with psoriasis and to describe the use of DMARDs in patients with PsA. Methods. Two cohorts were derived from THIN to examine the prevalence of PsA in a cross-sectional study among all patients aged 18–90 years and among a subcohort of 4900 psoriasis patients aged 45–65 years. Prescription codes were used to describe therapies after the diagnosis of PsA. Associations for prevalent PsA among psoriasis patients were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results. Among 4.8 million patients in THIN between the ages of 18 and 90 years, 9045 patients had at least one medical code for PsA, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% (95% CI 0.19%, 0.19%). Of those patients, 45.9% with PsA have been prescribed DMARDs. Among the 4064 confirmed psoriasis patients, the prevalence of PsA was 8.6% (95% CI 7.7%, 9.5%). PsA was more prevalent among patients with severe psoriasis [odds ratio (OR) 3.34; 95% CI 2.40, 4.65], obesity (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.30, 2.41) and duration of psoriasis for ≥10 years (OR 7.42; 95% CI 3.86, 14.25) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion. The prevalence of PsA in THIN is consistent with previous population-based estimates. Limitations include a definition of PsA based on a diagnostic code rather than Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. Given the large population of PsA patients, THIN is an important resource for the study of PsA. PMID:23221331

  8. Blood glucose distribution and prevalence of diabetes in Hanoi (Vietnam).

    PubMed

    Quoc, P S; Charles, M A; Cuong, N H; Lieu, L H; Tuan, N A; Thomas, M; Balkau, B; Simon, D

    1994-04-01

    Few epidemiologic surveys have been performed to assess the prevalence of diabetes in representative samples, and few data are available on the epidemiologic features of diabetes in Southeast Asia. We report the results of a 1990 study performed in the Hanoi area (Vietnam) on 4,912 subjects (95.0% of the eligible population), aged 15 years or over, selected by a stratified random cluster procedure using the 1989 census list. A two-step design was used: 1) screening for diabetes by measuring capillary blood glucose (CBG) before dinner with a Glucometer II device; and 2) for subjects with a CBG measurement of > or = 105 mg/dl, a diagnostic test on the following morning, using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and World Health Organization criteria (93.9% of the positive screenees took this test). CBG values before dinner were unimodally distributed and skewed to the right, increasing with age in both sexes. Women had a significantly higher level of age-adjusted CBG than did men before dinner (p < 0.0001) as well as when fasting (p < 0.0001) and 2 hours after the oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.013). The prevalence of diabetes was 1.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-1.5) and of impaired glucose tolerance, 1.6% (95% CI 1.3-2.0). Women had a significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did men (relative risk = 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.1). Of the 63 diabetic subjects, nine (14.3%) had been diagnosed before the study, only one was obviously insulin dependent, and only one was obese with a body mass index of > or = 27 kg/m2. The subjects living in the urban areas had higher levels of fasting and 2-hour CBG and a higher diabetes prevalence than did the rural inhabitants (relative risk = 1.3; 95% CI 1.04-3.23). Diabetes appears to be a rare disease in the Hanoi area (1.4% for subjects aged 30-64 years, after age standardization using the Segi distribution), affecting women two times as often as men. Typical insulin-dependent (type I) or obese non

  9. Age matters in the prevalence and clinical significance of ultra-high-risk for psychosis symptoms and criteria in the general population: Findings from the BEAR and BEARS-kid studies

    PubMed Central

    Schimmelmann, Benno G; Michel, Chantal; Martz-Irngartinger, Alexandra; Linder, Caroline; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of psychosis is an important topic in psychiatry. Yet, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical significance of high-risk symptoms in children and adolescents as compared to adults. We examined ultra-high-risk (UHR) symptoms and criteria in a sample of individuals aged 8-40 years from the general population of Canton Bern, Switzerland, enrolled from June 2011 to May 2014. The current presence of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) and the fulfillment of onset/worsening and frequency requirements for these symptoms in UHR criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes. Additionally, perceptive and non-perceptive APS were differentiated. Psychosocial functioning and current non-psychotic DSM-IV axis I disorders were also surveyed. Well-trained psychologists performed assessments. Altogether, 9.9% of subjects reported APS and none BLIPS, and 1.3% met all the UHR requirements for APS. APS were related to more current axis I disorders and impaired psychosocial functioning, indicating some clinical significance. A strong age effect was detected around age 16: compared to older individuals, 8-15-year olds reported more perceptive APS, that is, unusual perceptual experiences and attenuated hallucinations. Perceptive APS were generally less related to functional impairment, regardless of age. Conversely, non-perceptive APS were related to low functioning, although this relationship was weaker in those below age 16. Future studies should address the differential effects of perceptive and non-perceptive APS, and their interaction with age, also in terms of conversion to psychosis. PMID:26043337

