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Sample records for age assessment baa

  1. Automated Bone Age Assessment: Motivation, Taxonomies, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Herawan, Tutut; Gopal Raj, Ram; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Nasaruddin, Fariza Hanum

    2013-01-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of unknown people is one of the most important topics in clinical procedure for evaluation of biological maturity of children. BAA is performed usually by comparing an X-ray of left hand wrist with an atlas of known sample bones. Recently, BAA has gained remarkable ground from academia and medicine. Manual methods of BAA are time-consuming and prone to observer variability. This is a motivation for developing automated methods of BAA. However, there is considerable research on the automated assessment, much of which are still in the experimental stage. This survey provides taxonomy of automated BAA approaches and discusses the challenges. Finally, we present suggestions for future research. PMID:24454534

  2. The BAA at Astrofest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A.

    2008-04-01

    'Astrofest' is a conference and exhibition for amateur astronomers in the UK, held over two days - Friday and Saturday - every year in February at Kensington Town Hall, London. It is organised by Pole Star Publications, publishers of 'Astronomy Now' magazine. The BAA has had a stand there since the event started in 1992. Attendance this year was around 4,000.

  3. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  4. Bone age assessment meets SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Jonas, Stephan; Haak, Daniel; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) is a method of determining the skeletal maturity and finding the growth disorder in the skeleton of a person. BAA is frequently used in pediatric medicine but also a time-consuming and cumbersome task for a radiologist. Conventionally, the Greulich and Pyle and the Tanner and Whitehouse methods are used for bone age assessment, which are based on visual comparison of left hand radiographs with a standard atlas. We present a novel approach for automated bone age assessment, combining scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features and support vector machine (SVM) classification. In this approach, (i) data is grouped into 30 classes to represent the age range of 0- 18 years, (ii) 14 epiphyseal ROIs are extracted from left hand radiographs, (iii) multi-level image thresholding, using Otsu method, is applied to specify key points on bone and osseous tissues of eROIs, (iv) SIFT features are extracted for specified key points for each eROI of hand radiograph, and (v) classification is performed using a multi-class extension of SVM. A total of 1101 radiographs of University of Southern California are used in training and testing phases using 5- fold cross-validation. Evaluation is performed for two age ranges (0-18 years and 2-17 years) for comparison with previous work and the commercial product BoneXpert, respectively. Results were improved significantly, where the mean errors of 0.67 years and 0.68 years for the age ranges 0-18 years and 2-17 years, respectively, were obtained. Accuracy of 98.09 %, within the range of two years was achieved.

  5. An online real-time DICOM web-based computer-aided diagnosis system for bone age assessment of children in a PACS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin C.; Zhang, Aifeng; Moin, Paymann; Fleshman, Mariam; Vachon, Linda; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    Bone age assessment is a radiological procedure to evaluate a child's bone age based on his or her left-hand x-ray image. The current standard is to match patient's hand with Greulich & Pyle hand atlas, which is outdated by 50 years and only uses subjects from one region and one ethnicity. To improve bone age assessment accuracy for today's children, an automated race- and gender-specific bone age assessment (BAA) system has been developed in IPILab. 1390 normal left-hand x-ray images have been collected at Children's Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) to form the digital hand atlas (DHA). DHA includes both male and female children of ages one to eighteen and of four ethnic groups: African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic. In order to apply DHA and BAA CAD into a clinical environment, a web-based BAA CAD system and graphical user interface (GUI) has been implemented in Women and Children's Hospital at Los Angeles County (WCH-LAC). A CAD server has been integrated in WCH's PACS environment, and a clinical validation workflow has been designed for radiologists, who compare CAD readings with G&P readings and determine which reading is more suited for a certain case. Readings are logged in database and analyzed to assess BAA CAD performance in a clinical setting. The result is a successful installation of web-based BAA CAD system in a clinical setting.

  6. BAA Observers' Workshops: Observing the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavine, D.

    2004-10-01

    Although auroral and upper-atmosphere research is carried out mainly in polar regions by professional scientists, it is still worthwhile for the amateur to observe this beautiful and sometimes spectacular phenomenon for its own sake. Occasionally, however, the BAA Aurora Section is called upon to supply information on displays to a variety of professional organisations, and so it has become important to receive reports, to log them in a standardised method and to maintain a continuous archive which can be consulted by interested persons. Through the kindness and foresight of the late Dr Michael Gadsden this has been done - all our auroral and noctilucent cloud data from the time of Director James Paton in the 1940s up to the present is preserved in the special Balfour Stewart Archive at the Library of Aberdeen University.

  7. The BAA Campaign for Dark Skies: Fifteen years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizon, R.

    2004-06-01

    The starry sky is, unofficially but indubitably, a site of special scientific interest and an area of outstanding natural beauty - if it can be seen. The BAA's Campaign for Dark Skies (CfDS) was set up by concerned members in 1989, to counter the ever-growing tide of skyglow which has tainted the night sky over Britain since the 1950s. Once caused almost exclusively by poorly aimed streetlamps and building floodlights emitting light above the horizontal, skyglow is nowadays increasingly the result of vastly over-powered, poorly mounted household security lights and literally 'over-the-top' sports lighting. CfDS has grown into a network of 124 volunteer local officers, and several hundred committed supporters, who aim to persuade their local councils and relevant organisations of the benefits of well directed lighting, the motto being: the right amount of light, and only where needed.

  8. Satellite antenna dish acquired for use by the BAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, T.

    2007-10-01

    The Radio Astronomy Group (RAG) of the BAA is pleased to announce it has obtained the use of the 2.4m diameter, fully-steerable satellite antenna dish residing on the roof of the National Space Centre (NSC) in Leicester (see Figure). The RAG is fortunate in having its assistant coordinator, Jeff Lashley, employed by the NSC as a technical support engineer and Jeff has worked tirelessly with coordinator Dr Laurence Newell in seeking permission for the Group to use the dish for radio astronomy purposes. Support has also been forthcoming via Terry Ashton, our university liaison officer, who works at the University of Leicester's Space Research Centre (SRC) which owns the dish.

  9. DETERMINATION OF AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE DISPOSITION OF 2-BUTOXYETHANOL AND ITS METABOLITES IN MICE AND RATS TO IMPROVE PBPK MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Rick A.; Grant, Donna M.; Farris, Elizabeth; Weitz, Karl K.; Soelberg, Jolen J.; Thrall, K D.; Poet, Torka S.

    2005-03-28

    2-Butoxyethanol (BE) is the most widely used glycol ether solvent. BE's major metabolite, butoxyacetic acid (BAA), causes hemolysis with significant species differences in sensitivity. Several PBPK models have been developed over the past two decades to describe the disposition of BE and BAA in male rats and humans to refine health risk assessments. More recent efforts by Lee et al. (1998) to describe the kinetics of BE and BAA in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) chronic inhalation studies required the use of several assumptions to extrapolate model parameters from earlier PBPK models developed for young male rats to include female F344 and both sexes of B6C3F1 mice and the effects of aging. To replace these assumptions, studies were conducted to determine the impact of age, gender and species on the metabolism of BE, and the tissue partitioning, renal acid transport and plasma protein binding of BAA. In the current study, the Lee et al. PBPK model was updated and expanded to include the further metabolism of BAA and the salivary excretion of BE and BAA which may contribute to the forestomach irritation observed in mice in the NTP study. The revised model predicted that peak blood concentrations of BAA achieved following 6-hr inhalation exposures are greatest in young adult female rats at concentrations up to 300 ppm. This is not the case predicted for old (>18 months) animals, where peak blood concentrations of BAA in male and female mice were similar to or greater than female rats. The revised model serves as a quantitative tool for integrating an extensive pharmacokinetic and mechanistic database into a format that can readily be used to compare internal dosimetry across dose, route of exposure and species.

  10. Hand X-ray in pediatric endocrinology: Skeletal age assessment and beyond.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Di Maio, Salvatore; Soliman, Ashraf T; Raiola, Giuseppe; Elalaily, Rania; Millimaggi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Skeletal age assessment (SAA) is a clinical procedure which is used in determining the SA of children and adolescents. Bone development is influenced by a number of factors, including nutrition, hormonal secretions, and genetics. There are several factors to be borne in mind when using methods of assessing skeletal maturity. These include: Variability among methods, degree of variability in the estimation of skeletal maturation, sources of low accuracy, and dispersion of the values of skeletal maturation. Currently, the main clinical methods for SAA are the Greulich and Pyle (GP) and Tanner and Whitehouse (TW) methods. The GP method has the advantage of being quick and easy to use. A well-trained radiologist takes few minutes to determine the bone age (BA) from a single hand radiograph. The method of TW, however, seems to be more reliable than the GP method. In recent years, the increasing speed in computer sciences and reduction of their cost has given the opportunity to create and use computerized BA estimation system. Despite the fact that the number of automated systems for BAA have increased, most are still within the experimental phase. The use of automated BA determination system, cleared for clinical use in Europe (BoneXpert), has been validated for various ethnicities and children with endocrine disorders. Ultrasound imaging has some limitations that include operator dependence, lower intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of assessment and difficulties with standardization of documentation and imaging transfer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is noninvasive alternative tool for SA assessment in children. However, few studies have been reported on this topic, and further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of MRI BAAs. In conclusion, at present radiographic methods for the assessment of BA remain the gold standards. Whatever method one adopts, it is essential to minimize the causes of imprecision by taking care to consider the

  11. Assessment and Age 16+ Education Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises our research into the relationship between pupil assessment at age 14 (Key Stage 3) and participation in age 16+ education. We question whether a systematic gap between teacher-based assessment and externally marked tests indicates assessment bias or uncertainty, either in testing procedures or through teachers' perceptions…

  12. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  13. Bone age assessment using cephalometric photographs

    PubMed Central

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Agata; Mituś-Kenig, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: The assessment of bone age comprises the basic element of orthodontic diagnostics as it enables the recognition of deviations from normal growth, determines the choice of treatment, helps determine the appropriate moment to begin treatment, establish prognosis and plan a retention strategy. In order to make an assessment of skeletal maturity possible in a single examination, radiological methods were adopted. The following characteristics are evaluated on a radiograph: the appearance, size and shape of ossification centers, the width and the shape of growth cartilage and the degree of fusion between diaphyses and epiphyses. In order to assess the maturity of bones, hand-wrist radiographs were introduced in the second decade of the 20th century. Bone age assessment of bone age could also be made based on an analysis of a morphological maturity of cervical vertebrae utilizing cephalometric radiographs. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the correspondence between bone age assessments made from hand-wrist radiographs and those from cephalometric radiographs. Material/Methods: In order to fulfill the objectives, hand-wrist radiographs as well as cephalometric radiographs of 30 patients (15 girls and 15 boys) between 10 and 17 years of age were collected. Bone age of hand, wrist and cervical spine was assessed. Bone age on hand-wrist radiographs was evaluated using the Björk method, whereas cephalometric radiographs were analyzed by the Baccetti et al. method. Results: A strong and statistically highly significant (r=0.98; p<0.00001) Pearson’s correlation was found between bone age assessed from hand-wrist radiographs using Björk’s method and bone age assessed from cephalometric radiographs using the method by Baccetti et al. Conclusions: The analysis of cervical vertebrae in cephalometric radiographs appears to be the most desirable method of bone age assessment. Performing the analysis on routinely taken cephalograms

  14. Complete genome sequence of the beer spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Vanessa; Abegunde, Teju; Marfleet, Travis; Haakensen, Monique; Morrow, Kendra; Jayaprakash, Teenus; Schroeder, Kristen; Trost, Brett; Byrns, Sydney; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Kusalik, Anthony; Ziola, Barry

    2012-03-01

    Pediococcus claussenii is a common brewery contaminant. We have sequenced the chromosome and plasmids of the type strain P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344. A ropy variant was chosen for sequencing to obtain genetic information related to growth in beer, as well as exopolysaccharide and possibly biofilm formation by this organism. PMID:22328764

  15. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights,…

  16. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  17. Carpal bone analysis in bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Kurkowska-Pospiech, Sylwia; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2006-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed in our Laboratory based on features extracted from regions of interest (ROI) in phalanges in a digital hand atlas. Due to various factors, including, the diversity of size, shape and orientation of carpal bones, non-uniformity of soft tissue, low contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue, the automatic identification and segmentation of bone boundaries is an extremely challenging task. Past research work on carpal bone segmentation has been done utilizing dynamic thresholding. However, due to the discrepancy of carpal bones developments and the limitations of segmentation algorithms, carpal bone ROI has not been taken into consideration in the bone age assessment procedure. In this paper, we present a method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and feature analysis in hand X-ray radiograph. The purpose of this paper is to automatically segment the carpal bones by anisotropic diffusion and Canny edge detection techniques. By adding their respective features extracted from carpal bones ROI to the phalangeal ROI feature space, the accuracy of bone age assessment can be improved especially when the image processing in the phalangeal ROI fails in younger children.

  18. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights, deinstitutionalization, and disability rights movements. Because of these forces, capacity issues now permeate the fabric of everyday life, whether in the form of guardianship petitions, questions of capacity to consent to treatment, the ability to make a new will, or participation in human research. In seeking to resolve these issues, families, clinicians, and legal professionals increasingly turn to psychologists to assess a capacity and to provide empirically supported judgments that properly balance autonomy and protection for the individual. Psychologists have taken a leading role in the development of functional assessment instruments that measure important aspects of the capacity construct. In addition, psychology has been a major contributor to the scientific study of capacity. In collaboration with colleagues from medicine and law, psychologists have articulated crucial theoretical frameworks that integrate legal, clinical, and ethical dimensions of the capacity problem. This article focuses on the evolution of theory, law, science, and practice in the evaluation of capacity in older adults and its recent culmination in a series of interdisciplinary handbooks sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the American Bar Association. PMID:23586491

  19. 29 CFR 35.26 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 35.26 Section 35.26 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR....26 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) In order to assess a recipient's compliance with...

  20. 29 CFR 35.26 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 35.26 Section 35.26 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR....26 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) In order to assess a recipient's compliance with...

  1. 29 CFR 35.26 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 35.26 Section 35.26 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR....26 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) In order to assess a recipient's compliance with...

  2. 29 CFR 35.26 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 35.26 Section 35.26 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR....26 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) In order to assess a recipient's compliance with...

  3. 29 CFR 35.26 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 35.26 Section 35.26 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR....26 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) In order to assess a recipient's compliance with...

  4. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  5. 34 CFR 110.24 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 110.24..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Duties of ED Recipients § 110.24 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) As...

  6. 34 CFR 110.24 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 110.24..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Duties of ED Recipients § 110.24 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) As...

  7. 34 CFR 110.24 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 110.24..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Duties of ED Recipients § 110.24 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) As...

  8. 34 CFR 110.24 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 110.24..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Duties of ED Recipients § 110.24 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) As...

  9. 34 CFR 110.24 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions. 110.24..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Duties of ED Recipients § 110.24 Recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) As...

  10. Biochemical constraints in a protobiotic earth devoid of basic amino acids: the "BAA(-) world".

    PubMed

    McDonald, Gene D; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    It has been hypothesized in this journal and elsewhere, based on surveys of published data from prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite analyses, that basic amino acids such as lysine and arginine were not abundant on prebiotic Earth. If the basic amino acids were incorporated only rarely into the first peptides formed in that environment, it is important to understand what protobiotic chemistry is possible in their absence. As an initial test of the hypothesis that basic amino acid negative [BAA(-)] proteins could have performed at least a subset of protobiotic chemistry, the current work reports on a survey of 13 archaeal and 13 bacterial genomes that has identified 61 modern gene sequences coding for known or putative proteins not containing arginine or lysine. Eleven of the sequences found code for proteins whose functions are well known and important in the biochemistry of modern microbial life: lysine biosynthesis protein LysW, arginine cluster proteins, copper ion binding proteins, bacterial flagellar proteins, and PE or PPE family proteins. These data indicate that the lack of basic amino acids does not prevent peptides or proteins from serving useful structural and biochemical functions. However, as would be predicted from fundamental physicochemical principles, we see no fossil evidence of prebiotic BAA(-) peptide sequences capable of interacting directly with nucleic acids.

  11. Biochemical Constraints in a Protobiotic Earth Devoid of Basic Amino Acids: The "BAA(-) World"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Gene D.; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.

    2010-12-01

    It has been hypothesized in this journal and elsewhere, based on surveys of published data from prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite analyses, that basic amino acids such as lysine and arginine were not abundant on prebiotic Earth. If the basic amino acids were incorporated only rarely into the first peptides formed in that environment, it is important to understand what protobiotic chemistry is possible in their absence. As an initial test of the hypothesis that basic amino acid negative [BAA(-)] proteins could have performed at least a subset of protobiotic chemistry, the current work reports on a survey of 13 archaeal and 13 bacterial genomes that has identified 61 modern gene sequences coding for known or putative proteins not containing arginine or lysine. Eleven of the sequences found code for proteins whose functions are well known and important in the biochemistry of modern microbial life: lysine biosynthesis protein LysW, arginine cluster proteins, copper ion binding proteins, bacterial flagellar proteins, and PE or PPE family proteins. These data indicate that the lack of basic amino acids does not prevent peptides or proteins from serving useful structural and biochemical functions. However, as would be predicted from fundamental physicochemical principles, we see no fossil evidence of prebiotic BAA(-) peptide sequences capable of interacting directly with nucleic acids.

  12. Proteome analysis in the assessment of ageing.

    PubMed

    Nkuipou-Kenfack, Esther; Koeck, Thomas; Mischak, Harald; Pich, Andreas; Schanstra, Joost P; Zürbig, Petra; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-11-01

    Based on demographic trends, the societies in many developed countries are facing an increasing number and proportion of people over the age of 65. The raise in elderly populations along with improved health-care will be concomitant with an increased prevalence of ageing-associated chronic conditions like cardiovascular, renal, and respiratory diseases, arthritis, dementia, and diabetes mellitus. This is expected to pose unprecedented challenges both for individuals and societies and their health care systems. An ultimate goal of ageing research is therefore the understanding of physiological ageing and the achievement of 'healthy' ageing by decreasing age-related pathologies. However, on a molecular level, ageing is a complex multi-mechanistic process whose contributing factors may vary individually, partly overlap with pathological alterations, and are often poorly understood. Proteome analysis potentially allows modelling of these multifactorial processes. This review summarises recent proteomic research on age-related changes identified in animal models and human studies. We combined this information with pathway analysis to identify molecular mechanisms associated with ageing. We identified some molecular pathways that are affected in most or even all organs and others that are organ-specific. However, appropriately powered studies are needed to confirm these findings based in in silico evaluation. PMID:25257180

  13. Assessing chronological aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Wei, Min; Mirisola, Mario G; Longo, Valter D

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most studied model organisms for the identification of genes and mechanisms that affect aging. The chronological lifespan (CLS) assay, which monitors the survival of a non-dividing population, is one of the two methods to study aging in yeast. To eliminate potential artifacts and identify genes and signaling pathways that may also affect aging in higher eukaryotes, it is important to determine CLS by multiple methods. Here, we describe these methods as well as the assays to study macromolecular damage during aging in yeast, with a focus on genomic instability.

  14. A partial proteome reference map of the wine lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni ATCC BAA-1163.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, María de la Luz; Russo, Pasquale; de Los Ríos, Vivian; Capozzi, Vittorio; Fernández de Palencia, Pilar; Spano, Giuseppe; López, Paloma

    2014-02-26

    Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacterium that carries out the malolactic fermentation in virtually all red wines and in some white and sparkling wines. Oenococcus oeni possesses an array of metabolic activities that can modify the taste and aromatic properties of wine. There is, therefore, industrial interest in the proteins involved in these metabolic pathways and related transport systems of this bacterium. In this work, we report the characterization of the O. oeni ATCC BAA-1163 proteome. Total and membrane protein preparations from O. oeni were standardized and analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 224 different spots corresponding to 152 unique proteins, which have been classified by their putative function and subjected to bioinformatics analysis.

  15. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  16. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  17. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  18. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  19. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  20. Taking Initiative in the Age of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Morgan, Melanie; Ortiz, Anna Victoria; Anderson, Lindsey B.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is an increasingly important part of communication pedagogy, not just for periodic accreditation reviews but for ongoing justifications for resources and course design. This project relates the story of how another college at our university prompted us to prove that our Science Writing and Presentation course really delivered what it…

  1. Student Assessing for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criswell, Chad

    2007-01-01

    This article features SmartMusic Impact, an Internet-based application that can impact the way teachers assess student performance. Impact allows teachers to assign, evaluate, and keep a record of playing assignments using the SmartMusic Studio software package. Reaction to Impact has been very positive from the teachers, students, and parents who…

  2. An Observational Assessment Method for Aging Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela M; Jarema, Kimberly A; Kurtz, David M; MacPhail, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age. PMID:21205442

  3. Ages of legal importance: Implications in relation to birth registration and age assessment practices.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Jayakumar; Roberts, Graham J; Wong, Hai Ming; McDonald, Fraser; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of age is a common procedure routinely conducted in many countries following birth date disputes, particularly following asylum claims and criminal offenses. UNICEF reports that only 65% of children in the world were registered, and the numbers of children who possess an authentic birth certificate were significantly lower than those registered. Legally important ages can be categorized into defined age ranges that vary among different countries. Recently, following an increase in the number of age-specific crimes, many countries have revised their legally important ages. This article is intended to report the most recent data on the ages of legal importance in the major countries of the world and implicate its relevance to birth registration and age assessment practices. PMID:26101440

  4. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  5. Assessment of Hemispheric Dominance for Language at Three Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegano, Deborah Walker

    The purposes of this study were to assess the development of hemispheric dominance for language function among children of 4, 7, and 10 years of age and to determine whether age predicts hemispheric dominance. Within 2 weeks of the beginning of data collection, middle-class subjects selected from private nursery schools and elementary schools…

  6. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  7. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  8. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review

    PubMed Central

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  9. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review.

    PubMed

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  10. Using AVIRIS In The NASA BAA Project To Evaluate The Impact Of Natural Acid Drainage On Colorado Watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauff, Phoebe L.; Coulter, David W.; Peters, Douglas C.; Sares, Matthew A.; Prosh, Eric C.; Henderson, Frederick B., III; Bird, David

    2004-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey and the co-authors of this paper were awarded one of 15 NASA Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) grants in 2001. The project focuses on the use of hyperspectral remote sensing to map acid-generating minerals that affect water quality within a watershed, and to identify the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to that drainage. A further objective is to define the most cost-effective remote sensing instrument configuration for this application.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 after interaction with human intestinal epithelial cell line HCT-8.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chun-e; Du, Xin-jun; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens that are responsible for infections including severe meningitis, septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants. To date, questions still remain regarding the mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence determinants for each bacterial strain. In this study, we established an in vitro model for Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 infection of HCT-8 human colorectal epithelial cells. The transcriptome profile of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 after interaction with HCT-8 cells was determined using high-throughput whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)). Gene expression profiles indicated that 139 genes were upregulated and 72 genes were downregulated in the adherent C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 strain on HCT-8 cells compared to the cultured bacteria in the cell-free medium. Expressions of some flagella genes and virulence factors involved in adherence were upregulated. High osmolarity and osmotic stress-associated genes were highly upregulated, as well as genes responsible for the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides and outer membrane proteins, iron acquisition systems, and glycerol and glycerophospholipid metabolism. In sum, our study provides further insight into the mechanisms underlying C. sakazakii pathogenesis in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26481623

  12. The evidential value of developmental age imaging for assessing age of majority

    PubMed Central

    Cole, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To consider the evidential value of developmental age images for identifying age of majority. Methods: The published literature on hand–wrist X-rays, MRI scans of the distal radius and orthopantomograms of the lower left third molar is considered in terms of the mean age of attainment of the adult appearance and the diagnostic test performance of the adult appearance to predict adult status, either administratively (under-17 football) or forensically. Results: The mean age of attainment of a mature hand-wrist X-ray is under 18 years and most individuals are mature before age 18. For the MRI wrist scan and the third molar the age of attainment is over 19 years and the adult appearance is an indicator of adulthood, while the immature appearance is uninformative about likely age. So MRI and third molars have high specificity, but low sensitivity. Conclusions: Bone age assessed by hand–wrist X-ray is uninformative and should not be used. The adult appearance of MRI wrist scans and third molars provide evidence of being over-age, although there remains a small risk of minors being misclassified as adult. The immature appearance is uninformative about likely age and, overall, more than one third of assessments are wrong. PMID:26133364

  13. An assessment of fire vulnerability for aged electrical relays

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, R.A. |; Nowlen, S.P.

    1995-03-01

    There has been some concern that, as nuclear power plants age, protective measures taken to control and minimize the impact of fire may become ineffective, or significantly less effective, and hence result in an increased fire risk. One objective of the Fire Vulnerability of Aged Electrical Components Program is to assess the effects of aging and service wear on the fire vulnerability of electrical equipment. An increased fire vulnerability of components may lead to an overall increase in fire risk to the plant. Because of their widespread use in various electrical safety systems, electromechanical relays were chosen to be the initial components for evaluation. This test program assessed the impact of operational and thermal aging on the vulnerability of these relays to fire-induced damage. Only thermal effects of a fire were examined in this test program. The impact of smoke, corrosive materials, or fire suppression effects on relay performance were not addressed in this test program. The purpose of this test program was to assess whether the fire vulnerability of electrical relays increased with aging. The sequence followed for the test program was to: identify specific relay types, develop three fire scenarios, artificially age several relays, test the unaged and aged relays in the fire exposure scenarios, and compare the results. The relays tested were Agastat GPI, General Electric (GE) HMA, HGA, and HFA. At least two relays of each type were artificially aged and at least two relays of each type were new. Relays were operationally aged by cycling the relay under rated load for 2,000 operations. These relays were then thermally aged for 60 days with their coil energized.

  14. Bone age maturity assessment using hand-held device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Liu, Xiaodong; Boechat, M. I.

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: Assessment of bone maturity is traditionally performed through visual comparison of hand and wrist radiograph with existing reference images in textbooks. Our goal was to develop a digital index based on idealized hand Xray images that can be incorporated in a hand held computer and used for visual assessment of bone age for patients. Material and methods: Due to the large variability in bone maturation in normals, we generated a set of "ideal" images obtained by computer combinations of images from our normal reference data sets. Software for hand-held PDA devices was developed for easy navigation through the set of images and visual selection of matching images. A formula based on our statistical analysis provides the standard deviation from normal based on the chronological age of the patient. The accuracy of the program was compared to traditional interpretation by two radiologists in a double blind reading of 200 normal Caucasian children (100 boys, 100 girls). Results: Strong correlations were present between chronological age and bone age (r > 0.9) with no statistical difference between the digital and traditional assessment methods. Determinations of carpal bone maturity in adolescents was slightly more accurate using the digital system. The users did praise the convenience and effectiveness of the digital Palm Index in clinical practice. Conclusion: An idealized digital Palm Bone Age Index provides a convenient and effective alternative to conventional atlases for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  15. Content-based image retrieval applied to bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Brosig, André; Welter, Petra; Grouls, Christoph; Günther, Rolf W.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-03-01

    Radiological bone age assessment is based on local image regions of interest (ROI), such as the epiphysis or the area of carpal bones. These are compared to a standardized reference and scores determining the skeletal maturity are calculated. For computer-aided diagnosis, automatic ROI extraction and analysis is done so far mainly by heuristic approaches. Due to high variations in the imaged biological material and differences in age, gender and ethnic origin, automatic analysis is difficult and frequently requires manual interactions. On the contrary, epiphyseal regions (eROIs) can be compared to previous cases with known age by content-based image retrieval (CBIR). This requires a sufficient number of cases with reliable positioning of the eROI centers. In this first approach to bone age assessment by CBIR, we conduct leaving-oneout experiments on 1,102 left hand radiographs and 15,428 metacarpal and phalangeal eROIs from the USC hand atlas. The similarity of the eROIs is assessed by cross-correlation of 16x16 scaled eROIs. The effects of the number of eROIs, two age computation methods as well as the number of considered CBIR references are analyzed. The best results yield an error rate of 1.16 years and a standard deviation of 0.85 years. As the appearance of the hand varies naturally by up to two years, these results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the CBIR approach for bone age estimation.

  16. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  17. Sentence Completion to Assess Children's Views about Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Lee, Shuko; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Sentence completion exercises require students to give open-ended responses to prompts. The first purpose of this article is to describe the method of sentence completion to assess middle-school children's attitudes and beliefs about aging. The second purpose is to describe the patterns of characteristics that children associate with…

  18. Assessing age in the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii: Testing skeletochronology with individuals of known age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, A.J.; Zug, G.R.; Medica, P.A.; Spotila, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Eight desert tortoises Gopherus agassizii from a long-term mark-recapture study in the Mojave Desert, Nevada, USA, afforded an opportunity to examine the accuracy of skeletochronological age estimation on tortoises from a seasonal, yet environmentally erratic environment. These 8 tortoises were marked as hatchlings or within the first 2 yr of life, and their carcasses were salvaged from predator kills. Using d blind protocol, 2 skeletochronological protocols (correction-factor and ranking) provided age estimates for a set of 4 bony elements (humerus, scapula, femur, ilium) from these tortoises of known age. The age at death of the tortoises ranged from 15 to 50 yr. The most accurate protocol - ranking using the growth layers within each of the 4 elements - provided estimates from 21 to 47 yr, with the highest accuracy from the ilia. The results indicate that skeletochronological age estimation provides a reasonably accurate method for assessing the age at death of desert tortoises and, if used with a large sample of individuals, will provide a valuable tool for examining age-related mortality parameters in desert tortoise and likely in other gopher tortoises (Gopherus). ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  19. An ethical assessment of anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This assessment presents and evaluates various ethical arguments for and against anti-aging medicine. After briefly defining human aging and how it could be viewed as a medical problem, the paper reviews scientific evidence that indicates that medical intervention could substantially change the rate of human aging in the foreseeable future. This evidence includes research in biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology (including research on mitochondrial DNA and oxidative stress as well as research on cellular and molecular replacement interventions), non-human animal studies, and human studies. The following six ethical arguments against anti-aging medicine are presented and evaluated: 1) inequity: the poor die young by the millions, while the rich refuse to age; 2) denying aging's immutability; 3) dominating nature, altering and commodifying ourselves; 4) overpopulation: carrying capacity concerns and the rights of future people to be born; 5) ennui: with no natural deadline, life itself outlives its value; 6) ageism: prejudice against the old and the young. The paper then evaluates four ethical arguments in favor of anti-aging medicine: 1) beneficence: duties to maintain health and prevent disease and death; 2) efficiency: slowing down aging would reduce the rates for all of the most common causes of death in developed societies; 3) limited autonomy: freedom to purchase anti-aging medicines that may or may not work, so long as they are not harmful; 4) improved quality of life: more active, healthier, and wiser (two propositions supporting this argument - that anti-aging medicine would allow for a longer, more active, healthier, and fuller life and that wisdom comes from experience, not senescence - are also presented and evaluated). The arguments in favor of anti-aging medicine are found to be more compelling than the arguments against it. The paper concludes with the recommendation that anti-aging medicine should be funded and regulated in ways that facilitate

  20. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3M<0.08 is 18 years or older is 94.5% for females, and 96.5% for males. With high accuracy, the third molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia.

  1. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3M<0.08 is 18 years or older is 94.5% for females, and 96.5% for males. With high accuracy, the third molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia. PMID:26013667

  2. Age assessment of Natufian remains from the land of Israel.

    PubMed

    Karasik, D; Arensburg, B; Pavlovsky, O M

    2000-10-01

    The Natufian population of Israel was first described by Garrod in 1932, and since then hundreds of skeletons have been discovered in archaeological excavations. Their culture is amply discussed in the literature as designating the transitional stage between extractive and productive subsistence economics in the period ca. 13,000-10,000 years BP. The Natufians represent a local population with strong biologic ties to the more ancient Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of the area. The scope of the present study is to review, on the basis of new skeletal material and new age-assessing methods, the age and sex tables attributed to this group, which usually indicate a mean age of death around 32 years.

  3. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  4. Updated Aging Assessment Approach and Use with Electric Cable Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, David A.; Colaianni, R. Paul

    2003-08-15

    The service life of nuclear power plant equipment may include operation beyond the original design or qualified life. A technical basis is necessary to demonstrate that critical equipment is capable of continued safe operation for any life extension and renewed license term. Such a technical basis is also useful in addressing initial license term aging degradation, age-related failures, and maintenance issues. Early approaches for addressing aging effects developed for environmental qualification programs in the 1980s were incorporated into the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers' (IEEE) IEEE Std. 1205-1993. However, subsequently, a number of events (including promulgation of the Maintenance Renewal Rule, the new License Renewal Rule, and initial plant owner submittals of License Renewal applications) have resulted in improved aging management approaches, which focus on addressing aging effects rather than attempting to identify and mitigate every possible aging mechanism.An example of a major issue facing nuclear power plants as they mature is the general health of the plant electrical cables. This issue came to the forefront as plants began preparing for license renewal, which requires an evaluation of cables to demonstrate that they will perform their function 20 yr beyond the original 40-yr license period. When the two lead plants started preparing for license renewal, there was no generally accepted approach to the bulk evaluation of plant cables, and there were many who thought it not possible to perform a complete plant cable evaluation. The approaches that emerged from the lead plant reviews demonstrated that an assessment of the general health of plant cables could be performed.IEEE's Nuclear Power Engineering Committee recognized the need to capture these improved approaches. A 2 1/2-yr effort of the IEEE Subcommittee-3 Working Group 3.4 culminating in IEEE Std. 1205-2000 is the consensus of representatives from the two lead license renewal

  5. Age-dependent ascending aorta mechanics assessed through multiphase CT.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Primiano, Charles; McKay, Raymond; Elefteriades, John

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of the age- and gender-specific in vivo mechanical characteristics of the ascending aorta (AA) will allow for identification of abnormalities aside from changes brought on by aging alone. Multiphase clinical CT scans of 45 male patients between the ages of 30 and 79 years were analyzed to assess age-dependent in vivo AA characteristics. The three-dimensional AA geometry for each patient was reconstructed from the CT scans for 9-10 phases throughout the cardiac cycle. The AA circumference was measured during each phase and was used to determine the corresponding diameter, circumferential strain, and wall tension at each phase. The pressure-strain modulus was also determined for each patient. The mean diastolic AA diameter was significantly smaller among young (42.6 ± 5.2 years) at 29.9 ± 2.8 mm than old patients (69.0 ± 5.2 years) at 33.2 ± 3.2 mm. The circumferential AA strain from end-diastole to peak-systole decreased from 0.092 ± 0.03 in young to 0.056 ± 0.03 in old patients. The pressure-strain modulus increased two-fold from 68.4 ± 30.5 kPa in young to 162.0 ± 93.5 kPa in old patients, and the systolic AA wall tension increased from 268.5 ± 31.3 kPa in young to 304.9 ± 49.2 kPa in old patients. The AA dilates and stiffens with aging which increases the vessel wall tension, likely predisposing aneurysm and dissection.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF CABLE AGING USING CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    GROVE,E.; LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; HSU,F.

    2000-04-06

    Electric cables in nuclear power plants suffer degradation during service as a result of the thermal and radiation environments in which they are installed. Instrumentation and control cables are one type of cable that provide an important role in reactor safety. Should the polymeric cable insulation material become embrittled and cracked during service, or during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and when steam and high radiation conditions are anticipated, failure could occur and prevent the cables from fulfilling their intended safety function(s). A research program is being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate condition monitoring (CM) techniques for estimating the amount of cable degradation experienced during in-plant service. The objectives of this program are to assess the ability of the cables to perform under a simulated LOCA without losing their ability to function effectively, and to identify CM techniques which may be used to determine the effective lifetime of cables. The cable insulation materials tested include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Accelerated aging (thermal and radiation) to the equivalent of 40 years of service was performed, followed by exposure to simulated LOCA conditions. The effectiveness of chemical, electrical, and mechanical condition monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Results indicate that several of these methods can detect changes in material parameters with increasing age. However, each has its limitations, and a combination of methods may provide an effective means for trending cable degradation in order to assess the remaining life of cables.

  7. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  8. Assessment of Hydrochemistry for Use as Groundwater Age Proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Monique; Daughney, Chris; Jackson, Bethanna; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating can aid groundwater management by providing information on groundwater flow, mixing and residence-, storage- and exposure-time of groundwater in the subsurface. Groundwater age can be inferred from environmental tracers, such as tritium, SF6 and CFCs (CFC-12, -11 and -113). These tracers often need to be applied complementarily, since they have a restricted application range and ambiguous age interpretations can be obtained. Some tracers, such as the CFCs, will become of limited use in near future, due their fading out atmospheric concentration. As a consequence of these limitations, there is a need for additional, complementary tracers to ensure groundwater dating in future. Hydrochemistry parameters, such as the concentrations and ratios of major ions, appear to be promising candidates. Hydro-chemistry data at various spatial and temporal scales are widely available through local, regional and national groundwater monitoring programmes. Promising relationships between hydrochemistry parameters and groundwater residence time or aquifer depth have been found in near piston flow environments. However, most groundwater samples contain proportions of different aged water, due to mixing of water emerging from different flow lines during sampling or discharge, which complicates the establishment of hydrochemistry-time relationships in these environments. In this study, we establish a framework to infer hydrochemistry - (residence) time relationships in non-piston flow environments by using age information inferred from environmental tracer data and lumped parameter models (LPMs). The approach involves the generation of major element concentrations by 'classic' Monte Carlo simulation and subsequent comparison of simulated and observed element concentrations by means of an objective function to establish hydrochemistry-time relationships. The framework also allows for assessment of the hydrochemistry-time relationships with regards to their potential to

  9. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Davenport, Karen W.; Sims, David; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Richardson, Paul; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  10. RT-qPCR analysis of putative beer-spoilage gene expression during growth of Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 and Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) in beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contamination of beer presents a continual economic threat to brewers. Interestingly, only certain isolates of LAB can grow in the hostile beer environment (e.g., as studied here, Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) and a non-ropy isolate of Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344NR)), indicating that significant genetic specialization is required. The genes hitA, horA, horB, horC, and bsrA, which have been proposed to confer beer-spoiling ability to an organism, are suspected of counteracting the antimicrobial effects of hops. However, these genes are not present in the same combination (if at all) across beer-spoiling organisms. As such, we sought to investigate the extent to which these genes participate during Lb464 and Pc344NR mid-logarithmic growth in beer through reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. We first determined the optimal reference gene set needed for data normalization and, for each bacterium, established that two genes were needed for accurate assessment of gene expression. Following this, we found that horA expression was induced for Pc344NR, but not for Lb464, during growth in beer. Instead, horC expression was dramatically increased in Lb464 when growing in beer, whereas no change was detected for the other putative beer-spoilage-related genes. This indicates that HorC may be one of the principle mediators enabling growth of Lb464 in beer, whereas in Pc344NR, this may be attributable to HorA. These findings not only reveal that Lb464 and Pc344NR are unique in their beer-specific genetic expression profile but also indicate that a range of genetic specialization exists among beer-spoilage bacteria.

  11. RT-qPCR analysis of putative beer-spoilage gene expression during growth of Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 and Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) in beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contamination of beer presents a continual economic threat to brewers. Interestingly, only certain isolates of LAB can grow in the hostile beer environment (e.g., as studied here, Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) and a non-ropy isolate of Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344NR)), indicating that significant genetic specialization is required. The genes hitA, horA, horB, horC, and bsrA, which have been proposed to confer beer-spoiling ability to an organism, are suspected of counteracting the antimicrobial effects of hops. However, these genes are not present in the same combination (if at all) across beer-spoiling organisms. As such, we sought to investigate the extent to which these genes participate during Lb464 and Pc344NR mid-logarithmic growth in beer through reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. We first determined the optimal reference gene set needed for data normalization and, for each bacterium, established that two genes were needed for accurate assessment of gene expression. Following this, we found that horA expression was induced for Pc344NR, but not for Lb464, during growth in beer. Instead, horC expression was dramatically increased in Lb464 when growing in beer, whereas no change was detected for the other putative beer-spoilage-related genes. This indicates that HorC may be one of the principle mediators enabling growth of Lb464 in beer, whereas in Pc344NR, this may be attributable to HorA. These findings not only reveal that Lb464 and Pc344NR are unique in their beer-specific genetic expression profile but also indicate that a range of genetic specialization exists among beer-spoilage bacteria. PMID:22893225

  12. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  13. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  14. Protein sequences insight into heavy metal tolerance in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 encoded by plasmid pESA3.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Kajsik, Michal; Forsythe, Stephen; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2015-12-01

    The recently annotated genome of the bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 suggests that the organism has the ability to bind heavy metals. This study demonstrates heavy metal tolerance in C. sakazakii, in which proteins with the heavy metal interaction were recognized by computational and experimental study. As the result, approximately one-fourth of proteins encoded on the plasmid pESA3 are proposed to have potential interaction with heavy metals. Interaction between heavy metals and predicted proteins was further corroborated using protein crystal structures from protein data bank database and comparison of metal-binding ligands. In addition, a phylogenetic study was undertaken for the toxic heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which generated relatedness clustering for lead, cadmium and arsenic. Laboratory studies confirmed the organism's tolerance to tellurite, copper and silver. These experimental and computational study data extend our understanding of the genes encoding for proteins of this important neonatal pathogen and provide further insights into the genotypes associated with features that can contribute to its persistence in the environment. The information will be of value for future environmental protection from heavy toxic metals. PMID:26384977

  15. Protein sequences insight into heavy metal tolerance in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 encoded by plasmid pESA3.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Kajsik, Michal; Forsythe, Stephen; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2015-12-01

    The recently annotated genome of the bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 suggests that the organism has the ability to bind heavy metals. This study demonstrates heavy metal tolerance in C. sakazakii, in which proteins with the heavy metal interaction were recognized by computational and experimental study. As the result, approximately one-fourth of proteins encoded on the plasmid pESA3 are proposed to have potential interaction with heavy metals. Interaction between heavy metals and predicted proteins was further corroborated using protein crystal structures from protein data bank database and comparison of metal-binding ligands. In addition, a phylogenetic study was undertaken for the toxic heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which generated relatedness clustering for lead, cadmium and arsenic. Laboratory studies confirmed the organism's tolerance to tellurite, copper and silver. These experimental and computational study data extend our understanding of the genes encoding for proteins of this important neonatal pathogen and provide further insights into the genotypes associated with features that can contribute to its persistence in the environment. The information will be of value for future environmental protection from heavy toxic metals.

  16. Assessment and Management of Aging in Phenix Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dumarcher, V.; Bourrier, J.L.; Chaucheprat, P.; Boulegue, D.

    2006-07-01

    The combination of one or several processes of ruins can involve the materials failure of a nuclear power plant. These processes arise from the external agents action such as the pressure, the mechanical efforts, the heat flows and the radiations constitute the whole of the 'actions' of the surrounding medium. The prolongation and the repetition of these effects can involve a deterioration of the machine. In accordance with the decree of February 26, 1974, the PWR operator must be firstly, sure that the system is controlled according to the situations considered in the file of dimensioning and secondly, be able to know anytime the life of the equipment. The physical phenomena which cause the structures ruin are less complex in the PWR than in the SFR. In the SFR, the high temperatures imposed on components for long periods can involve a significant creep. In the course of time, this deformations accelerate the release of fatigue cracks. To consider the creep, the reactor lifespan is correlated at the numbers of thermals transients envisaged initially. To realize the management of aging in Phenix power plant, it is necessary to carry out an individualized monitoring of the structures and not only on the vessel. We must ensure the good state and/or the correct operation of the significant stations for safety which are the control of the reactivity, the movement of control rods, the primary sodium containment and the decay heat removal. For that, we monitor the main vessel, the conical skirt, the IHX and the Core Cover Plug. A profound knowledge of the thermal transients of the past is necessary to carry out an effective assessment. In order to guarantee that any harmful situation is well taken into the management of aging, we monitor permanently certain measurements (primary and secondary pump speed, hot and cold pool temperatures, IHX-main vessel and reactor roof temperatures). We present in the article the scientific method used in the Physics Section. A logical

  17. Non contact method for in vivo assessment of skin mechanical properties for assessing effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Boyer, G; Pailler Mattei, C; Molimard, J; Pericoi, M; Laquieze, S; Zahouani, H

    2012-03-01

    The assessment of human tissue properties by objective and quantitative devices is very important to improve the understanding of its mechanical behaviour. The aim of this paper is to present a non contact method to measure the mechanical properties of human skin in vivo. A complete non contact device using an air flow system has been developed. Validation and assessment of the method have been performed on inert visco-elastic material. An in vivo study on the forearm of two groups of healthy women aged of 23.2±1.6 and 60.4±2.4 has been performed. Main parameters assessed are presented and a first interpretation to evaluate the reduced Young's modulus is proposed. Significant differences between the main parameters of the curve are shown with ageing. As tests were performed with different loads, the influence of the stress is also observed. We found a reduced Young's modulus with an air flow force of 10 mN of 14.38±3.61 kPa for the youngest group and 6.20±1.45 kPa for the oldest group. These values agree with other studies using classical or dynamic indentation. Non contact test using the developed device gives convincing results.

  18. Rethinking Assessment in a Digital Age: Opportunities, Challenges and Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmis, Sue; Broadfoot, Patricia; Sutherland, Rosamund; Oldfield, Alison

    2016-01-01

    While it is frequently argued that assessment sits at the heart of the learning process, in practice assessment often remains narrowly focused on qualifications and reporting achievements, driven by institutional and societal aspirations and tensions such as accountability and economic well being. Yet, the need for assessment to account for the…

  19. Age dependency of cerebral oxygenation assessed with near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colier, Willy N.; van Haaren, Nicole J.; van de Ven, Marjo J.; Folgering, Hans T.; Oeseburg, Berend

    1997-04-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical technique that provides information on cerebral tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics on a continuous, direct, and noninvasive basis. It is used to determine cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity during normoxic hyper- and hypocapnia in a group of 28 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 83 years. The main focus is on to the age dependency of the measured variables. The influence of changes in minute ventilation during normocapnia on the cerebral oxygenation was also studied. The mean CBV in age was, for 20 to 30 years, 2.14 +/- 0.51 ml/100 g of brain tissue; for 45 to 50 years, 1.92 +/- 0.40 ml/100 g; and for 70 to 83 years, 1.47 +/- 0.55 ml/100 g. The CBV showed a significant decease with advancing age. No influence was found for a change in minute ventilation on cerebral oxygenation. During hypercapnia cerebral blood flow (CBF) significantly increased in al age groups, with a factor of 1.31 +/- 0.17 kPa-1, 1.64 +/- 1.39 kPa-1, and 2.4 +/- 1.7 kPa-1, respectively, for the three age groups. The difference in change among the age groups was not statistically significant. The trend seen was an increased change in CBF with advancing age. During hypocapnia, the CBF significantly decreased in all age groups, with a factor of 0.89 +/- 0.08 kPa-1, 0.89 +/- 0.04 kPa-1, and 0.85 +/- 0.11 kPa-1, respectively. There was no significant difference among the age groups.

  20. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Morgan J; van Aarde, Rudi J; Ferreira, Sam M; Nørgaard, Camilla F; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  1. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  2. Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-Reported Age Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Pavalko, Eliza K.; Long, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working…

  3. Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Dababneh, Edward; Quail, Stephanie L.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Age related decline in balance performance is associated with deteriorating muscle strength, motor coordination and vestibular function. While a number of studies show changes in balance phenotype with age in rodents, very few isolate the vestibular contribution to balance under either normal conditions or during senescence. We use two standard behavioral tests to characterize the balance performance of mice at defined age points over the lifespan: the rotarod test and the inclined balance beam test. Importantly though, a custom built rotator is also used to stimulate the vestibular system of mice (without inducing overt signs of motion sickness). These two tests have been used to show that changes in vestibular mediated-balance performance are present over the murine lifespan. Preliminary results show that both the rotarod test and the modified balance beam test can be used to identify changes in balance performance during aging as an alternative to more difficult and invasive techniques such as vestibulo-ocular (VOR) measurements. PMID:25045963

  4. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  5. BAA instrument no. 93

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  6. Living in an Age of Assessment: The Quality Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Robin L.; Parsons, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, over 300 community colleges across the country adopted the Community College Student Survey of Engagement (CCSSE) in an effort to assess the campus environment through student perceptions. In addition, community colleges across the country are searching for ways to measure student learning. The Collegiate Assessment of Academic…

  7. Formative Assessment in the Digital Age: Blogging with Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Katie; Yearta, Lindsay; Harris, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous benefits of using blogs to discuss reading in the elementary classroom. Teachers can assess reading comprehension for individual students while managing several book clubs in a digital space. The resulting assessment-based data can be used to differentiate instruction. Additionally, students can experience growth as independent,…

  8. Age, interpersonal attraction, and social interaction. A review and assessment.

    PubMed

    Webb, L; Delaney, J J; Young, L R

    1989-03-01

    This essay reviews over 40 extant research reports on attraction and aging. The review indicated that (a) perceived agreement in attitude tends to neutralize young adults' general perception of older adults as unattractive, (b) elders prefer to associate with middle-aged and older adults more than they desire to associate with younger adults, regardless of the relative physical attraction of the target individuals, and (c) elders' marital satisfaction appears to be related to perceived physical attractiveness of the husband, not the wife. The authors provide critique and analysis of the research methods employed in the reviewed studies. Avenues for further research are identified.

  9. Pros and cons for the medical age assessments in unaccompanied minors: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Soliman, Nada A; Elalaily, Rania; Di Maio, Salvatore; Bedair, Elsaid M A; Kassem, Islam; Millimaggi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-13

    Unaccompanied minors refer to immigrants who are under the age of 18 and are not under the care of a parent or legal guardian. Age assessment is used in Europe mainly to establish whether or not an individual is under 18 years of age and therefore eligible for protection under the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN - CRC). EU Member States use a combination of techniques to determine the age of a minor and to certify minor status, including interviews and documentation, physical examinations (anthropometric assessment; sexual maturity assessment; dental observation); psychological and sociological assessment; radiological tests (carpal, dental or collarbone x-rays). All such techniques are criticized as they are often arbitrary, do not take into account ethnic variations, and are based on reference materials that are outdated, invasive and may procure harm to the individuals whose age is assessed. They also generate a margin of error that makes them inaccurate to use. There is a debate about the risks and ethics associated with the use of X-rays for non-medical purposes versus the benefits of more accurate age assessments in the interest of justice. It appears that in European countries many individuals carrying out age assessment do not have sufficient training or are not sufficiently independent enough to be carrying out such assessments. Moreover, there is a lack of standardized approach between countries or even within the same country. Only some countries clearly indicate a margin of error in the results of age assessment examinations but there is no consensus - within and among countries - about the width of such margins in relation to each exams applied. It has been advised that the expert report should give the degree of age probability to allow Magistrate to interpret the age assessment results on the 'balance of probabilities' and give the detainee the right to the rule of the 'benefit of the doubt'. It also addresses concerns

  10. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  11. Cross-sectional validation of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire: a multidimensional instrument for assessing self-perceptions of aging

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Maja; O'Hanlon, Ann; McGee, Hannah M; Hickey, Anne; Conroy, Ronan M

    2007-01-01

    Background Self-perceptions of aging have been implicated as independent predictors of functional disability and mortality in older adults. In spite of this, research on self-perceptions of aging is limited. One reason for this is the absence of adequate measures. Specifically, there is a need to develop a measure that is theoretically-derived, has good psychometric properties, and is multidimensional in nature. The present research seeks to address this need by adopting the Self-Regulation Model as a framework and using it to develop a comprehensive, multi-dimensional instrument for assessing self-perceptions of aging. This study describes the validation of this newly-developed instrument, the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ). Methods Participants were 2,033 randomly selected community-dwelling older (+65 yrs) Irish adults who completed the APQ alongside measures of physical and psychological health. The APQ assesses self-perceptions of aging along eight distinct domains or subscales; seven of these examine views about own aging, these are: timeline chronic, timeline cyclical, consequences positive, consequences negative, control positive, control negative, and emotional representations; the eighth domain is the identity domain and this examines the experience of health-related changes. Results Mokken scale analysis showed that the majority of items within the views about aging subscales were strongly scalable. Confirmatory factor analysis also indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data. Overall, subscales had good internal reliabilities. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to investigate the independent contribution of APQ subscales to physical and psychological health and in doing so determine the construct validity of the APQ. Results showed that self-perceptions of aging were independently related to physical and psychological health. Mediation testing also supported a role for self-perceptions of aging as partial mediators in the

  12. An observational assessment method for aging laboratory rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biological processes ofaging and susceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. Methods to evaluate health ofaging animals over time are needed, especially efficient methods for...

  13. AN OBSERVATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF AGING IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models that can be used to (1) efficiently monitor the health ofaging research colonies, and (2) aid in unraveling the mechanisms ofsusceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. An observational assessm...

  14. Age assessment by rib phase analysis in Turks.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, M F; Işcan, M Y; Cöloğlu, A S

    1998-11-30

    The Işcan's phase method for the estimation of adult age at death from the sternal extremity of the fourth rib was introduced in 1983. Over the years, numerous tests have confirmed the reliability of this technique on varied samples. However, no large scale study has been conducted to test the application of this method on a modern white sample geographically, genetically, and culturally diverse from the American white database. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to apply rib phase standards to a Turkish sample to test if the progression of morphological changes follow the same age sequence. Using a sample of 150 males and 144 females of known age at death, each rib was phased using the standards developed by Işcan and associates in 1984 and 1985. The phase estimations were then subject to an analysis of variance. The results of the study indicated that Turkish ribs show the same morphological characteristics that define the phases at nearly identical ages. Variation as measured by the standard deviation increased from phase 5 on in both sexes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the rib phase standards can be accurately applied to Turks. Investigations of this nature are vital because one cannot assume that a method developed from one group is applicable to a distant population, especially in medicolegal proceedings.

  15. Assessing sedimentation issues within aging of flood-control reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flood control reservoirs designed and built by federal agencies have been extremely effective in reducing the ravages of floods nationwide. Yet some structures are being removed for a variety of reasons, while other structures are aging rapidly and require either rehabilitation or decommissioning. ...

  16. Chip Scale Package Integrity Assessment by Isothermal Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    Many aspects of chip scale package (CSP) technology, with focus on assembly reliability characteristics, are being investigated by the JPL-led consortia. Three types of test vehicles were considered for evaluation and currently two configurations have been built to optimize attachment processes. These test vehicles use numerous package types. To understand potential failure mechanisms of the packages, particularly solder ball attachment, the grid CSPs were subjected to environmental exposure. Package I/Os ranged from 40 to nearly 300. This paper presents both as assembled, up to 1, 000 hours of isothermal aging shear test results and photo micrographs, and tensile test results before and after 1,500 cycles in the range of -30/100 C for CSPs. Results will be compared to BGAs with the same the same isothermal aging environmental exposures.

  17. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  18. Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrotta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

  19. Methods to assess Drosophila heart development, function and aging

    PubMed Central

    Ocorr, Karen; Vogler, Georg; Bodmer, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the Drosophila heart has become an established model of many different aspects of human cardiac disease. This model has allowed identification of disease-causing mechanisms underlying congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies and has permitted the study underlying genetic, metabolic and age-related contributions to heart function. In this review we discuss methods currently employed in the analysis of the Drosophila heart structure and function, such as optical methods to infer heart function and performance, electrophysiological and mechanical approaches to characterize cardiac tissue properties, and conclude with histological techniques used in the study of heart development and adult structure. PMID:24727147

  20. Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aging Wire Insulation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally aged wire insulation can become brittle and crack and thus expose the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. The feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to measure insulation condition was examined. First a simple model to study guided wave propagation in a bare and thin plastic coated wire was examined and then some aviation grade wire samples that had been heat-damaged. Initial measurements indicate that ultrasonic guided wave velocity can be used to monitor insulation stiffness.

  1. Metabolomics of aging assessed in individual parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Snart, Charles J. P.; Williams, Huw; Hardy, Ian C. W.; Barrett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics studies of low-biomass organisms, such as small insects, have previously relied on the pooling of biological samples to overcome detection limits, particularly using NMR. We show that the differentiation of metabolite profiles of individual 1 mg parasitoid wasps of different ages is possible when using a modified sample preparation and a combination of untargeted NMR and LC-MS based metabolomics. Changes were observed between newly emerged and older wasps in glycerolipids, amino acids and circulatory sugars. This advance in chemical profiling has important implications for the study of the behaviour and ecology of parasitoids and many other species of small organisms because predictions and observations are typically made at the level of the individual. Thus, the metabolomic state of low-biomass individuals can now be related to their behaviour and ecological performance. We discuss specifically the utility of age-related metabolomic profiling but our new approach can be applied to a wide range of biological research. PMID:27713504

  2. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin. PMID:7560349

  3. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin.

  4. Hand radiograph analysis for fully automatic bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassignet, Philippe; Nitescu, Teodor; Hassan, Max; Stanescu, Ruxandra

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes a method for the fully automatic and reliable segmentation of the bones in a radiograph of the child's hand. The problem consists in identifying the contours of the bones and the difficulty lies in the large variability of the anatomical structures, according to age, hand pose or individual. The model shall not force any standard interpretation, hence we use a simple hierarchical geometric model that provides the only information required for the identification of the chunks of contours. The phalangeal and metacarpal resulting segmentation is proved robust over a set of many hundred of images and measurements of shapes, sizes, areas, ..., are now quite allowed. The next step consists in extending the model for more accurate measurements and also for the localization of the carpal bones.

  5. Portfolio: authentic assessment in the age of the curriculum revolution.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, L S; Briggs, K L; Puryear, B L

    1998-05-01

    This article provides an extensive review of the literature on portfolio use in education. There is a gap in the literature related to portfolio use in nursing education. Portfolios are one method of authentic assessment, showing evidence of student growth and achievement over time. Development of the student portfolio promotes collaboration between student and faculty. The Integrated Proficiency-Criterion (IPC) framework is one proposed method for portfolio development and evaluation, using Benner's stages of proficiency and NLN criteria for accreditation of baccalaureate nursing programs.

  6. Assessing hypertension in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Davis, H S; Merry, H R; MacKnight, C; Rockwood, K

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the self-report hypertension variables in the CSHA, recorded in the screening questionnaire and the Self-Administered Risk Factor (SARF) questionnaire. The two questions showed high agreement (phi coefficient 0.83). Each was modestly but significantly associated with other simultaneous reports of heart disease and stroke, and with subsequent mortality. Only the SARF asked questions about treatment; controlling for treatment effects, five-year survival was longest among those with no hypertension and no treatment (mean survival time 1,645 days; 95% CI 1,632 to 1,658), and shortest for those with no reported hypertension who were receiving "antihypertensive" medications presumably prescribed for other cardiovascular disease (mean survival time 1,496 days; 95% CI 1,457 to 1,535). The SARF questions incorporating high blood pressure and treatment appear preferable to assess the risks associated with hypertension.

  7. Ageing airplane repair assessment program for Airbus A300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillardon, J. M.; Schmidt, HANS-J.; Brandecker, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of the repair categorization activities and includes all details about the methodologies developed for determination of the inspection program for the skin on pressurized fuselages. For inspection threshold determination two methods are defined based on fatigue life approach, a simplified and detailed method. The detailed method considers 15 different parameters to assess the influences of material, geometry, size location, aircraft usage, and workmanship on the fatigue life of the repair and the original structure. For definition of the inspection intervals a general method is developed which applies to all concerned repairs. For this the initial flaw concept is used by considering 6 parameters and the detectable flaw sizes depending on proposed nondestructive inspection methods. An alternative method is provided for small repairs allowing visual inspection with shorter intervals.

  8. 43 CFR 17.322 - Assurance of compliance and recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Duties of Doi Recipients § 17.322 Assurance of compliance and recipient assessment of age distinctions. (a) Each recipient of Federal financial assistance from DOI shall sign a written assurance as specified by DOI that it will comply with the Act and these regulations....

  9. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  10. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation among Boys and Men Assessed Annually from Ages 9 to 29 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Pears, Katherine C.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 206 boys (90% Caucasian), self-reported suicidal ideation (SI; ages 12 to 29) and parent-reported youth suicidal talk (ages 9 to 20) were assessed annually by questionnaire. One-week point prevalence of self-reported SI ranged from 2.6% to 16.3%. New cases emerged across adolescence; by age 29, 57.3% self-reported SI at least once.…

  11. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  12. Assessing Visuospatial Abilities in Healthy Aging: A Novel Visuomotor Task

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Natalie; Bryant, Devon C.; MacLean, Jessica N.; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a novel reaching-and-grasping task in determining visuospatial abilities across adulthood. The task required male and female young (18–25 years) and older adults (60–82 years) to replicate a series of complex models by locating and retrieving the appropriate building blocks from an array. The task allows visuospatial complexity to be manipulated independently from the visuomotor demands. Mental rotation and spatial visualization abilities were assessed. The results showed that the time taken to complete the tasks increased with increased mental rotation complexity. Patterns of hand use were also influenced by the complexity of the models being constructed with right hand use being greater for the less complex models. In addition, although older adults consistently performed the visuomotor tasks slower than the younger adults, their performance was comparable when expressed as the percent change in task demands. This is suggestive that spatial abilities are preserved in older adults. Given the ecologically validity, the described task is an excellent candidate for investigating: (1) developmental; (2) sex-based; and (3) pathology-based differences in spatial abilities in the visuomotor domain. PMID:26869918

  13. Digital hand atlas and computer-aided bone age assessment via the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.; Pietka, Ewa; Gilsanz, Vicente

    1999-07-01

    A frequently used assessment method of bone age is atlas matching by a radiological examination of a hand image against a reference set of atlas patterns of normal standards. We are in a process of developing a digital hand atlas with a large standard set of normal hand and wrist images that reflect the skeletal maturity, race and sex difference, and current child development. The digital hand atlas will be used for a computer-aided bone age assessment via Web. We have designed and partially implemented a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system for Web-based bone age assessment. The system consists of a digital hand atlas, a relational image database and a Web-based user interface. The digital atlas is based on a large standard set of normal hand an wrist images with extracted bone objects and quantitative features. The image database uses a content- based indexing to organize the hand images and their attributes and present to users in a structured way. The Web-based user interface allows users to interact with the hand image database from browsers. Users can use a Web browser to push a clinical hand image to the CAD server for a bone age assessment. Quantitative features on the examined image, which reflect the skeletal maturity, will be extracted and compared with patterns from the atlas database to assess the bone age. The relevant reference imags and the final assessment report will be sent back to the user's browser via Web. The digital atlas will remove the disadvantages of the currently out-of-date one and allow the bone age assessment to be computerized and done conveniently via Web. In this paper, we present the system design and Web-based client-server model for computer-assisted bone age assessment and our initial implementation of the digital atlas database.

  14. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups. PMID:24264145

  15. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  16. Pros and cons for the medical age assessments in unaccompanied minors: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Soliman, Nada A; Elalaily, Rania; Di Maio, Salvatore; Bedair, Elsaid M A; Kassem, Islam; Millimaggi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Unaccompanied minors refer to immigrants who are under the age of 18 and are not under the care of a parent or legal guardian. Age assessment is used in Europe mainly to establish whether or not an individual is under 18 years of age and therefore eligible for protection under the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN - CRC). EU Member States use a combination of techniques to determine the age of a minor and to certify minor status, including interviews and documentation, physical examinations (anthropometric assessment; sexual maturity assessment; dental observation); psychological and sociological assessment; radiological tests (carpal, dental or collarbone x-rays). All such techniques are criticized as they are often arbitrary, do not take into account ethnic variations, and are based on reference materials that are outdated, invasive and may procure harm to the individuals whose age is assessed. They also generate a margin of error that makes them inaccurate to use. There is a debate about the risks and ethics associated with the use of X-rays for non-medical purposes versus the benefits of more accurate age assessments in the interest of justice. It appears that in European countries many individuals carrying out age assessment do not have sufficient training or are not sufficiently independent enough to be carrying out such assessments. Moreover, there is a lack of standardized approach between countries or even within the same country. Only some countries clearly indicate a margin of error in the results of age assessment examinations but there is no consensus - within and among countries - about the width of such margins in relation to each exams applied. It has been advised that the expert report should give the degree of age probability to allow Magistrate to interpret the age assessment results on the 'balance of probabilities' and give the detainee the right to the rule of the 'benefit of the doubt'. It also addresses concerns

  17. Assessing Scientific and Technological Enquiry Skills at Age 11 Using the E-Scape System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Collier, Chris; Howe, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes from the "e-scape Primary Scientific and Technological Understanding Assessment Project" (2009-2010), which aimed to support primary teachers in developing valid portfolio-based tasks to assess pupils' scientific and technological enquiry skills at age 11. This was part of the wider "e-scape" project…

  18. Statistical methods to assess the reliability of measurements in the procedures for forensic age estimation.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2009-07-01

    In forensic science, anthropology, and archaeology, several techniques have been developed to estimate chronological age in both children and adults, using the relationship between age and morphological changes in the structure of teeth. Before implementing a statistical model to describe age as a function of the measured morphological variables, the reliability of the measurements of these variables must be evaluated using suitable statistical methods. This paper introduces some commonly used statistical methods for assessing the reliability of procedures for age estimation in the forensic field. The use of the concordance correlation coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient are explained. Finally, some pitfalls in the choice of the statistical methods to assess reliability of the measurements in age estimation are discussed.

  19. LWR Sustainability: Assessment of Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Concrete Strutures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves III, Herman; Naus, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience is presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are generally discussed.

  20. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  1. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status

  2. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status

  3. Preliminary Aging Assessment of Nuclear Air-Treatment and Cooling System Fans

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W. K.

    1995-07-01

    A preliminary aging assessment of the fans used in nuclear air treatment and cooling systems was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. Details from guides and standards for the design, testing, and installation of fans; results of failure surveys; and information concerning stressors, related aging mechanisms, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM) were compiled. Failure surveys suggest that about half of the failures reported for fans are primarily associated with aging. Aging mechanisms associated with the various fan components and resulting from mechanical, thermal, and environmental stressors include wear, fatigue, corrosion, and erosion of metals and the deterioration of belts and lubricants. A bearing is the component most frequently linked to fan failure. The assessment also suggests that ISMM that will detect irregularities arising from improper lubrication, cooling, alignment, and balance of the various components should aid in counteracting many of the aging effects that could impair fan performance. An expanded program, to define and evaluate the adequacy of current ISMM and maintenance practices and to include a documented Phase I aging assessment, is recommended.

  4. Assessing Age-Related Etiologic Heterogeneity in the Onset of Islet Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Brittni N.; Barón, Anna; Lamb, Molly M.; Crume, Tessa L.; Sontag, Marci K.; Norris, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic autoimmune disease, is often preceded by a preclinical phase of islet autoimmunity (IA) where the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and circulating autoantibodies can be detected. The goal of this study was to demonstrate methods for identifying exposures that differentially influence the disease process at certain ages by assessing age-related heterogeneity. The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed 2,547 children at increased genetic risk for T1D from birth since 1993 in Denver, Colorado, 188 of whom developed IA. Using the DAISY population, we evaluated putative determinants of IA, including non-Hispanic white (NHW) ethnicity, maternal age at birth, and erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels, for age-related heterogeneity. A supremum test, weighted Schoenfeld residuals, and restricted cubic splines were used to assess nonproportional hazards, that is, an age-related association of the exposure with IA risk. NHW ethnicity, maternal age, and erythrocyte membrane n-3 FA levels demonstrated a significant age-related association with IA risk. Assessing heterogeneity in disease etiology enables researchers to identify associations that may lead to better understanding of complex chronic diseases. PMID:25883970

  5. Assessment of bone ages by the Tanner-Whitehouse method using a computer-aided system.

    PubMed

    Drayer, N M; Cox, L A

    1994-12-01

    A computer-aided system to estimate bone age based on Fourier analysis was assessed by reference to the original radiographs used to produce the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2) standards for the radius, ulna and short finger bones. The computer-aided system involved matching a template of each bone to the scanned image of the radiograph. The computer then generated a stage of bone maturity, individual and total bone scores and a value for bone age. The bone ages assessed by the computer-aided system were no different from the original TW2 reference values, indicating the applicability of the system. The system was used to assess the bone ages of tall Dutch girls, and the results obtained were compared with more traditional assessments made by an experienced rater. For the radiographs from the tall girls, there was good agreement for individual bones between this method and the traditional assessment by the rater, but less agreement for the total 13-bone score and bone age.

  6. Self-assessed driving behaviors associated with age among middle-aged and older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Arai, Asuna; Arai, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of older drivers, road traffic safety is an urgent public health issue. It is not easy for older drivers or their relatives to detect early signs of dangerous driving behaviors. We examine the types of driving behavior that increase in frequency with age. We surveyed people aged 40 and over among the general public in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, driving status, frequency of driving, 12-items on physical symptoms possibly related to driving performance, and 28-items on driving behaviors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of occurrence of each of the 28 driving behaviors for a 5-year increase in age. Significant associations with a 5-year increase in age after adjusting for confounding factors were found for the following directly unsafe driving behaviors: (1) little or no sign of attempts to avoid dangerous situations (OR for a 5-year increase in age=1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.63); (2) lack of attention to other people and cars (1.33, 1.12-1.60); (3) improper maneuvering around curves (1.33, 1.09-1.65); and (4) improper or no turn signals (1.33, 1.06-1.69). Information about these driving behaviors should be given to drivers and their stakeholders and used to caution participants when implementing educational programs for older drivers. Self-assessment of driving ability in older drivers provides useful information to raise awareness of their driving performance.

  7. Age-and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments

    PubMed Central

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries. PMID:24265296

  8. Age- and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries.

  9. Transcriptome sequence and plasmid copy number analysis of the brewery isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344 T during growth in beer.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Vanessa; Phister, Trevor G; Ziola, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients); however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344-358). Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria.

  10. Transcriptome sequence and plasmid copy number analysis of the brewery isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344 T during growth in beer.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Vanessa; Phister, Trevor G; Ziola, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients); however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344-358). Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:24040005

  11. Assessment of nutritional status: effects of different methods to determine age on the classification of undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Gorstein, J

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of nutritional status using anthropometry has been widely employed in field studies and nutritional surveillance programmes. Two of the primary indicators used, weight-for-age and height-for-age, require accurate age information for proper assessments to be made. Three data sets on nutritional status were evaluated using different methods to determine age: rounding to the most recently attained month, rounding to the nearest whole month, and ages computed from birth dates and visit dates. The impact of these different methods on the classification of nutritional status were found to be dramatic, especially in infants during the first year of life. In some cases, when ages are rounded to the most recently attained month, as few as 43% of the children classified as malnourished based on the indicator, height-for-age, and the cut-off point, less than -2 Standard Deviations from the reference median, are identified relative to when ages are computed from birth and visit dates. Beyond the discrepancies in estimating prevalence below specific cut-off points to designate undernutrition, the use of the different methods also affects entire distributions. The problem of using different methods to estimate age, and the impact they have on the classification of undernutrition are of critical public health importance, especially when this information is used to identify individuals and groups as well as for planning and policy development.

  12. Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Functional Capacity Using the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT)

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, A.S.; Stroescu, I.; Spagnola, N.B.; Davis, V.G.; Patterson, T.D.; Narasimhan, M.; Harvey, P.D.; Keefe, R.S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials for primary prevention and early intervention in preclinical AD require measures of functional capacity with improved sensitivity to deficits in healthier, non-demented individuals. To this end, the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) was developed as a direct performance-based assessment of functional capacity that is sensitive to changes in function across multiple populations. Using a realistic virtual reality environment, the VRFCAT assesses a subject's ability to complete instrumental activities associated with a shopping trip. The present investigation represents an initial evaluation of the VRFCAT as a potential co-primary measure of functional capacity in healthy aging and preclinical MCI/AD by examining test-retest reliability and associations with cognitive performance in healthy young and older adults. The VRFCAT was compared and contrasted with the UPSA-2-VIM, a traditional performance-based assessment utilizing physical props. Results demonstrated strong age-related differences in performance on each VRFCAT outcome measure, including total completion time, total errors, and total forced progressions. VRFCAT performance showed strong correlations with cognitive performance across both age groups. VRFCAT Total Time demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICC=.80 in young adults; ICC=.64 in older adults) and insignificant practice effects, indicating the measure is suitable for repeated testing in healthy populations. Taken together, these results provide preliminary support for the VRFCAT as a potential measure of functionally relevant change in primary prevention and preclinical AD/MCI trials. PMID:26618145

  13. Assessment of in-depth degradation of artificially aged triterpenoid paint varnishes using nonlinear microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, George; Mari, Meropi; Kelegkouri, Lambrini; Philippidis, Aggelos; Selimis, Aleksandros; Melessanaki, Kristallia; Sygletou, Maria; Fotakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    The present work investigates the applicability of nonlinear imaging microscopy for the precise assessment of degradation of the outer protective layers of painted artworks as a function of depth due to aging. Two fresh and artificially aged triterpenoid varnishes, dammar and mastic, were tested. Nonlinear imaging techniques have been employed as a new diagnostic tool for determination of the exact thickness of the affected region due to artificial aging of the natural varnishes. The measured thicknesses differ from the calculated mean penetration depths of the samples. These nondestructive, high resolution modalities are valuable analytical tools for aging studies and they have the potential to provide unique in-depth information. Single photon laser induced fluorescence measurements and Raman spectroscopy were used for the integrated investigation and analysis of aging effects in varnishes.

  14. 3H/3He age data in assessing the susceptibility of wells to contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.; Thiros, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are becoming increasingly interested in using young-ground water dating techniques, such as the 3H/3He method, in assessing the susceptibility of public supply wells (PSWs) to contamination. However, recent studies emphasize that ground water samples of mixed age may be the norm, particularly from long-screened PSWs, and tracer-based "apparent" ages can differ substantially from actual mean ages for mixed-age samples. We present age and contaminant data from PSWs in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that demonstrate the utility of 3H and 3He measurements in evaluating well susceptibility, despite potential age mixing. Initial 3H concentrations (measured 3H + measured tritiogenic 3He) are compared to those expected based on the apparent 3H/3He age and the local precipitation 3H record. This comparison is used to determine the amount of modern water (recharged after ???1950) vs. prebomb water (recharged before ???1950) samples might contain. Concentrations of common contaminants were also measured using detection limits generally lower than those used for regulatory purposes. A clear correlation exists between the potential magnitude of the modern water fraction and both the occurrence and concentration of contaminants. For samples containing dominantly modern water based on their initial 3H concentrations, potential discrepancies between apparent 3H/ 3He ages and mean ages are explored using synthetic samples that are random mixtures of different modern waters. Apparent ages can exceed mean ages by up to 13 years for these samples, with an exponential age distribution resulting in the greatest discrepancies.

  15. Age related effects in children taking the computerized assessment of response bias and word memory test.

    PubMed

    Courtney, John C; Dinkins, Juliet P; Allen, Lyle M; Kuroski, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of effort is a fundamental component of test performance analysis, since effort determines whether a psychological evaluation is valid. The assessment of effort in children has proven problematic. This may be related to the variable and inconsistent nature of children's developing self-regulatory systems, and the fact that measures commonly used to assess effort were standardized on adults. If one uses effort measures designed for adults to assess children, then one must presume that the maintenance of effort in children is comparable to the same behavior in adults. However, because children's executive functioning, including their abilities to self-regulate, attend, concentrate, and to engage in various cognitive activities improve with time (Barkley, 1997, pp. 209-234), our hypothesis is that young children's effort regulation is dissimilar to that of adults, and the presumption of similarity is implausible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age is a significant influence upon young children's performances on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Statistical analysis suggests that younger children (those under 10 years of age) tended to produce poorer performance on these instruments. Younger children's scores differed significantly from children ages 10 and older. Children 11 years and older produced CARB and WMT results similar to adult participants, suggesting a viability for adult normative comparisons with children in this age range. The current investigation concluded that children's maintenance of effort appears to be significantly related to age and reading ability level. Consequently, the use of current adult-based norms with the CARB and WMT, without regard for a child's developmental status and other contextual factors such as the child's ability to read, appears ill-advised especially with children under 11 years of age. PMID:12815513

  16. Auricular Surface Aging: Comparing Two Methods that Assess Morphological Change in the Ilium with Bayesian Analyses.

    PubMed

    Hens, Samantha M; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    Modern standards in forensic anthropology require rigorous testing and evaluation of methods used for aging skeletal remains. Age estimation has been criticized for bias, inaccuracy, and population specificity; issues which are minimized by the application of Bayesian methodology. Using Bayesian statistics, we compare the Lovejoy et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol, 68, 1985, 15) (original) and Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am J Phys Anthropol, 119, 2002, 231) (revised) auricular surface aging methods. Transition analysis parameters derived from American males (n = 372), in combination with a Thai male (N = 37) informative prior, statistically model age in Portuguese males (n = 221). Cumulative binomial tests assess the accuracy of the generated age ranges. Overall, the application of transition analysis and Bayesian statistics significantly improved age estimation with both methods (also outperforming Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging). Moreover, the accuracy of the original method was low without statistical modeling, whereas the revised method can be applied accurately without further statistical analysis. Additionally, reference tables for aging Portuguese males are provided. PMID:27405023

  17. Ageing of atrazine in manure amended soils assessed by bioavailability to Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP.