  10. Metabolic Syndrome Components After Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Prevalence and the Impact of Obesity and Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Perito, E R; Lustig, R H; Rosenthal, P

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with long-term morbidity and mortality after adult liver transplantation (LT). Whether pediatric LT recipients have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome remains controversial. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated pediatric LT recipients aged 8-30 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols. LT recipients were matched by gender, race/ethnicity, and age with controls from NHANES. Pediatric LT recipients (n = 83), after adjusting for overweight/obesity and glucocorticoid use, had increased prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 2-h glucose after oral glucose tolerance test ≥140 mg/dL), and low high-density lipoprotein compared to matched NHANES controls (n = 235) despite a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity. Among LT recipients, the adjusted odds of IGT doubled for every 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.06-4.17 per 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors, p = 0.03). Among all subjects with IGT, LT recipients had a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and less insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) than did controls with IGT. Among normal weight subjects, LT recipients were significantly more likely than controls to have prehypertension/hypertension, IGT, low high-density lipoprotein, and metabolic syndrome. Pediatric LT recipients have unique metabolic syndrome profiles and risk factors and will require tailored screening and management protocols. PMID:26751054

  11. [HCV prevalence in health workers].

    PubMed

    Vassia, M A; Curciarello, J O; Bologna, A; De Barrio, S; Belloni, P; Jmelnitzky, C A

    1999-01-01

    The risk of HBV infections in health workers and the different prevalence according to the hospital activities has been shown in a great number of papers. In order to establish the prevalence of serological HBV markers in health workers fron high complexity hospital, we have analyzed 730 inquiries refilled in the period 1994-1995 before receiving the antihepatitis B vaccine. We studied 730 health workers, 282 (38.8%) males and 447 (61.2%) females with a mean age of 40.1 years old. We found 75/730 (10.2) serums antiçHBc reactives. The found prevalence was significantly larger than the one found in blood donors. The analysis of the prevalence according to the hospital activities showed that the infirmary personnel is the only with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors, and the other health workers prevalence. Differences in the anti-HBc prevalence between the physicians specialties were not found. Our results agree with other publications that clearly show that health workers are a risk group for HBV infection. However, what attracts attention in the analyzed population is that the only ones with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors' and the other health workers prevalence were the nurses, suggesting that nurses are the only health workers that have risk of HBV infections. PMID:10599401

  12. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  13. The prevalence of inflammatory back pain: population-based estimates from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–10

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Michael H; Witter, James P; Reveille, John D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the current US inflammatory back pain (IBP) prevalence using four published case definitions. Methods Analysis of an IBP data collection instrument specifically designed for the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were 5103 US adults ages 20–69 with complete data. IBP prevalence as determined by Calin et al criteria, European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria, and Berlin criteria 8a and 7b. Results Age-adjusted US prevalence of IBP by Calin criteria was 5.0% (95% CI 4.2% to 5.8%). Prevalence of IBP was 5.6% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.5%) by ESSG criteria, and 5.8% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.4%) and 6.0% (95% CI 4.9% to 7.1%) by Berlin Criteria 8a and 7b, respectively. IBP prevalence did not differ significantly by age groups or between men and women. IBP prevalence was significantly lower among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white persons for the Calin and ESSG IBP criteria. For the ESSG and Berlin 7b criteria, non-Hispanic white persons had significantly higher IBP prevalences compared with Mexican Americans. Conclusions IBP is associated with spondyloarthritis. Awareness of the prevalence of IBP may be useful for planning future epidemiological studies as well as development and validation of diagnostic and classification criteria for specific clinically defined diseases. PMID:22791746

  14. Association Between Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life, South Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E.; Heidari, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in various population subgroups in South Carolina and examined associations between COPD and 4 core measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Data from 12,851 participants of the 2011 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. COPD prevalence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 standard US population. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR’s) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The overall age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of COPD among community-dwelling adults in South Carolina in 2011 was 7.1% (standard error [SE] ±0.3). Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of COPD was highest among women (8.9%; SE, ±0.5), those aged 65 years or older (12.9%; SE, ±0.5), current smokers (15.9%; SE, ±0.7), and those with low levels of education and income. Compared with community-dwelling adults without COPD, those with COPD were more likely to report fair or poor general health status (AOR, 3.97; 95% CI, 3.13–5.03), 14 or more physically unhealthy days (AOR, 2.10, 95% CI, 1.57–2.81), 14 or more mentally unhealthy days (AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.43), and 14 or more days of activity limitation (AOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.53–3.22) within the previous 30 days. Conclusion COPD is a highly prevalent disease in South Carolina, especially among older people and smokers, and it is associated with poor HRQOL. Future work aimed at reducing risk factors may decrease the disease prevalence, and increasing early detection and improving access to appropriate medical treatments can improve HRQOL for those living with COPD. PMID:24370110

  15. Heterogeneity in Periodontitis Prevalence in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Anne E.; Campbell, Steven M.; Beck, James D.; Mauriello, Sally M.; Jimenez, Monik C.; Kaste, Linda M.; Singer, Richard H.; Beaver, Shirley M.; Finlayson, Tracy L.; Badner, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine acculturation and established risk factors in explaining variation in periodontitis prevalence among Hispanic/Latino subgroups. Methods Participants were 12,730 dentate adults aged 18–74 years recruited into the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) from four U.S. field centers between 2008 and 2011. A standardized periodontal assessment measured probing pocket depth and gingival recession at six sites per tooth for up to 28 teeth. Periodontitis was defined according to the CDC/AAP case classifications developed for population surveillance. Covariates included acculturation indicators and established periodontitis risk factors. Survey estimation procedures took account of the complex sampling design. Adjusted multivariate binomial regression estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence limits (95% CL). Results Unadjusted prevalence of moderate/severe periodontitis was 38.5% and ranged from 24.7% among Dominicans to 52.1% among Cubans. Adjusted prevalence ratios for subgroups relative to Dominicans were: 1.34 (95% CL: 1.13, 1.58) among South Americans; 1.37 (95% CL: 1.17, 1.61) among Puerto Ricans; 1.43 (95% CL: 1.25, 1.64) among Mexicans; 1.53 (95% CL: 1.32, 1.76) among Cubans; and 1.55 (95% CL: 1.35, 1.78) among Central Americans. Conclusion Heterogeneity in prevalence of moderate/severe periodontitis among Hispanic/Latino subpopulations was not explained by acculturation or periodontitis risk factors. PMID:24731697

  16. Is the prevalence of colonic neuroendocrine tumors increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Vierdag, Wouter-Michiel A M; Kievit, Wietske; Bosch, Steven; Hoentjen, Frank; Nagtegaal, Iris D

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may bear an increased neuroendocrine tumor (NET) risk. These tumors are mostly reported as coincidental findings during surgery. We aimed to determine the prevalence of colonic NET in a Dutch nationwide IBD cohort and calculate the prevalence rate ratios (PRR) compared with the general Dutch population. Our second aim was to investigate whether a high bowel surgery rate in IBD could result in a high PRR for NET. The Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA) was searched to identify all IBD patients with colonic NET in The Netherlands between 1991 and 2011. We determined the prevalence and PRR of colonic NET in a 20-year period. For our second aim, we compared NET prevalence in colonic resection specimens between IBD cases and non-IBD controls (diverticulitis and ischemia). We identified 51 IBD patients who developed colonic NET resulting in a prevalence of 60.4-89.3 per 100,000 patients in a 20-year period with a PRR of 2.8-4.1. However, adjusted for resection type, sex and age, a higher NET prevalence was shown in diverticulitis (OR 5.52, 95% CI 3.47-8.78) and ischemia (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.58) compared with IBD. Our key finding is that NET are more prevalent in IBD patients compared with the general population (PRR 2.8-4.1). This might be attributed to a high rate of incidental NET as IBD patients frequently undergo intestinal surgery. A lower adjusted NET prevalence in colonic resection specimens for IBD compared to ischemia and diverticulitis supports this hypothesis. PMID:26992110

  17. Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease in Korea Using Data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hwayeon; Jung, Se Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah; Choo, Seryung; Jeong, Jin-Mook; Kim, Hyun-Ray; Ro, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Hansol