    PubMed

    Glæsner, Nadia; Bælum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2014-04-01

    Animal manure is applied to agricultural land in areas of high livestock production. In the present study, we evaluated ageing of atrazine in two topsoils with and without addition of manure and in one subsoil. Ageing was assessed as the bioavailability of atrazine to the atrazine mineralizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~10(8) cells g(-1) of the ADP strain was inoculated to the (14)C-atrazine exposed soil and (14)CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure. Contrarily, sorption experiments showed less sorption to Simmelkær treated with manure than the untreated soil indicating that sorption processes are not the only mechanisms of ageing. The other topsoil low in organic carbon content, Ringe, showed no significant difference in ageing between the manure-treated and untreated soil. The present study illustrates that not simply the organic carbon content influences adsorption and ageing of atrazine in soil but the origin and composition of organic matter plays an important role.

  18. Approaches to Learning, Age, Ethnicity and Assessment. Implications for Widening Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated age- and ethnicity-related effects on approaches to learning and the possible impact of such differences on assessment outcomes. This is important in the context of widening participation and the growing number of students from non-traditional educational backgrounds. Some 77 Level 1 psychology undergraduates completed an…

  19. Factorial Validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (Age Band 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Bos, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (M-ABC-2) is one of the most commonly used tests for the diagnosis of specific developmental disorders of motor function (F82). The M-ABC-2 comprises eight subtests per age band (AB) that are assigned to three dimensions: manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance. However, while previous…

  20. Communication-Based Assessment of Developmental Age for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Cress, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared a multiple-domain strategy for assessing developmental age of young children with developmental disabilities who were at risk for long-term reliance on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with a communication-based strategy composed of receptive language and communication indices that may…

  1. Preliminary Chemical Aging and Lifetime Assessment for High Density S5370

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S

    2003-11-24

    A preliminary lifetime assessment of S5370 stress cushions has been performed. Data from three sources were obtained and reviewed to perform this assessment. The sources were the following: (1) the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant's 2-year and 9-year accelerated aging studies; (2) a large selection of weapon surveillance return data; (3) laboratory experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant on artificially aged material. The general conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) There is an inherently large degree of structural and chemical heterogeneity in S5370 cushions that complicates lifetime assessments; (2) Current surveillance testing procedures are inadequate for providing insight into aging trends; (3) LANL PMAP data suggests a 60 year load retention of greater than 40%; however, this is for low density versions and extrapolation to high density must be performed with caution and a new set of testing is recommended; (4) Results of chemical aging assessments suggest that radiation damage is minimal at stockpile relevant doses, thermal degradation leads to compression set due to disentanglement of the network structure over time and a negligible amount of chain scissioning at relevant temperatures. The compression set is accelerated by exposure to radiation; (5) In the absence of further testing, a 60-year load retention of greater than 40% is estimated.

  2. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  3. Assessing Pupils at the Age of 16 in England--Approaches for Effective Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis; Glanville, Matthew; Lampreia-Carvalho, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    In England, pupils aged 16 take the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations for a range of subjects. The current assessment models for GCSE include a two-tier structure for some subjects and a non-tier model for the others. The tiered subjects have a higher tier designed for high achieving pupils and a lower tier for low…

  4. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children. PMID:21789735

  5. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  6. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  7. Age-correlated changes in cerebral hemodynamics assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Safonova, Larisa P; Michalos, Antonios; Wolf, Ursula; Wolf, Martin; Hueber, Dennis M; Choi, Jee H; Gupta, Rajarsi; Polzonetti, Chiara; Mantulin, William W; Gratton, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral hemodynamic responses due to normal aging may interfere with hormonal changes, drug therapy, diseases, life style, and other factors. Age-correlated alterations in cerebral vasculature and autoregulatory mechanisms are the subject of interest in many studies. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is widely used for monitoring cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation changes at the level of small vessels. We believe that the compensatory ability of cerebral arterioles under hypoxic conditions and the dilatatory ability of cerebral vessels due to vasomotion may decline with normal aging. To test this hypothesis we used frequency-domain NIRS to measure changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations caused by hypoxia during breath holding. We also assessed cerebral vasomotion during profound relaxation. Thirty seven healthy volunteers, 12 females and 25 males, ranging from 22 to 56 years of age (mean age 35 +/- 11 years) participated in the study. We observed age-correlated changes in the cerebral hemodynamics of normal subjects: diminished cerebral hemodynamic response to hypoxia due to breath holding in middle-aged subjects (38-56 years) and reduced amplitude of cerebral hemodynamic changes due to vasomotion during rest. Snoring related changes in cerebral hemodynamics did not allow us to observe the effect of age in a group of snorers. The prolonged supine position influenced measured changes due to hypoxia. In this investigation NIRS methodology allowed detection of age-correlated changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics. Other variables, such as snoring or posture impacted the observations in our group of healthy volunteers. PMID:15381340

  8. Use of a Tracing Task to Assess Visuomotor Performance: Effects of Age, Sex, and Handedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visuomotor abnormalities are common in aging and age-related disease, yet difficult to quantify. This study investigated the effects of healthy aging, sex, and handedness on the performance of a tracing task. Participants (n = 150, aged 21–95 years, 75 females) used a stylus to follow a moving target around a circle on a tablet computer with their dominant and nondominant hands. Participants also performed the Trail Making Test (a measure of executive function). Methods. Deviations from the circular path were computed to derive an “error” time series. For each time series, absolute mean, variance, and complexity index (a proposed measure of system functionality and adaptability) were calculated. Using the moving target and stylus coordinates, the percentage of task time within the target region and the cumulative micropause duration (a measure of motion continuity) were computed. Results. All measures showed significant effects of aging (p < .0005). Post hoc age group comparisons showed that with increasing age, the absolute mean and variance of the error increased, complexity index decreased, percentage of time within the target region decreased, and cumulative micropause duration increased. Only complexity index showed a significant difference between dominant versus nondominant hands within each age group (p < .0005). All measures showed relationships to the Trail Making Test (p < .05). Conclusions. Measures derived from a tracing task identified performance differences in healthy individuals as a function of age, sex, and handedness. Studies in populations with specific neuromotor syndromes are warranted to test the utility of measures based on the dynamics of tracking a target as a clinical assessment tool. PMID:23388876

  9. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.

  10. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%.

  11. Is Greulich and Pyle atlas still a good reference for bone age assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Tsao, Sinchai; Sayre, James W.; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    The most commonly used method for bone age assessment in clinical practice is the book atlas matching method developed by Greulich and Pyle in the 1950s. Due to changes in both population diversity and nutrition in the United States, this atlas may no longer be a good reference. An updated data set becomes crucial to improve the bone age assessment process. Therefore, a digital hand atlas was built with 1,100 children hand images, along with patient information and radiologists' readings, of normal Caucasian (CAU), African American (BLK), Hispanic (HIS), and Asian (ASI) males (M) and females (F) with ages ranging from 0 - 18 years. This data was collected from Childrens' Hospital Los Angeles. A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROIs) and carpal bone ROIs from this digital hand atlas. Using the data collected along with the Greulich and Pyle Atlas-based readings and CAD results, this paper addresses this question: "Do different ethnicities and gender have different bone growth patterns?" To help with data analysis, a novel web-based visualization tool was developed to demonstrate bone growth diversity amongst differing gender and ethnic groups using data collected from the Digital Atlas. The application effectively demonstrates a discrepancy of bone growth pattern amongst different populations based on race and gender. It also has the capability of helping a radiologist determine the normality of skeletal development of a particular patient by visualizing his or her chronological age, radiologist reading, and CAD assessed bone age relative to the accuracy of the P&G method.

  12. Italian neuropsychological instruments to assess memory, attention and frontal functions for developmental age.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, P; Piazzini, A; Pesenti, G; Brovedani, P; Toraldo, A; Turner, K; Scotti, S; Dal Lago, C; Perelli, V; Brizzolara, D; Canger, R; Canevini, M P; Bottini, G

    2006-12-01

    In this study, a series of tests exploring long-term verbal memory (the Short Story Test), attention (a modified version of Attentional Matrices and the Trail Making Test) and frontal functions (a modified version of the Frontal Assessment Battery) have been standardised on an Italian population of 283 children aged 5-14. Raw scores for each test have been adjusted for a series of variables (child's age, years of parents' education, handedness, gender) and transformed in equivalent scores enabling direct comparison across measures. This study was promoted by LICE (the Italian League Against Epilepsy) in order to provide Italian instruments standardised on the developmental age population and to study some of the most frequently impaired cognitive functions in epilepsy. PMID:17205223

  13. Using Walk Score™ and Neighborhood Perceptions to Assess Walking Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Towne, Samuel D; Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Sungmin; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Wang, Suojin; Lee, Chanam

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between neighborhood characteristics (walkability, cohesion/safety) and recommended activity levels among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Subjective and objective data on 394 individuals aged ≥50 years were used to assess the likelihood of walking ≥150 min/week. Environmental factors associated with a greater likelihood of any walking ≥150 min/week included living in a neighborhood with high perception of cohesion/safety versus low, living in walkable areas versus car-dependent, and living in an area with a low-moderate median income versus the lowest. Middle-aged and older adults were more likely to walk ≥150 min/week in a walkable, perceived safe/cohesive neighborhood. Identifying neighborhood factors associated with promoting walking among this population can enable stakeholders (e.g., researchers, planners, and policy makers) to direct interventions focusing on the built environment.

  14. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  15. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  16. Multi-taxa coral reef community structure in relation to habitats in the Baa Atoll Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve (Maldives), and implications for its conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, H.; Bigot, L.; Bourmaud, C.; Chabanet, P.; Gravier-Bonnet, N.; Hamel, M. A.; Payri, C.; Mattio, L.; Menou, J. L.; Naeem, S.; Rilwan, Y.; Sattar, S.; Scott, L.; Shiham, A.; Vigliola, L.; Andréfouët, S.

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of species in their environment is largely defined by habitat characteristics. Both species and habitat distributions can be used to define conservation areas, especially in highly diversified ecosystems like coral reefs where biodiversity inventories are lacking. The main objective of this study was to test the relationship between multi-taxa community structure (defined by richness, species lists, and taxonomic distinctness) and habitat typology in the Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve of Baa Atoll (Maldives). Species richness per taxon was described at 18 stations located on different habitats mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. A total of 1012 species were described including 178 macroalgae, 173 corals, 121 hydroids, 351 fish and 189 (other) macro-invertebrates. Rarity was extremely high for macro-invertebrates, algae and hydrozoans. The results highlighted a marked difference in species composition between stations for macro-algae and corals but not for other groups (hydroids, fish and macro-invertebrates). These distribution patterns were not strongly correlated to differences in habitat characteristics, which created a weak spatial structure of communities between habitats probably caused by differential exposure of atolls to monsoons and the 1998 bleaching event. Community differences between stations were often due to rarity. Therefore, identifying a network of protected areas that includes occurrences of all species may pose challenges. This is overcome by conservation planning scenarios using medium-size (of the order of 1 km2) management units.

  17. The difficult issue of age assessment on pedo-pornographic material.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Gabriel, Peter; Gibelli, Daniele; Giudici, Elena; Poppa, Pasquale; Nohrden, Doerte; Assmann, Sabine; Schmitt, Roland; Grandi, Marco

    2009-01-10

    The issue of juvenile pornography has seen an increase in the past few years of the number of expert opinions requested to forensic pathologists, paediatricians and other various experts within the forensic and medical fields concerning the age of represented individuals. Regardless of the entity of the problem, no actual method exists which can allow us to give an objective and scientific answer, particularly in the postpubertal stage. Using parameters related to sexual maturation can be very dangerous. Nonetheless some experts still insist with similar types of "expertises". This study aims at verifying the ability of different experts in assessing age of postpubertal individuals represented in pornographic material. Results underline the difficulties and major uncertainties of age evaluation by visual observation of photographic material particularly when the subjects have reached the sexual maturation stage - and therefore in verifying whether the individual is above or below 18 years of age (an important age limit for most European countries as far as this type of crime is concerned). Furthermore the study stresses the need both to search for an alternate approach and to apply extreme caution in judicial evaluation. PMID:19019589

  18. The difficult issue of age assessment on pedo-pornographic material.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Gabriel, Peter; Gibelli, Daniele; Giudici, Elena; Poppa, Pasquale; Nohrden, Doerte; Assmann, Sabine; Schmitt, Roland; Grandi, Marco

    2009-01-10

    The issue of juvenile pornography has seen an increase in the past few years of the number of expert opinions requested to forensic pathologists, paediatricians and other various experts within the forensic and medical fields concerning the age of represented individuals. Regardless of the entity of the problem, no actual method exists which can allow us to give an objective and scientific answer, particularly in the postpubertal stage. Using parameters related to sexual maturation can be very dangerous. Nonetheless some experts still insist with similar types of "expertises". This study aims at verifying the ability of different experts in assessing age of postpubertal individuals represented in pornographic material. Results underline the difficulties and major uncertainties of age evaluation by visual observation of photographic material particularly when the subjects have reached the sexual maturation stage - and therefore in verifying whether the individual is above or below 18 years of age (an important age limit for most European countries as far as this type of crime is concerned). Furthermore the study stresses the need both to search for an alternate approach and to apply extreme caution in judicial evaluation.

  19. Inter-examiner variation in the assessment of age-related factors in teeth.

    PubMed

    Borrman, H; Solheim, T; Magnusson, B; Kvaal, S I; Stene-Johansen, W

    1995-01-01

    Inter-observer variations in the registration of dental age-related characteristics have not previously been studied. Examination and registration were made by 6 dentists with varying experience in age estimation. A total of 13 age-related dental characteristics in 30 teeth extracted from adults were assessed macroscopically, by stereomicroscope and from radiographs. The measurements were analysed in a microcomputer, using the SPSS/PC+ statistical package. The results showed that, except for the score on surface roughness, significant differences were found between some of the observers for all types of measurements, when a paired t-test analysis was made. The correlation coefficients between the observers varied and were rather weak for the surface roughness score. The study revealed systematic differences among the observers as well as differences in interpreting the definitions of the scores for the different parameters. Thus age estimation using statistical methods is seen to be dependent upon the experience of the individual observer and interpretation. Care should therefore be taken not to rely too much upon the results of an odontological age estimation. The possible implications of these results for forensic work are also discussed.

  20. Racial Differences in Growth Patterns of Children Assessed on the Basis of Bone Age1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aifeng; Sayre, James W.; Vachon, Linda; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To collect up-to-date data in healthy children to create a digital hand atlas (DHA) that can be used to evaluate, on the basis of the Greulich and Pyle atlas method, racial differences in skeletal growth patterns of Asian, African American, white, and Hispanic children in the United States. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects or their guardians. From May 1997 to March 2008, a DHA containing 1390 hand and wrist radiographs obtained in male and female Asian, African American, white, and Hispanic children with normal skeletal development was developed. The age of subjects ranged from 1 day to 18 years. Each image was read by two pediatric radiologists working independently and without knowledge of the subject's chronologic age, and evaluation was based on their experience with the Greulich and Pyle atlas. Statistical analyses were performed with the paired-samples t test and analysis of variance to study racial differences in growth patterns. P ≤ .05 indicated a significant difference. Results: Bone age (P ≤ .05) was significantly overestimated in Asian and Hispanic children. These children appear to mature sooner than their African American and white peers. This was seen in both male and female subjects, especially in girls aged 10–13 years and boys aged 11–15 years. Conclusion: Ethnic and racial differences in growth patterns exist at certain ages; however, the Greulich and Pyle atlas does not recognize this fact. Assessment of bone age in children with use of the Greulich and Pyle atlas can be improved by considering the subject's ethnicity. © RSNA, 2008 PMID:18955510

  1. Student journals: a means of assessing transformative learning in aging related courses.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adrienne L; Pitman Brown, Pamela; Morales, Justin P

    2015-01-01

    In courses where topics are sensitive or even considered taboo for discussion, it can be difficult to assess students' deeper learning. In addition, incorporating a wide variety of students' values and beliefs, designing instructional strategies and including varied assessments adds to the difficulty. Journal entries or response notebooks can highlight reflection upon others' viewpoints, class readings, and additional materials. These are useful across all educational levels in deep learning and comprehension strategies assessments. Journaling meshes with transformative learning constructs, allowing for critical self-reflection essential to transformation. Qualitative analysis of journals in a death and dying class reveals three transformative themes: awareness of others, questioning, and comfort. Students' journal entries demonstrate transformative learning via communication with others through increased knowledge/exposure to others' experiences and comparing/contrasting others' personal beliefs with their own. Using transformative learning within gerontology and geriatrics education, as well as other disciplined aging-related courses is discussed. PMID:25386895

  2. Pre-Phase 1 Aging Assessment of the BWR and PWR Accumulators

    SciTech Connect

    Buckely, G. D.

    1995-08-01

    Accumulators are important components used in many systems at commercial boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors in the United States. The accumulators are vessels attached to fluid systems to provide 1) a limited backup source of stored fluid energy for hydraulic/pneumatic mechanical equipment, 2) a damping effect on pressure pulses in fluid systems, and 3) a volume of fluid to be injected passively into a fluid system. Accumulators contain a gas that is compressed or expanded as the fluid from the system enters or exits the accumulator. The gas and fluid in accumulators are usually separated from each other by a piston or bladder. In support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Aging Research Program (NPAR), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an analysis of available industry databases to determine if accumulator components already had been studied in other NPAR assessments and to evaluate each accumulator type for applicable aging issues. The results of this preliminary study indicate that two critical uses of accumulators have been previously evaluated by the NPAR program. NUREGICR-5699, Aging and Service Wear of Control Rod Drive Mechanisms for BUT Nuclear Plants (Greene 199 I), identified two hydraulic control unit components subject to aging failures: accumulator nitrogen-charging cartridge valves and the scram water accumulator. In addition, NUREGICR-6001, Aging Assessment of BWR Standby Liquid Control Systems (Buckley et al. 1992), identified two predominant aging-related accumulator failures that result in a loss of the nitrogen blanket pressure: (charging) valve wear and failure of the gas bladder. The present study has identified five prevalent aging-related accumulator failures: rupture of the accumulator bladder separation of the metal disc from the bottom of the bladder leakage of the gas from the charging valve leakage past the safety injection tank manway cover gasket leakage past O-rings. An additional

  3. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Camp, T.W.

    1996-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant to plant. The review of operating experience indicated that chillers experience aging degradation and failures. The primary aging factors of concern for chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. The evaluation of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) indicated that about 38% of the failures were primarily related to aging, 55% were partially aging related, and 7% of the failures were unassignable. About 25% of the failures were primarily caused by human, design, procedure, and other errors. The large number of errors is probably directly related to the complexity of chillers and their interfacing systems. Nearly all of the LERs were the result of entering plant Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) that initiated remedial actions like plant shutdown procedures. The trend for chiller-related LERs has stabilized at about 0.13 LERs per plant year since 1988. Carefully following the vendor procedures and monitoring the equipment can help to minimize and/or eliminate most of the premature failures. Recording equipment performance can be useful for trending analysis. Periodic operation for a few hours on a weekly or monthly basis is useful to remove moisture and non-condensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. Chiller pressurization kits are available that will help minimize the amount of moisture and air ingress to low-pressure chillers during standby periods. The assessment of service life condition monitoring of chillers indicated there are many simple to sophisticated methods available that can help in chiller surveillance and monitoring.

  4. Gene-drive into insect populations with age and spatial structure: a theoretical assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunxin; Lloyd, Alun L; Legros, Mathieu; Gould, Fred

    2011-05-01

    The potential benefits and risks of genetically engineered gene-drive systems for replacing wild pest strains with more benign strains must be assessed prior to any field releases. We develop a computer simulation model to assess the feasibility of using engineered underdominance constructs to drive transgenes into age- and spatially structured mosquito populations. Our practical criterion for success is the achievement of a transgene frequency of at least 0.80 within 3 years of release. The impacts of a number of parameters that may affect the success of gene-drive, such as the release area, release age, density-dependent larval survival, fitness cost of the engineered genes, and migration probability of adults, are examined. Results show that patchy release generally requires the release of fewer engineered insects to achieve success than central release. When the fitness cost is very low, central release covering 25% of the total area can be more effective than a completely uniform release over the whole area. This study demonstrates that to determine the best method of spatial release, and the total number of engineered insects that must be released, it is important to take into account the age and sex of the released insects and spatial structure of the population.

  5. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two.

  6. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

  7. Italian populations during the Copper Age: assessment of biological affinities through morphological dental traits.

    PubMed

    Vargiu, Rita; Cucina, Andrea; Coppa, Alfredo

    2009-08-01

    The Copper Age (3rd millennium BC) was characterized by considerable socioeconomic transformations and coincided with the discovery of metallurgy. In this study we reconstruct the peopling of Italy during this period on the basis of dental morphology traits. Dental remains from 41 sites throughout Italy were analyzed; only three of the sites (Laterza and two from Sicily) span from the late Copper Age to the early Bronze Age. To work with adequate samples, we pooled the collections into nine geographically and culturally homogeneous groups. Dental morphological traits were scored on 8,891 teeth from 1,302 individuals using the ASUDAS scale. The correlation between the mean measure of divergence and geographic distances (calculated as air distances) was computed. Multidimensional scaling with the minimum spanning tree and maximum-likelihood methods was applied to assess the relationships between groups. The results revealed a substantial genetic homogeneity among the populations throughout the Italian peninsula during the Copper Age with the exception of Sardinia, which tends to diverge from the continental samples. Phenetic and geographic distances correlate highly significantly only when the southern samples from Sicily and Laterza are removed from the analysis, which indicates that these groups may have experienced genetic admixture with external populations.

  8. Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Singh, M.; Aglyamov, S.; Emelianov, S.; Twa, M. D.; Larin, K. V.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) to assess the relaxation rate of deformation created by a focused air-pulse in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms of various concentrations and mouse corneas of different ages in vivo. The results show that the relaxation rate can be quantified and is different for gels with varying concentrations of gelatin and mouse corneas of different ages. The results indicate that gel phantoms with higher concentrations of gelatin as well as older mouse corneas have faster relaxation rates indicating stiffer material. This non-contact and non-invasive measurement technique utilizes low surface displacement amplitude (in µm scale) for tissue excitation and, therefore, can be potentially used to study the biomechanical properties of ocular and other sensitive tissues.

  9. Fetal Functional Brain Age Assessed from Universal Developmental Indices Obtained from Neuro-Vegetative Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4–40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females) and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R2 of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent f

  10. Age-associated memory impairment. Assessing the role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R C; Spangler, E L; Kametani, H; Ingram, D K

    1998-11-20

    Several neurotransmitter systems have been investigated to assess hypothesized mechanisms underlying the decline in recent memory abilities in normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Examining the performance of F344 rats in a 14-unit T-maze (Stone maze), we have focused on the muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate (Glu) systems and their interactions. Maze learning is impaired by antagonists to mACh or NMDA receptors. We have also shown that stimulation of mACh receptors can overcome a maze learning deficit induced by NMDA blockade, and stimulation of the NMDA receptor can overcome a similar blockade of mACh receptors. No consistent evidence in rats has been produced from our laboratory to reveal significant age-related declines in mACh or NMDA receptor binding in the hippocampus (HC), a brain region that is greatly involved in processing of recent memory. Thus, we have directed attention to the possibility of a common signal transduction pathway, the nitric oxide (NO) system. Activated by calcium influx through the NMDA receptor, NO is hypothesized to be a retrograde messenger that enhances presynaptic Glu release. Maze learning can be impaired by inhibiting the synthetic enzyme for NO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or enhanced by stimulating NO release. However, we have found no age-related loss of NOS-containing HC neurons or fibers in rats. Additionally, other laboratories have reported no evidence of an age-related loss of HC NOS activity. In a microdialysis study we have found preliminary evidence of reduced NO production following NMDA stimulation. We are currently working to identify the parameters of this phenomenon as well as testing various strategies for safely stimulating the NO system to improve memory function in aged rats. PMID:9928439

  11. Assessment of Dental Age of Children Aged 3.5 to 16.9 Years Using Demirjian’s Method: A Meta-Analysis Based on 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jin; Lou, Xintian; Xie, Liming; Yu, Dedong; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Yilin

    2013-01-01

    Background A method for assessing dental maturity in different populations was first developed in 1973 by Demirjian and has been widely used and accepted since then. While the accuracy for evaluating dental age using Demirjian’s method compared to children’s chronological age has been extensively studied in recent years, the results currently available remain controversial and ambiguous. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases was conducted to identify all eligible studies published before July 12th, 2013. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian’s method for estimating chronological age in children. Results: A meta-analysis was conducted on 26 studies with a total of 11,499 children (5,301 boys and 6,198 girls) aged 3.5 to 16.9 years. Overall, we found that Demirjian’s method overestimated dental age by 0.35 (4.2 months) and 0.39 (4.68 months) years in males and females, respectively. A subgroup analysis by age revealed that boys and girls between the ages of 5 to 14 were given a dental age estimate that was significantly more advanced than their chronological age. Differences between underestimated dental ages and actual chronological ages were lower for male and female 15- and 16-year-old subgroups, though a significant difference was found in the 16-year-old subgroup. Conclusions Demirjian’s method’s overestimation of actual chronological tooth age reveals the need for population-specific standards to better estimate the rate of human dental maturation. PMID:24367690

  12. Interpretation of aged sorption studies for pesticides and their use in European Union regulatory leaching assessments.

    PubMed

    Beulke, Sabine; van Beinum, Wendy; Suddaby, Laura

    2015-04-01

    First-tier regulatory exposure assessments for pesticides assume that pesticide sorption is instantaneous and fully reversible. In European Union (EU) regulatory guidance, an increase in sorption over time ("aged sorption") can be considered at the higher tier to refine predicted environmental concentrations in groundwater. Research commissioned by the UK Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD), funded by the Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), formed the basis of a draft regulatory guidance document proposing 1) a protocol on how to measure aged sorption of parent compounds in laboratory studies, 2) procedures to fit kinetic models to the experimental data, 3) criteria to test the reliability of the parameters, and 4) procedures for use of the parameters in the groundwater exposure assessment. The draft guidance was revised after feedback from stakeholders and testing of the guidance was performed against real data sets by an independent consultancy. The Chemicals Regulation Directorate submitted the revised document to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for scrutiny. This article gives an overview of the draft guidance and explains the reasoning behind the recommendations made. PMID:25565626

  13. Interpretation of aged sorption studies for pesticides and their use in European Union regulatory leaching assessments.

    PubMed

    Beulke, Sabine; van Beinum, Wendy; Suddaby, Laura

    2015-04-01

    First-tier regulatory exposure assessments for pesticides assume that pesticide sorption is instantaneous and fully reversible. In European Union (EU) regulatory guidance, an increase in sorption over time ("aged sorption") can be considered at the higher tier to refine predicted environmental concentrations in groundwater. Research commissioned by the UK Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD), funded by the Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), formed the basis of a draft regulatory guidance document proposing 1) a protocol on how to measure aged sorption of parent compounds in laboratory studies, 2) procedures to fit kinetic models to the experimental data, 3) criteria to test the reliability of the parameters, and 4) procedures for use of the parameters in the groundwater exposure assessment. The draft guidance was revised after feedback from stakeholders and testing of the guidance was performed against real data sets by an independent consultancy. The Chemicals Regulation Directorate submitted the revised document to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for scrutiny. This article gives an overview of the draft guidance and explains the reasoning behind the recommendations made.

  14. Bone age assessment by content-based image retrieval and case-based reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Welter, Petra; Grouls, Christoph; Günther, Rolf W.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2011-03-01

    Skeletal maturity is assessed visually by comparing hand radiographs to a standardized reference image atlas. Most common are the methods by Greulich & Pyle and Tanner & Whitehouse. For computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), local image regions of interest (ROI) such as the epiphysis or the carpal areas are extracted and evaluated. Heuristic approaches trying to automatically extract, measure and classify bones and distances between bones suffer from the high variability of biological material and the differences in bone development resulting from age, gender and ethnic origin. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) provides a robust solution without delineating and measuring bones. In this work, epiphyseal ROIs (eROIS) of a hand radiograph are compared to previous cases with known age, mimicking a human observer. Leaving-one-out experiments are conducted on 1,102 left hand radiographs and 15,428 metacarpal and phalangeal eROIs from the publicly available USC hand atlas. The similarity of the eROIs is assessed by a combination of cross-correlation, image distortion model, and Tamura texture features, yielding a mean error rate of 0.97 years and a variance of below 0.63 years. Furthermore, we introduce a publicly available online-demonstration system, where queries on the USC dataset as well as on uploaded radiographs are performed for instant CAD. In future, we plan to evaluate physician with CBIR-CAD against physician without CBIR-CAD rather than physician vs. CBIR-CAD.

  15. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are…

  16. A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging.

    PubMed

    Jilnai, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement. PMID:26805828

  17. Multi-State Physics Models of Aging Passive Components in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2011-03-13

    Multi-state Markov modeling has proved to be a promising approach to estimating the reliability of passive components - particularly metallic pipe components - in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). These models consider the progressive degradation of a component through a series of observable discrete states, such as detectable flaw, leak and rupture. Service data then generally provides the basis for estimating the state transition rates. Research in materials science is producing a growing understanding of the physical phenomena that govern the aging degradation of passive pipe components. As a result, there is an emerging opportunity to incorporate these insights into PRA. This paper describes research conducted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. A state transition model is described that addresses aging behavior associated with stress corrosion cracking in ASME Class 1 dissimilar metal welds – a component type relevant to LOCA analysis. The state transition rate estimates are based on physics models of weld degradation rather than service data. The resultant model is found to be non-Markov in that the transition rates are time-inhomogeneous and stochastic. Numerical solutions to the model provide insight into the effect of aging on component reliability.

  18. A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging.

    PubMed

    Jilnai, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka

    2016-01-20

    The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement.

  19. A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement. PMID:26805828

  20. Breastfeeding and cognitive development of children: assessment at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Ahmed, N U; Khan, F H; Jahan, R; Yasmeen, H N; Chowdhury, M A

    2012-04-01

    Breastfeeding is the fundamental component of child survival strategy. It significantly influences neurological development of children. The study was conducted to assess whether exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development, including low birth weight (LBW) babies, in a developing country setting like Bangladesh. This observational study was done on a cohort of newborn infants who were discharged from the special care baby unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital during January 2006 to December 2008 with proper counseling about exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding. Their neuro-developmental follow-up was started at 4 weeks postnatal age and continued at 3-monthly intervals up to 1 year of age. At each visit, cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II). Cognitive development was compared between the babies of exclusive vs. non exclusive breastfeeding, normal weight vs. low birth weight and male vs. female babies. A total of 105 cases were successfully followed-up during this period. Out of these 47(44.8%) babies were exclusively breastfed up to 6 month of age and 58(55.2%) were in nonexclusive group. Overall Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) was slightly more (108.40 ± 23.06 vs. 103.23 ± 19.87) in the exclusive breast fed babies in comparison to nonexclusive breast fed babies, but was significantly more in babies having birth weight >2.5 kg in comparison to those having birth weight of <2.5 kg. Other parameters of cognitive development were more or less same in both normal and LBW groups. Mental and motor development was same in both boys and girls. In behavior ratings, cooperation was significantly high (5.89 ± 2.54 vs. 4.71 ± 3.13, p=0.05) and vocalization (5.89 ± 1.07 vs. 4.58 ± 1.16) was also high, though not significant, in girls than boys.

  1. Assessment of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M A

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover was evaluated in 249 healthy premenopausal women. Risk factors were assessed by standardized questionnaires and included reproductive history and lifestyle factors (intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, consumption of caffeine, smoking habits and physical activity). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were obtained in the distal forearm, the lumbar spine and the proximal femur. Bone turnover were assessed by plasma bone Gla proteins (pBGP) and fasting urinary hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine (fUHPr/Cr). Peak bone density seems to be achieved before the age of 30 years, whereafter we found no appreciable bone loss at any skeletal site. Accordingly, the levels of pBGP and fUHPr/Cr were increased before the age of 30, whereafter the values stabilized at a lower level. A dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day significantly increased BMD in the spine and proximal femur by 3%-5%. Physical activity alone had no influence on BMD, but in combination with calcium intake an additive effect was observed. Women who had an active lifestyle (corresponding to at least 1 h of daily walking) and a dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day had a 3%-7% increase in BMD compared with more sedentary women with a calcium intake below this limit. Vitamin D supplements, caffeine, smoking and reproductive history did not consistently influence BMD or bone turnover. Only pBGP was selectively reduced by smoking and current use of oral contraceptives, respectively. We conclude that there is no appreciable change in BMD before the menopause once skeletal maturity has been reached.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Attenuation of replication stress-induced premature cellular senescence to assess anti-aging modalities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-associated DAPI fluorescence (represented by maximal pixels). This change is paralleled by an increase in nuclear area. Thus, the ratio of mean intensity of maximal pixels to nuclear area provides a very sensitive morphometric biomarker for the degree of senescence. This analysis is combined with immunocytochemical detection of senescence markers, such as overexpression of cyclin kinase inhibitors (e.g., p21(WAF1) ) and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a key marker associated with aging/senescence that is detected using a phospho-specific antibody. These biomarker indices are presented in quantitative terms defined as a senescence index (SI), which is the fraction of the marker in test cultures relative to the same marker in exponentially growing control cultures. This system can be used to evaluate the anti-aging potential of test agents by assessing attenuation of maximal senescence. As an example, the inclusion of berberine, a natural alkaloid with reported anti-aging properties and a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, is shown to markedly attenuate the Mxt-induced SI and phosphorylation of rpS6. The multivariate analysis of senescence markers by laser scanning cytometry offers a promising tool to explore the potential anti-aging properties of a variety agents.

  3. Does Time Matter? Comparing Trajectory Concordance and Covariate Association Using Time-Based and Age-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Glasheen, Cristie; Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Much criminological research has used longitudinal data to assess change in offending over time. An important feature of some data sources is that they contain cross-sections of different aged individuals followed over successive time periods, thereby potentially conflating age and time. This article compares the substantive conclusions about the…

  4. Automatic bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. However, due to various factors including the uncertain number of bones appearing, non-uniformity of soft tissue, low contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue, automatic segmentation and identification of carpal bone boundaries is an extremely challenging task. Past research works on carpal bone segmentation were performed utilizing dynamic thresholding. However, due to the limitation of the segmentation algorithm, carpal bones have not been taken into consideration in the bone age assessment procedure. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  5. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  6. Dynamic Assessment of School-Age Children’s Narrative Ability

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Elizabeth D.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Malek, Melynn; Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Resendiz, Maria; Fiestas, Christine; Sabel, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    of response to intervention (modifiability) and posttest storytelling than for measures of pretest storytelling. Observation of modifiability was the single best indicator of language impairment. Posttest measures and modifiability together yielded no misclassifications. Conclusion The first experiment supported the use of 2 wordless picture books as stimulus materials for collecting narratives before and after mediation within a dynamic assessment paradigm. The second experiment supported the use of dynamic assessment for accurately identifying language impairments in school-age children. PMID:17077213

  7. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  8. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  9. Applicability of Greulich-Pyle and Tanner-Whitehouse grading methods to MRI when assessing hand bone age in forensic age estimation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Krauskopf, Astrid; Widek, Thomas; Sorantin, Erich; Ehammer, Thomas; Borkenstein, Martin; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Determination of skeletal development is a key pillar in forensic age estimation of living persons. Radiological assessment of hand bone age is widely used until the age of about 17-18 years, applying visual grading techniques to hand radiographs. This study investigated whether Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) grading can be equally used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which would offer the huge benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. In 18 subjects aged between 7 and 17 years a radiograph and an MRI scan of the hand were performed. Epiphyseal ossification of hand bones was rated by two blinded radiologists with both GP and TW2. Correlation between hand MRIs and radiographs was analyzed by linear regression and inter-observer agreement was assessed. Correlation between age estimates from MRI and radiographs was high for both GP (r(2)=0.98) and TW2 (r(2)=0.93). MRI showed a tendency to estimate age slightly lower for 14-18 year-olds, which would be favorable regarding majority age determination in case this result could be reproduced using a currently not existing reference estimation method based on MRI data. Inter-observer agreement was similar for GP in radiographs and MRI, while for TW2, agreement in MRI was lower than in radiographs. In spite of limitations regarding sample size and recruited subjects, our results indicate that the use of GP and TW2 on MRI data offers the possibility of hand bone age estimation without the need for ionizing radiation. PMID:27344264

  10. Applicability of Greulich-Pyle and Tanner-Whitehouse grading methods to MRI when assessing hand bone age in forensic age estimation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Krauskopf, Astrid; Widek, Thomas; Sorantin, Erich; Ehammer, Thomas; Borkenstein, Martin; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Determination of skeletal development is a key pillar in forensic age estimation of living persons. Radiological assessment of hand bone age is widely used until the age of about 17-18 years, applying visual grading techniques to hand radiographs. This study investigated whether Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) grading can be equally used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which would offer the huge benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. In 18 subjects aged between 7 and 17 years a radiograph and an MRI scan of the hand were performed. Epiphyseal ossification of hand bones was rated by two blinded radiologists with both GP and TW2. Correlation between hand MRIs and radiographs was analyzed by linear regression and inter-observer agreement was assessed. Correlation between age estimates from MRI and radiographs was high for both GP (r(2)=0.98) and TW2 (r(2)=0.93). MRI showed a tendency to estimate age slightly lower for 14-18 year-olds, which would be favorable regarding majority age determination in case this result could be reproduced using a currently not existing reference estimation method based on MRI data. Inter-observer agreement was similar for GP in radiographs and MRI, while for TW2, agreement in MRI was lower than in radiographs. In spite of limitations regarding sample size and recruited subjects, our results indicate that the use of GP and TW2 on MRI data offers the possibility of hand bone age estimation without the need for ionizing radiation.