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. The awareness and treatment rate of the disease are low despite its relatively high prevalence. With the added data, this study aimed to identify changes in prevalence and risk factors of COPD using the data from the 5th KNHNES. Methods The subjects of this study were 8,969 individuals aged 40 and older who satisfied suitability and reproducibility for pulmonary function tests. The prevalence, awareness and risk factors of COPD were predicted based on the questionnaires on gender, age, educational level, income level, smoking history, body mass index (BMI) and other COPD related questions. Results Diagnosis of COPD was based on the airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity <0.7) of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. The prevalence of COPD from 2010 to 2012 was 13.7%, of which 23.3% was men and 6.5% women. The prevalence was on the rise, with 12.2% in 2010, 13.2% in 2011, and 15.5% in 2012. In GOLD stage 1, the percentages of those who had cough or sputum and smoking history were 12.1% and 75.5%, respectively, but only 0.1% was diagnosed with COPD. Even after adjusting for asthma and tuberculosis, men, old age, larger amount of smoking were linked with a higher prevalence of COPD, and obese and higher educational level were associated with a lower prevalence of COPD. Conclusion The prevalence of COPD in Korea has been increasing every year, and a higher prevalence was associated with male, older age, more amount of smoking, lower educational level and lower BMI. PMID:26019762

  18. Aging and generational effects on drinking behaviors in men: results from the normative aging study.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, R J; Bouchard, G R; LoCastro, J S; Laird, N M

    1985-01-01

    The effects of aging on alcohol consumption behaviors are unclear because of confounding with period and cohort effects. In 1973, 1,859 male participants in the Normative Aging Study, born between 1892 and 1945, described their drinking behaviors by responding to a mailed questionnaire. In 1982, 1,713 of the participants in this study responded to a similar questionnaire. We used multivariate techniques, adjusting regression coefficients for the correlations between repeated responses of the same individuals, to assess the effects of birth cohort and aging on mean alcohol consumption level, on the prevalence of problems with drinking, and on the prevalence of averaging three or more drinks per day. Older men drank significantly less than younger men at both times yet there was no tendency for men to decrease their consumption levels over time. Each successively older birth cohort had a prevalence of problems with drinking estimated to be 0.037 lower than the prevalence of the next youngest cohort (95 per cent confidence interval: 0.029-0.045), yet there was no decrease in drinking problems over nine years. Interpretation of these findings requires consideration of the changes in attitudes as well as the increases in per capita consumption occurring in the United States throughout the 1970s. Results suggest that aging is not as important a factor in changes in drinking behaviors as generational or attitudinal changes. PMID:4061714

  19. Understanding CKD among patients with T2DM: prevalence, temporal trends, and treatment patterns—NHANES 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bingcao; Bell, Kelly; Stanford, Amy; Kern, David M; Tunceli, Ozgur; Vupputuri, Suma; Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Willey, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the estimated prevalence and temporal trends of chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment patterns, and the association between CKD and potential factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different demographic subgroups. Research design and methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of adults with T2DM based on multiple US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets developed during 2007–2012. CKD severity was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation: mild to moderate=stages 1–3a; moderate to kidney failure=stages 3b–5. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between CKD and potential factors. Results Of the adult individuals with T2DM (n=2006), age-adjusted CKD prevalence was 38.3% during 2007–2012; 77.5% were mild-to-moderate CKD. The overall age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was 40.2% in 2007–2008, 36.9% in 2009–2010, and 37.6% in 2011–2012. The prevalence of CKD in T2DM was 58.7% in patients aged ≥65 years, 25.7% in patients aged <65 years, 43.5% in African-Americans and Mexican-Americans, and 38.7% in non-Hispanic whites. The use of antidiabetes and antihypertensive medications generally followed treatment guideline recommendations. Older age, higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and having hypertension were significantly associated with CKD presence but not increasing severity of CKD. Conclusions CKD continued to be prevalent in the T2DM population; prevalence remained fairly consistent over time, suggesting that current efforts to prevent CKD could be improved overall, especially by monitoring certain populations more closely. PMID:27110365

  20. High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Norovirus Mixed Infections Among Children 12-24 Months of Age Living in the Suburban Areas of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Zambruni, Mara; Luna, Giannina; Silva, Maria; Bausch, Daniel G; Rivera, Fulton P; Velapatino, Grace; Campos, Miguel; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Baiocchi, Nelly; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-09-01

    In an active diarrhea surveillance study of children aged 12-24 months in Lima, Peru, norovirus was the most common pathogen identified. The percentage of mixed (bacterial and noroviral) infections was significantly higher among norovirus-positive samples (53%) than among norovirus-negative samples (12%). The combination of norovirus with the most common bacterial pathogens was associated with increased clinical severity over that of either single-pathogen norovirus or single-pathogen bacterial infections. PMID:27534674

  1. Positive and Negative Posttraumatic Change Following Childhood Sexual Abuse Are Associated With Youths' Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Fava, Nicole; Feiring, Candice

    2015-11-01

    Meanings made of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences are important to psychosocial adjustment. The current study examined adolescents' and young adults' perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) in the self, relationships, sexuality, and worldviews attributed to prior CSA experiences. We sought to document the prevalence of positive and negative PTC and examine their unique and joint associations with psychosocial adjustment. Participants included 160 youth with confirmed cases of CSA (73% female; 8-14 years at abuse discovery) who were part of a longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA. Six years after discovery, youth were interviewed about their abuse experiences. Interviews were coded for the valence and strength of PTC. The majority of youth reported PTC, and negative changes were more frequent and stronger than positive changes. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and negative PTC, positive PTC was associated with lower abuse stigmatization for all youth. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and positive PTC, negative PTC was associated with greater abuse stigmatization, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual problems, and dating aggression for all youth. Relations of positive PTC with depression and support from friends and romantic partner were moderated by negative PTC, such that positive PTC was associated with better adjustment for youth with low versus high levels of negative PTC. Results highlight the importance of both negative and positive PTC for understanding meanings made of CSA experiences and their implications for psychosocial adjustment and intervention. PMID:26092440

  2. Prevalence and age-related infection of Cryptosporidium suis, C. muris and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in pigs on a farm complex in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kvác, Martin; Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Sak, Bohumil; Kvetonová, Dana

    2009-03-23

    A total of 413 pig faecal samples were collected from pre-weaners (119), starters (131), pre-growers (123) and sows (40) from a farm with a closed breeding system segmented into two breeding complexes and a growing complex in the region of Vysocina, Czech Republic and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using staining methods and genotyping (SSU rRNA). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by microscopy in the faeces of 21.1% of the samples (87/413). Sequence analyses and RFLP identified C. suis in 44, Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in 23 and C. muris in 2 samples. No mixed infections were found. Pigs under 7 weeks of age were infected with C. suis only. Cryptosporidium pig genotype II was found in animals from 7 weeks of age. No relationship was found between diarrhoea and any Cryptosporidium infection in any of the different age groups (P<0.05). The pre-weaned pigs shed significantly more Cryptosporidium oocysts than older pigs and it was associated with C. suis infection. PMID:19091471

  3. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  4. Prevalence and determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Tsirona, Sofia; Katsaros, Fotis; Bargiota, Alexandra; Polyzos, Stergios A; Arapoglou, George; Koukoulis, George N

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide reaching epidemic proportions. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of DM in Thessaly, a large region of Central Greece, and to extrapolate our results to the population of the entire country. A random sample of 805 adults (421 females and 384 men) living in Thessaly, aged 18-80 years, was surveyed. After completing a questionnaire about health status and a thorough physical examination, a blood sample was obtained from each participant for biochemical analysis. Participants with fasting glucose levels between 100-125 mg/dl underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A second survey was also conducted, via telephone call-interviews, in a randomly selected sample age- and sex-stratified to the country's adult population in order to extrapolate the DM data from Thessaly to the whole country. The frequency of DM based on patient history and fasting blood glucose levels was 6.96%, comparable to that observed in the telephone-based nationwide survey (7.38%, p=0.669). However, after the OGTT an additional 3.72% of the population had undiagnosed DM, increasing DM prevalence to 10.68% (age adjusted 11.77%). The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.70%, with impaired fasting glucose at 5.84% and impaired glucose tolerance at 2.86%. The prevalence of DM was significantly higher in men (14.58%) than in women (7.13%, p<0.001), increased with age in both sexes and was more prevalent in hypertensive (p<0.001) and obese subjects (p=0.001) and in those living in rural areas (p=0.003). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, significant predictors of pre-diabetes and DM together were age, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alcohol consumption and educational status, whereas those of DM alone were age, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Extrapolating our data to the whole country, the age-adjusted prevalence of DM was estimated at 11.97% (men 13.98%, women 9