  11. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  12. Olfaction in People with Down Syndrome: A Comprehensive Assessment across Four Decades of Age

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Maria Paola; Viviani, Dario; Sandri, Marco; Hähner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Background Down syndrome (DS) shows neuropathology similar to Alzheimer disease, which presents olfactory impairment. Previous work showed olfactory impairment in DS, but a comprehensive evaluation of olfactory function in DS is lacking. Methods We investigated a large number (n = 56; M = 31, F = 25) DS participants (age range18-57y) using the “Sniffin’ Sticks” Extended test. This comprises three subtests (threshold, discrimination, and identification) yielding a global score (TDI) defining normosmia, hyposmia, and functional anosmia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second largest group of DS people investigated for olfactory function ever. Age- and sex matched euploid individuals (n = 53) were the control. Results In DS, TDI was lower (16.7±5.13 vs. 35.4±3.74; P<0.001), with DS people performing worse in any subtests (P<0.001 for all); 27 DS participants showed functional anosmia (i.e., TDI<16). In DS, age was weakly and negatively correlated with TDI (r = -0.28, P = 0.036) and identification (r = -0.34, P = 0.012). When participants were stratified in young adults (18-29y) and older adults (30-61y), a significant effect of age was found for identification in both DS (young adults, 8.3±2.58; older adults, 6.9±2.99; P = 0.031) and control (young-adult, 14.3±1.18, older adult, 13.0±1.54; P = 0.016). Conclusion Olfactory function is overall severely impaired in DS people and may be globally impaired at relatively young age, despite of reportedly normal smell. However, specificity of this olfactory profile to DS should be considered with some caution because cognition was not evaluated in all DS participants and comparison with a control group of non-DS individuals having cognitive disabilities was lacking. Further study is required to longitudinally assess olfactory dysfunction in DS and to correlate it with brain pathology. PMID:26730728

  13. Standardized assessment of cognitive functioning during development and aging using an automated touchscreen battery.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Richard; Paul, Robert H; Williams, Leanne M; Arns, Martijn; Fallahpour, Kamran; Handmer, Carolyn; Gordon, Evian

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the effects of age, gender and education on subjects spanning nine decades on a new cognitive battery of 12 tests. One thousand and seven participants between 6 and 82 completed the battery under standardized conditions using an automated, computerized touchscreen. Sensitive indicators of change were obtained on measures of attention and working memory, learning and memory retrieval, and language, visuospatial function, sensori-motor and executive function. Improvement tended to occur through to the third and fourth decade of life, followed by gradual decrement and/or stabilized performance thereafter. Gender differences were obtained on measures of sustained attention, verbal learning and memory, visuospatial processing and dexterity. Years of education in adults was reflected in performance on measures of verbal function. Overall, the test battery provided sensitive indicators on a range of cognitive functions suitable for the assessment of abnormal cognition, the evaluation of treatment effects and for longitudinal case management.

  14. Sentinel surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in preschool-aged and school-aged children in selected local government units in the Philippines: follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T; Lumampao, Yvonne F

    2015-03-01

    This study was a follow-up to the baseline nationwide survey of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in preschool-aged children in the Philippines and in school-aged children in selected sentinel sites to assess the Integrated Helminth Control Program of the Department of Health. The objective of the study was to describe the current prevalence and intensity of STH infections in preschool-aged and school-aged children in 6 sentinel provinces and to compare these data with baseline findings. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Parasitological assessment involved the examination of stool samples by the Kato-Katz method. Although parasitological parameters in the 2 age groups at follow-up showed significant reductions from the baseline, these parameters remained high despite 3 years of mass drug administration (MDA). Efforts toward achieving high MDA coverage rates, provision of clean water, environmental sanitation, and promotion of hygiene practices must be prioritized.

  15. Structural scene analysis and content-based image retrieval applied to bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Brosig, André; Deserno, Thomas M.; Ott, Bastian; Günther, Rolf W.

    2009-02-01

    Radiological bone age assessment is based on global or local image regions of interest (ROI), such as epiphyseal regions or the area of carpal bones. Usually, these regions are compared to a standardized reference and a score determining the skeletal maturity is calculated. For computer-assisted diagnosis, automatic ROI extraction is done so far by heuristic approaches. In this work, we apply a high-level approach of scene analysis for knowledge-based ROI segmentation. Based on a set of 100 reference images from the IRMA database, a so called structural prototype (SP) is trained. In this graph-based structure, the 14 phalanges and 5 metacarpal bones are represented by nodes, with associated location, shape, as well as texture parameters modeled by Gaussians. Accordingly, the Gaussians describing the relative positions, relative orientation, and other relative parameters between two nodes are associated to the edges. Thereafter, segmentation of a hand radiograph is done in several steps: (i) a multi-scale region merging scheme is applied to extract visually prominent regions; (ii) a graph/sub-graph matching to the SP robustly identifies a subset of the 19 bones; (iii) the SP is registered to the current image for complete scene-reconstruction (iv) the epiphyseal regions are extracted from the reconstructed scene. The evaluation is based on 137 images of Caucasian males from the USC hand atlas. Overall, an error rate of 32% is achieved, for the 6 middle distal and medial/distal epiphyses, 23% of all extractions need adjustments. On average 9.58 of the 14 epiphyseal regions were extracted successfully per image. This is promising for further use in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) and CBIR-based automatic bone age assessment.

  16. Assessing Age Differences in the Relationship Between Emotional Support and Health Among Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2016-02-01

    Research reveals that people tend to place greater value on emotional support as they move through the life course. Older people are likely to do so because emotional support benefits them in some way. The purpose of this study was to see whether there are age differences in the relationship between emotional support and the number of chronic health conditions. In the process, an effort is made to contribute to the literature in three ways. First, an emphasis placed on assessing the relationship between emotional support and health within late life. Second, variations in the source of support are taken into account by contrasting support within religious institutions with support that is received outside church. Third, these issues are examined with data provided by a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans (N = 663). The findings suggest that age differences in the relationship between emotional support and health are present within late life. Moreover, the data indicate that this relationship holds for church-based social support but not support that is received outside the church. PMID:26423065

  17. Assessment of the biological and chemical availability of the freshly spiked and aged DDE in soil.

    PubMed

    Škulcová, L; Neuwirthová, N; Hofman, J; Bielská, L

    2016-05-01

    The study compared the ability of various chemical methods (XAD, β-hydroxypropylcyclodextrin - HPCD) and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME)) to mimic earthworm uptake from two similar soils containing either spiked or aged p,p´-DDE, thus representing two extreme scenarios with regard to the length of pollutant-soil contact time and the way of contamination. The extent of bioaccumulation was assessed at fixed exposure periods (10 and 21 days) and at equilibrium derived from uptake curves by multiple-point comparison or kinetic modeling. The decision on the best chemical predictor of biological uptake differed. The degree of bioaccumulation at equilibrium was best predicted by XAD while HPCD rather reflected the extent of accumulation derived after 21 days when, however, steady-state was not reached for spiked p,p´-DDE. SPME seemed to underestimate the uptake of aged p,p´-DDE, probably of the fraction taken up via soil particles. Thus, the degree of predictability seems to be associated with the capability of the chemical method to mimic the complex earthworm uptake via skin and intestinal tract as well as with the quality of biological data where the insufficient length of exposure period appears to be the major concern. PMID:26840523

  18. Assessment of age-dependent uranium intake due to drinking water in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Balbudhe, A Y; Srivastava, S K; Vishwaprasad, K; Srivastava, G K; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2012-03-01

    A study has been done to assess the uranium intake through drinking water. The area of study is twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. Uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent uranium intake was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values. The concentration of uranium varies from below detectable level (minimum detectable level = 0.20 ± 0.02 μg l(-1)) to 2.50 ± 0.18 μg l(-1), with the geometric mean (GM) of 0.67 μg l(-1) in tap water, whereas in ground water, the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 µg l(-1) with GM of 10.07 µg l(-1). The daily intake of uranium by drinking water pathway through tap water for various age groups is found to vary from 0.14 to 9.50 µg d(-1) with mean of 1.55 µg d(-1).

  19. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Mana; Radovčić, Davorka; Garvin, Heather M; Laird, Myra F; Schroeder, Lauren; Scott, Jill E; Brophy, Juliet; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Musiba, Chares M; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Mooers, Arne Ø; Collard, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: "Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?" and "How old is it?" We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out three analyses. First, we performed a dated Bayesian analysis to generate estimates of the evolutionary relationships of fossil hominins including H. naledi. Then we employed Bayes factor tests to compare the strength of support for hypotheses about the relationships of H. naledi suggested by the best-estimate trees. Lastly, we carried out a resampling analysis to assess the accuracy of the age estimate for H. naledi yielded by the dated Bayesian analysis. The analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that H. naledi forms a clade with the other Homo species and Australopithecus sediba. The analyses were more ambiguous regarding the position of H. naledi within the (Homo, Au. sediba) clade. A number of hypotheses were rejected, but several others were not. Based on the available craniodental data, Homo antecessor, Asian Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo floresiensis, Homo sapiens, and Au. sediba could all be the sister taxon of H. naledi. According to the dated Bayesian analysis, the most likely age for H. naledi is 912 ka. This age estimate was supported by the resampling analysis. Our findings have a number of implications. Most notably, they support the assignment of the new specimens to Homo, cast doubt on the claim that H. naledi is simply a variant of H. erectus, and suggest H. naledi is younger than has been previously proposed.

  20. Assessing the Age of an Asteroid's Surface with Data from the International Rosetta Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Rosetta is an international mission led by the European Space Agency (ESA) with key support and instrumentation from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Rosetta is currently on a ten-year mission to catch comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (C-G); throughout its voyage, the spacecraft has performed flybys of two main belt asteroids (MBA): Steins and Lutetia. Data on the physical, chemical, and geological properties of these asteroids are currently being processed and analyzed. Accurate interpretation of such data is fundamental in the success of Rosetta's mission and overall objectives. Post-flyby data analyses strive to correlate the size, shape, volume, and rotational rate of Lutetia, in addition to interpreting its multi-color imagining, albedo, and spectral mapping. Although advancements in science have contributed to the examination of celestial bodies, methods to analyze asteroids remain largely empirical, not semi-empirical, nor ab initio. This study aims to interpret and document the scientific methods currently utilized in the characterization of asteroid (21) Lutetia in order to render these processes and methods accessible to the public. Examples include a standardized technique for assessing the age of an asteroid surface, complete with clickable reference maps, methodology of grouping surface characteristics together, and a standardized power law equation for the age. Other examples include determining the density of an object. Context for what both density and age mean is a bi-product of this study. Results of the study will aid in the development of pedagogical material on asteroids for public use, and in creation of an academic database for selected targets that might be used as a reference.

  1. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Dembo, Mana; Radovčić, Davorka; Garvin, Heather M; Laird, Myra F; Schroeder, Lauren; Scott, Jill E; Brophy, Juliet; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Musiba, Chares M; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Mooers, Arne Ø; Collard, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: "Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?" and "How old is it?" We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out three analyses. First, we performed a dated Bayesian analysis to generate estimates of the evolutionary relationships of fossil hominins including H. naledi. Then we employed Bayes factor tests to compare the strength of support for hypotheses about the relationships of H. naledi suggested by the best-estimate trees. Lastly, we carried out a resampling analysis to assess the accuracy of the age estimate for H. naledi yielded by the dated Bayesian analysis. The analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that H. naledi forms a clade with the other Homo species and Australopithecus sediba. The analyses were more ambiguous regarding the position of H. naledi within the (Homo, Au. sediba) clade. A number of hypotheses were rejected, but several others were not. Based on the available craniodental data, Homo antecessor, Asian Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo floresiensis, Homo sapiens, and Au. sediba could all be the sister taxon of H. naledi. According to the dated Bayesian analysis, the most likely age for H. naledi is 912 ka. This age estimate was supported by the resampling analysis. Our findings have a number of implications. Most notably, they support the assignment of the new specimens to Homo, cast doubt on the claim that H. naledi is simply a variant of H. erectus, and suggest H. naledi is younger than has been previously proposed. PMID:27457542

  2. A review of ageing and an examination of clinical methods in the assessment of ageing skin. Part 2: Clinical perspectives and clinical methods in the evaluation of ageing skin.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, T M; Wilhelm, K-P

    2008-10-01

    With the advancement of skin research, today's consumer has increased access to technological information about ageing skin and hair care products. As a result, there is a rapidly increasing demand for proof of efficacy of these products. Recognizing these demands has led to the development and validation of many clinical methods to measure and quantify ageing skin and the effects of anti-ageing treatments. Many of the current testing methods used to research and evaluate anti-ageing product claim to employ sophisticated instruments alongside more traditional clinical methods. Intelligent use of combined clinical methods has enabled the development of technologically advanced consumer products providing enhanced efficacy and performance. Of non-invasive methods for the assessment and quantification of ageing skin, there is a plethora of tools available to the clinical researcher as defined by key clinically observed ageing parameters: skin roughness and surface texture; fine lines and wrinkles; skin pigmentation; skin colour; firmness and elasticity; hair loss; and proliferative lesions. Furthermore, many clinical procedures for the evaluation of ageing skin treatments are combined with invasive procedures, which enable added-value to claims (such as identification and alteration of biochemical markers), particularly in those cases where perception of product effect needs additional support. As discussed herein, clinical methods used in the assessment of skin ageing are many and require a disciplined approach to their use in such investigations.

  3. Bone age assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children: an alternative for X-ray?

    PubMed Central

    Heppe, D H M; Taal, H R; Ernst, G D S; Van Den Akker, E L T; Lequin, M M H; Hokken-Koelega, A C S; Geelhoed, J J M; Jaddoe, V W V

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a method to assess bone age in children. Methods Paired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and X-rays of the left hand were performed in 95 children who attended the paediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic of University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We compared bone age assessments by DXA scan with those performed by X-ray. Bone age assessment was performed by two blinded observers according to the reference method of Greulich and Pyle. Intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility were investigated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and agreement was tested using Bland and Altman plots. Results The intra-observer ICCs for both observers were 0.997 and 0.991 for X-ray and 0.993 and 0.987 for DXA assessments. The interobserver ICC was 0.993 and 0.991 for X-ray and DXA assessments, respectively. The mean difference between bone age assessed by X-ray and DXA was 0.11 years. The limits of agreement ranged from −0.82 to 1.05 years, which means that 95% of all differences between the methods were covered by this range. Conclusions Results of bone age assessment by DXA scan are similar to those obtained by X-ray. The DXA method seems to be an alternative for assessing bone age in a paediatric hospital-based population. PMID:21586503

  4. Assessment of visual distortions in age-related macular degeneration: emergence of new approaches

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Noelia Pitrelli; Knox, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims With the arrival of effective treatments for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) there is a need to find improved tests that would allow early detection. Ideally, these tests would allow monitoring of vision by patients themselves from home. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence for two recently developed vision tests designed for this purpose: the Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP) test and the Radial Shape Discrimination (RSD) test. Methods Articles that investigated detection of nvAMD were reviewed. The methodology of the clinical evidence, where available, was judged for bias and applicability of the results to the general population using the QUADAS-2 quality assessment tool. Results The PHP test has proved to be good at detecting nvAMD but many studies assessed in this review were biased in the selection of patients, restricting the results to only those patients who can use the test and produce reliable results. On the other hand the RSD test is a simple test, well accepted by elderly patients with AMD. However, clinical studies to determine its value in the detection of early signs of nvAMD are still required. Conclusions To date, more studies have investigated the utility of the PHP test compared with the RSD test for detection of nvAMD. Both tests show promise but further evidence is needed to determine the real generalisability of the PHP test and the sensitivity of the RSD test.

  5. Damage Assessment of Creep Tested and Thermally Aged Udimet 520 Using Acousto-Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Kautz, Harold E.; Cao, Wei

    2001-01-01

    Due to elevated temperatures and excessive stresses, turbine components may experience creep behavior. As a result, it is desirable to monitor and assess the current condition of such components. This study employed the Acousto-Ultrasonics (AU) method in an effort to monitor the state of the material at various percentages of used up creep life in the nickel base alloy, Udimet 520. A stepped specimen (i.e., varying cross sectional area) was employed which allowed for a postmortem nondestructive evaluation (NDE) analysis of the various levels of used up life. The overall objectives here were two fold: First, a user friendly, graphical interface AU system was developed, and second the new AU system was applied as an NDE tool to assess distributed damage resulting from creep. The experimental results demonstrated that the AU method shows promise as an NDE tool capable of detecting material changes as a function of used up creep life. Furthermore, the changes in the AU parameters were mainly attributed to the case of combined load and elevated temperature (i.e., creep) and not simply because of a timed exposure at elevated temperature (i.e., heat treatment or thermal aging).

  6. Impact of Age on Stent Strut Coverage and Neointimal Remodeling as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhigang; Feng, Linxing; Du, Hongwei; Sun, Zhao; Hu, Sining; Dai, Jiannan; Sun, Meng; Xing, Lei; Hou, Jingbo; Zhang, Shaosong; Yu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While older age associates with adverse percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes, detailed information relating age to stent strut coverage and neointimal characteristics is lacking. One hundred nineteen patients with 123 sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) were divided into 3 groups: group A (≤55 years), group B (56–65 years), and group C (>65 years). At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, optical coherence tomography was performed to assess strut coverage and neointimal remodeling. At 6 months, the proportion of uncovered struts increased with age: 6.1% in group A versus 7.3% in group B versus 11.7% in group C (P < 0.001) while the proportion of embedded struts decreased: 72.1% versus 57.0% vs. 55.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean neointimal thicknesses were 90 μm versus 60 μm versus 60 μm, respectively (P < 0.001), and neointimal areas were 0.82 mm2 versus 0.52 mm2 versus 0.57 mm2 (P < 0.001). At 12 months, the proportion of uncovered struts increased with age (3.9% vs. 3.3% vs. 4.9 %; P < 0.001), while mean neointimal thicknesses were 100 versus 70 versus 80 μm (P < 0.001) and neointimal areas were 0.87 versus 0.60 versus 0.67 mm2 (P < 0.001). Patients ≤55 years receiving SES showed highest strut coverage and neointimal repair rate compared with the other 2 groups. A “catch-up phenomenon” appeared to occur in the oldest patients, as in the first 6 months the neointima showed lowest endothelial cell coverage and lowest neointimal proliferation rate, whereas from 6 to 12 months, the highest neointimal proliferation rate was seen in the oldest patients. PMID:26683940

  7. Radiologic assessment of third molar tooth and spheno-occipital synchondrosis for age estimation: a multiple regression analysis study.

    PubMed

    Demirturk Kocasarac, Husniye; Sinanoglu, Alper; Noujeim, Marcel; Helvacioglu Yigit, Dilek; Baydemir, Canan

    2016-05-01

    For forensic age estimation, radiographic assessment of third molar mineralization is important between 14 and 21 years which coincides with the legal age in most countries. The spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is an important growth site during development, and its use for age estimation is beneficial when combined with other markers. In this study, we aimed to develop a regression model to estimate and narrow the age range based on the radiologic assessment of third molar and SOS in a Turkish subpopulation. Panoramic radiographs and cone beam CT scans of 349 subjects (182 males, 167 females) with age between 8 and 25 were evaluated. Four-stage system was used to evaluate the fusion degree of SOS, and Demirjian's eight stages of development for calcification for third molars. The Pearson correlation indicated a strong positive relationship between age and third molar calcification for both sexes (r = 0.850 for females, r = 0.839 for males, P < 0.001) and also between age and SOS fusion for females (r = 0.814), but a moderate relationship was found for males (r = 0.599), P < 0.001). Based on the results obtained, an age determination formula using these scores was established.

  8. Assessment of intensity effort of middle-aged adults practicing regular walking

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson A.; Lima, Daniela A.; Vieira, Gabriella F.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Pereira, Danielle A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Walking is one of the most commonly recommended activities for sedentary individuals. When performed at the correct intensity, it can provide cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other benefits by providing a training effect in addition to reducing the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and other chronic health conditions. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether individuals who practiced regular unsupervised walking carry out the activity safely and with sufficient effort intensity parameters to have a positive physiological (training) effect. The secondary objective was to compare the training heart rate (HR) and the stability of the HR within the ideal range of training between the sexes. Method: Individuals were selected from walking tracks within the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The study included subjects from 40 to 60 years of age who had practiced walking for at least two months prior to the study, walking at least three times a week. Individuals who agreed to participate in the survey were asked to walk 15 minutes at their usual pace with their HR measured every 5 minutes using a heart rate monitor. Their average walking HR was compared to the average training HR based on the formula: (220 - age) × 70 to 80% that would result in a positive physiological training effect. Results: Of the 142 individuals evaluated, 25.4% achieved the average training HR. This result was significantly lower than those who did not achieve the average training HR while walking (p=0.002). There were significant differences between men and women who had reached the training HR (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The authors found that individuals who walk regularly performed outside the range of the ideal HR intensity that would cause a positive physiological effect and therefore would probably not achieve a beneficial training effect while walking. PMID:26647751

  9. Age-friendly primary health care: an assessment of current service provision for older adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jean; Mak, Benise; Yeung, Fannie

    2013-01-01

    There has been no study evaluating whether primary care services are sufficiently oriented towards the older population in Hong Kong, particularly those with increasing frailty. Since primary care is a key first interface in promotion and maintenance of health in older people, an assessment of the age-friendliness of service provisions is of critical importance in optimizing the health of aging populations. The age-friendliness of primary care services for older people was assessed using focus groups of elderly people and also of service providers who care for them. Discussion content was based on the WHO guidelines for age-friendly primary care in the following areas: Information, education and training, community-based health care management systems, and the physical environment. Desirable improvements were identified in all domains. The findings underscore the need for wider dissemination of health care needs of older people in the primary care setting.

  10. The effect of language on functional capacity assessment in middle-aged and older US Latinos with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2014-08-15

    The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States.

  11. Assessing the Impact of Equipment Aging on System Performance Using Simulation Modeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N. K.

    2005-11-07

    The radiological Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) is used to analyze the radioactive samples collected from different radioactive material processing operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). The expeditious processing of these samples is important for safe and reliable operations at SRS. As the radiological (RAD) ICP-MS machine ages, the experience shows that replacement parts and repairs are difficult to obtain on time for reliable operations after 5 years of service. A discrete event model using commercial software EXTEND was prepared to assess the impact on sample turn around times as the ICP-MS gets older. The model was prepared using the sample statistics from the previous 4 years. Machine utilization rates were calculated for the new machine, 5 year old machine, 10 year old machine, and a 12 year old machine. Computer simulations were run for these periods and the sample delay times calculated. The model was validated against the sample statistics collected from the previous 4 quarters. 90% confidence intervals were calculated for the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 90th quantiles of the samples. The simulation results show that if 50% of the samples are needed on time for efficient site operations, a 10 year old machine could take nearly 50 days longer to process these samples than a 5-year old machine. This simulation effort quantifies the impact on sample turn around time as the ICP-MS gets older.

  12. Radiological characterization of tap waters in Croatia and the age dependent dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Barišić, Delko; Planinšek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in tap waters, originating from various geological regions of Croatia, were determined. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (238)U≈(234)U>(228)Ra≈(210)Pb>(226)Ra≈(210)Po. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual internal doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for infants, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each population group were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different age groups but for each group the lowest contribution was found for (226)Ra and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:24997928

  13. Age-related differences in EEG beta activity during an assessment of ankle proprioception.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Diana R; Barela, José A; Manzano, Gilberto M; Kohn, André F

    2016-05-27

    The aim of this work was to compare cortical beta oscillatory activity between young (YA) and older (OA) adults during the assessment of ankle proprioception. We analyzed the response time (RT) to kinesthetic perception and beta event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) in response to passive ankle movement applied at a slow speed, 0.5°/s. The relationship between ERD/ERS and RT was investigated by classifying the signals into fast-, medium-, and slow-RT. The results showed a temporal relationship between beta oscillation changes and RT for both groups, i.e., earlier ERD and ERS were obtained for trials with faster response time. ERD was larger and delayed in OA compared to the YA, and beta ERS was present only for OA. These findings suggest that a less efficient proprioceptive signaling reaching the brain of OA requires a higher level of brain processing and hence the differences in ERD potentials between YA and OA. Furthermore, the occurrence of ERS in OA might represent a compensatory strategy of active cortical resetting for adequate sensorimotor behavior due to the age-related reduced peripheral input and neuromuscular impairments. Altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory intracortical activity in older adults presumably explains the changes in beta oscillations. PMID:27085535

  14. Assessing changes in stratospheric mean age of air and fractional release using historical trace gas observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Johannes; Bönisch, Harald; Engel, Andreas; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale stratospheric transport is pre-dominantly governed by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Due to climatic change a long-term acceleration of this residual stratospheric circulation has been proposed (e.g. Austin et al.,2006). Observational evidence has revealed indications for temporary changes (e.g. Bönisch et al., 2011) but a confirmation of a significant long-term trend is missing so far (e.g. Engel et al., 2009). A different aspect is a possible long-term change in the break-down of chemically important species such as chlorofluorocarbons as proposed by Butchart et al. 2001. Recent studies show significant differences adding up to more than 20 % in the chlorine released from such compounds (Newman et al., 2007; Laube et al., 2013). We here use a data set of three long-lived trace gases, namely SF6, CF2Cl2, and N2O, as measured in whole-air samples collected during balloon and aircraft flights between 1975 and 2011, to assess changes in stratospheric transport and chemistry. For this purpose we utilise the mean stratospheric transit times (or mean ages of air) in combination with a measure of the chemical decomposition (i.e. fractional release factors). We also evaluate the influence of different trend correction methods on these quantities and explore their variability with latitude, altitude, and season. References Austin, J. & Li, F.: On the relationship between the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the age of stratospheric air, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17807, 2006. Bönisch, H., Engel, A., Birner, Th., Hoor, P., Tarasick, D. W., and Ray, E. A.: On the structural changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation after 2000, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3937-3948, 2011. Butchart, N. & Scaife, A. A. Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate. Nature, 410, 799-802, 2001. Engel, A., Möbius, T., Bönisch, H., Schmidt, U., Heinz, R., Levin, I., Atlas, E., Aoki, S., Nakazawa, T

  15. Dental age assessment validity of radiographic methods on Serbian children population.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Ksenija; Zelic, Ksenija; Milenkovic, Petar; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Djuric, Marija

    2013-09-10

    In order to establish reliable age estimation method based on dental development, various correlations between chronological age and real growth were tested. Demirjian's scheme was mostly used, but lately the Willems' method has been found to be more reliable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Demirjian's and Willems' methods for dental age estimation in Serbian children population. The study sample encompassed panoramic radiographs of 686 children (322 boys and 364 girls) with age range from 4 to 15 years. The dental age was assed using Demirjian's and Willems' maturity scores. Statistical analysis was performed to test the accuracy of investigated methods by comparing the mean chronological and mean estimated age in total sample, as well as in each group comprising individuals within one-year-age-interval. Both methods showed discrepancy between obtained and chronological age. The Demirjian's method overestimated age with a mean accuracy of 0.45 in boys and 0.42 in girls, while Willems' method showed lower discrepancy (0.12 and 0.16 in boys and girls, respectively). Overall, both methods were unsatisfactory in some age groups, however, Willems' method provided more accurate age estimation in majority of categories. In summary, our results suggest that Willem's method was more accurate for estimating dental age in contemporary Serbian children population. PMID:23835078

  16. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Drabo, François; Ouedraogo, Hamado; Bougma, Roland; Bougouma, Clarisse; Bamba, Issouf; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Barrett, Laura; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Palmer, Stephanie; Chu, Brian; Toubali, Emily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0–1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0–4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9–6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3–26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6–7 years and 345 children aged 10–14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0–4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values. Conclusions/Significance Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also

  17. Assessment of MRI-Based Automated Fetal Cerebral Cortical Folding Measures in Prediction of Gestational Age in the Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J.; Awate, S.P.; Licht, D.J.; Clouchoux, C.; du Plessis, A.J.; Avants, B.B.; Vossough, A.; Gee, J.C.; Limperopoulos, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Traditional methods of dating a pregnancy based on history or sonographic assessment have a large variation in the third trimester. We aimed to assess the ability of various quantitative measures of brain cortical folding on MR imaging in determining fetal gestational age in the third trimester. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated 8 different quantitative cortical folding measures to predict gestational age in 33 healthy fetuses by using T2-weighted fetal MR imaging. We compared the accuracy of the prediction of gestational age by these cortical folding measureswiththeaccuracyofpredictionbybrainvolumemeasurementandbyapreviouslyreportedsemiquantitativevisualscaleofbrain maturity. Regression models were constructed, and measurement biases and variances were determined via a cross-validation procedure. RESULTS The cortical folding measures are accurate in the estimation and prediction of gestational age (mean of the absolute error, 0.43 ± 0.45 weeks) and perform better than (P = .024) brain volume (mean of the absolute error, 0.72 ± 0.61 weeks) or sonography measures (SDs approximately 1.5 weeks, as reported in literature). Prediction accuracy is comparable with that of the semiquantitative visual assessment score (mean, 0.57 ± 0.41 weeks). CONCLUSIONS Quantitative cortical folding measures such as global average curvedness can be an accurate and reliable estimator of gestational age and brain maturity for healthy fetuses in the third trimester and have the potential to be an indicator of brain-growth delays for at-risk fetuses and preterm neonates. PMID:26045578

  18. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  19. Age Band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition: Exploring Its Usefulness in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Jing; Gu, Guixiong; Meng, Wei; Wu, Zhuochun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the validity and reliability of age band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) in preparation for its standardization in mainland China. Interrater and test-retest reliability of the MABC-2 was estimated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Cronbach's alpha for…

  20. Assessing the Capability of School-Age Children with Asthma to Safely Self-Carry an Inhaler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Jane; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to pilot test an Asthma Assessment Interview (AAI) and to determine the approximate age a child with asthma is capable to self-carry an inhaler. A random sample of 34 students with asthma (Grades K through 10) from a midwestern school district were interviewed by the school nurse using the AAI, which…

  1. Assessment and Treatment of Working Memory Deficits in School-Age Children: The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Donna; Costanza-Smith, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review research addressing the relationship of working memory (WM) to language development and academic functioning and to consider the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in assessment and intervention of WM difficulties in school-age children. Method: Aspects of WM critical to language acquisition and academic success are…

  2. The Effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Glover, Katrina Gill; Ruane, Amy; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children, ages 18-47 months (n=30), were observed for 30 minutes in a playroom to determine if: (1) stereotyped toys impact children's play; (2) their behavior influences cognitive development; and (3) which toys are appropriate for the assessment sessions. Includes references. (CMK)

  3. Children's Assessments of Corporal Punishment and Other Disciplinary Practices: The Role of Age, Race, SES, and Exposure to Spanking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Holden, George W.

    2010-01-01

    African-American and Anglo-American children's assessments of four disciplinary methods (spanking, reasoning, withdrawing privileges, and time-out) were investigated with 108 children ages 6-10 years old and one of their parents. Children watched videos depicting a child being disciplined and then rated each discipline method. Reasoning was rated…

  4. TVA–based assessment of attentional capacities–associations with age and indices of brain white matter microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Espeseth, Thomas; Vangkilde, Signe A.; Petersen, Anders; Dyrholm, Mads; Westlye, Lars T.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the primary aims were to characterize the effects of age on basic components of visual attention derived from assessments based on a theory of visual attention (TVA) in 325 healthy volunteers covering the adult lifespan (19–81 years). Furthermore, we aimed to investigate how age-related differences on TVA parameters are associated with white matter (WM) microstructure as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Finally, we explored how TVA parameter estimates were associated with complex, or multicomponent indices of processing speed (Digit-symbol substitution, DSS) and fluid intelligence (gF). The results indicated that the TVA parameters for visual short-term memory capacity, K, and for attentional selectivity, α, were most strongly associated with age before the age of 50. However, in this age range, it was the parameter for processing speed, C, that was most clearly associated with DTI indices, in this case fractional anisotropy (FA), particularly in the genu and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, differences in the C parameter partially mediated differences in DSS within this age range. After the age of 50, the TVA parameter for the perceptual threshold, t0, as well as K, were most strongly related to participant age. Both parameters, but t0 more strongly so than K, were associated WM diffusivity, particularly in projection fibers such as the internal capsule, the sagittal stratum, and the corona radiata. Within this age range, t0 partially mediated age-related differences in gF. The results are consistent with, and provide novel empirical support for the neuroanatomical localization of TVA computations as outlined in the neuronal interpretation of TVA (NTVA). Furthermore, the results indicate that to understand the biological sources of age-related changes in processing speed and fluid cognition, it may be useful to employ methods that allow for computational fractionation of these multicomponent measures. PMID:25374549

  5. Brain training for silver gamers: effects of age and game form on effectiveness, efficiency, self-assessment, and gameplay experience.

    PubMed

    Nacke, Lennart E; Nacke, Anne; Lindley, Craig A

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, an aging demographic majority in the Western world has come to the attention of the game industry. The recently released "brain-training" games target this population, and research investigating gameplay experience of the elderly using this game form is lacking. This study employs a 2 x 2 mixed factorial design (age group: young and old x game form: paper and Nintendo DS) to investigate effects of age and game form on usability, self-assessment, and gameplay experience in a supervised field study. Effectiveness was evaluated in task completion time, efficiency as error rate, together with self-assessment measures (arousal, pleasure, dominance) and game experience (challenge, flow, competence, tension, positive and negative affect). Results indicate players, regardless of age, are more effective and efficient using pen-and-paper than using a Nintendo DS console. However, the game is more arousing and induces a heightened sense of flow in digital form for gamers of all ages. Logic problem-solving challenges within digital games may be associated with positive feelings for the elderly but with negative feelings for the young. Thus, digital logic-training games may provide positive gameplay experience for an aging Western civilization.

  6. Supporting residents’ expression of sexuality: the initial construction of a sexuality assessment tool for residential aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a key component of quality of life and well-being and a need to express one’s sexuality continues into old age. Staff and families in residential aged care facilities often find expressions of sexuality by residents, particularly those living with dementia, challenging and facilities often struggle to address individuals’ needs in this area. This paper describes the development of an assessment tool which enables residential aged care facilities to identify how supportive their organisation is of all residents’ expression of their sexuality, and thereby improve where required. Methods Multi-phase design using qualitative methods and a Delphi technique. Tool items were derived from the literature and verified by qualitative interviews with aged care facility staff, residents and families. The final item pool was confirmed via a reactive Delphi process. Results A final item pool of sixty-nine items grouped into seven key areas allows facilities to score their compliance with the areas identified as being supportive of older people’s expression of their sexuality in a residential aged care environment. Conclusions The sexuality assessment tool (SexAT) guides practice to support the normalization of sexuality in aged care homes and assists facilities to identify where enhancements to the environment, policies, procedures and practices, information and education/training are required. The tool also enables facilities to monitor initiatives in these areas over time. PMID:24980463

  7. Structural features of Nigeria's coastal margin: an assessment based on age data from wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuoha, K. Mosto

    1999-10-01

    Geological age data from 127 wells drilled for petroleum exploration and production purposes in both the onshore and offshore sections of the Nigerian coastal margin have been examined and correlated from well to well across the margin. By examining the variations in depth to selected key geological marker horizons, the positions of faults and fractures have been inferred between wells and along designated cross-sections. These faults extend across the margin from land to sea, and most of them trend northeast-southwest and north-south. Graben and horst structures dominate the western part of the Nigerian margin. The most prominent of these features on the western part of the margin is the Okitipupa structure, a basement ridge that separates the sediments of the Tertiary Niger Delta to the east from those of the Cretaceous Dahomey Embayment to the west. The Niger Delta basin and the major faults bounding it are the other important tectonic features on the Nigerian coastal margin. It appears that major fractures and transcurrent faults influenced sedimentation rates in different parts of the margin throughout the Tertiary period. A landward prolongation of two main oceanic fracture zones (Chain and Charcot) appears to merge well with some of the inferred faults, especially in the case of the Chain Fracture Zone. It is a well known fact that seismic activities are associated with oceanic fracture zones. The delineation of the extensions of these faults and fractures in the Nigerian continental interior can be regarded as an important basic step towards the assessment of the seismicity of the country's coastal margin. The next logical step would be to determine, through the deployment of a seismograph network, the level of activities associated with these faults.

  8. Improving risk assessment and familial aggregation of age at onset in schizophrenia using minor physical anomalies and craniofacial measures.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ning; Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Ming-Kun; Tan, Hung-Pin; Jang, Fong-Lin; Gan, Shu-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    Age at onset is the most important feature of schizophrenia that could indicate its origin. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) characterize potential marker indices of disturbances in early neurodevelopment. However, the association between MPAs and age at onset of schizophrenia is still unclear. We aimed to compare risk assessment and familial aggregation in patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) with MPAs and craniofacial measures.We estimated the risk assessment of MPAs among patients with EOS (n = 68), patients with AOS (n = 183), nonpsychotic relatives (n = 147), and healthy controls (n = 241) using 3 data-mining algorithms. In addition, we assessed the magnitude of familial aggregation of MPAs with respect to the age at onset of schizophrenia.The performance of EOS was superior to that of AOS, with discrimination accuracies of 89% and 76%, respectively. Combined MPA scores as the risk assessment were significantly higher in all schizophrenia subgroups and the nonpsychotic relatives of EOS patients than in the healthy controls. The recurrence risk ratio for familial aggregation of the MPA scores of EOS families (odds ratio 9.27) was substantially higher than that of AOS families (odds ratio 2.47).The results highlight that EOS improves risk assessment and has a severe magnitude of familial aggregation of MPAs. These findings indicate that EOS might result from a stronger genetic susceptibility to neurodevelopmental deficits. PMID:27472737

  9. Assessment of the primary effect of aging on heart rate variability in humans.

    PubMed

    Fukusaki, C; Kawakubo, K; Yamamoto, Y

    2000-06-01

    Beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV), reflecting cardiac autonomic control mechanisms, is known to change with age. However, the degree to which this change is mediated by aging per se or by physiologic changes characteristic of normative aging is still unclear. This study was designed to examine the association of aerobic fitness, body habitus or obesity, and blood pressure with age-related changes in HRV. Resting HRV data was recorded from 373 healthy subjects (124 men, 249 women; age range, 16-69 y) and analyzed by coarse-graining spectral analysis to decompose the total spectral power into its harmonic and fractal components. The low- and high-frequency (LF, 0.0-0.15 Hz; HF, >0.15 Hz) harmonic components were calculated from the former, whereas the latter was used to calculate the integrated power (FR) and the spectral exponent , beta, which were, in turn, used to evaluate the overall complexity of HRV. Factor analysis was performed to test whether potentially age-related changes in the components of HRV might be observed secondarily through other variables affecting HRV. Significant (p <0.05) age-related changes in the harmonic (HF and LF) and fractal (FR and beta) components of HRV were generally consistent with those described in the literature. In addition, factor analysis showed that there was a unique common factor that primarily explained correlations among age, HF, and beta (p <0.05) without the contributions from LF, FR, aerobic fitness, body habitus or obesity, and blood pressure. It was concluded that, in this population-based sample, age-related changes in HF and beta, both of which reflect vagal modulation of heart rate, were primarily mediated by aging per se and not by physiologic changes characteristic of normative aging.

  10. The aging of memory: A method for the assessment of qualitative changes.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, M; Agazzani, D; Di Cesare, F; Buckley, A E

    1994-01-01

    Age associated memory changes are traditionally described in terms of quantity of recall. Evidence of qualitative changes associated with aging could lead to a modification of this approach. The primacy and recency effects in serial learning provide a good model to evaluate these qualitative modifications. Our study was designed to investigate modifications of the serial effects in serial learning related to age and modality. We have comparatively investigated, with 120 normal subjects of both sexes, the influence of age and a latent semantic structure, consisting on four taxonomic categories, on the occurrence of primacy and recency effects in a list of verbal stimuli. The presence of a latent structure in the list of stimuli interacted with age in a relearning trial causing the recency effect to disappear more evidently in younger subjects. The same structure did not affect the primacy effect which, on the contrary, was influenced by age only. These results suggest a differential role across age of the automatic processing of working memory versus the role of the semantic-lexical processing of the central processing unit within working memory. They also, demonstrate the importance of age in influencing memory resources which change the quality and quantity of working memory proficiency.

  11. Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Anthony; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile varies across origin or destination countries. As…

  12. Age Matters, and so May Raters: Rater Differences in the Assessment of Foreign Accents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Becky H.; Jun, Sun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research on the age of learning effect on second language learners' foreign accents utilizes human judgments to determine speech production outcomes. Inferences drawn from analyses of these ratings are then used to inform theories. The present study focuses on rater differences in the age of learning effect research. Three groups of raters who…

  13. What Educational Opportunities Should Professionals in Aging Provide?: A Pilot Community Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Leson, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    With the aging workforce and the increase of older adults, educational needs of the workforce in aging services are broadening. The pilot study used a survey to examine the types of educational opportunities and needs of professionals providing services to older adults in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Respondents (25.9%) reported learning…

  14. Assessment of Relational Reasoning in Children Aged 4 to 8 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda

    This study examined the hypothesis that age-related increases in reasoning ability are associated with the ability to represent relations of increasing complexity, defined as the number of entities related. The study's purpose was to determine the extent to which this ability to process relations with three entities increased between ages 4 and 8…

  15. Assessment of berry fruit's effects on mobility and cognition in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in aging, in both animals and humans, include parallel decrements in mobility and cognition, even in the absence of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Diet has long been known to influence aging; however, specific whole foods are now being investigated for t...

  16. Now That the Law Has Changed: Assessing the Impact of the 21 Year Old Drinking Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Terry; And Others

    To determine the effects of raising the legal drinking age on the drinking patterns of college students, especially those whose status changed from legal to illegal, a survey was designed and administered to college students before and after the legal drinking age was changed from 19 to 21. College students (N=799) completed surveys in April of…

  17. An Empirical Assessment of an Activity to Teach Sensory Change in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Paige E.; Schwarzmueller, April; Martin, Bret

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically tested the effectiveness of a brief, inexpensive aging simulation activity to educate traditional-aged students about sensory declines and their potential causes in older adulthood development. Students in a life-span development course wore specific props (e.g., thick gloves, earplugs, and obscured glasses) to simulate…

  18. The age at death assessment in a multi-ethnic sample of pelvic bones using nature-inspired data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Buk, Zdenek; Kordik, Pavel; Bruzek, Jaroslav; Schmitt, Aurore; Snorek, Miroslav

    2012-07-10

    Recently published studies showed that age assessment methods are population specific. Authors analyse the senescence changes in pubic symphysis and sacro-pelvic surface of a pelvic bone using data mining methods. The multi-ethnic data set consists of 956 adult individuals ranging from 19 to 100 years of age derived from 9 different populations with known age and sex. The results show that accurate and reliable age assessment is possible to three age classes (less than 30, 30-60, 60 and more). The study confirms that population specificity of the methods exists and the variable "sex" is not important in age classification.

  19. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  20. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  1. Age-Related Differences in Auditory Processing as Assessed by Amplitude-Modulation Following Responses in Quiet and in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Cunningham, Paul A.; Bartlett, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Our knowledge of age-related changes in auditory processing in the central auditory system is limited, unlike the changes in the peripheral hearing organs which are more extensively studied. This study aims to further understanding of temporal processing in aging using non-invasive electrophysiological measurements in a rat model system. Amplitude modulation following responses (AMFRs) were assessed using sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones presented to aged (92- to 95-weeks old) and young (9- to 12-weeks old) Fischer-344 rats. The modulation frequency and sound level were systematically varied, and the SAM stimuli were also presented simultaneously with wideband background noise at various levels. The overall shapes and cutoff frequencies of the AMFR temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) were similar between young and aged animals. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) amplitudes of the aged animals were similar to the young in the 181–512 Hz modulation frequency range, but were significantly lower at most modulation frequencies above and below. There were no significant age-related differences in the nature of growth or FFT amplitudes with change in sound level at 256 and 1024 Hz modulation frequencies. The AMFR amplitudes were also not correlated with the ABR wave I or wave III amplitudes elicited for broadband click stimuli presented at the same sound level suggesting that sustained AMFR provide complementary information to phasic ABR responses. The FFT amplitudes varied significantly between young and aged animals for SAM stimuli in the presence of background noise, depending on the modulation frequency used and signal to noise ratio. The results show that the representation of temporally modulated stimuli is similar between young and aged animals in quiet listening conditions, but diverges substantially with the addition of background noise. This is consistent with a decrease in inhibition causing altered temporal processing with age. PMID

  2. Establishment of the MethyLight Assay for Assessing Aging, Cigarette Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Nakanishi, Michio; Asada, Takashi; Ikesue, Masahiro; Goto, Yoichi; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    The environmental factors such as aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption have been reported to influence DNA methylation (DNAm). However, the versatility of DNAm measurement by DNAm array systems is low in clinical use. Thus, we developed the MethyLight assay as a simple method to measure DNAm. In the present study, we isolated peripheral blood DNA from 33 healthy volunteers and selected cg25809905, cg02228185, and cg17861230 as aging, cg23576855 as smoking, and cg02583484 as alcohol consumption biomarkers. The predicted age by methylation rates of cg25809905 and cg17861230 significantly correlated with chronological age. In immortalized B-cells, DNAm rates of two sites showed a younger status than the chronological age of donor. On the other hand, the predicted age of the patients with myocardial infarction (MI) was not accelerated. The methylation rate of cg23576855 was able to discriminate the groups based on the smoking status. The DNAm rate of cg02583484 was reduced in subjects with habitual alcohol consumption compared to that of subjects without habitual alcohol consumption. In conclusion, our MethyLight assay system reconfirms that aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption influenced DNAm in peripheral blood in the Japanese. This MethyLight system will facilitate DNAm measurement in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  3. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Response of Hastelloy to Long Time Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifergane, S.; Gelbstein, Y.; Dahan, I.; Pinkas, M.; Landau, A.

    2009-03-01

    Hastelloy C-276 service temperature is restricted due to precipitation of the intermetallic compound μ. Time-temperature curves indicate that the highest precipitation rate is obtained at about 870° C. Thermoelectric Power (TEP) measurements were applied to monitor the precipitation kinetics during aging at 870° C. The TEP was found to be well correlated with the amount of μ phase formed during aging and with the reduction in impact energy and ductility. It was demonstrated that TEP measurements could be used to monitor aging of Hastelloy C-276.

  4. APPLYING TEP MEASUREMENTS TO ASSESS THE AGING STAGE OF MARAGING 250 STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Y.; Gelbstein, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-28

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 deg. C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  5. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Aging Stage of Maraging 250 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snir, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Gelbstein, Y.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 °C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni3(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  6. Virtual anthropology: useful radiological tools for age assessment in clinical forensic medicine and thanatology.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Savall, Frédéric; Rousseau, Hervé; Crubézy, Eric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Virtual anthropology consists of the introduction of modern slice imaging to biological and forensic anthropology. Thanks to this non-invasive scientific revolution, some classifications and staging systems, first based on dry bone analysis, can be applied to cadavers with no need for specific preparation, as well as to living persons. Estimation of bone and dental age is one of the possibilities offered by radiology. Biological age can be estimated in clinical forensic medicine as well as in living persons. Virtual anthropology may also help the forensic pathologist to estimate a deceased person's age at death, which together with sex, geographical origin and stature, is one of the important features determining a biological profile used in reconstructive identification. For this forensic purpose, the radiological tools used are multislice computed tomography and, more recently, X-ray free imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound investigations. We present and discuss the value of these investigations for age estimation in anthropology.

  7. Virtual anthropology: useful radiological tools for age assessment in clinical forensic medicine and thanatology.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Savall, Frédéric; Rousseau, Hervé; Crubézy, Eric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Virtual anthropology consists of the introduction of modern slice imaging to biological and forensic anthropology. Thanks to this non-invasive scientific revolution, some classifications and staging systems, first based on dry bone analysis, can be applied to cadavers with no need for specific preparation, as well as to living persons. Estimation of bone and dental age is one of the possibilities offered by radiology. Biological age can be estimated in clinical forensic medicine as well as in living persons. Virtual anthropology may also help the forensic pathologist to estimate a deceased person's age at death, which together with sex, geographical origin and stature, is one of the important features determining a biological profile used in reconstructive identification. For this forensic purpose, the radiological tools used are multislice computed tomography and, more recently, X-ray free imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound investigations. We present and discuss the value of these investigations for age estimation in anthropology. PMID:25735613

  8. [The assessment of modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic radiation on cognitive function in rats of different ages].

    PubMed

    Priakhin, E A; Triapitsyna, G A; Andreev, S S; Kolomiets, I A; Polevik, N D; Akleev, A V

    2007-01-01

    The modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic radiation influence on cognitive function of male uninbred Wister rat exposed at the age of sexual maturation (2 months) and at the age of morphofunctional maturity (3.5 months) was examined. Animals were subjected to pulse electromagnetic radiation (925 MHz) modulated as a GSM standard with the power density 1.2 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes every day for 12 days. At day 8 of exposure the cognitive function were examined with the Morris water maze. In the result of investigation it was determines that modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic radiation at the sexual maturation age did not affect the spatial learning and improve the visual orientation performance. Modulated radiofrequence electromagnetic exposure of animals at the sex maturity age did not affect the visual performance and improve the spatial performance of male rats.

  9. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  10. In vivo and in vitro assessment of brain bioenergetics in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Vančová, Ol’ga; Bačiak, Ladislav; Kašparová, Svatava; Kucharská, Jarmila; Palacios, Hector H; Horecký, Jaromír; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Brain energy disorders can be present in aged men and animals. To this respect, the mitochondrial and free radical theory of aging postulates that age-associated brain energy disorders are caused by an imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidants that can result in oxidative stress. Our study was designed to investigate brain energy metabolism and the activity of endogenous antioxidants during their lifespan in male Wistar rats. In vivo brain bioenergetics were measured using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and in vitro by polarographic analysis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. When compared to the young controls, a significant decrease of age-dependent mitochondrial respiration and adenosine-3-phosphate (ATP) production measured in vitro correlated with significant reduction of forward creatine kinase reaction (kfor) and with an increase in phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP, PCr/Pi and PME/ATP ratio measured in vivo. The levels of enzymatic antioxidants catalase, GPx and GST significantly decreased in the brain tissue as well as in the peripheral blood of aged rats. We suppose that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative inactivation of endogenous enzymes may participate in age-related disorders of brain energy metabolism. PMID:19906014

  11. Humeral development from neonatal period to skeletal maturity--application in age and sex assessment.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; López-Costas, Olalla; Turbón, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine cross-sectional information on the growth of the humerus based on the analysis of four measurements, namely, diaphyseal length, transversal diameter of the proximal (metaphyseal) end of the shaft, epicondylar breadth and vertical diameter of the head. This analysis was performed in 181 individuals (90 ♂ and 91 ♀) ranging from birth to 25 years of age and belonging to three documented Western European skeletal collections (Coimbra, Lisbon and St. Bride). After testing the homogeneity of the sample, the existence of sexual differences (Student's t- and Mann-Whitney U-test) and the growth of the variables (polynomial regression) were evaluated. The results showed the presence of sexual differences in epicondylar breadth above 20 years of age and vertical diameter of the head from 15 years of age, thus indicating that these two variables may be of use in determining sex from that age onward. The growth pattern of the variables showed a continuous increase and followed first- and second-degree polynomials. However, growth of the transversal diameter of the proximal end of the shaft followed a fourth-degree polynomial. Strong correlation coefficients were identified between humeral size and age for each of the four metric variables. These results indicate that any of the humeral measurements studied herein is likely to serve as a useful means of estimating sub-adult age in forensic samples.

  12. Assessing herd immunity against rubella in Japan: a retrospective seroepidemiological analysis of age-dependent transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Ryo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to epidemiologically assess rubella herd immunity as a function of time, age and gender in Japan, with reference to the recent 2012–2014 rubella epidemic. Design This study is a retrospective seroepidemiological analysis. Main outcome measures The susceptible fraction of the population was examined as a function of age and time. The age at infection was assessed using reported case data. Results Whereas 30 years ago rubella cases were seen only among children, the median (25–75th centiles) age of cases in 2014 was elevated to 32.0 (17.0–42.0) years among males and 27.0 (7.0–37.0) years among females. Susceptible pockets among male birth cohorts 1989–1993 and 1974–1978 were identified, with seropositive proportions of 70.0% and 68.0%, respectively. The majority of female age groups had greater seropositive proportions than the herd immunity threshold, with a minor susceptible pocket for those born from 1989 to 1993 (78.3% seropositive). The age-standardised seronegative proportion decreased to 18.3% (95% CI 16.8% to 19.8%) among males and 15.6% (95% CI 10.0% to 21.2%) among females in 2013, and the immune fraction was not sufficiently below the herd immunity threshold. While the number of live births born to susceptible mothers in 1983 was estimated at 171 876 across Japan, in 2013 it was reduced to 23 698. Conclusions An elevated age at rubella virus infection and the presence of susceptible pockets among adults were observed in Japan. Although, overall, the absolute number of rubella cases has steadily declined in Japan, the elevated age of rubella cases, along with increased numbers of susceptible adults, contributed to the observation of as many as 45 congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases, which calls for supplementary vaccination among susceptible adults. Assessing herd immunity is considered essential for routinely monitoring the risk of future rubella epidemics and CRS cases. PMID:26817640

  13. Biodex Fall Risk Assessment in the Elderly With Ataxia: A New Age-Dependent Derived Index in Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at “risk of fall.” This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1). FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation. Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1–1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1–1 patients as neurological, “very old” (86% in age-group 75–84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months’ follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores. The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher

  14. Assessment of borderline personality features in population samples: is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale measurement invariant across sex and age?

    PubMed

    De Moor, Marleen H M; Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Timothy J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are a result of measurement bias or if they represent true differences. The PAI-BOR was completed by four Sex x Age groups (N = 6,838). Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the PAI-BOR is measurement invariant across sex and age. Compared with men, women reported more borderline characteristics for affective instability, identity problems, and negative relationships but not for self-harm. Younger men had higher scores for identity problems and self-harm than did older men. Younger women had higher scores for identity problems and affective instability than did older women. Results suggest that the PAI-BOR can be used to study the etiology of BPD features in population-based samples and to screen for BPD features in clinical settings in both men and women of varying ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Age and sex structured model for assessing the demographic impact of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mukandavire, Z; Garira, W

    2007-08-01

    Age and sex structured HIV/AIDS model with explicit incubation period is proposed as a system of delay differential equations. The model consists of two age groups that are children (0-14 years) and adults (15-49 years). Thus, the model considers both mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and heterosexual transmission of HIV in a community. MTCT can occur prenatally, at labour and delivery or postnatally through breastfeeding. In the model, we consider the children age group as a one-sex formulation and divide the adult age group into a two-sex structure consisting of females and males. The important mathematical features of the model are analysed. The disease-free and endemic equilibria are found and their stabilities investigated. We use the Lyapunov functional approach to show the local stability of the endemic equilibrium. Qualitative analysis of the model including positivity and boundedness of solutions, and persistence are also presented. The basic reproductive number ([Symbol: see text](0)) for the model shows that the adult population is responsible for the spread HIV/AIDS epidemic, thus up-to-date developed HIV/AIDS models to assess intervention strategies have focused much on heterosexual transmission by the adult population and the children population has received little attention. We numerically analyse the HIV/AIDS model to assess the community benefits of using antiretroviral drugs in reducing MTCT and the effects of breastfeeding in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence ratio using demographic and epidemiological parameters for Zimbabwe.

  16. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61-84 months old in central China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%-93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%-41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source.

  17. Longitudinal Assessment of Cognitive Changes Associated With Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Impact of Age and Cognitive Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Ahles, Tim A.; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Li, Yuelin; Furstenberg, Charlotte T.; Hanscom, Brett S.; Mulrooney, Tamsin J.; Schwartz, Gary N.; Kaufman, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of age and cognitive reserve on cognitive functioning in patients with breast cancer who are receiving adjuvant treatments. Patients and Methods Patients with breast cancer exposed to chemotherapy (n = 60; mean age, 51.7 years) were evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological and psychological tests before treatment and at 1, 6, and 18 months after treatment. Patients not exposed to chemotherapy (n = 72; mean age, 56.6 years) and healthy controls (n = 45; mean age, 52.9 years) were assessed at matched intervals. Results Mixed-effects modeling revealed significant effects for the Processing Speed and Verbal Ability domains. For Processing Speed, a three-way interaction among treatment group, age, and baseline cognitive reserve (P < .001) revealed that older patients with lower baseline cognitive reserve who were exposed to chemotherapy had lower performance on Processing Speed compared with patients not exposed to chemotherapy (P = .003) and controls (P < .001). A significant group by time interaction for Verbal Ability (P = .01) suggested that the healthy controls and no chemotherapy groups improved over time. The chemotherapy group failed to improve at 1 month after treatment but improved during the last two follow-up assessments. Exploratory analyses suggested a negative effect of tamoxifen on Processing Speed (P = .036) and Verbal Memory (P = .05) in the no-chemotherapy group. Conclusion These data demonstrated that age and pretreatment cognitive reserve were related to post-treatment decline in Processing Speed in women exposed to chemotherapy and that chemotherapy had a short-term impact on Verbal Ability. Exploratory analysis of the impact of tamoxifen suggests that this pattern of results may be due to a combination of chemotherapy and tamoxifen. PMID:20837957

  18. Peer Assessment in the Digital Age: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Xiong, Yao; Zang, Xiaojiao; Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Lyu, Youngsun; Chung, Kyung Sun; Suen, Hoi K.

    2016-01-01

    Given the wide use of peer assessment, especially in higher education, the relative accuracy of peer ratings compared to teacher ratings is a major concern for both educators and researchers. This concern has grown with the increase of peer assessment in digital platforms. In this meta-analysis, using a variance-known hierarchical linear modelling…

  19. Conducting Communication Assessments with School Aged Aboriginal Children in the Kimberley Region of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Speech pathology assessment within cross-cultural contexts, where the assessor and client differ in their cultural backgrounds, can create many challenges for assessment usage and implementation. With Australia being home to people from many cultures, this is a particular challenge for speech pathologists working in this country. This paper…

  20. 45 CFR 91.33 - Assurance of compliance and recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... written assurance as specified by HHS that it will comply with the Act and these regulations. (b... complete a written self-evaluation, in a manner specified by the responsible Department official, of any... assess the recipient's compliance with the Act. (2) Whenever an assessment indicates a violation of...

  1. Inaccuracy of age assessment from images of postpubescent subjects in cases of alleged child pornography.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2013-03-01

    Despite frequent medical expert testimony authoritatively stating that images of individuals who are postpubescent indicate age less than 18 and therefore, child pornography, developmental experts have noted that a scientific basis for such estimation is lacking. In fact, recent studies have demonstrated a high degree of inaccuracy in such estimates, and that the stage of breast development often used as indicative of age under 18 years is present in a substantial percentage of adult women. Ten images of adult women from legitimate pornographic sites promoting youthful images were shown to 16 pediatric endocrinologists expert in evaluating maturation, who determined whether or not the individuals represented were under 18 years of age. They also provided information about what features were most important in their evaluations. Sixty-nine percent of the 160 estimates were that the images represented females under 18 years of age. There was wide variability in the designation of importance of the various features of maturation in reaching conclusions, with breast development and facial appearance considered most important. This study confirms that medical testimony, even by experts in adolescent development, can deem images of adult women selected for their youthful appearance to be under age 18 two thirds of the time. Thus, important as prosecuting users of child pornographic material may be, justice requires the avoidance of testimony that is not scientifically based. PMID:22960879

  2. Inaccuracy of age assessment from images of postpubescent subjects in cases of alleged child pornography.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2013-03-01

    Despite frequent medical expert testimony authoritatively stating that images of individuals who are postpubescent indicate age less than 18 and therefore, child pornography, developmental experts have noted that a scientific basis for such estimation is lacking. In fact, recent studies have demonstrated a high degree of inaccuracy in such estimates, and that the stage of breast development often used as indicative of age under 18 years is present in a substantial percentage of adult women. Ten images of adult women from legitimate pornographic sites promoting youthful images were shown to 16 pediatric endocrinologists expert in evaluating maturation, who determined whether or not the individuals represented were under 18 years of age. They also provided information about what features were most important in their evaluations. Sixty-nine percent of the 160 estimates were that the images represented females under 18 years of age. There was wide variability in the designation of importance of the various features of maturation in reaching conclusions, with breast development and facial appearance considered most important. This study confirms that medical testimony, even by experts in adolescent development, can deem images of adult women selected for their youthful appearance to be under age 18 two thirds of the time. Thus, important as prosecuting users of child pornographic material may be, justice requires the avoidance of testimony that is not scientifically based.

  3. Segmentation of bone pixels from EROI Image using clustering method for bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakthula, Rajitha; Agarwal, Suneeta

    2016-03-01

    The bone age of a human can be identified using carpal and epiphysis bones ossification, which is limited to teen age. The accurate age estimation depends on best separation of bone pixels and soft tissue pixels in the ROI image. The traditional approaches like canny, sobel, clustering, region growing and watershed can be applied, but these methods requires proper pre-processing and accurate initial seed point estimation to provide accurate results. Therefore this paper proposes new approach to segment the bone from soft tissue and background pixels. First pixels are enhanced using BPE and the edges are identified by HIPI. Later a K-Means clustering is applied for segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated and compared with the existing methods.

  4. In vivo stereological assessment of caudate volume in man: Effect of normal aging

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.R.; Husain, M.M.; McDonald, W.M.; Doraiswamy, P.M.; Figiel, G.S.; Boyko, O.B.; Ellinwood, E.H.; Nemeroff, C.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Using intermediate weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a systematic sampling stereological method in 39 normal volunteers aged 24-79 years old, we demonstrated a marked age-associated decline in caudate nuclei volume. The mean absolute volume of the caudate nuclei in this study was almost identical to that reported in a previous autopsy study and further confirms the validity of this stereological technique for use with MR images. This technique will provide a method for measuring the caudate and other nuclei in vivo, from brain images and, as such, a research tool to correlate age-associated changes in cognitive, sensory and motor function with caudate nucleus volume and other brain regions.

  5. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. Materials and methods A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. Results The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p<0.05). The most common type of injury in both gender groups was bone injury (50%; in males zygomatic bones 55%, in females mandible 40%) (p>0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p<0.05). The most common reported type of injury in all age groups was bone injury (more than 50%; p>0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Conclusion Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries.

  6. A Comprehensive Assessment of Neurocognition in Middle-Aged Chronic Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies investigating the neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking have been conducted with adults 60 years and older. Therefore, the scope of neurocognitive dysfunction associated with chronic cigarette smoking in middle age (i.e., 30–60 age range) has not been fully delineated. Methods Twenty-seven (44±9 years of age; 4 females) non-smoking and 30 smoking (49±8 years of age; 4 females) participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery and measures of fine motor dexterity and postural stability. All participants were free of biomedical or psychiatric conditions that may have influenced neurocognitive and motor function. Results Smokers performed significantly worse than non-smokers on the following domains: auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning, visuospatial memory, cognitive efficiency, executive skills, general intelligence, processing speed, fine motor dexterity and postural stability. The differences between smokers and non-smokers evidenced moderate to strong effect sizes and were not mediated by age, education, vocational level, estimated verbal intelligence or alcohol consumption. In smokers, a greater number of lifetime years of smoking was related to poorer performance on measures of cognitive efficiency, processing speed and visuospatial skills. Conclusions Results from this middle-aged cohort replicated previous research and provides novel findings indicating that chronic smoking was associated with inferior performance on measures of general intelligence, visuospatial learning and memory and fine motor dexterity. Research that relates measures of neurobiological function/integrity to neurocognition is needed to better understand the mechanisms contributing to the poorer performance across multiple domains demonstrated by smokers. PMID:21992872

  7. Investigating the Use of Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Aging Wire Insulation Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2002-01-01

    Aging wiring has become a critical issue to DoD, NASA, FAA, and Industry. The problem is that insulation on environmentally aged wire becomes brittle and cracks. This exposes the underlying conductive wire to the potential for short circuits and fire. The difficulty is that techniques to monitor aging wire problems focus on applying electrical sensing techniques that are not very sensitive to the wire insulation. Thus, the development of methods to quantify and monitor aging wire insulation is highly warranted. Measurement of wire insulation stiffness by ultrasonic guided waves is being examined. Initial laboratory tests were performed on a simple model consisting of a solid cylinder and then a solid cylinder with a polymer coating. Experimental measurements showed that the lowest order axisymmetric mode may be sensitive to stiffness changes in the wire insulation. To test this theory, mil-spec wire samples MIL-W-81381, MIL-W-22759/34, and MIL-W-22759/87 (typically found in aircraft) were heat-damaged in an oven, in a range of heating conditions. The samples were 12, 16, and 20 gauge and the heat-damage introduced material changes in the wire-insulation that made the originally flexible insulation brittle and darker in color. Axisymmetric mode phase velocity increased for the samples that were exposed to heat for longer duration. For example, the phase velocity in the 20-gauge MIL-W-22759/34 wire changed from a baseline value of 2790m/s to 3280m/s and 3530m/s for one-hour exposures to 3490C and 3990C, respectively. Although the heat-damage conditions are not the same as environmental aging, we believe that with further development and refinements, the ultrasonic guided waves can be used to inspect wire-insulation for detrimental environmental aging conditions.

  8. Effects of Age and Estrogen on Skeletal Gene Expression in Humans as Assessed by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Koji; Nicks, Kristy M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Therneau, Terry M.; McCready, Louise K.; Peterson, James M.; Drake, Matthew T.; Monroe, David G.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Precise delineation of the specific genes and pathways altered with aging and estrogen (E) therapy may lead to new skeletal biomarkers and the development of novel bone therapeutics. Previous human bone studies, however, have been limited by only examining pre-specified genes and pathways. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq), on the other hand, offers an unbiased approach to examine the entire transcriptome. Here we present an RNAseq analysis of human bone samples, obtained from iliac crest needle biopsies, to yield the first in vivo interrogation of all genes and pathways that may be altered in bone with aging and E therapy in humans. 58 healthy women were studied, including 19 young women (mean age ± SD, 30.3 ± 5.4 years), 19 old women (73.1 ± 6.6 years), and 20 old women treated with 3 weeks of E therapy (70.5 ± 5.2 years). Using generally accepted criteria (false discovery rate [q] < 0.10), aging altered a total of 678 genes and 12 pathways, including a subset known to regulate bone metabolism (e.g., Notch). Interestingly, the LEF1 transcription factor, which is a classical downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was significantly downregulated in the bones from the old versus young women; consistent with this, LEF1 binding sites were significantly enriched in the promoter regions of the differentially expressed genes in the old versus young women, suggesting that aging was associated with alterations in Wnt signaling in bone. Further, of the 21 unique genes altered in bone by E therapy, the expression of INHBB (encoding for the inhibin, beta B polypeptide), which decreased with aging (by 0.6-fold), was restored to young adult levels in response to E therapy. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that aging alters a substantial portion of the skeletal transcriptome, whereas E therapy appears to have significant, albeit less wide-ranging effects. These data provide a valuable resource for the potential identification of novel biomarkers

  9. Respiration and heart rate complexity: effects of age and gender assessed by band-limited transfer entropy.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Shamim; Edwards, Bradley A; Lee, Joon; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Butler, James P; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-10-01

    Aging and disease are accompanied with a reduction of complex variability in the temporal patterns of heart rate. This reduction has been attributed to a break down of the underlying regulatory feedback mechanisms that maintain a homeodynamic state. Previous work has established the utility of entropy as an index of disorder, for quantification of changes in heart rate complexity. However, questions remain regarding the origin of heart rate complexity and the mechanisms involved in its reduction with aging and disease. In this work we use a newly developed technique based on the concept of band-limited transfer entropy to assess the aging-related changes in contribution of respiration and blood pressure to entropy of heart rate at different frequency bands. Noninvasive measurements of heart beat interval, respiration, and systolic blood pressure were recorded from 20 young (21-34 years) and 20 older (68-85 years) healthy adults. Band-limited transfer entropy analysis revealed a reduction in high-frequency contribution of respiration to heart rate complexity (p<0.001) with normal aging, particularly in men. These results have the potential for dissecting the relative contributions of respiration and blood pressure-related reflexes to heart rate complexity and their degeneration with normal aging.

  10. Reduced Patellar Tendon Elasticity with Aging: In Vivo Assessment by Shear Wave Elastography.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Wen-Shian; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-11-01

    How aging affects the elasticity of tendons has long been debated, partly because of the limited methods for in vivo evaluation, which differ vastly from those for in vitro animal studies. In this study, we tested the reliability of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the evaluation of patellar tendons and their change in elasticity with age. We recruited 62 healthy participants in three age groups: 20-30 years (group 1), 40-50 years (group 2) and 60-70 years (group 3). Shear wave velocity and elastic modulus were measured at the proximal, middle and distal areas of the patellar tendon. Reliability was excellent at the middle area and fair to good at both ends. Compared with the other groups, group 3 had significantly decreased elastic modulus and shear wave velocity values (p ≤ 0.001 vs. group 1 or 2), with significant increased side-to-side differences. SWE may be valuable in detecting aging tendons before visible abnormalities are observed on B-mode ultrasonography.

  11. Assessing Age of Onset Effects in (Early) Child L2 Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the development of three different types of bilingual/second language children in their acquisition of gender-marking on adjectives in Dutch to investigate whether there is evidence for age-of-onset effects in early childhood as proposed by Meisel (2009). The three groups of children are: simultaneous bilingual children,…

  12. Age at Assessment a Critical Factor When Monitoring Early Communicative Skills in Children with Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; DeJonge, Shannon M.; Coman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-optimal language development is associated with the metabolic disorder galactosaemia (GAL). Some children with GAL are identified with language impairment from the initial stages of language learning, but a subset of children may exhibit disrupted developmental gains in speech and language skill after a period of age-appropriate skill…

  13. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Anxiety Practice and Outcome Research with School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Lutz, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Using effect size results from our meta-analysis for the treatment of anxiety in school-aged youth, the practical and technical aspects of five commonly used anxiety instruments were analyzed, and effect size estimates compared to indicate the best choices for use in anxiety outcome research.

  14. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  15. The Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: The Revised Preschool Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…

  16. Assessing the Professional Development Needs of Arts Instructors Working in Multi-Age Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broome, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national survey conducted with 223 arts teachers working in public schools that feature mixed-age classrooms rather than traditional grade levels. The purpose of the survey was to identify the professional development needs of arts teachers working in these unique environments and to offer suggestions for…

  17. Clinical assessment of balance: normative data, and gender and age effects.

    PubMed

    Vereeck, Luc; Wuyts, Floris; Truijen, Steven; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide age specific normative data of clinical gait and balance tests and to determine to what extent gender contributes to differences in postural control. Standing balance and walking performance was tested in 318 asymptomatic adults. The logistic regression, using both 10- and 30-second time limits as a dichotomization point, revealed a significant age effect for standing on foam with eyes closed, tandem Romberg with eyes closed (TR-EC), and one leg stance (eyes open and closed). The actual effect of decline was different for each test. Both tandem gait and dynamic gait index showed a ceiling effect up to 60 years of age, with a rapid decline of performance for subjects in their seventies. Linear regression equations indicated that for both men and women, timed up and go test (TUG) times increased with age, but even older subjects should perform the TUG in 10 seconds or less. Women performed significantly poorer on the TUG and TR-EC (30-second time limit). PMID:18236239

  18. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Depression Outcome Research with School-Age Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brooke E.; Erford, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    Using effect size results from Erford et al.'s (2011) meta-analysis for treatment of depression in school-age youth, the authors analyzed 6 commonly used instruments for practical and technical strengths and weaknesses. Effect size estimates from these 6 instruments were compared to indicate likely results when used in future depression outcome…

  19. Assessment of fiber optic sensors for aging monitoring of industrial liquid coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riziotis, Christos; El Sachat, Alexandros; Markos, Christos; Velanas, Pantelis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Aggelos

    2015-03-01

    Lately the demand for in situ and real time monitoring of industrial assets and processes has been dramatically increased. Although numerous sensing techniques have been proposed, only a small fraction can operate efficiently under harsh industrial environments. In this work the operational properties of a proposed photonic based chemical sensing scheme, capable to monitor the ageing process and the quality characteristics of coolants and lubricants in industrial heavy machinery for metal finishing processes is presented. The full spectroscopic characterization of different coolant liquids revealed that the ageing process is connected closely to the acidity/ pH value of coolants, despite the fact that the ageing process is quite complicated, affected by a number of environmental parameters such as the temperature, humidity and development of hazardous biological content as for example fungi. Efficient and low cost optical fiber sensors based on pH sensitive thin overlayers, are proposed and employed for the ageing monitoring. Active sol-gel based materials produced with various pH indicators like cresol red, bromophenol blue and chorophenol red in tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were used for the production of those thin film sensitive layers deposited on polymer's and silica's large core and highly multimoded optical fibers. The optical characteristics, sensing performance and environmental robustness of those optical sensors are presented, extracting useful conclusions towards their use in industrial applications.

  20. Assessing the Age of Goethe in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Edward T.

    1991-01-01

    Presents information on how and what is taught in courses on the "Age of Goethe." Two appendices are presented that list the institutions responding to a questionnaire concerning the teaching of this course and the less familiar texts of the period that are treated by some instructors. (GLR)

  1. Longitudinal assessment of dissociation in Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD and nonexposed aged Jewish adults.

    PubMed

    Labinsky, Ellen; Blair, William; Yehuda, Rachel

    2006-07-01

    The trajectory of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD-related symptoms in relation to aging is not well understood. We previously observed higher levels of dissociation as measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) among older Holocaust survivors with, compared to those without, PTSD, though scores on the DES in Holocaust survivors were markedly lower than those that had been reported for younger cohorts. We undertook a longitudinal evaluation of dissociation in Holocaust survivors. Twenty-six Holocaust survivors with current PTSD, 30 Holocaust survivors without current PTSD, and 19 nonexposed were evaluated at the initial evaluation and subsequently 8.11 years later. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the DES scores from these times demonstrated a significant main effect for time and a significant group by time interaction, reflecting a marked decline in Holocaust survivors, particularly those with PTSD. Controlling for age obliterated the effect of time, but not the group by time interaction. A similar pattern was shown with The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores. Different symptoms related to PTSD show different trajectories of change with age, with dissociation appearing to be less prominent with age.

  2. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

    2009-04-27

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report

  3. Assessment of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Status among Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes of Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Kumar, P Mahesh; Kadhiresan, R; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Suyog

    2015-01-01

    Background: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status of elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 599 elderly people residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India using cluster sampling methodology. The clinical findings were recorded using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) to assess periodontal status as per community periodontal index, loss of attachment, WHO dentition status, and treatment needs. Results: In the present study, the caries prevalence among dentate subjects was found among 41.9% of the dentate subjects and the mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth was found to be 8.28 ± 4.779 with the mean number of decayed being 1.51. In the dentate population, 0% had healthy periodontal tissue, 0.26% had bleeding, and 24.5% had calculus, 52.1% had shallow pockets and 23.1% had deep pockets as their highest score and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the current study, 37.9% inmates were completely edentulous. This study also showed that as age advanced the prevalence increased from 23.1% to 55.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of elderly people was found to be poor. Hence, it is concluded from this study that tooth loss is higher among the geriatric group residing in old age homes and is associated with many demographic and behavioral risk indicators. PMID:26464541

  4. Differential peptidomics assessment of strain and age differences in mice in response to acute cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Ossyra, John R; Zombeck, Jonathan A; Nosek, Michael R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-12-01

    Neurochemical differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis between individuals and between ages may contribute to differential susceptibility to cocaine abuse. This study measured peptide levels in the pituitary gland (Pit) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in adolescent (age 30 days) and adult (age 65 days) mice from four standard inbred strains, FVB/NJ, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, and BALB/cByJ, which have previously been characterized for acute locomotor responses to cocaine. Individual peptide profiles were analyzed using mass spectrometric profiling and principal component analysis. Sequences of assigned peptides were verified by tandem mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis classified all strains according to their distinct peptide profiles in Pit samples from adolescent mice, but not adults. Select pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were significantly higher in adolescent BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice than in FVB/NJ or C57BL/6J mice. A subset of peptides in the LH, but not in the Pit, was altered by cocaine in adolescents. A 15 mg/kg dose of cocaine induced greater peptide alterations than a 30 mg/kg dose, particularly in FVB/NJ animals, with larger differences in adolescents than adults. Neuropeptides in the LH affected by acute cocaine administration included pro-opiomelanocortin-, myelin basic protein-, and glutamate transporter-derived peptides. The observed peptide differences could contribute to differential behavioral sensitivity to cocaine among strains and ages. Peptides were measured using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) in individual lateral hypothalamus and pituitary samples from four strains and two ages of inbred mice in response to acute cocaine administration. Principal component analyses (PCA) classified the strains according to their peptide profiles from adolescent mice, and a subset of peptides in the lateral hypothalamus was altered by cocaine in adolescents.