  5. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential. PMID:26957336

  6. Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xianjia; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Su, Ta-Chen; Wang, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. Method The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35–74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. Result The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35–44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05). The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold). Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action. PMID:25544990

  7. Prevalence of Workers with Shifts in Hearing by Industry: A Comparison of OSHA and NIOSH Hearing Shift Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Sweeney, Marie Haring; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Wall, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of workers with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health significant threshold shifts (NSTS), Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard threshold shifts (OSTS), and with OSTS with age correction (OSTS-A), by industry using North American Industry Classification System codes. Methods 2001-2010 worker audiograms were examined. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios for NSTS were estimated by industry. NSTS, OSTS and OSTS-A prevalences were compared by industry. Results 20% of workers had an NSTS, 14% had an OSTS and 6% had an OSTS-A. For most industries, the OSTS and OSTS-A criteria identified 28-36% and 66-74% fewer workers than the NSTS criteria, respectively. Conclusions Use of NSTS criteria allowing for earlier detection of shifts in hearing is recommended for improved prevention of occupational hearing loss. PMID:24662953

  8. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  9. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  10. Group Sex and Prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Rice, Cara E; Lynch, Courtney D; Norris, Alison H; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the direct relation between group sex and prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting at an urban STI clinic in the Midwestern US. Among 231 men who enrolled and reported that they have sex with men, we collected behavioral data using a combination of interviewer and self-administered surveys and extracted STI data from electronic health records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between group sex participation and prevalent STI. One-quarter of participants (n = 58) reported group sex participation in the last 3 months. Eighteen percent of participants (n = 42) had gonorrhea and 19 % (n = 45) had chlamydial infection. Men who reported recent group sex were more likely to be HIV-positive, to report recent drug use, and to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 3 months. After adjustment for age, race, and recent drug use, recent participation in group sex was associated with prevalent gonorrhea infection (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = [1.13, 3.95]) but not chlamydia infection (PR = 1.03, 95 % CI = [0.58, 1.84]). We performed a sensitivity analysis in which we also adjusted for unprotected receptive anal intercourse and the results were not substantively changed. In summary, participation in group sex in the past 3 months was associated with a more than twofold increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia. These findings support group sex participation as a potential contributor to increased STI prevalence. PMID:26392187

  11. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hao, Y L; Zhang, B; Jia, F J; Li, X L; Tang, Y; Ren, Y Z; Liu, W H

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women) of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less) and long (10 h or more) sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR)=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849) than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h) shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181). In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6%) were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤ 8 min) than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%). In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤ 8 min) of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia. PMID:24519132

  12. Age-related increased prevalence of asthma and nasal polyps in chronic rhinosinusitis and its association with altered IL-6 trans-signaling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong H; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Sun H; Kolliputi, Narasaiah; Hong, Seung J; Suh, Lydia; Norton, James; Hulse, Kathryn E; Seshadri, Sudarshan; Conley, David B; Kern, Robert C; Tan, Bruce K; Peters, Anju; Grammer, Leslie C; Schleimer, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    We report that S100 proteins were reduced in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). S100A8/9, which is important in epithelial barrier function, was particularly decreased in elderly patients with CRS. Epithelial expression of S100A8/9 is partly regulated by the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway. The goal of this study was to investigate whether or not age-related reduction of S100A8/9 in CRS is associated with blunting of IL-6 trans-signaling. The levels of IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble gp130 (sgp130), and S100A8/9 from control subjects (n = 10), and patients with CRS without nasal polyps (n = 13) and those with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) (n = 14), were measured by ELISA. Age-related differences in the level of each protein were investigated. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in air-liquid interface and stimulated with IL-6/sIL-6R and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with or without the addition of sgp130, a natural inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signaling. There was a significant age-related decline in S100A8/9 and an increase in sgp130 in nasal tissue samples from patients with CRSwNP, although there was no age-related difference in IL-6/sIL-6R production. Additionally, expression of the S100A8/9 gene and protein was increased significantly by IL-6/sIL-6R plus TNF-α in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This increase was blocked by sgp130. These results suggest that increased sgp130 in older patients may inhibit IL-6 trans-signaling, impair barrier function, and decrease S1008/9 production in elderly patients with CRSwNP. Restoration of barrier function by targeting sgp130 may be a novel treatment strategy. PMID:26266960