  5. Family resemblance for anthropometric traits. II. Assessment of maternal occupational and age effects.

    PubMed

    Salces, I; Rebato, E; San Martin, L; Rosique, J; Vinagre, A; Susanne, C

    2002-01-01

    The present study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1326 subjects (197 fathers, 466 mothers, 307 sons and 356 daughters) belonging to 488 nuclear families from the province of Biscay (Basque Country, Spain), with the purpose of estimating the degree of familial resemblance, for several anthropometric traits, by analysing the correlation coefficients between parent-offspring pairs. Height, weight, biacromial and bicrystal breadths, humerus and femur biepicondylar breadths, arm, waist and hip circumferences, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, thigh and calf skinfolds were taken from each individual. BMI, WHR and the sum of the seven skinfolds was computed. The mother's occupation and the age of offspring were taken into account, since the combination of all these factors might have an effect on familial resemblance. The mothers were classified into housewife (HM) and working mothers (WM). The offspring were divided into prepuberal, puberal and postpuberal subgroups. Standardised residuals were used to compute father-offspring (FO) and mother-offspring (MO) relations through correlation coefficients computed by maximum likelihood. The results confirm the influence of age on the correlations, since FO correlations revealed an increasing trend in HM's children for weight and another six variables as they grew older. On the other hand, the weight change tends to decrease with age in FO correlations within the WM group. Depending on mother's occupation and children's age, the global trend in the sample results in higher correlations in the second group (WM) than in the first one (HM) for the whole age range, but specially in FO correlations before puberty, where four variables (weight, bicrystal breadth, triceps and subscapular skinfolds) yield statistically significant differences.

  6. The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in

  7. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total

  8. Accelerated ageing of an EAF black slag by carbonation and percolation for long-term behaviour assessment.

    PubMed

    Gurtubay, L; Gallastegui, G; Elias, A; Rojo, N; Barona, A

    2014-07-01

    The efficient reuse of industrial by-products, such as the electric arc furnace (EAF) black slag, is still hindered by concern over their long-term behaviour in outdoor environments. The aim of this study was to develop an accelerated ageing method to simulate the long-term natural carbonation of EAF slag exposed to the elements. The degree of carbonation achieved in a freshly produced slag after accelerated ageing and in a slag used on a fifteen-year-old unpaved road was very similar. The influence of particle size on accelerated carbonation was assessed, with it being concluded that the slag sample with a particle size bigger than 5-6 mm underwent slight carbonation over time when it was exposed to CO2. The accelerated ageing procedure based on percolating a previously carbonated water solution through the slag column allowed gradual leaching with simulated acid rain, as well as providing information about the gradual and total chemical release from the slag. Three classification groups were established according to the release rate of the determined elements. The joint use of the accelerated carbonation method and the percolation test is proposed as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment concerning the long-term air exposure of EAF black slag.

  9. Road safety in an aging population: risk factors, assessment, interventions, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Ross, Lesley A; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Wood, Joanne

    2016-03-01

    With the number of older drivers projected to increase by up to 70% over the next 20 years, preventing injury resulting from crashes involving older drivers is a significant concern for both policy-makers and clinicians. While the total number of fatal crashes per annum has steadily decreased since 2005 in Australia, the rate of fatalities has demonstrated an upward trend since 2010 in drivers aged 65 years and above (8.5 per 100,000), such that it is now on par with the fatality rate in drivers aged 17-25 years (8.0 per 100,000) (Austroads, 2015). Similar statistics are reported for the United States (NHTSA, 2012), implying there is a need for better identification of those older drivers who are unsafe and implementation of strategies that can enhance mobility while maximizing road safety. PMID:26888735

  10. Aging assessment and license renewals: Plant life management for the first stage boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Kawamura, Shinichi; Aoki, Masataka; Mori, Tsuguo

    1996-09-01

    The first stage Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been operating more than 25 years. Some components have potential of failure by aging. So, evaluations have been done for the main components such as Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), Reactor Internals, Primary Coolant Piping, Reactor Recirculation Pump, Cable (Inside PCV), Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and Concrete Structure. This evaluation has been done by joint study between electric utilities and manufacturers to confirm integrity and identify necessary development.

  11. [Categorical and dimensional assessment of "psychopathy" in German offenders. Prevalence, gender differences and age factors].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, S; Paelecke, M; Kahle, I; Marneros, A

    2003-11-01

    The personality construct "psychopathy" is of utmost importance in legal prognosis. In the last 20 years, a multitude of empirical research proved the predictive validity of this concept concerning the degree of dangerousness represented by an offender. In the present study, a representative, nonselected sample of 416 offenders was examined using the Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:SV). The data were analysed both categorically and dimensionally according to the three-factor model proposed by Cooke and Michie. In comparison to North American Studies the prevalence of high scorers was significantly lower, implicating intercultural differences. Analyses of the effects of gender yielded higher scores on each of the three factors in male offenders. Concerning different age cohorts, it turned out that the arrogant and deceitful interpersonal style and deficient affective experience remained stable, whereas the impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style decreased with increasing age. Therefore, our results point out intercultural differences already shown in the prevalence of "psychopathy" and confirm the effects of gender and age concerning this construct. PMID:14598037

  12. Assessment of Functional Change and Cognitive Correlates in the Progression from Healthy Cognitive Aging to Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is currently limited understanding of the course of change in everyday functioning that occurs with normal aging and dementia. To better characterize the nature of this change, we evaluated the types of errors made by participants as they performed everyday tasks in a naturalistic environment. Method Participants included cognitively healthy younger adults (YA; N = 55) and older adults (OA; N =88), and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI: N =55) and dementia (N = 18). Participants performed eight scripted everyday activities (e.g., filling a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. Task performances were coded for the following errors: inefficient actions, omissions, substitutions, and irrelevant actions. Results Performance accuracy decreased with age and level of cognitive impairment. Relative to the YAs, the OA group exhibited more inefficient actions which were linked to performance on neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Relative to the OAs, the MCI group committed significantly more omission errors which were strongly linked to performance on memory measures. All error types were significantly more prominent in individuals with dementia. Omission errors uniquely predicted everyday functional status as measured by both informant-report and a performance-based measure. Conclusions These findings suggest that in the progression from healthy aging to MCI, everyday task difficulties may evolve from task inefficiencies to task omission errors, leading to inaccuracies in task completion that are recognized by knowledgeable informants. Continued decline in cognitive functioning then leads to more substantial everyday errors, which compromise ability to live independently. PMID:24933485

  13. Complexity of human gait pattern at different ages assessed using multiscale entropy: From development to decline.

    PubMed

    Bisi, M C; Stagni, R

    2016-06-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has been applied in biomechanics to evaluate gait stability during human gait and was found to be a promising method for evaluating fall risk in elderly and/or pathologic subjects. The hypothesis of this work is that gait complexity is a relevant parameter of gait development during life, decreasing from immature to mature gait and then increasing again during old age. In order to verify this hypothesis, MSE was applied on trunk acceleration data collected during gait of subjects of different ages: toddlers at the onset of walking, pre-scholar and scholar children, adolescents, young adults, adults and elderlies. MSE was estimated by calculating sample entropy (SEN) on raw unfiltered data of L5 acceleration along the three axes, using values of τ ranging from 1 to 6. In addition, other performance parameters (cadence, stride time variability and harmonic ratio) were evaluated. The results followed the hypothesized trend when MSE was applied on the vertical and/or anteroposterior axis of trunk acceleration: an age effect was found and adult SEN values were significantly different from children ones. From young adults to elderlies a slight increase in SEN values was shown although not statistically significant. While performance gait parameters showed adolescent gait similar to the one of adults, SEN highlighted that their gait maturation is not complete yet. In conclusion, present results suggest that the complexity of gait, evaluated on the sagittal plane, can be used as a characterizing parameter of the maturation of gait control. PMID:27264400

  14. Age and positional effect on the anterior chamber angle: assessment by ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bell, Nicholas P; Nagi, Kundandeep S; Cumba, Ricardo J; Chuang, Alice Z; Lee, David A; Prager, Thomas C; Rao, Kavita; Feldman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate age- and position-related changes of anterior chamber angle anatomy in normal, healthy eyes. Patients and Methods. Thirty subjects were separated into a younger and older cohort. The superior and inferior anterior chamber angles of the eyes were measured in supine and sitting positions by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with bag/balloon technology. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate positional and age-related changes in angle morphology. Results. In the younger cohort, no location or positional differences in angle anatomy were observed. In the older cohort, the inferior quadrant was significantly narrower than the superior quadrant (P = 0.0186) in the supine position. This cohort also demonstrated an interaction effect between position and location. In the older cohort, the angle was deeper inferiorly while the subject was sitting but was deeper superiorly while the subject was supine. Conclusion. Comparison of positional variations in anterior chamber angle anatomy as measured by UBM has recently become possible. This study found that age-related positional changes in the anterior chamber angle anatomy exist in normal healthy eyes.

  15. Age and Positional Effect on the Anterior Chamber Angle: Assessment by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nicholas P.; Nagi, Kundandeep S.; Cumba, Ricardo J.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Lee, David A.; Prager, Thomas C.; Rao, Kavita; Feldman, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate age- and position-related changes of anterior chamber angle anatomy in normal, healthy eyes. Patients and Methods. Thirty subjects were separated into a younger and older cohort. The superior and inferior anterior chamber angles of the eyes were measured in supine and sitting positions by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with bag/balloon technology. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate positional and age-related changes in angle morphology. Results. In the younger cohort, no location or positional differences in angle anatomy were observed. In the older cohort, the inferior quadrant was significantly narrower than the superior quadrant (P = 0.0186) in the supine position. This cohort also demonstrated an interaction effect between position and location. In the older cohort, the angle was deeper inferiorly while the subject was sitting but was deeper superiorly while the subject was supine. Conclusion. Comparison of positional variations in anterior chamber angle anatomy as measured by UBM has recently become possible. This study found that age-related positional changes in the anterior chamber angle anatomy exist in normal healthy eyes. PMID:24558603

  16. Contribution of magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and hand to forensic age assessment.

    PubMed

    Serin, Jeanne; Rérolle, Camille; Pucheux, Julien; Dedouit, Fabrice; Telmon, Norbert; Savall, Frédéric; Saint-Martin, Pauline

    2016-07-01

    Forensic age estimation of living individuals is a controversial subject because of the imprecision of the available methods which leads to errors. Moreover, young persons are exposed to radiation, without diagnostic or therapeutic advantage. Recently, non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been studied in this context. The aim of this work was to study if the analysis of wrist/hand MRI enabled determination of whether a subject was 18 years old. Two observers retrospectively analyzed metaphyseal-epiphyseal fusion of the distal epiphysis of the radius and the ulna and the base of the first metacarpus in wrist/hand MRI of living people between 9 and 25 years of age. A three-stage scoring system was applied to all epiphyses. Intra- and inter-observer variability was excellent. Staging of the distal radial epiphysis allowed the subjects to be correctly evaluated with regard to the 18-year-old threshold in more than 85 % of cases. Analysis of the radius alone was as good as the analysis of the three epiphyses together. Evaluation of the metaphyseal-epiphyseal fusion of the distal radius in wrist MRI gave good results in forensic age estimation. Wrist MRI could meet ethical expectations with regard to the link between the benefit and risk of practicing radiologic examination on individuals in this context.

  17. Radiographic analysis of epiphyseal fusion at knee joint to assess likelihood of having attained 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Cingolani, M; Giuliodori, A; De Luca, S; Ferrante, L

    2012-11-01

    Radiological analysis of the epiphyses of the knee joint provides new valuable information, which may be used in combination with these well-established techniques in order to maximise the accuracy in the assessment of age of 18 years. A total of 215 antero-posterior radiographs of the knee was reviewed retrospectively in patients aged between 14 and 24 years old (99 boys, 116 girls). Fusion was scored as stage 1, epiphysis not fused; stage 2, epiphysis is fully ossified and epiphyseal scar is visible; and stage 3, epiphysis is fully ossified and epiphyseal scar is not visible. Scores of 0, 1 and 2 were assigned to stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Lastly, the score related to epiphyseal fusion at the knee joint was obtained by adding the three scores of the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula. Age distribution gradually increased with each score, for both genders. The mean age (±standard error) in each score category varied between genders, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.11). Five tests were performed to discriminate between individuals who were or were not at age 18 years or more, according to the receiver operating curve. For boys, the highest value of accuracy was obtained with score 3, with high sensitivity (Se = 93.33 %) and specificity (Sp = 89.29 %). For girls, it was obtained with score 4, with high accuracy (Acc = 85.86 %). These results indicate that radiographic analysis of the knee is a valuable alternative as a non-invasive method of estimation of 18 years of age.

  18. A Framework for Assessing Violent Behaviors in Elementary School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of preventing and intervening in bullying and other forms of school violence has been well established. This has resulted in the publication of numerous programs designed to prevent bullying and violence in schools. However, a missing piece revolves around the social worker's role in identifying and assessing violent behaviors in…

  19. The "Iron Gate": High-Stakes Assessment at Age 16 in Nepal and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In Nepal, the School Leaving Certificate (SLC) assessment taken by 16-year-olds at the end of Grade 10 of formal schooling performs a similar function to the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination in England in that it summarises individual, school, district and national achievement and acts as a filtering mechanism to the…

  20. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  1. Tennessee's Performance Funding Policy: L'Enfant Terrible of Assessment at Age Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Trudy W.; Fisher, Homer S.

    The paper addresses issues concerned with increasing state interest in encouraging public institutions of higher education to demonstrate educational quality through outcomes assessment and reports on the development and implementation of Tennessee's program of performance funding. Emphasis is on guidelines contained within a 5-year performance…

  2. 38 CFR 18.533 - Assurance of compliance and recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from VA shall sign a written assurance as specified by the Secretary that it will comply with the Act... employing the equivalent of 15 of more employees to complete a written self-evaluation, in a manner... receiving Federal financial assistance from VA to assess the recipient's compliance with the Act....

  3. Self-reported head injuries before and after age 13 in pedophilic and nonpedophilic men referred for clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert; Christensen, Bruce K; Cantor, James M; Blak, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Previous research has found that pedophilic men referred for clinical assessment of their sexual behavior are more likely to report that they suffered head injuries before their 13th birthday than are nonpedophilic men referred for the same purpose. This study investigated whether pedophilic patients are also more likely to report head injuries after their 13th birthday. The 685 participants represented all patients with usable data from a consecutive series of men referred to a clinical laboratory specializing in phallometric assessment of erotic preferences. In addition to phallometric testing, participants were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and a companion interview, which included questions on head injury, drug abuse, and childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that the pedophilic patients reported more head injuries before age 13 than did the nonpedophilic patients, but they did not report more head injuries after age 13. The association between pedophilia and childhood head injuries could mean either that subtle brain damage after birth increases a boy's risk of pedophilia, or that neurodevelopmental problems before birth increase a boy's accident-proneness along with his risk of pedophilia. Additional analyses showed that self-reported head injuries before age 13 were associated with attentional problems and with left-handedness; in contrast, head injuries after age 13 were associated with drug abuse and promiscuity. These analyses suggest that, among patients with primary presenting complaints of sexual rather than cognitive problems, childhood head injuries cluster with neuropsychological phenomena, whereas later head injuries cluster with lifestyle variables. PMID:14574100

  4. Assessing the Sources and Age of Fine-grained Channel and Suspended Sediment using Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A.; Fuller, C.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the sources and ages of stream sediment is important in developing conceptual models of landscape evolution, as well as in developing management strategies to reduce sediment flux. Atmospheric derived cosmogenic radionuclides (7Be and 210Pbex), along with bomb-fallout 137Cs, have been shown to differentiate between surface and non-surface derived sediment. Non-surface derived sediment includes streambanks and in-channel sediment storage. Two techniques were used: (1) Presence or absence of 210Pbex and 137Cs indicated surface and non-surface sources and (2) 7Be to 210Pbex ratios were used to date recent (surface) sediment. We have tested the use of 7Be, 210Pbex, and 137Cs to source and age fine-grained sediment (<0.063 mm) in small streams (<250 km2) draining regional areas of the United States (Midwest, Southeast, and Pacific Northwest) and in a small watershed of the Chesapeake Bay, Smith Creek (242 km2), Virginia, U.S.A. Land uses in the watersheds vary between agriculture, forest, and urban, and sampling included both suspended-sediment and bed material. Results indicate that non-surface derived sediment (e.g. streambanks) is an important source of sediment in all settings. For example, in 80% of 114 Midwest streams, non-surface derived sediment contributed greater than 70% of sediment. Age determination results indicate that many of the samples include a component of sediment that is 200 days old or younger. We discuss the assumptions associated with using radionuclides and whether rainfall or surface soil should be used as boundary conditions to date sediment. Management implications of these results are also discussed.

  5. Assessing the efficacy of LGBT cultural competency training for aging services providers in California's central valley.

    PubMed

    Leyva, Valerie L; Breshears, Elizabeth M; Ringstad, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the outcomes of a cultural competency training for aging services providers regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Results indicate that participants significantly increased their knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes about working with LGBT older adults, with men and non-LGBT individuals reporting the most gain. Recommendations for future research include determining which factors influence the enduring effects of this type of training and developing a standardized instrument for measuring such success. Legislative and policy changes targeted at requiring this type of cultural competency training for all direct service providers are considered.

  6. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0–20 years, 21–40 years, 41–60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0–20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  7. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration.

    PubMed

    Kong, Po-Lian; Looi, Lai-Meng; Lau, Tze-Pheng; Cheah, Phaik-Leng

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0-20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  8. Assessing the Minimally Verbal School-Aged Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, Connie; Brady, Nancy; Lord, Catherine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of assessing communication, language, and associated cognitive and behavioral abilities of minimally verbal children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), presenting a summary of a year-long series of meetings held by a group of experts in the field of ASD and NIH staff. In this paper, our goals were to first define the population and then present general guidelines for optimizing assessment sessions for this challenging population. We then summarize the available measures that can be used across a variety of behavioral domains that are most directly relevant to developing language skills, including: oral motor skills, vocal repertoire, receptive and expressive language, imitation, intentional communication, play, social behavior, repetitive and sensory behaviors, special interests, atypical behavior and nonverbal cognition. We conclude with a discussion of some of the limitations in the available measures and highlight recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24353165

  9. Assessing the minimally verbal school-aged child with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasari, Connie; Brady, Nancy; Lord, Catherine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of assessing communication, language, and associated cognitive and behavioral abilities of minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), presenting a summary of a year-long series of meetings held by a group of experts in the field of ASD and National Institutes of Health staff. In this paper, our goals were to first define the population and then present general guidelines for optimizing assessment sessions for this challenging population. We then summarize the available measures that can be used across a variety of behavioral domains that are most directly relevant to developing language skills, including oral motor skills, vocal repertoire, receptive and expressive language, imitation, intentional communication, play, social behavior, repetitive and sensory behaviors, and nonverbal cognition. We conclude with a discussion of some of the limitations in the available measures and highlight recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24353165

  10. Trill consistency is an age-related assessment signal in banded wrens

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Selvino R.; Eldermire, Erin R.B.; Valderrama, Sandra; Botero, Carlos A.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Older males tend to have a competitive advantage over younger males in sexual selection. Therefore, it is expected that signals used in sexual selection change with age. Although song repertoire size in songbirds is often mentioned as an age-related trait, many species, including the banded wren (Thryothorus pleurostictus), do not increase their repertoires after the first year. Here, we show that banded wrens reproduce the trill notes in their songs with less variability between them (i.e. more consistently) when they grow older. In a playback experiment, we also show that banded wrens discriminate between younger and older birds based on structural aspects of their song. In a second experiment, banded wrens also respond differentially to natural songs versus songs with artificially enhanced consistency. We argue that consistency in trill note reproduction may be achieved through practice. Sexual selection in the form of male–male competition may therefore operate on a phenotypic trait, the expression of which is enhanced by practice. PMID:19324742

  11. Assessment of the aging level of rejuvenated hot mixed asphalt concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Megan; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of asphalt rejuvenator on restoring the properties of oxidatively aged asphalt was tested via a non-collinear ultrasonic subsurface wave mixing technique modified for field use. Longitudinal transducers were mounted on angle wedges to generate subsurface dilatational waves to allow for pavement evaluation when there is only access to one side. Because in the field the asphalt concrete (AC) pavement properties (i.e., ultrasonic velocities and attenuations) are unknown, a pre-determined fixed incident angle (based on the AC mixture type) was used, which allows for practical implementation in the field. Oxidative aged AC specimens were coated with rejuvenator (10% by weight of the binder) and left to dwell for varying amounts of time. Once the dwell time reached the desired amount, the specimen was immediately ultrasonically tested. The frequency ratio, f2/f1, at which the interaction took place and the normalized nonlinear wave generation parameter, β/β0, were recorded and compared against a reference plot. It was observed that the rejuvenator had the effect of restoring the nonlinear properties to those corresponding to a virgin sample after a sufficient amount of dwell time. The ability of the rejuvenator to fully penetrate and act on the binder was observed to be dependent on the porosity and aggregate structure, and thus varied for each specimen. As a result, some portions of the binder were restored to a greater extent than others. This non-uniform nature was captured via the nonlinear ultrasonic technique.

  12. Assessment of bioavailability limitations during slurry biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in aged soils.

    PubMed

    Huesemann, Michael H; Hausmann, Tom S; Fortman, Tim J

    2003-12-01

    In an effort to determine whether bioavailability limitations are responsible for the slow or incomplete hydrocarbon biodegradation in aged soils, both the rate of desorption (rdes) and biodegradation (rbio) was measured for n-alkanes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different times during the slurry biotreatment of six different soils. While all n-alkanes were biodegraded to various degrees depending on their respective carbon number and the soil organic matter content, none of them were desorbed to a significant extent, indicating that these saturated hydrocarbons do not need to be transferred from the soil particles into the aqueous phase in order to be metabolized by microorganisms. Most two- and three-ring PAHs biodegraded as fast as they were desorbed (rbio = rdes); that is, desorption rates controlled biodegradation rates. By contrast, the biodegradation kinetics of four-, five-, and six-ring PAHs was limited by microbial factors during the initial phase (rbio < rdes) while becoming mass-transfer rate limited during the final phase of bioremediation treatment (rbio = rdes). Whenever PAH biodegradation stalled or did not occur at all (rbio = 0), it was never due to bioavailability limitations (rdes > 0) but was more likely caused by microbial factors. such as the absence of specific PAH degraders or cometabolic substrates. Consequently, PAHs that are found to be microbially recalcitrant in aged soils may not be so because of limited bioavailability and thus could pose a greater risk to the environment than previously thought.

  13. Assessment of handgrip strength in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martinez-Tellez, B; Chillón, P; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether there is an optimal grip span for determining the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children and if it is influenced by gender, age, or hand size. A total of 292 preschool children (3-5 years; 59.2% boys) carried out the handgrip strength test with different grip spans (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 cm). The hand size was also measured. We also determined the reliability of the optimal grip span in another group of children (n = 56, 57% boys) who did the test twice, with a 3-hour difference between tests. The results showed that 4.0 cm is the optimal grip span to determine the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children. This result applied to both genders, all age groups, and hand sizes. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between test and retest. These findings may guide clinicians and researchers in selecting the optimal grip span when measuring handgrip strength in preschool children.Level IV.

  14. Disability Glare in the Aging Eye. Assessment and Impact on Driving☆

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Thomas J.T.P.; (René) van Rijn, L.J.; Kaper-Bongers, R.; Vonhoff, D.J.; Völker-Dieben, H.J.; Grabner, G.; Nischler, C.; Emesz, M.; Wilhelm, H.; Gamer, D.; Schuster, A.; Franssen, L.; de Wit, G.C.; Coppens, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare different methods for the assessment of disability glare sensitivity in the elderly, to arrive at an objective assessment of the condition of the eye. To delineate the importance of straylight values in vision. Methods Three groups of subjects were studied: 1) Young subjects without any eye disease, 2) elderly subjects without any eye disease and 3) elderly subjects with (early) cataract in at least one eye. All subjects underwent 2 glare tests, 2 straylight tests, ETDRS visual acuity test, Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity test, refraction, LOCS III cataract classification. Straylight was quantified by means of the straylight parameter s. Results Repeatability, discriminative ability, and added value as compared to visual acuity were low for the glare tests and good for the straylight measurements. For young normal subjects, with log(s)=0.9, the standard glare situation with low beams gives a contrast reduction of 1.3, whereas for the healthy 77 year olds this increases to 2. With cataract hardly affecting visual acuity, log(s) can be as high as 1.8, resulting in a contrast reduction of 3.4. Conclusion Straylight measurement is of relevance for the assessment of the glare-related hindrance during driving, and can be used to objectify complaints and aid in the decision-making regarding cataract surgery.

  15. The Voice of the Child in Social Work Assessments: Age-Appropriate Communication with Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Lisa; Dolan, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a child-centred method for engaging with children involved in the child protection and welfare system. One of the primary arguments underpinning this research is that social workers need to be skilled communicators to engage with children about deeply personal and painful issues. There is a wide range of research that maintains play is the language of children and the most effective way to learn about children is through their play. Considering this, the overarching aim of this study was to investigate the role of play skills in supporting communication between children and social workers during child protection and welfare assessments. The data collection was designed to establish the thoughts and/or experiences of participants in relation to a Play Skills Training (PST) programme designed by the authors. The key findings of the study reveal that the majority of social work participants rate the use of play skills in social work assessments as a key factor to effective engagement with children. Of particular importance, these messages address how social work services can ensure in a child-centred manner that the voice of children is heard and represented in all assessments of their well-being and future care options. PMID:27559222

  16. Self-Assessment of Hearing and Purchase of Hearing Aids by Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Otavio, Andressa Colares da Costa; Coradini, Patricia Pérez; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Presbycusis is a consequence of aging. Prescription of hearing aids is part of the treatment, although the prevalence of use by elderly people is still small. Objective To verify whether or not self-assessment of hearing is a predictor for purchase of hearing aids. Methods Quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study. Participants were subjects who sought a private hearing center for selection of hearing aids. During the diagnostic interview, subjects answered the following question: “On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the worst and 10 the best, how would you rate your overall hearing ability?” After that, subjects underwent audiometry, selected a hearing aid, performed a home trial, and decided whether or not to purchase the hearing aid. The variables were associated and analyzed statistically. Results The sample was comprised of 32 subjects, both men and women, with a higher number of women. Mean age was 71.41 ± 12.14 years. Self-assessment of hearing ranged from 2 to 9 points. Overall, 71.9% of the subjects purchased hearing aids. There was no association between scores in the self-assessment and the purchase of hearing aids (p = 0.263). Among those who scored between 2 and 5 points, 64.7% purchased the device; between 6 and 7 points, 76.09% purchased the device; and between 8 and 9 points, 50% purchased the device, respectively. Conclusion There is evidence that low self-assessment scores lead to the purchase of hearing aids, although no significant association was observed in the sample. PMID:26722346

  17. The Prodigies of The Albano Lake During Roman Age and Natural Hazard Assessment At Roma, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; de Rita, D.

    Roma is built just 20 km to the northwest of the Pleistocene Colli Albani volcano, but is believed not exposed to relevant natural hazards, except for the Tiber river flood- ings, and local amplification of seismic waves from distal earthquakes. This belief has generally induced modern historians and geologists to discard as SmythologicalT the & cedil;many references to natural prodigies that are reported by many Roman-age historians. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Albano maar, the youngest volcanic cen- tre of the Colli Albani volcano and presently filled by a 175 m deep lake, protracted its activity to the Holocene triggering several catastrophic lahar events, likely related to lake withdrawal, the deposits of which are exposed to the southwest of Roma and reach its periphery. This finding youngs the history of the volcano and makes it rele- vant to pre-historic settlements, which ScarefullyT avoided the Albano maar slopes up & cedil;to the Bronze age. What is still unknown, though, is whether the lake experienced such fluctuations and overspills during historic times. Several Roman authors such as Ti- tus Livius, Dionigi d'Alicarnasso, Plutarco, Germanico, and many others wrote about the then well known 398 BC prodigious event, when, during the war between Roma and the Etruscan city of Veio, the gods anger caused the sudden rise and overspill of the Albano lake, reported as unrelated to climatic events, and the destructive flooding of the countryside. After that event Romans actually built a tunnel-drain which still operates regulating the lake level at 293 m a.s.l., 70 m below the maar rim elevation. Should those chronicles be truthful, we can join the geologic observation of Holocene lahar deposits from lake withdrawal with historical lake withdrawals, reassessing the natural hazard for the city of Roma under a point of view never explored before. This paper carefully explores the historical credibility of the 398 BC lake overspill event and its

  18. A critical assessment of supported decision-making for persons aging with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Nina A; Blumenthal, Jeremy A

    2014-01-01

    Supported decision-making is increasingly being promoted as an alternative to guardianship for persons aging with intellectual disabilities. Proponents argue that supported decision-making, unlike guardianship, empowers persons with disabilities by providing them with help in making their own decisions, rather than simply providing someone else to make decisions for them. To evaluate the empirical support for these claims, we reviewed the evidence base on supported decision-making. Our review found little such empirical research, suggesting that significant further research is warranted to determine whether--and under what conditions--supported decision-making can benefit persons with intellectual disabilities. Indeed, without more empirical evidence as to how supported decision-making functions in practice, it is too early to rule out the possibility it may actually disempower individuals with disabilities by facilitating undue influence by their alleged supporters. We therefore suggest several key areas for future research.

  19. Novel method for assessing age-related differences in the temporal summation of pain

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Kelly M; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Fillingim, Roger B; Staud, Roland; Riley, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    Temporal summation (TS) of pain protocols typically involve the delivery of brief repetitive noxious stimuli held at a constant intensity and measuring the consequent increase in the perceived intensity of pain sensations. To date, no studies have examined the effect of a TS protocol on the perceived spatial dimensions of the pain experience and its interaction with age. This study used a new TS protocol that examined changes in the perceived size of the painful area in 22 younger adults and 20 older adults. Four trials of ten brief heat pulses delivered at a constant intensity were administered on the volar forearm. Interpulse intervals (IPIs) were 2.5 seconds or 3.5 seconds. Subjects rated the peak pain intensity (trials 1 and 3) or the size of the painful area (trials 2 and 4) after each pulse on a 0–100 scale. The magnitude of summation was calculated for each trial. Three seconds and 6 seconds after delivering the last heat pulse, the subjects rated the intensity or the size of any remaining pain (aftersensations). The results indicated that older adults compared to younger adults exhibited significantly greater summation of size ratings for the 2.5-second and 3.5-second IPI trials and size of pain aftersensations at 3 seconds following the 2.5-second IPI TS trial. These results suggest that aging is associated with enhanced endogenous facilitation of the perceived size of pain. The potential clinical and mechanistic implications of enhanced TS of size of pain remain unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:27114716

  20. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  1. Recommendations for assessing and preventing falls in adults of all ages with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stanmore, Emma K

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease that affects younger as well as older adults. It is associated with a high risk of injurious falls due to problems such as lower-limb muscle weakness, balance impairment, swollen and tender joints, pain, and fatigue. Falls are typically associated with older people; hence, many professionals do not recognise the risks for younger persons with diseases such as RA. Falls can lead to devastating consequences, such as fatalities, hip fractures (with 50% of those affected never regaining their previous level of mobility and 30% dying within 1 year), or loss of independence and confidence. Research has shown that many people are either unaware or deny their risk of falling. Therefore, it is important that health professionals, such as community nurses, are aware of the risk factors, methods of assessment, and evidence-based preventative measures, so that falls can be avoided in this population. This article presents research and practice implications for community nurses to enable them to assess, treat, and appropriately refer adults with RA who are also at risk of falls. PMID:26551381

  2. HUMTRN and EFFECTS: Age and sex specific dosimetric and physiological human population dynamics models for dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A human simulation model called HUMTRN and a population risk assessment model called EFFECTS were developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a major component of the BIOTRAN environmental risk assessment model. HUMTRN simulates growth using dietary and physiological characteristics and kinetics of radionuclides to predict radiation doses to selected organs of both sexes in different age groups. The model called EFFECTS was interfaced with output from HUMTRN to predict cancer risks in a dynamic human population. EFFECTS is based on the National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)-III radiation cancer mortality estimates from the U.S. population mortality and natality estimates for both sexes between the ages of 1 and 70. These models track radiation intake from air, water, and food, calculate uptake in major growing organs, and estimate cancer mortality risks. This report documents the use of an IBM Personal Computer AT to run HUMTRN and EFFECTS. Air, water, and food contaminant concentrations are provided as input to HUMTRN, which then provides input for EFFECTS. The limitations of this approach are also discussed.

  3. Assessment of the contribution of APOE gene variants to metabolic phenotypes associated with familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Raymond; Oudt, Charlotte H.; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of long-lived families are characterized by beneficial metabolic phenotypes in glucose and lipid metabolism and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Although the genetic basis for human longevity remains largely unclear, the contribution of variation at the APOE locus has been repeatedly demonstrated. We aimed to assess whether ApoE isoforms mark the familial longevity status in middle age and subsequently to test to what extend this association is mediated by the metabolic characteristics marking this status. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS), we included offspring from nonagenarian siblings and partners as controls. Using the metabolic phenotypes of familial longevity as mediators, we investigated how APOE gene variants associated with LLS offspring/control status (in 1,515 LLS offspring and 715 controls). Within the LLS (mean age = 59.2 years), ApoE ε4 was not associated with a lower likelihood of being an LLS offspring, whereas ApoE ɛ2 was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of being an LLS offspring (odds ratio = 1.43), but this difference was not mediated (p-values>0.05) by any of the investigated metabolic phenotypes (e.g., diabetes and glucose). Therefore, variation at the APOE locus may not influence familial longevity status in middle age significantly through any of the metabolic mechanisms investigated. PMID:27540764

  4. Assessing variation in skeletal production from surface death assemblages on the basis of age-frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasovych, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.; Foygel Barber, Rina

    2015-04-01

    Age-frequency distributions of dead skeletal material that capture information on the elapsed time since death of individuals on the landscape or seabed provide decadal- to millennial-scale windows into the history of production and on the processes that lead to skeletal disintegration and burial. However, models quantifying the dynamics of skeletal loss assumed that skeletal production has been constant during accumulation of death assemblages. Here, we assess the joint effects of temporally-variable production and skeletal loss on the shape of postmortem age-frequency distributions. We show that the modes of such distributions will tend to be shifted to younger age cohorts relative to the true timing of past production pulses. This shift in the timing of a past production will be higher where loss rates are high and/or the rate of decline in production is slow. We apply the models combining the dynamic of loss and production to death assemblages with the deposit-feeding bivalve Nuculana taphria from the Southern California continental shelf, finding that (1) an onshore-offshore gradient in time averaging is dominated by a gradient in the timing of production, corresponding to the tracking of shallow-water habitats under a sea-level rise, and (2) model estimates of the timing of past production are in good agreement with an independent sea-level curve.

  5. Nondestructive detection and assessment of damage in aging aircraft using a novel stress-strain microprobe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggag, Fahmy M.; Wang, J. A.

    1996-11-01

    Aging of current commercial and military aircraft has become a major concern as many older aircraft are reaching their original design life. Service failures due to inaccurate characterization of aging responses might result in costly repair, premature component replacement, and loss of human lives. The properties of aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and nickel-based superalloys used in aircraft structures and engines might degrade with service conditions associated with the operation of the aircraft. Important aspects of environmental conditions encountered in service cannot be accurately simulated. Thus, it will be a great advantage that the in-situ mechanical properties can be obtained nondestructively. A novel portable/in-situ stress-strain microprobe (SSM) system was developed to use an automated ball indentation technique to measure, yield strength, true- stress versus true-plastic-strain curve, strength coefficient, strain-hardening-exponent, and to estimate fracture toughness. Example test results on metallic structural components and samples are given in this paper and a video demonstration will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, potential applications of the SSM technology to assess the integrity of aging aircraft are briefly discussed.

  6. Assessment of the contribution of APOE gene variants to metabolic phenotypes associated with familial longevity at middle age.

    PubMed

    Noordam, Raymond; Oudt, Charlotte H; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, P Eline; Beekman, Marian; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Offspring of long-lived families are characterized by beneficial metabolic phenotypes in glucose and lipid metabolism and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Although the genetic basis for human longevity remains largely unclear, the contribution of variation at the APOE locus has been repeatedly demonstrated. We aimed to assess whether ApoE isoforms mark the familial longevity status in middle age and subsequently to test to what extend this association is mediated by the metabolic characteristics marking this status. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS), we included offspring from nonagenarian siblings and partners as controls. Using the metabolic phenotypes of familial longevity as mediators, we investigated how APOE gene variants associated with LLS offspring/control status (in 1,515 LLS offspring and 715 controls). Within the LLS (mean age = 59.2 years), ApoE ε4 was not associated with a lower likelihood of being an LLS offspring, whereas ApoE ɛ2 was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of being an LLS offspring (odds ratio = 1.43), but this difference was not mediated (p-values>0.05) by any of the investigated metabolic phenotypes (e.g., diabetes and glucose). Therefore, variation at the APOE locus may not influence familial longevity status in middle age significantly through any of the metabolic mechanisms investigated. PMID:27540764

  7. Assessment of anti-slip devices from healthy individuals in different ages walking on slippery surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gard, Gunvor; Berggård, Glenn

    2006-03-01

    The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Using an appropriate anti-slip device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best anti-slip devices of different designs in the Swedish market on a larger group of healthy individuals in different ages on five different slippery surfaces as a way to develop a standard method to test anti-slip devices. Three different designs of anti-slip devices: heel device, foot-blade device and whole-foot device were evaluated on ice surfaces uncovered or covered with gravel, sand, salt or snow. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device and a list of priorities for own use according to three criteria: safety, balance and appearance. The heel device was perceived to be the most safe on all five surfaces, followed by the toe device and the whole-foot device. The heel device was also perceived to be the one with the best walking balance on uncovered ice and on snow covered ice. There were some significant differences due to gender and age. Most subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee when walking with or without an anti-slip device on all surfaces. The heel device was perceived as the most rapid one to take on and the toe device as the most rapid one to take off. All three devices were perceived as having a good foothold. The heel device was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike. The toe device was easily portable and stable on uncovered ice. The whole-foot device was comfortable to walk with and safe on snow covered ice. The heel device had the highest priority according to walking safety

  8. Bioavailable DDT residues in sediments: laboratory assessment of ageing effects using semi-permeable membrane devices.