  13. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genotypes in Children Younger than 5 Years of Age before the Introduction of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program: Report of Rotavirus Surveillance in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Riza; Kalaycioglu, Atila Taner; Acar, Sumeyra; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Karagoz, Alper; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Torunoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. Methods Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G–P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P[8] and P[4]) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%), G2P[8] (9.3%), G2P[4] (6.5%), G3P[8] (3.5%), and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. Conclusion The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1–G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country. PMID:25437502

  14. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries. PMID:22291844

  15. Decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B and a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infections in the general population of the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, P.; Yersin, C.; Herminie, P.; Lavanchy, D.; Frei, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was carried out on a random sex- and age-stratified sample of 1006 individuals aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles islands. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies were detected using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), followed by a Western blot assay in the case of a positive result for anti-HCV. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HBc antibodies was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-9.9%) and the percentage prevalence among males/females increased from 7.0/3.1 to 19.1/13.4 in the age groups 25-34 to 55-64 years, respectively. Two men and three women were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with an age-adjusted seroprevalence of 0.34% (95% CI: 0.1-0.8%). Two out of these five subjects who were positive for anti-HCV also had anti-HBc antibodies. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was significantly higher in unskilled workers, persons with low education, and heavy drinkers. The age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HBc in this population-based survey, which was conducted in 1994, was approximately three times lower than in a previous patient-based survey carried out in 1979. Although there are methodological differences between the two surveys, it is likely that the substantial decrease in anti-HBc prevalence during the last 15 years may be due to significant socioeconomic development and the systematic screening of blood donors since 1981. Because hepatitis C virus infections are serious and the cost of treatment is high, the fact that the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is at present low should not be an argument for not screening blood donors for anti-HCV and eliminating those who are positive. PMID:10612888

  16. Morphometric Documentation of a High Prevalence of Left Ventricular Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Both Clinically Normal and Cyanotic Mature Commercial Broiler Breeder Roosters with Comparisons to Market-Age Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Floyd D; Magee, Danny L; Jones, Kelli H; Baravik-Munsell, Erica; Cummings, Timothy S; Wills, Robert W; Pace, Lanny W

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies documented the common occurrence of transitory cyanosis and echocardiographic aortic insufficiency in mature commercial broiler breeder roosters. During further investigations, we observed a high prevalence of hearts exhibiting extensive dilation of the left ventricle chamber compatible with dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy present in both cyanotic and normal subpopulations. We conducted quantitative studies focused on documentation of cardiac ventricle parameters by using simple gross morphometric methods performed on formalin-fixed hearts obtained from both clinically normal roosters and those exhibiting variable transitory cyanosis, echocardiographic aortic insufficiency, or both. A high prevalence of often dramatic left ventricular dilation reflected in enlarged left ventricular chamber areas and elevated left ventricle-to-total ventricle area ratios was morphometrically documented. However, no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of ventricular abnormalities were observed between normal and cyanotic roosters. Age-associated changes were also demonstrated by comparative morphometric studies on hearts from normal market-age broilers (average age of 7 wk) and those of mature roosters (average age of 42 wk). Elevation in both left and right ventricular weight-to-total heart weight ratios dramatically increased with aging. In addition, values (average ± SD) for the left ventricle chamber area-to-total ventricle area ratios increased from 3.2 ± 2.0% in broilers up to 10.0 ± 8.8% in roosters. None of the normal broilers studied demonstrated left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, whereas 33% of the roosters had left ventricular volume ratios above 10%, including 13% with ratios of 20% or higher. However, the left ventricle wall area-to-body weight ratios were much closer for the two age groups (0.85 ± 0.18 cm(2)/kg in broilers and 0.79 ± 0.13 cm(2)/kg in roosters). Also, the standard right ventricle-to-total ventricle

  17. [Prevalence and burden of visual impairment in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Guisasola, Laura; Tresserras-Gaju, Ricard; García-Subirats, Irene; Rius, Anna; Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of visual impairment in Catalonia and analyze inequalities in vision. Cross sectional study in the population having ≥ 15 years of age (7,881 men and 8,045 women) based on data from the Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio by age, civil state, level of studies, income and working situation with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. A 4.7% (CI 95% 4.4-5.0) of the population of Catalonia, a 5.3% of female (CI 95% 4.8-5.8), and 4.1% of men (CI 95% 3.7-4.5) state that they have poor vision. The most unfavourable situations of self-reported poor vision by the Catalan population correspond to the elderly and women with lower levels of both studies and income. PMID:22310359