    PubMed

    Menchai, Phanchai; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Kimber, Stephen; Ahmad, Nazir; Rao, P Suresh C; Hose, Grant

    2008-05-01

    We describe the reduction in bioavailability of DDT in contaminated soil after it was incubated as sediment for 365 d. Bioavailability was assessed using semi-permeable membranes. Contaminated soils from three cattle dip sites, one spiked paired uncontaminated site, and one spiked OECD standard soil were studied. Sandy soil with residues of 1880 mg/kg summation operator DDT incurred since 1962, initially had 4.6% of summation operator DDT available, reducing to 0.6% following 365 d. Clay soil (1108 mg summation operator DDT/kg) had 4.1% initially available, reducing to 0.3% after 365 d. Freshly spiked soils had a greater amount of DDT initially available (10.9%), but this reduced to 1.5% by the end of the incubation. Of the DDT congeners, both o,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD were most bioavailable in the soils, but also had the most significant decrease following incubation.

  9. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J.; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h2g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h2g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h2g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  10. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: age and gender aspects.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Duc Minh; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Le, Thi Thuy; Nyberg, Ylva; Le, Bach Mai; Nguyen, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Manh Khai; Oborn, Ingrid

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n=132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n=130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p<0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461±162g/d, followed by water spinach (103±51kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ>3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ>1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight.

  11. Testing Models of Psychopathology in Preschool-aged Children Using a Structured Interview-based Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents’ (typically mothers’) reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n=541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology. PMID:24652485

  12. Different assessment tasks produce different estimates of handedness stability during the eight to 14 month age period.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Latta, Jonathan; Michel, George F

    2015-05-01

    Using 150 infants (57% males), two common tasks for assessing infant hand-use preferences for acquiring objects were compared for their ability to detect stable preferences during the age period of eight to 14 months. One task assesses the preference using nine presentations of objects; the other uses 32 presentations. Monthly classifications of hand preference for each task were determined by either a commonly used a decision criterion in which one hand is used 50% more often than the other or a criterion based on proportion of hand-use difference that exceeds a conventional alpha probability of 0.05. The seven monthly assessments provided by the two tasks also were examined for latent classes in their developmental trajectories. The two tasks were significantly different for both their identification of latent classes and their monthly classification of the infant's hand-use preference. The 32 presentations yielded three developmental trajectories (45% right preferring, 5% left preferring, and 50% no clear preference) whereas the nine presentations revealed only two trajectories (70% right, 30% no preference). The nine presentations task, with the 50% proportion decision criterion, was very generous in classifying right and left-preferring infants at each month but produced greater fluctuations across months compared to the 32 presentation task with an alpha decision criterion. Both tasks revealed that a large proportion of infants are still developing a hand-use preference during this age period. Recommendations are made for examining the development of hand-use preferences and their relation to the development of other neuropsychological functions. PMID:25769115

  13. Identification and Functional Assessment of Age-Dependent Truncations to Cx46 and Cx50 in the Human Lens

    PubMed Central

    Slavi, Nefeli; Wang, Zhen; Harvey, Lucas; Schey, Kevin L.; Srinivas, Miduturu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many proteins in the lens undergo extensive posttranslational modifications (PTMs) with age, leading to alterations in their function. The extent to which lens gap junction proteins, Cx46 and Cx50, accumulate PTMs with aging is not known. In this study, we identified truncations in Cx46 and Cx50 in the human lens using mass spectrometry. We also examined the effect of truncations on channel function using electrophysiological measurements. Methods Human lenses were dissected into cortex, outer nucleus, and nucleus regions, and fiber cell membranes were subjected to trypsin digestion. Tryptic peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS). Effects of truncations on channel conductance, permeability, and gating were assessed in transfected cells. Results Cleavage sites were identified in the C-terminus, the cytoplasmic loop, and the N-terminus of Cx46 and Cx50. Levels of C-terminal truncations, which were found at residues 238 to 251 in Cx46 and at residues 238 to 253 and 274 to 284 in Cx50, were similar in different lens regions. In contrast, levels of truncations in cytoplasmic loop and N-terminal domains of Cx46 and Cx50 increased dramatically from outer cortex to nucleus. Most of the C-terminally truncated proteins were functional, whereas truncations in the cytoplasmic loop did not result in the formation of functional channels. Conclusions Accumulation of cytoplasmic loop and N-terminal truncations in the core might lead to decreases in coupling with age. This reduction is expected to lead to an increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in levels of glutathione in the nucleus. These changes may ultimately lead to age-related nuclear cataracts. PMID:27787559

  14. Lifestyle assessment of branched tetraether source bacteria via root systems of different age and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Gocke, Martina; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.; Fosse, Céline; Derenne, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are complex lipids of high molecular weight, recently discovered in soils. They were suggested to be produced by still unknown anaerobic bacteria. The relative distribution of branched GDGTs was shown to depend on environmental parameters: the degree of methylation of branched GDGTs (MBT index) likely depends on air temperature and to a lesser extent on soil pH, whereas the relative abundance of cyclopentyl rings of branched GDGTs (CBT index) correlates well with soil pH. Even though over the last years an increasing number of studies have focused on the potential use of branched GDGTs as paleoclimate proxies, the ecological niche of their source organisms remains unknown. An improved knowledge of the habitat and lifestyle of branched GDGT-producing bacteria is essential to interpret the environmental data derived from these lipids. The aim of this work was to obtain more information on branched GDGT source bacteria via the analysis of branched GDGTs in the vicinity of root systems of different age and habitat. Calcified and non-calcified living and dead roots were selected. The distribution and abundance of branched GDGTs were determined in roots and surrounding soil/sediment collected from two forest sites on fluvial sand and loess near Sopron (Hungary). Living root samples and surrounding soil were collected between 0 and 0.5 m below present surface, whereas calcified root systems (rhizoliths) were collected at 1.5 - 1.8 m depth. Reference sediment samples without visible root remains were collected 50-70 cm distant from the rhizoliths. Ancient roots (ca. 3000-yr age) and surrounding sediments were also collected at 2.2-2.6m in a loess-paleosol sequence located in Nussloch (SW Germany). In living root systems from Hungary, branched GDGTs were especially abundant in fine roots (<2 mm) and in the close vicinity of all roots (rhizosphere) and were less concentrated in the larger roots (>2 mm) themselves. This

  15. Measurement of the transverse cerebellar diameter in preterm neonates and its use in assessment of gestational age.

    PubMed

    Davies, M W; Swaminathan, M; Betheras, F R

    2001-08-01

    This study aims to confirm the relationship between gestational age (GA) and transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD), to define the prediction of GA by TCD, and assess the reliability of TCD measurements. Infants were included in the study if they had a routine cranial ultrasound scan by day 3, and the TCD was measured. Infants were excluded from the study if the GA was not known, if there was any cranio-spinal malformation or grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). The GA assessment was an early pregnancy scan or certain dates. Cranial ultrasound scans were done with a LOGIQ 500 scanner (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI, USA) with a 7 MHz curvilinear sector probe (GE LOGIQ-C721; GE Medical Systems). The posterior fossa was scanned using the asterion as the acoustic window with the TCD measured in the coronal plane. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 221 infants of known GA had their TCD measured. The linear regression for GA versus TCD is: GA(weeks) = (0.470 x TCD(millimetres)) + 13.162 (r = 0.89, r(2) = 0.79, P < 0.001). The 95% confidence interval predicts GA to +/- 2.33 weeks for a given TCD. Intra- and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients are 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Transverse cerebellar diameter correlates closely with GA and predicts GA to +/- 2.33 weeks. Measurements of TCD have excellent reproducibility.

  16. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop.

    PubMed

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-16

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  17. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  18. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  19. Age assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform ages were determined using a linear high-precision age-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known age on the same rock type. The SHD ages represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most ages are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. Ages and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene ages, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice Age. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.

  20. Evolution of Evaluation and Assessment in Diverse Audiences in the Digital Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades, researchers have learned more about how people think and act and about the social and political aspects of teaching and learning. This understanding has brought changes in researchers' and practitioners' interactions with diverse groups and individuals. This paper addresses evaluation, a process that measures the degree to which learning and project goals are met and factors contributing to or hindering outcomes. Parallels are drawn to learning assessment. The concepts of inclusion, participation, and constructivism (Mertens, 1999; Mertens and Hopson, 2006) now drive best evaluation practices for projects with persons with disabilities (AEA, 2011). This is also true in cases of other people who have been marginalized in STEM fields, e.g. women and underrepresented groups. Inclusion of these stakeholders has important implications for the validity of an evaluation, including the accuracy of results (Jacobson et al, 2012; Gill, 1999; Lee, 1999). The American Indian Higher Education Consortium's framework for indigenous groups incorporates their values and goals into evaluation design and implementation. It is feasible to include participant input in designing the questions and methods of obtaining data, ensuring that issues of access, opportunity, and power (Shuffelbeam, 2001) are taken into consideration. Geoscience projects with u-learning and m-learning provide opportunities to test these theoretical models in innovative programs such as: field work for students with physical disability; underrepresented minority, secondary students using mobile devices in contextualized learning in informal settings; and graduate students using digital maps to enhance traditional field work. This study compares program evaluation methodology of tradition learning with that of programs for diverse groups of students using digital technology. Ref: Mertens doi:10.1177/109821409902000102; Mertens and Hopson DOI: 10.1002/ev.177; AEA http

  1. Sero-surveillance to assess rubella susceptibility and assessment of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of rubella vaccine in Indian girls aged 18-24 years.

    PubMed

    Phalgune, Deepak S; Yervadekar, Rajiv C; Sharma, Hitt J; Dhere, Rajeev M; Parekh, Sameer S; Chandak, Alka O; Safai, Abhijeet A; Shewale, Sunil D

    2014-01-01

    Rubella infection though a mild infection, may cause foetal death or a variety of congenital anomalies. Multiple sero-surveys confirmed that 5-10% women are unexposed to natural or vaccinated rubella virus and remain susceptible to rubella infection. The current study was conducted in 600 girls, aged 18-24 y from Symbiosis International University (SIU), Pune, India to assess their sero-status against rubella infection and to estimate the immunogenicity of rubella vaccine in achieving sero-protective antibody titres. Prior to administration of a single i.m. dose of rubella vaccine (R-vac®) to eligible participants, blood sample (pre-vaccination) was collected. During the 4-6 weeks observation period, adverse events were noted. Then, a second blood sample (post-vaccination) was collected. Significant increase was noted in sero-protection response, viz., 98.6% (post-vaccination) vis-à-vis 66.5% (pre-vaccination); Geometric mean titer (GMT) was significantly higher post-vaccination. Effective measures to introduce rubella vaccination on a larger scale need to be undertaken. An immunization policy with mandatory rubella vaccination for all girls in the reproductive age group and its inclusion in national immunization schedule is highly desirable.

  2. Damage Assessment of Creep Tested and Thermally Aged Metallic Alloys Using Acousto-Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Kautz, Harold E.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years emphasis has been placed on the early detection of material changes experienced in turbine powerplant components. During the scheduled overhaul of a turbine, the current techniques of examination of various hot section components aim to find flaws such as cracks, wear, and erosion, as well as excessive deformations. Thus far, these localized damage modes have been detected with satisfactory results. However, the techniques used to find these flaws provide no information on life until the flaws are actually detected. Major improvements in damage assessment, safety, as well as more accurate life prediction could be achieved if nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques could be utilized to sense material changes that occur prior to the localized defects mentioned. Because of elevated temperatures and excessive stresses, turbine components may experience creep behavior. As a result, it is desirable to monitor and access the current condition of such components. Research at the NASA Glenn Research Center involves developing and utilizing an NDE technique that discloses distributed material changes that occur prior to the localized damage detected by the current methods of inspection. In a recent study, creep processes in a nickel-base alloy were the life-limiting condition of interest, and the NDE technique was acousto-ultrasonics (AU). AU is an NDE technique that utilizes two ultrasonic transducers to interrogate the condition of a test specimen. The sending transducer introduces an ultrasonic pulse at a point on the surface of the specimen while a receiving transducer detects the signal after it has passed through the material. The goal of the method is to correlate certain parameters of the detected waveform to characteristics of the material between the two transducers. Here, the waveform parameter of interest is the attenuation due to internal damping for which information is being garnered from the frequency domain. The parameters utilized to

  3. Assessment of Retinal and Choroidal Measurements in Chinese School-Age Children with Cirrus-HD Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zhou, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Jie; Shen, Wenli; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate retinal thickness (RT), retinal volume (RV) and choroidal thickness (ChT) in Chinese children using Cirrus-HD optical coherence tomography (OCT), and assess their associations with spherical equivalent (SE), age and gender. Methods This was a prospective study that recruited 193 healthy Chinese children (193 eyes) with no ophthalmic disease history between December 2012 and December 2013. RT and RV were acquired using OCT. Subfoveal ChT (SFCT) and ChT1-mm and 2-mm temporal, nasal, superior and inferior to the fovea were measured manually. Results RT in the inner temporal and nasal regionsdiffered significantly between refraction groups (both P<0.05). Significant differences were also found inSFCT andChT 1- and 2-mm inferior to the fovea (all P<0.05). RT differed significantly between males and females in the outer superior region in the emmetropia group (P<0.05). ChT differed significantly between males and females 2-mm temporal to the fovea in the emmetropia group (P<0.05), and 1-mm temporal to the fovea in the mild myopia group (P<0.05). SE correlated positively with RT in the inner temporal (r = 0.230),nasal (r = 0.252) and inferior (r = 0.149) regions (all P<0.05). Age correlated positively with foveolar (r = 0.169), total macular (r = 0.202), inner temporal (r = 0.237), inner nasal (r = 0.248), inner superior (r = 0.378) and inner inferior (r = 0.345) region thicknesses, and with RV (r = 0.207)(all P<0.05). SE correlated positively with SFCT (r = 0.195), and with ChT1-mm temporal (r = 0.167), 1- and 2-mm nasal (r = 0.144 and r = 0.162), 2-mm superior (r = 0.175), and 1- and 2-mm inferior (r = 0.207 and r = 0.238) to the fovea (all P<0.05). Age had no significant association with ChT. Conclusions SE, age and gender did not influence macular RT and ChT in most regions, and correlations of RT with age and ChT with SE were weak. PMID:27391015

  4. Gender ratio in a clinical population sample, age of diagnosis and duration of assessment in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-07-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish children and adults recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The study reports key findings that the gender ratio in this consecutively referred cohort is lower than anticipated in some age groups and reduces with increasing age. The gender ratio in children, together with the significant difference in the mean age of referral and diagnosis for girls compared to boys, adds evidence of delayed recognition of autism spectrum disorder in younger girls. There was no significant difference in duration of assessment for males and females suggesting that delays in diagnosis of females occur prior to referral for assessment. Implications for practice and research are considered.

  5. Validation of the NANA (Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing) touch screen system for use at home by older adults.

    PubMed

    Astell, A J; Hwang, F; Brown, L J E; Timon, C; Maclean, L M; Smith, T; Adlam, T; Khadra, H; Williams, E A

    2014-12-01

    Prospective measurement of nutrition, cognition, and physical activity in later life would facilitate early detection of detrimental change and early intervention but is hard to achieve in community settings. Technology can simplify the task and facilitate daily data collection. The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) toolkit was developed to provide a holistic picture of an individual's function including diet, cognition and activity levels. This study aimed to validate the NANA toolkit for data collection in the community. Forty participants aged 65 years and over trialled the NANA toolkit in their homes for three 7-day periods at four-week intervals. Data collected using the NANA toolkit were compared with standard measures of diet (four-day food diary), cognitive ability (processing speed) and physical activity (self-report). Bland-Altman analysis of dietary intake (energy, carbohydrates, protein fat) found a good relationship with the food diary and cognitive processing speed and physical activity (hours) were significantly correlated with their standard counterparts. The NANA toolkit enables daily reporting of data that would otherwise be collected sporadically while reducing demands on participants; older adults can complete the daily reporting at home without a researcher being present; and it enables prospective investigation of several domains at once.

  6. Validation of the NANA (Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing) touch screen system for use at home by older adults.

    PubMed

    Astell, A J; Hwang, F; Brown, L J E; Timon, C; Maclean, L M; Smith, T; Adlam, T; Khadra, H; Williams, E A

    2014-12-01

    Prospective measurement of nutrition, cognition, and physical activity in later life would facilitate early detection of detrimental change and early intervention but is hard to achieve in community settings. Technology can simplify the task and facilitate daily data collection. The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) toolkit was developed to provide a holistic picture of an individual's function including diet, cognition and activity levels. This study aimed to validate the NANA toolkit for data collection in the community. Forty participants aged 65 years and over trialled the NANA toolkit in their homes for three 7-day periods at four-week intervals. Data collected using the NANA toolkit were compared with standard measures of diet (four-day food diary), cognitive ability (processing speed) and physical activity (self-report). Bland-Altman analysis of dietary intake (energy, carbohydrates, protein fat) found a good relationship with the food diary and cognitive processing speed and physical activity (hours) were significantly correlated with their standard counterparts. The NANA toolkit enables daily reporting of data that would otherwise be collected sporadically while reducing demands on participants; older adults can complete the daily reporting at home without a researcher being present; and it enables prospective investigation of several domains at once. PMID:25456843

  7. Assessing the relationship between global warming and mortality: lag effects of temperature fluctuations by age and mortality categories.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu

    2011-07-01

    Although interests in assessing the relationship between temperature and mortality have arisen due to climate change, relatively few data are available on lag structure of temperature-mortality relationship, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. This study identified the lag effects of mean temperature on mortality among age groups and death categories using polynomial distributed lag models in Brisbane, Australia, a subtropical city, 1996-2004. For a 1 °C increase above the threshold, the highest percent increase in mortality on the current day occurred among people over 85 years (7.2% (95% CI: 4.3%, 10.2%)). The effect estimates among cardiovascular deaths were higher than those among all-cause mortality. For a 1 °C decrease below the threshold, the percent increases in mortality at 21 lag days were 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.0%) and 3.4% (95% CI: 0.9%, 6.0%) for people aged over 85 years and with cardiovascular diseases, respectively. These findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce and prevent temperature-related mortality.

  8. Assessment of food habits in children aged 6–12 years and the risk of caries

    PubMed Central

    Doichinova, Liliya; Bakardjiev, Peter; Peneva, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Food is necessary for the proper growth and development of children. The excessive intake of low-molecular carbohydrates constitutes a serious health issue, which has an unfavourable impact on the dental health status. The aim of this study was to assess the food habits in healthy children aged 6–12 years and the effect on their oral risk profile. The study included 100 children. The assessment of their nutrition was done with the help of a seven-day reproduction of the food intake and a survey used to determine their underlying food habits and preferences. The results revealed unbalanced nutrition of the children and increased intake of simple sugar, which will increase the risk of development of dental caries. The observed high levels of DMFT (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) in 54% of the children is a logical result of the frequent intake of sugary foods and beverages for a long period of time, as this will increase the acid production by microorganisms in dental plaque, which is one of the leading etiologic factors for the development of caries. It is necessary for dentists to administer control over the carbohydrate intake and the food habits of children, as well as to encourage non-cariogenic diet in order to keep their good oral health. PMID:26019634

  9. An assessment of risk posed by a Campylobacter-positive puppy living in an Australian residential aged-care facility

    PubMed Central

    Appuhamy, Ranil; Andrew, Will; Wynn, Sandy; Roberts, Jan; Kennedy, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In April and June 2012, two outbreaks of Campylobacter gastroenteritis were investigated in an Australian aged-care facility (ACF); a Campylobacter-positive puppy was identified as a potential source of infection. Methods An expert panel was convened to assess transmission risk from the puppy to elderly residents and to guide further public health action. Criteria considered as part of the panel’s assessment included the puppy’s infectivity, the bacterium’s transmissibility, puppy–resident contact, infection control and cleaning practices and animal management at the facility. A literature review was used to assist the panel, with a final risk being determined using a likelihood and consequence matrix. Results The panel determined that the setting and low infective dose made transmission likely despite varying degrees of contact between the puppy and cases. While infection control practices were generally appropriate, the facility’s animal policy did not adequately address potential zoonotic risk. Conclusion In summary, puppies should not be considered as companion animals in ACFs due to high rates of Campylobacter carriage and the underlying susceptibility of the elderly. Infection control and animal policies in ACFs should reflect an awareness of zoonotic disease potential. PMID:25320673

  10. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M <0.08 were 0.94 (95 % CI, 0.91 to 0.96) in males and 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.94 to 0.98) in females. Positive predictive values of the test, where the participants whose I3M <0.08 were adults, were 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.96) in males and 0.97 (95 % CI, 0.94 to 0.98) in females, while negative predictive values of the test, where the participants whose I3M was ≥0.08 were minors, were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.85 to

  11. Assessing the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ackland, L.; McGuire, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include historical aspects, the arms race, nuclear power, flaws in the non-proliferation treaty, North-South issues, East-West confrontation, Soviet decision making with regard to national defense, US and Soviet perspectives on national security, ballistic missile defense (''Star Wars''), political aspects, nuclear winter, stockpiles, US foreign policy, and military strategy.

  12. Age-related effects of smoking on coronary artery disease assessed by gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Jin; Mintz, Gary S; Weisz, Giora; Mehran, Roxana; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Verheye, Stefan; Serruys, Patrick W; Xu, Ke; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-15

    Although smoking is a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis, the age-related impact on lesion morphology has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the age-related impact of smoking on the extent of atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling. In Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree, 687 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent 3-vessel gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound imaging of 3,185 nonculprit lesions. In 207 patients ≤65 years, current (smoking within 1 month) and former (no smoking for >1 month) smokers showed significantly smaller normalized volumes of external elastic membrane (EEM), lumen, and P + M (plaque + media) compared with nonsmokers. At the minimal lumen area site, current and former smokers had significantly smaller EEM, lumen, and P + M areas than nonsmokers. Conversely, in 480 patients >65 years, current smokers had greater normalized P + M volumes than nonsmokers with no difference in normalized EEM or lumen volumes. Finally, in patients >65 years (but not in patients ≤65 years), current smokers showed more plaque ruptures (4.7% vs 1.8%, p = 0.05) and echolucent plaques (8.3% vs 3.9%, p = 0.05) compared with nonsmokers. On multivariable analysis, a history of smoking (combining current and former smoking) predicted smaller normalized EEM volumes compared with nonsmokers ≤65 years. In conclusion, in patients ≤65 years, but not in patients >65 years, smoking had a vascular constrictive effect that contributed to severe luminal stenosis. Conversely, smokers >65 years had more plaque with greater plaque instability. PMID:25726380

  13. Age-related effects of smoking on coronary artery disease assessed by gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Jin; Mintz, Gary S; Weisz, Giora; Mehran, Roxana; Rabbani, LeRoy E; Verheye, Stefan; Serruys, Patrick W; Xu, Ke; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-15

    Although smoking is a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis, the age-related impact on lesion morphology has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the age-related impact of smoking on the extent of atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling. In Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree, 687 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent 3-vessel gray scale and virtual histology intravascular ultrasound imaging of 3,185 nonculprit lesions. In 207 patients ≤65 years, current (smoking within 1 month) and former (no smoking for >1 month) smokers showed significantly smaller normalized volumes of external elastic membrane (EEM), lumen, and P + M (plaque + media) compared with nonsmokers. At the minimal lumen area site, current and former smokers had significantly smaller EEM, lumen, and P + M areas than nonsmokers. Conversely, in 480 patients >65 years, current smokers had greater normalized P + M volumes than nonsmokers with no difference in normalized EEM or lumen volumes. Finally, in patients >65 years (but not in patients ≤65 years), current smokers showed more plaque ruptures (4.7% vs 1.8%, p = 0.05) and echolucent plaques (8.3% vs 3.9%, p = 0.05) compared with nonsmokers. On multivariable analysis, a history of smoking (combining current and former smoking) predicted smaller normalized EEM volumes compared with nonsmokers ≤65 years. In conclusion, in patients ≤65 years, but not in patients >65 years, smoking had a vascular constrictive effect that contributed to severe luminal stenosis. Conversely, smokers >65 years had more plaque with greater plaque instability.

  14. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  15. Computational assessment of effective dose and patient specific doses for kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery of wet age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Justin Mitchell

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss and a major health problem for people over the age of 50 in industrialized nations. The current standard of care, ranibizumab, is used to help slow and in some cases stabilize the process of AMD, but requires frequent invasive injections into the eye. Interest continues for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), an option that provides a non-invasive treatment for the wet form of AMD, through the development of the IRay(TM) (Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, CA). The goal of this modality is to destroy choroidal neovascularization beneath the pigment epithelium via delivery of three 100 kVp photon beams entering through the sclera and overlapping on the macula delivering up to 24 Gy of therapeutic dose over a span of approximately 5 minutes. The divergent x-ray beams targeting the fovea are robotically positioned and the eye is gently immobilized by a suction-enabled contact lens. Device development requires assessment of patient effective dose, reference patient mean absorbed doses to radiosensitive tissues, and patient specific doses to the lens and optic nerve. A series of head phantoms, including both reference and patient specific, was derived from CT data and employed in conjunction with the MCNPX 2.5.0 radiation transport code to simulate treatment and evaluate absorbed doses to potential tissues-at-risk. The reference phantoms were used to evaluate effective dose and mean absorbed doses to several radiosensitive tissues. The optic nerve was modeled with changeable positions based on individual patient variability seen in a review of head CT scans gathered. Patient specific phantoms were used to determine the effect of varying anatomy and gaze. The results showed that absorbed doses to the non-targeted tissues were below the threshold levels for serious complications; specifically the development of radiogenic cataracts and radiation induced optic neuropathy (RON). The effective dose

  16. Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

    2005-01-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land

  17. The assessment of combined first trimester screening in women of advanced maternal age in an Asian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sarah Weiling; Barrett, Angela Natalie; Gole, Leena; Tan, Wei Ching; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Hak Koon; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION First trimester screening (FTS) is a validated screening tool that has been shown to achieve detection rates of 84%–90% for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. However, its effectiveness for different maternal ages has not been assessed. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FTS in an Asian population, and to compare its effectiveness in older (≥ 35 years) and younger (< 35 years) women. The potential use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) as a contingent screening test is also examined. METHODS Data on cases of FTS performed on singleton pregnancies over a six-year period was collated from two Singapore maternal centres, National University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital. Cases that had a 1:250 risk of trisomy were considered to be screen-positive. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from birth records or karyotype test results. RESULTS From 10,289 FTS cases, we obtained a sensitivity of 87.8%, a specificity of 97.6%, a false positive rate of 2.4% and a false negative rate of 0.06% for the detection of aneuploidy. The overall detection rate for trisomy 21 was 86.5%–85.7% for older women and 87.5% for younger women. The mean number of invasive tests required per case of trisomy 21 was 9.3 in younger women, 8.6 in older women and 13.5 in women with intermediate risk (1:250–1,000). CONCLUSION While the performance of FTS was similar in younger and older women, more invasive procedures were required to diagnose trisomy 21 in women with intermediate risk. It may be advantageous to offer contingent NIPT to this group of women to reduce the risk of iatrogenic fetal loss. PMID:25640099

  18. The BAA Observers' Workshops: Imaging comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, M. P.

    2003-10-01

    Imaging comets, especially from the UK, used to be nothing less than a battle against the insensitivity of photographic film and the inevitable arrival of cloud on those crucial moon-free nights when a bright comet was close to perihelion. In recent years the situation has changed considerably. On the positive side modern CCDs are twenty times more light-sensitive than the best photographic emulsions, and image processing is far easier than messing around for hours with revolting chemicals in a darkroom. On the negative side the modern lives of working people leave little room for learning new skills and the stress of the modern working day leaves little enthusiasm for a night-time battle with clouds and unfriendly equipment. This author firmly believes that well-thought-out observatories and patient perseverance are the key to achieving success where imaging comets is concerned. Basically, anyone who has learned to use a computer can learn to take good comet images; it is all a question of surmounting the various hurdles in a systematic fashion.

  19. Solid State NMR Measurements for Preliminary Lifetime Assessments in gamma-Irradiated and Thermally Aged Siloxane Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S C; Herberg, J L; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S

    2004-11-29

    Siloxanes have a wide variety of applications throughout the aerospace industry which take advantage of their exceptional insulating and adhesive properties and general resilience. They also offer a wide range of tailorable engineering properties with changes in composition and filler content. They are, however, subject to degradation in radiatively and thermally harsh environments. We are using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to investigate changes in network and interfacial structure in siloxane elastomers and their correlations to changes in engineering performance in a series of degraded materials. NMR parameters such as transverse ( T{sub 2}) relaxation times, cross relaxation rates, and residual dipolar coupling constants provide excellent probes of changes crosslink density and motional dynamics of the polymers caused by multi-mechanism degradation. The results of NMR studies on aged siloxanes are being used in conjunction with other mechanical tests to provide insight into component failure and degradation kinetics necessary for preliminary lifetime assessments of these materials as well as into the structure-property relationships of the polymers. NMR and MRI results obtained both from high resolution NMR spectrometers as well as low resolution benchtop NMR screening tools will be presented.

  20. Solid State NMR Measurements for Preliminary Lifetime Assessments in (gamma)-Irradiated and Thermally Aged Siloxane Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S C; Herberg, J L; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S

    2005-02-03

    Siloxanes have a wide variety of applications throughout the aerospace industry which take advantage of their exceptional insulating and adhesive properties and general resilience. They also offer a wide range of tailorable engineering properties with changes in composition and filler content. They are, however, subject to degradation in radiatively and thermally harsh environments. We are using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to investigate changes in network and interfacial structure in siloxane elastomers and their correlations to changes in engineering performance in a series of degraded materials. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters such as transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation times, cross relaxation rates, and residual dipolar coupling constants provide excellent probes of changes crosslink density and motional dynamics of the polymers caused by multi-mechanism degradation. The results of NMR studies on aged siloxanes are being used in conjunction with other mechanical tests to provide insight into component failure and degradation kinetics necessary for preliminary lifetime assessments of these materials as well as into the structure-property relationships of the polymers. NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results obtained both from high resolution NMR spectrometers as well as low resolution benchtop NMR screening tools will be presented.

  1. Child Survival Strategies: Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Rural Women of Reproductive Age in Cross River State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ofonime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Nigeria is one of the five countries that account for about 50% of under-five mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of child survival strategies among rural community caregivers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to obtain information from 150 women of reproductive age. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results. The child survival strategy known to most of the respondents was oral rehydration therapy as indicated by 98% followed by female education by 73.3% and immunization by 67.3%. Only 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of frequency of weighing a child while only 32.7% knew that breastfeeding should be continued even if the child had diarrhea. More respondents with nonformal education (83.3%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding of their last children compared to respondents with primary education (77.3%), secondary education (74.2%), and tertiary education (72.2%). Conclusion. Although respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge and practice of most of the strategies, there was evidence of gaps, including myths and misconceptions that could mar efforts towards reducing child morbidity and mortality in the state. PMID:27807452

  2. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: < 1 year, n = 8; group 2: 1-4 years, n = 13 and group 3: 5-15 years, n = 15). A reference group of healthy adults (21-38 years, n = 22) was included in their comparisons and reflected specific differences between children and adults. In muscle the concentrations of 8 out of 19 amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P < 0.05). In plasma the concentrations of threonine, glutamine, valine, cysteine, methionine, leucine, lysine, tryptophane, arginine, BCAA, BAA and the essential amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  3. Health Information Literacy and Competencies of Information Age Students: Results From the Interactive Online Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Irene; Casey, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Background In an era of easy access to information, university students who will soon enter health professions need to develop their information competencies. The Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA) is based on the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, and it measures proficiency in obtaining health information, evaluating the quality of health information, and understanding plagiarism. Objective This study aimed to measure the proficiency of college-age health information consumers in finding and evaluating electronic health information; to assess their ability to discriminate between peer-reviewed scholarly resources and opinion pieces or sales pitches; and to examine the extent to which they are aware of their level of health information competency. Methods An interactive 56-item online assessment, the Research Readiness Self-Assessment (RRSA), was used to measure the health information competencies of university students. We invited 400 students to take part in the study, and 308 participated, giving a response rate of 77%. The RRSA included multiple-choice questions and problem-based exercises. Declarative and procedural knowledge were assessed in three domains: finding health information, evaluating health information, and understanding plagiarism. Actual performance was contrasted with self-reported skill level. Upon answering all questions, students received a results page that summarized their numerical results and displayed individually tailored feedback composed by an experienced librarian. Results Even though most students (89%) understood that a one-keyword search is likely to return too many documents, few students were able to narrow a search by using multiple search categories simultaneously or by employing Boolean operators. In addition, nearly half of the respondents had trouble discriminating between primary and secondary sources of information as well as between references to journal articles and other published

  4. Gender Ratio in a Clinical Population Sample, Age of Diagnosis and Duration of Assessment in Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish…

  5. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be…

  6. Validation of fan beam dual energy x ray absorptiometry for body composition assessment in adults aged 18–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Norcross, J; Van Loan, M D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Pencil beam dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to provide valid estimates of body fat (%BF), but DXA fan beam technology has not been adequately tested to determine its validity. Objective: To compare %BF estimated from fan beam DXA with %BF determined using two and three compartment (2C, 3C) models. Methods: Men (n = 25) and women (n = 31), aged 18–41 years, participated in the study. Body density, from hydrostatic weighing, was used in the 2C estimate of %BF; DXA was used to determine bone mineral content (BMC) for the 3C estimate of %BF calculated using body density and BMC (3CBMC). DXA was also used to determine %BF. Analysis of variance was used to test for significant differences in %BF between sexes and among methods. Results: Women were significantly shorter, weighed less, had less fat free mass, and a higher %BF than men. No significant differences were found among methods (2C, 3CBMC, DXA) for determination of %BF in either sex. Although not significant, Bland-Altman plots showed that DXA gave higher values for %BF than the 2C and 3CBMC methods. Conclusion: DXA determination of %BF was not different from that of the 2C and 3CBMC models in this group of young adults. However, to validate fan beam DXA fully as a method for body composition assessment in a wide range of individuals and populations, comparisons are needed that use a 4C model with a measure of total body water and BMC. PMID:15273189

  7. Standardized medical age assessment of refugees with questionable minority claim-a summary of 591 case studies.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ernst; Kramer, Josef; Gebauer, Axel; Bednar, Alexander; Recsey, Zoltan; Zehetmayr, Jürgen; Bukal, Josef; Winkler, Ingomar

    2015-05-01

    In order to establish identity of asylum seekers, part of which is age clarification, administrative authorities are obliged to investigate the credibility of allegations based on the usual means of evidence to determine the applicable legal background. In case of serious doubts concerning age minority declaration, medical expert opinion builds the key proof bound by a complex framework consisting of EU regulations, domestic legal backgrounds and the scientific 'state of the art,' the latter being largely influenced by the pursuit of the German 'Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics.' Our application example demonstrates the exceptional value of its guidelines serving evidence-based understanding of the age issue in borderline adults within the asylum context. The results deriving from a substantial number of cases disclose an unequivocal inclination of age-disputed male refugees towards concluding somatic development despite a tendency of low lying age reports.

  8. Assessment of gestational age of the Asian fetus by the sonar measurement of crown-rump length and biparietal diameter.

    PubMed

    Parker, A J; Davies, P; Newton, J R

    1982-10-01

    Two populations of pregnant Asian and European women were scanned using linear array real-time ultrasound machines. Measurements were made of fetal crown-rump length (CRL) up to 14 weeks gestational age and of biparietal diameter (BPD) up to 20 weeks gestational age. Polynomial growth curves relating CRL and BPD measurements to their gestational ages were fitted to the data by the method of unweighted least squares. There were no significant differences between the Asian and European parameters for the CRL and BPD curves. European nomograms may be used to establish Asian fetal gestational age up to 20 weeks.

  9. School Age Effects of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program for Medically Low-Risk Preterm Infants: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Gloria; Duffy, Frank H.; Kosta, Sandra; Weisenfeld, Neil I.; Warfield, Simon K.; Butler, Samantha C.; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2012-01-01

    Background: By school-age, even low-risk moderately preterm-born children show more neuro-cognitive deficits, motor impairments, academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor social adaptation than full-term peers. Aim: To evaluate the outcomes at school-age for moderately preterm-born children (29-33 weeks gestational age), appropriate in growth for gestational age (AGA) and medically at low-risk, randomized to Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) or standard care in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit. At school-age, the experimental (E) group will show better neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function, as well as improved brain structure than the control (C) group. Materials and Methods: The original sample consisted of 30 moderately preterm-born infants (29 to 33 weeks), 23 (8C and 15E) of them were evaluated at 8 years of age, corrected-for-prematurity with neuropsychological, EEG spectral coherence, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) measures. Results: E-performed significantly better than C-group children on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) and trended towards better scores on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. They also showed more mature frontal and parietal brain connectivities, and more mature fiber tracts involving the internal capsule and the cingulum. Neurobehavioral results in the newborn period successfully predicted neuropsychological functioning at 8 years corrected age. Conclusion: Moderately preterm infants cared for with the NIDCAP intervention showed improved neuropsychological and neuro-electrophysiological function as well as improved brain structure at school-age. PMID:23951557

  10. Assessment of the impact of treatment on quality of life of patients with haemophilia A at different ages: insights from two clinical trials on turoctocog alfa.