  18. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  19. Prevalence of enteropathogens in stools of rural Maasai children under five years of age in the Maasailand region of the Kenyan Rift Valley.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-01-01

    Stool samples were collected during August 1994 from seventy rural Maasai children under the age of five years who were living in the Maasailand region of the Kenyan Rift Valley. Microbiological analysis was carried out on these samples to identify which intestinal pathogens were present among the infant population of the Maasai. Of the samples studied 54% were pathogen positive. The most common pathogen isolated was Giardia lamblia which was detected in 31% of the samples. Other pathogens that were detected include: Entamoeba histolytica (23%), Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (13%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4%), Blastocystis hominis (3%) and Cryptosporidium sp (3%). Although all samples were screened for Campylobacter and rotavirus, neither pathogen was detected. Water samples were taken from all the water sources in the study area and analysed microbiologically. Results showed that all the sources were contaminated with the faecal E. coli whose populations ranged from 14 CFU/100 ml to greater than 1800 CFU/100ml. PMID:8625866

  20. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15–24 years in Zambia: An in-depth analysis of the 2001–2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kembo, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001–2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15–24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p = .000) and 5.9% (p = .001) respectively, between 2001–2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p = .029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p = .000) and 1.4% (p = .000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15–24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (– 4.5%), premarital sex (– 2.6%), sex before age 18 (– 2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (– 1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design

  1. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Canadians 55 to 74 years of age: results from the Canadian Heart Health Surveys, 1986-1992

    PubMed Central

    Langille, DB; Joffres, MR; MacPherson, KM; Andreou, P; Kirkland, SA; MacLean, DR

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: By 2016, the proportion of Canadians older than 65 years of age will increase to 16%, and there will be an increase in the absolute number of cases of cardiovascular disease in older Canadians. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys database provides information about this population upon which health policy related to cardiovascular disease can be based. This paper presents for the first time population-based data on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older Canadians. METHODS: Canadians from all 10 provinces participated in surveys of cardiovascular risk factors; health insurance registries were used as sampling frames. In each province, probability samples of 2200 adults 18 to 74 years old not living in institutions, on reserves or in military camps were asked to participate in interviews and to undergo testing at clinics for major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: A total of 2739 men (response rate 70%) and 2617 women (response rate 66%) aged 55 to 74 years participated in the survey and also provided follow-up clinical measurements at the clinic. Overall, 52% of participants were hypertensive, 26% had isolated systolic hypertension, and 30% had a total blood cholesterol level of 6.2 mmol/L or greater. Rates of current smoking were lower in women than men (17% v. 22%). Overall, 87% of men and 78% of women who were current smokers smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day. Only slightly more than half of participants exercised at least once a week for at least 15 minutes, and almost half had a body mass index of 27 or greater. In only 4% was no major risk factor for cardiovascular disease detected. INTERPRETATION: Significant numbers of older Canadians have one or more major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Many of these risk factors are amenable to modification. PMID:10551206

  2. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  3. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  4. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A F; Galvao, Tais F; Pereira, Mauricio G; Silva, Marcus T

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18-65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%-11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19-2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17-3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66-6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11-2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15-2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21-2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  5. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    PubMed Central

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  6. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schablon, Anja; Beckmann, Gudrun; Harling, Melanie; Diel, Roland; Nienhaus, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI) in health care workers (HCW) in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT). Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%). The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7), working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4) and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9) when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk. PMID:19134168

  7. Obesity in older adults is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of pain.

    PubMed

    Heim, Noor; Snijder, Marieke B; Deeg, Dorly J H; Seidell, Jaap C; Visser, Marjolein

    2008-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between BMI and pain. This prospective study investigated the associations of measured BMI and waist circumference with prevalent and incident pain in older adults. The study included participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, aged 55-85 years at baseline (1992-1993). Pain was assessed using a subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile at baseline (N = 2,000), after 3 years (N = 1,478) and 6 years (N = 1,271) of follow-up. The overall prevalence of pain was 32.7% at baseline and increased significantly with higher quartiles of BMI or waist circumference. After adjustment for age, education, depression, smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases, multiple logistic regression analyses showed odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval)) for prevalent pain of 2.16 (1.32-3.54) in men and 1.93 (1.26-2.95) in women comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of BMI. Of the participants without pain at baseline, those in the highest quartile of BMI had a twofold increased odds for incident pain after 3 years of follow-up. After 6 years of follow-up, ORs for incident pain were 2.3