    PubMed

    Santagostino, E; Lentz, S R; Busk, A K; Regnault, A; Iorio, A

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia and its treatment interfere with patients' life, so health-related quality of life (HRQoL) should be assessed when evaluating treatments. This study investigated the HRQoL of patients with haemophilia A treated prophylactically with a new recombinant factor VIII. Two phase 3 trials investigated turoctocog alfa in patients with severe haemophilia A: one in children, one in adults and adolescents. HRQoL was a secondary endpoint assessed by the HAEMO-QOL age-specific, self-administered questionnaires. Parent-completed versions were also included for parents of children and adolescents. All HAEMO-QOL questionnaires allow the calculation of domain-specific and total scores ranging from 0 to 100, lower scores indicating better HRQoL. Mean change in all scores was described for 25 children aged 4-7 years, 21 children aged 8-12 years, 18 adolescents aged 13-18 years and 129 adults, overall, and according to the treatment regimen received prior to the study (on-demand; prophylaxis; mixed). Mean changes in HAEMO-QOL total score were 1.4 for children aged 4-7 years, -2.6 for children aged 8-12 years, -5.8 for adolescents and -1.6 for adults. In parent-completed versions, mean changes in total score were -6.0 for children aged 4-7 years, -4.7 for children aged 8-12 years, and -10.0 for adolescents. Patients receiving on-demand treatment before the trial showed greater improvement in HRQoL scores than patients already on prophylaxis. HRQoL of patients remained fairly stable over the course of the trials. However, improvements were observed for adolescents. Switching to prophylaxis was identified as a potential driver of improvement of HRQoL in patients with haemophilia A.

  11. Correlations among central serotonergic parameters and age-related emotional and cognitive changes assessed through the elevated T-maze and the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana; Graeff, Frederico G; Pereira, Silvia R C; Oliveira-Silva, Ieda F; Franco, Glaura C; Ribeiro, Angela Maria

    2010-06-01

    Emotion and spatial cognitive aspects were assessed in adult and middle-aged rats using the elevated T-maze (ETM) and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Both adult and middle-aged rats were able to acquire inhibitory avoidance behaviour, though the middle-aged subjects showed larger latencies along the trials, including the baseline, which was significantly longer than that showed by adult rats. Further, compared to adult rats, middle-aged rats had longer escape latency. In spite of the worse performance in the second session of the spatial cognitive task, the middle-aged rats were able to learn the task and remember the information along the whole probe trial test. Both thalamic serotonin (5-HT) concentration and amygdala serotonergic activity (5-HIAA/5-HT) are significantly correlated, respectively, to escape latency and behavioural extinction in the MWM only for middle-aged rats. A significant correlation between the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the amygdala and behavioural extinction for middle-aged, but not for adult, rats was observed. This result suggests that serotonergic activity in the amygdala may regulate behavioural flexibility in aged animals. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between hippocampal 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio and the path length at the second training session of the MWM task, although only for adult subjects. This was the only session where a significant difference between the performance of middle-aged and adult rats has occurred. Although the involvement of the hippocampus in learning and memory is well established, the present work shows, for the first time, a correlation between a serotonergic hippocampal parameter and performance of a spatial task, which is lost with ageing.

  12. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages. PMID:26874435

  13. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages.

  14. Assessment of the radiographic visibility of the periodontal ligament in the lower third molars for the purpose of forensic age estimation in living individuals.

    PubMed

    Olze, Andreas; Solheim, Tore; Schulz, Ronald; Kupfer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The main criterion for dental age estimation in living individuals is the mineralisation of third molars. However, the mineralisation of third molars can be completed before the forensically relevant age of 18 years has been attained. In a material of 1,198 orthopantomograms from 629 females and 569 males aged between 15 and 40 years, the radiographic visibility of the periodontal membrane of fully mineralised third molars was assessed according to stages 0, 1, 2 and 3. Stage 0 first appeared at the age of 17.2 years in females and at the age of 17.6 years in males. Stage 1 was first achieved by females between 18.9 and 20.0 years and by males between 20.1 and 20.2 years. The earliest appearance of stage 2 was between 22.5 and 23.1 years in females and at 22.3 years in males. The occurrence of stage 3 was first found between 24.6 and 25.2 years in females and between 25.4 and 26.2 years in males. If stage 1 is determined, it is, therefore, possible to prove that an individual has already attained the legally relevant age of 18 years. For stages 2 and 3, it can be stated beyond reasonable doubt that a person is over 21 years of age.

  15. [Biological Age as a Method for Systematic Assessment of Ontogenetic Changes in the State of an Organism].

    PubMed

    Dontsov, V I; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a common feature of living and nonliving systems as a disturbance of the structure of the system accumulating with age. The only cause of aging of a living system, which is capable of renewal, is the insufficiency of renewal. The latter manifests itself as two global mechanisms of aging: the genetically determined nonrenewal of a number of structures that can only die with age (stochastic aging) and the regulatory reduction in the rate of self-renewal of living structures. The regulatory reduction in cellular self-renewal (cell growth and division) is most important. At the same chronological age, the degree of aging of the organism in general, as well as individual organs, cells, and systems of the organism, may be different, reflecting the concept of biological age (BA)--an indicator of the level of development, changes, or deterioration of a structure or function of an element of the organism, a functional system, or the organism as a whole. It is expressed in units oftime by relating the values of biomarkers defining the processes of aging with the standard average statistical dependences of changes in these biomarkers with the chronological age. The concept of BA is directly related to the concept of viability of the organism, which is determined by the sum (integral) of viabilities of its parts (in practice, the residual functional resource). For quantitative characterization of aging in general, the index of integrated biological age is used. To give a detailed characterization, the partial biological ages are used, which reflect the aging of different systems of the organism, as well as a number of indices reflecting its functional and psychological possibilities. The contribution of pathological processes to BA is also taken into account. In addition, the amount of retained adaptive reserves in the physical and nervous and mental aspects, the risk factors, and the factors of longevity should be determined. For this purpose, it is necessary to take

  16. Association of Age at Menarche With Increasing Number of Fibroids in a Cohort of Women Who Underwent Standardized Ultrasound Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Baird, Donna D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche has been associated with several reproductive conditions, and frequencies differ by race. Racial disparities also impact fibroid risk. We comprehensively examined the relationship between age at menarche, fibroid characteristics, and race. Women were enrolled in Right From the Start (2001–2010), a multistate study that systematically screened for fibroids during very early pregnancy. Endovaginal ultrasounds were conducted, and fibroid presence, number, type, volume, and diameter were recorded according to standardized definitions. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for correlations within study site were used to estimate associations between age at menarche and fibroid status and to test for interactions with race. Of 5,023 participants, 11% had a fibroid. Seven percent underwent menarche before 11 years of age and 11% at 15 years or later. We did not observe interactions between age at menarche and race. A 1-year increase in age at menarche was inversely associated with fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.91). Early age at menarche had a similar positive association in individual analyses with fibroid size, type, and location but was stronger for multiple fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.83). Our findings confirm other reports of an association between age at menarche and fibroid development (regardless of characteristics), demonstrate no effect modification by race, and suggest a stronger association for women with multiple fibroids, possibly reflecting a stronger association for early-onset disease. PMID:23817917

  17. Association of age at menarche with increasing number of fibroids in a cohort of women who underwent standardized ultrasound assessment.

    PubMed

    Velez Edwards, Digna R; Baird, Donna D; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2013-08-01

    Age at menarche has been associated with several reproductive conditions, and frequencies differ by race. Racial disparities also impact fibroid risk. We comprehensively examined the relationship between age at menarche, fibroid characteristics, and race. Women were enrolled in Right From the Start (2001-2010), a multistate study that systematically screened for fibroids during very early pregnancy. Endovaginal ultrasounds were conducted, and fibroid presence, number, type, volume, and diameter were recorded according to standardized definitions. Generalized estimating equations adjusted for correlations within study site were used to estimate associations between age at menarche and fibroid status and to test for interactions with race. Of 5,023 participants, 11% had a fibroid. Seven percent underwent menarche before 11 years of age and 11% at 15 years or later. We did not observe interactions between age at menarche and race. A 1-year increase in age at menarche was inversely associated with fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.91). Early age at menarche had a similar positive association in individual analyses with fibroid size, type, and location but was stronger for multiple fibroids (adjusted risk ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.83). Our findings confirm other reports of an association between age at menarche and fibroid development (regardless of characteristics), demonstrate no effect modification by race, and suggest a stronger association for women with multiple fibroids, possibly reflecting a stronger association for early-onset disease. PMID:23817917

  18. Persistence of Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis: Assessment of a Low-Birth-Weight Cohort at Ages 2, 6, and 9 Years.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Steven J; Feldman, Judith F; Lorenz, John M; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Whitaker, Agnes H; Paneth, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    We examined the stability of nondisabling and disabling cerebral palsy at age 2 in a longitudinally followed tri-county low-birth-weight (<2000 g) birth cohort. A total of 1105 newborns were enrolled, 901 (81.5%) survived to age 2, and 86% (n = 777) were followed up. Of the 113 cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2, 61 (9% of the cohort, n = 61/777) had disabling cerebral palsy and 52 (7%, n = 52/777) had nondisabling cerebral palsy. Of 48 followed children diagnosed with disabling cerebral palsy at age 2, 98% were again classified as having cerebral palsy at school age, and 1 had an uncertain cerebral palsy status. By contrast, 41% (n = 17) of the 43 children diagnosed with nondisabling cerebral palsy at age 2 were classified as not having cerebral palsy. Of the 517 followed children who were not diagnosed with cerebral palsy at age 2, 7% (n = 35) were classified as having late emerging nondisabling cerebral palsy at school age.

  19. Overview of U.S. EPA Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program - Interfacing with the Water Industry on Technology Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research program. An overview of the national problems posed by aging water infrastructure is followed by a brief description of EPA’s overall r...

  20. Assessing Defense Structure in School-Age Children Using the Response Evaluation Measure-71-Youth Version (REM-Y-71)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Katy B.; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and…

  1. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  2. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  3. A comparative evaluation of the reliability of three methods of assessing gingival biotype in dentate subjects in different age groups: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Patel, Jayanti R.; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Patel, Ravi; Arora, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the modern competitive society, a pleasing appearance often dictates the difference between success and failure in both our personal and professional lives. Evaluation of gingival biotype is very important from the start of treatment plan to the final restorative placement to provide excellent esthetics. Materials and Methodology: For the study, subjects were divided into 4 groups of different ages, from 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) were selected in each group for the study. Examination of the thickness of Gingival Biotype was done in 3 different ways; - Direct visual, William's Graduated Probe and Using modified wax caliper. Results: The McNemar test showed statistically significant differences in the way gingival biotype was identified when comparing visual assessment with assessment using direct measurement (P < 0.001). And there was no statistically significant difference when assessment using a periodontal probe was compared to direct measurement (P < 0.676). There is no correlation for the Biotype among the different age groups. Conclusion: Gingival biotype identification by visual assessment is statistically significantly different from assessment with direct measurement. Gingival biotype identification by assessment with a periodontal probe is not statistically significantly different from direct measurement. PMID:26929533

  4. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Chelette, A.R.; Pratt, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO3 values (1.7-13.8???) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (??15N-NO3=5.3-8.9???) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index, and phosphate in springs and deep water (>45 m) relative to a shallow zone (<45 m) were associated with longer ground-water transit times (50-90 years). Chemical differences with depth in the aquifer result from deep regional flow of water recharged through low permeability sediments (clays and clayey sands of the Hawthorn Formation) that overlie the UFA

  5. Use of chemical and isotopic tracers to assess nitrate contamination and ground-water age, Woodville Karst Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Chelette, Angela R.; Pratt, Thomas R.

    2004-04-01

    Concerns regarding ground-water contamination in the Woodville Karst Plain have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations (0.25-0.90 mg/l) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a large regional discharge point for water (9.6 m 3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple isotopic and chemical tracers were used with geochemical and lumped-parameter models (exponential mixing (EM), dispersion, and combined exponential piston flow) to assess: (1) the sources and extent of nitrate contamination of ground water and springs, and (2) mean transit times (ages) of ground water. Delta 15N-NO 3 values (1.7-13.8‰) indicated that nitrate in ground water originated from localized sources of inorganic fertilizer and human/animal wastes. Nitrate in spring waters (δ 15N-NO 3=5.3-8.9‰) originated from both inorganic and organic N sources. Nitrate-N concentrations (<0.02-16 mg/l) were highly variable both spatially and vertically in the oxic UFA, based on water samples from 46 wells and four springs collected from 1997 to 2000. During high-flow conditions, spring waters had decreased nitrate and increased DOC concentrations that resulted from mixtures of 20-95% surface water. Although higher nitrate-N concentrations (>1.0 mg/l) were associated with shallow wells (open intervals less than 15 m below land surface), elevated nitrate concentrations in deeper wells are consistent with mixtures of water from shallow and deep zones in the UFA as indicated from geochemical mixing models and the distribution of mean transit times (5-90 years) estimated using lumped-parameter flow models. Ground water with mean transit times of 10 years or less tended to have higher dissolved organic carbon concentrations, lower dissolved solids, and lower calcite saturation indices than older waters, indicating mixing with nearby surface water that directly recharges the aquifer through sinkholes. Significantly higher values of pH, magnesium, dolomite saturation index

  6. Aging, Maturation and Growth of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from Growth Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Griebeler, Eva Maria; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Information on aging, maturation, and growth is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological growth record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct growth models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and maximum growth rates from the growth record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp.) and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti). Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. Growth models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM), all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is reached to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha reached full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar maximum growth rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but growth rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average mammals, but

  7. Assessment of structural connectivity in the preterm brain at term equivalent age using diffusion MRI and T2 relaxometry: a network-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Pannek, Kerstin; Hatzigeorgiou, Xanthy; Colditz, Paul B; Rose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with a high prevalence of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Non-invasive techniques which can probe the neural correlates underpinning these deficits are required. This can be achieved by measuring the structural network of connections within the preterm infant's brain using diffusion MRI and tractography. We used diffusion MRI and T2 relaxometry to identify connections with altered white matter properties in preterm infants compared to term infants. Diffusion and T2 data were obtained from 9 term neonates and 18 preterm-born infants (born <32 weeks gestational age) at term equivalent age. Probabilistic tractography incorporating multiple fibre orientations was used in combination with the Johns Hopkins neonatal brain atlas to calculate the structural network of connections. Connections of altered diffusivity or T2, as well as their relationship with gestational age at birth and postmenstrual age at the time of MRI, were identified using the network based statistic framework. A total of 433 connections were assessed. FA was significantly reduced in 17, and T2 significantly increased in 18 connections in preterm infants, following correction for multiple comparisons. Cortical networks associated with affected connections mainly involved left frontal and temporal cortical areas: regions which are associated with working memory, verbal comprehension and higher cognitive function--deficits which are often observed later in children and adults born preterm. Gestational age at birth correlated with T2, but not diffusion in several connections. We found no association between diffusion or T2 and postmenstrual age at the time of MRI in preterm infants. This study demonstrates that alterations in the structural network of connections can be identified in preterm infants at term equivalent age, and that incorporation of non-diffusion measures such as T2 in the connectome framework provides complementary information for the assessment of brain

  8. Assessment of Structural Connectivity in the Preterm Brain at Term Equivalent Age Using Diffusion MRI and T2 Relaxometry: A Network-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pannek, Kerstin; Hatzigeorgiou, Xanthy; Colditz, Paul B.; Rose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with a high prevalence of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Non-invasive techniques which can probe the neural correlates underpinning these deficits are required. This can be achieved by measuring the structural network of connections within the preterm infant's brain using diffusion MRI and tractography. We used diffusion MRI and T2 relaxometry to identify connections with altered white matter properties in preterm infants compared to term infants. Diffusion and T2 data were obtained from 9 term neonates and 18 preterm-born infants (born <32 weeks gestational age) at term equivalent age. Probabilistic tractography incorporating multiple fibre orientations was used in combination with the Johns Hopkins neonatal brain atlas to calculate the structural network of connections. Connections of altered diffusivity or T2, as well as their relationship with gestational age at birth and postmenstrual age at the time of MRI, were identified using the network based statistic framework. A total of 433 connections were assessed. FA was significantly reduced in 17, and T2 significantly increased in 18 connections in preterm infants, following correction for multiple comparisons. Cortical networks associated with affected connections mainly involved left frontal and temporal cortical areas: regions which are associated with working memory, verbal comprehension and higher cognitive function – deficits which are often observed later in children and adults born preterm. Gestational age at birth correlated with T2, but not diffusion in several connections. We found no association between diffusion or T2 and postmenstrual age at the time of MRI in preterm infants. This study demonstrates that alterations in the structural network of connections can be identified in preterm infants at term equivalent age, and that incorporation of non-diffusion measures such as T2 in the connectome framework provides complementary information for the assessment of brain

  9. Assessment of Age-Related Morphometric Changes of Subcortical Structures in Healthy People Using Ultra-High Field 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Liang; Ni, Duan-Yu; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the age-related morphometric changes of subcortical structures in healthy people. Materials and Methods: Ultra-high field 7 tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in humans was used to visualize the subcortical structures of healthy young, middle-aged and elderly participants. Using the magnetization-prepared two rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) sequence, we assessed the visibility of the margins of the thalamus and white matter in the thalamus, as well as the anterior commissure (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) length, the maximal height of the thalamus, the half width of the third ventricle and the distance between the AC and the center of the mammillothalamic tract (MTT) at the level of the AC-PC plane. All quantitative data were statistically evaluated. Results: The AC-PC length did not differ significantly among the three groups. The maximal height of the thalamus decreased with age (rs(53) = −0.719, p < 0.001). The half width of the third ventricle (rs(53) = 0.705, p < 0.001) and the distance between the AC and the center of the MTT (rs(53) = 0.485, p < 0.001) increased with age. The distance between the AC and the center of the MTT of the young and the elderly participants differed significantly (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The AC-PC length is not a good candidate for proportional correction during atlas-to-patient registration. The maximal height of the thalamus and the half width of the third ventricle correlated strongly with age, and the MTT position in relation to the AC shifted posteriorly as age increased. These age-related morphometric changes of subcortical structures should be considered in targeting for functional neurosurgery. PMID:27725800

  10. Comparative Assessment of Health Benefits of Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Gwisai, Reggis; Mduluza, Takafira; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Mutapi, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Africa. However, it is only recently that its burden has become recognised as a significant component impacting on the health and development of preschool-aged children. A longitudinal study was conducted in Zimbabwean children to determine the effect of single praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity markers: microhaematuria, proteinuria, and albuminuria. Changes in these indicators were compared in 1–5 years versus 6–10 years age groups to determine if treatment outcomes differed by age. Praziquantel was efficacious at reducing infection 12 weeks after treatment: cure rate = 94.6% (95% CI: 87.9–97.7%). Infection rates remained lower at 12 months after treatment compared to baseline in both age groups. Among treated children, the odds of morbidity at 12 weeks were significantly lower compared to baseline for proteinuria: odds ratio (OR) = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31–0.95) and albuminuria: OR = 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02–0.14). Microhaematuria significantly reduced 12 months after treatment, and the effect of treatment did not differ by age group: OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50–1.87). In conclusion, praziquantel treatment has health benefits in preschool-aged children exposed to S. haematobium and its efficacy on infection and morbidity is not age-dependent.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Health Benefits of Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Gwisai, Reggis; Mduluza, Takafira; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Mutapi, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Africa. However, it is only recently that its burden has become recognised as a significant component impacting on the health and development of preschool-aged children. A longitudinal study was conducted in Zimbabwean children to determine the effect of single praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity markers: microhaematuria, proteinuria, and albuminuria. Changes in these indicators were compared in 1–5 years versus 6–10 years age groups to determine if treatment outcomes differed by age. Praziquantel was efficacious at reducing infection 12 weeks after treatment: cure rate = 94.6% (95% CI: 87.9–97.7%). Infection rates remained lower at 12 months after treatment compared to baseline in both age groups. Among treated children, the odds of morbidity at 12 weeks were significantly lower compared to baseline for proteinuria: odds ratio (OR) = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31–0.95) and albuminuria: OR = 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02–0.14). Microhaematuria significantly reduced 12 months after treatment, and the effect of treatment did not differ by age group: OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50–1.87). In conclusion, praziquantel treatment has health benefits in preschool-aged children exposed to S. haematobium and its efficacy on infection and morbidity is not age-dependent. PMID:27631011

  12. Comparative Assessment of Health Benefits of Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Wami, Welcome M; Nausch, Norman; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwisai, Reggis; Mduluza, Takafira; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Mutapi, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Africa. However, it is only recently that its burden has become recognised as a significant component impacting on the health and development of preschool-aged children. A longitudinal study was conducted in Zimbabwean children to determine the effect of single praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity markers: microhaematuria, proteinuria, and albuminuria. Changes in these indicators were compared in 1-5 years versus 6-10 years age groups to determine if treatment outcomes differed by age. Praziquantel was efficacious at reducing infection 12 weeks after treatment: cure rate = 94.6% (95% CI: 87.9-97.7%). Infection rates remained lower at 12 months after treatment compared to baseline in both age groups. Among treated children, the odds of morbidity at 12 weeks were significantly lower compared to baseline for proteinuria: odds ratio (OR) = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31-0.95) and albuminuria: OR = 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02-0.14). Microhaematuria significantly reduced 12 months after treatment, and the effect of treatment did not differ by age group: OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50-1.87). In conclusion, praziquantel treatment has health benefits in preschool-aged children exposed to S. haematobium and its efficacy on infection and morbidity is not age-dependent. PMID:27631011

  13. A comparison of fresh, pasta filata, and aged Hispanic cheeses using sensory, chemical, functional, and microbiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Maroto, L A; Lopez-Hernandez, A; Borneman, D L; Rankin, S A

    2016-04-01

    Anecdotal information suggests that some Hispanic consumers may consider US-made Hispanic cheeses as having a general lack of authenticity compared with those made in their countries of origin. To characterize the potential differences, samples of fresh, pasta filata, and aged Hispanic cheeses were acquired from both the United States (total n=39) and countries of origin (total n=30) purchased from Mexico, Central America (Costa Rica and El Salvador), and the Caribbean (Puerto Rico). The proximate composition, microbial counts, melt profile, and sensory characteristics were evaluated and compared in country-of-origin cheeses and the US-made counterparts. The presence of Listeria spp. was confirmed for 1 Mexican aged cheese sample and 6 cheese samples from Central America (3 fresh, 2 pasta filata, and 1 aged). The chemical composition, melt profile, and sensory characteristics of fresh and pasta filata US Hispanic cheeses were not significantly different from their Mexican counterparts. Likewise, the chemical composition and melt profile of US aged Hispanic cheeses was not significantly different from the aged Mexican cheeses, but sensory characteristics varied among all aged cheeses. These results demonstrate the similarities and differences among US fresh, pasta filata, and aged Hispanic cheeses relative to their counterparts made in the countries of origin. PMID:26830733

  14. [Quantity and quality of the aged population in Japan: the use of life tables for the assessment of group vitality].

    PubMed

    Soda, T

    1980-01-01

    Due to the gradual increase in standard of living and the development of health and welfare services, man has succeeded in decreasing the death rate for all age groups with the consequent prolongation of the lifespan as a whole. On the other hand, however, the quantitative accumulation of the elderly is causing serious anxiety among all groups of people. Thus, concern about care for the aged is very high. The author is not quite so pessimistic but it is expected that there will be a qualitative improvement in the productive activities of the elderly along with an increased lifespan. Though there is not yet sufficient data to confirm improvement in the physical and mental activities of this segment of Japanese population, there are life table functions related to life expectancy, increase of mortality rate, etc. as qualitative indicators of survival or productive ability for the aged. In Japan prior to World War 2, people between 15-60 were usually regarded as the productive age population. Life expectancy of males at age 60 was 12.6 years in the 6th life tables compiled for 1935-6. The same phenomenon of prolongation of the productive age period was also recognized in connection with other values. If the borderline age dividing productive and nonproductive elderly populations will move toward a higher age in the future, the proportion of nonproductive elderly as a percentage of the total as well as of the productive population will decrease markedly as compared to when the elderly borderline is fixed at the same age. It is advised that new ways be found to allocate the expanded labor force found among this group for providing some necessary services and functions. (author's modified)

  15. Assessment of a ground water flow model of the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, using carbon-14-based ages and paleohydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Buapeng, S.

    1996-01-01

    A study was undertaken to understand the groundwater flow conditions in the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, by comparing 14C-based and simulated groundwater ages. 14C measurements were made on about 50 water samples taken from wells throughout the basin. Simulated ages were obtained using 1) backward-pathline tracking based on the well locations, and 2) results from a three-dimensional groundwater flow model. Comparisons of ages at these locations reveal a large difference between 14C-based ages and ages predicted by the steady-state groundwater flow model. Mainly, 14C and 13C analyses indicate that groundwater in the Bangkok area is about 20,000 years old, whereas steady-state flow and transport simulations imply that groundwater in the Bangkok area is 50,000-100,000 years old. One potential reason for the discrepancy between simulated and 14C-based ages is the assumption in the model of steady-state flow. Groundwater velocities were probably greater in the region before about 10,000 years ago, during the last glacial maximum, because of the lower position of sea level and the absence of the surficial Bangkok Clay. Paleoflow conditions were estimated and then incorporated into a second set of simulations. The new assumption was that current steady-state flow conditions existed for the last 8,000 years but were preceded by steady-state conditions representative of flow during the last glacial maximum. This "transient" paleohydrologic simulation yielded a mean simulated age that more closely agrees with the mean 14C-based age, especially if the 14C-based age is corrected for diffusion into clay layers. Although the uncertainties in both the simulated and 14C-based ages are nontrivial, the magnitude of the improved match in the mean age using a paleohydrologic simulation instead of a steady-state simulation suggests that flow conditions in the basin have changed significantly over the last 10,000-20,000 years. Given that the valid age range of 14C-dating methods and the

  16. Assessment of Cable Aging Equipment, Status of Acquired Materials, and Experimental Matrix at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zwoster, Andy; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2015-03-30

    The need for increased understanding of the aging and degradation behavior for polymer components of nuclear power plant electrical cables is described in this report. The highest priority materials for study and the resources available at PNNL for these studies are also described. The anticipated outcomes of the PNNL work described are : improved understanding of appropriate accelerated aging conditions, improved knowledge of correlation between observable aging indicators and cable condition in support of advanced non-destructive evaluation methods, and practical knowledge of condition-based cable lifetime prediction.

  17. The Comparison of School-Age Children's Performance on Two Motor Assessments: The Test of Gross Motor Development and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Morera, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Competence in the motor domain is associated with positive, health-related outcomes. Physical education teachers often administer assessments into their programs to measure motor competence for a variety of reasons. Recently, researchers have questioned the relatedness of performance on different assessments. Purpose: The purpose of…

  18. The movement assessment battery in Greek preschoolers: the impact of age, gender, birth order, and physical activity on motor outcome.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of differences in motor performance with regards to age, gender, participation in sports and order of birth in the family. Performance profiles on the movement ABC were used to classify 412 Greek children aged 4-6 years old. It appears from the results that the occurrence rate of probable developmental coordination disorders (DCD) was 5.4%. Significant differences were observed in all independent variables except the order of birth in the family. The findings reinforce the need for the evaluation of motor performance in preschool-aged children, in order specific individual motor profiles to be established for optimizing and adapting early intervention programs.

  19. Assessment of age-related changes in heritability and IGF-1 gene effect on circulating IGF-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Franco, Liran; Williams, Frances M K; Trofimov, Svetlana; Malkin, Ida; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Spector, Timothy; Livshits, Gregory

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) circulating levels correlate with age and that heritability and influence of IGF-1 gene variation on IGF-1 levels also well-known. However, the influence of age on the genetic factors determining IGF-1 levels is not clear. In this study, we compared heritability estimates between younger (<52 years) and older (>52 years) twins and tested: (a) whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lying within 100 kbp of the IGF-1 gene are also associated with IGF-1 variation and (b) whether associated SNPs show interaction with age on IGF-1 levels. To achieve these aims, we measured plasma levels of IGF-1 and genotyped 18 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.1 in a large sample, 4,471 UK female twins. Heritability explained 42 % of IGF-1 variation adjusted for age and in unadjusted sample was independent of age. Ten SNPs in four haploblocks showed significant association with IGF-1 levels, with p = 0.01-0.0005. The most distal SNP was located up to 90 kbp from the IGF-1 gene. When their age-dependent effects were examined, one SNP, rs855203, showed significant (p = 0.0009) age-dependent interaction effect on IGF-1 levels variation. This is the first study to test the age × genotype interaction in IGF-1 levels. The genomic region marked by rs855203 may consequently be of significance for further molecular and pharmacogenetic research, in particular in advanced age. PMID:24493200

  20. The relationship between paternal age, sex ratios, and aneuploidy frequencies in human sperm, as assessed by multicolor FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.; Spriggs, E. |; Ko, E.

    1995-12-01

    We studied the frequencies of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm, diploidy and disomy for chromosomes 1, 12, X, and Y in sperm from 10 normal men aged 21 - 52 years, to determine whether there was any relationship between donor age and any of these variables. Multicolor FISH was used to control for lack of probe hybridization and to distinguish diploid sperm from disomic sperm. A minimum of 10,000 sperm per donor was evaluated for each chromosome, for a total of 225,846 sperm studied. Sperm were considered disomic if two fluorescent signals were separated by a minimal distance of one signal domain. The mean frequencies of X- and Y-bearing sperm were 50.1% and 49.0%, respectively; not significantly different from 50%. There was no correlation between paternal age and {open_quotes}sex ratio {close_quotes} in sperm. Similarly, there was no association between the frequency of diploid sperm (mean, .16%; range, .06%-.42%) and donor age. For disomy frequencies, there was no relationship between donor age and disomy 12 (mean, .16%; range, .10%-.25%), XX (mean, .07%; range, .03%-.17%), and XY sperm (mean, .16%; range, .08%-.24%). There was a significant increase in the frequency of YY sperm (P = .04; mean, .18%; range, .10%-.43%) and disomy 1 sperm (P = .01; mean, .11%; range, .05%-.18%) with donor age. In summary, our results do not support a correlation between paternal age and sex ratio or diploidy. A relationship between paternal age and disomy was observed for disomy 1 and YY sperm but not for disomy 12, XX or XY sperm. 37 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Dental age assessment of adolescents and emerging adults in United Kingdom Caucasians using censored data for stage H of third molar roots.

    PubMed

    Boonpitaksathit, Teelana; Hunt, Nigel; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Lucas, Victoria S

    2011-10-01

    The root of the third permanent molar is the only dental structure that continues development after completion of growth of the second permanent molar. It is claimed that the lack of a clearly defined end point for completion of growth of the third permanent molar means that this tooth cannot be used for dental age assessment. The aim of this study was to estimate the mean age of attainment of the four stages (E, F, G, and H) of root development of the third molar. The way in which the end point of completion of stage H can be identified is described. A total of 1223 dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) available in the archives of the Eastman Dental Hospital, London, were used for this study. The ages of the subjects ranged from 12.6 to 24.9 years with 63 per cent of the sample being female. Demirjan's tooth development stages (TDSs), for the first and second molars, were applied to the third molars by a single examiner. For each of stages E, F, and G and for stage H censored data, the mean ages of the males and females were compared, separately within each tooth morphology type using the two sample t-test (P < 0.01). The same test was used to compare the mean ages of the upper and lower third molars on each side, separately for each gender. The mean age of attainment and the 99 per cent confidence interval (CI) for each TDS were calculated for each third molar. The final stage H data were appropriately censored to exclude data above the age of completion of root growth. The results showed that, for each gender, the age in years at which individuals attained each of the four TDSs was approximately normally distributed. The mean age for appropriately censored data was always lower than the corresponding mean age of the inappropriately censored data for stage H (male UR8 19.57, UL8 19.53, LL8 19.91, and LR8 20.02 and female UR8 20.08, UL8 20.13, LL8 20.78, and LR8 20.70). This inappropriately censored data overestimated the mean age for stage H. The appropriately

  2. Magnetic field shimming of a permanent magnet using a combination of pieces of permanent magnets and a single-channel shim coil for skeletal age assessment of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Y.; Kono, S.; Ishizawa, K.; Inamura, S.; Uchiumi, T.; Tamada, D.; Kose, K.

    2013-05-01

    We adopted a combination of pieces of permanent magnets and a single-channel (SC) shim coil to shim the magnetic field in a magnetic resonance imaging system dedicated for skeletal age assessment of children. The target magnet was a 0.3-T open and compact permanent magnet tailored to the hand imaging of young children. The homogeneity of the magnetic field was first improved by shimming using pieces of permanent magnets. The residual local inhomogeneity was then compensated for by shimming using the SC shim coil. The effectiveness of the shimming was measured by imaging the left hands of human subjects and evaluating the image quality. The magnetic resonance images for the child subject clearly visualized anatomical structures of all bones necessary for skeletal age assessment, demonstrating the usefulness of combined shimming.

  3. Magnetic field shimming of a permanent magnet using a combination of pieces of permanent magnets and a single-channel shim coil for skeletal age assessment of children.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Kono, S; Ishizawa, K; Inamura, S; Uchiumi, T; Tamada, D; Kose, K

    2013-05-01

    We adopted a combination of pieces of permanent magnets and a single-channel (SC) shim coil to shim the magnetic field in a magnetic resonance imaging system dedicated for skeletal age assessment of children. The target magnet was a 0.3-T open and compact permanent magnet tailored to the hand imaging of young children. The homogeneity of the magnetic field was first improved by shimming using pieces of permanent magnets. The residual local inhomogeneity was then compensated for by shimming using the SC shim coil. The effectiveness of the shimming was measured by imaging the left hands of human subjects and evaluating the image quality. The magnetic resonance images for the child subject clearly visualized anatomical structures of all bones necessary for skeletal age assessment, demonstrating the usefulness of combined shimming.

  4. Longitudinal Assessment of Cognitive and Psychosocial Functioning After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Exploring Disaster Impact on Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Marks, Loren D; Galea, Sandro; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2011-12-01

    The authors examined the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR) on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in a lifespan sample of adults 6 to 14 months after the storms. Participants were recruited from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Most were assessed during the immediate impact period and retested for this study. Analyses of pre-and post-disaster cognitive data confirmed that storm-related decrements in working memory for middle-aged and older adults observed in the immediate impact period had returned to pre-hurricane levels in the post-disaster recovery period. Middle-aged adults reported more storm-related stressors and greater levels of stress than the two older groups at both waves of testing. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions.

  5. Biodex Fall Risk Assessment in the Elderly With Ataxia: A New Age-Dependent Derived Index in Rehabilitation: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at "risk of fall."This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1).FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation.Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1-1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1-1 patients as neurological, "very old" (86% in age-group 75-84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months' follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores.The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher risk of fall, in whom health

  6. Stratigraphy of small shield volcanoes on Venus: Criteria for determining stratigraphic relationships and assessment of relative age and temporal abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2004-10-01

    Small volcanic edifices, shields with a diameter less than about 20 km, are common and sometimes very abundant features on the plains of Venus. Typically, they form tight or loose clusters of features known as shield fields. Small shields are interpreted to be formed due to small-scale eruptions through numerous and distinct sources, a mode of formation apparently significantly different from the mechanism thought to be responsible for the emplacement of the vast regional plains of Venus. Did the eruption style of small shields occur repeatedly throughout the visible part of the geologic record of Venus? Or was this style more concentrated in a specific epoch or epochs of geologic history? Do the clusters of shields represent localized development of sources over a thermal anomaly such as a plume, or do they represent exposures or kipukas of a more regional unit or units? A major step toward answering these questions is an understanding of small shield stratigraphy. Multiple criteria have been developed to assess the stratigraphic relationships of individual small shields and that of shield fields with the adjacent units. In our analysis, we expanded and developed the previous criteria and added detailed criteria to describe specific patterns of deformation within shield fields, cross-cutting, and embayment relationships between shield fields and surrounding units. We also used secondary characteristics of shield fields such as radar albedo difference, changes in shield density and size, etc. In our study, we applied these criteria and analyzed in detail stratigraphic relationships of shield fields in a random sample of features (64 fields) and in the global geotraverse along 30°N (77 fields). The total number of analyzed shield fields (141) represents about 22% of the general population of these features catalogued by Crumpler and Aubele [2000]. The majority of the fields (98, or ~69%) predate emplacement of material of vast regional plains with wrinkle ridges

  7. An Assessment of the Consumption of Energy and Selected Minerals and Their Content in the Hair of Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    PubMed

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Wójciak, Rafał Wojciech; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Stanisławska-Kubiak, Maia

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the consumption of energy and selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu) and their content in the hair of children aged 1-4 years. Seventy-five children were divided into three age subgroups: 12-24-month-olds, 25-36-month-olds and 37-48-month-olds. The data on energy intake and consumption of nutrients were obtained by means of a nutritional interview. The content of elements in the hair was measured by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with an AAS-3 spectrophotometer (Zeiss). The daily food rations of children aged 12-36 months were characterised by adequate energy value, but the values of Ca and K were too low, whereas the content of Mg, Zn and Cu was high. On the other hand, the daily food rations of children aged 37-48 months provided sufficient amounts of Mg and Zn, but the value of Cu was too high, whereas energy, Ca, K and Fe were too low. About 42.7% of the children under study were characterised by an abnormal state of nutrition. An inadequately balanced diet needs to be corrected by educating parents or guardians in appropriate nutrition. There are significant correlations (r > 0.9) between the supply of Ca in the diet of children aged 1-4 years and the content of this element in their hair.

  8. The canine model of human cognitive aging and dementia: pharmacological validity of the model for assessment of human cognitive-enhancing drugs.

    PubMed

    Studzinski, Christa M; Araujo, Joseph A; Milgram, Norton W

    2005-03-01

    For the past 15 years we have investigated the aged beagle dog as a model for human aging and dementia. We have shown that dogs develop cognitive deficits and neuropathology seen in human aging and dementia. These similarities increase the likelihood that the model will be able to accurately predict the efficacy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatments as well as detect therapeutics with limited or no efficacy. Better predictive validity of cognitive-enhancing therapeutics (CETs) could lead to enormous cost savings by reducing the number of failed human clinical trials and also may reduce the likelihood of negative outcomes such as those recently observed in the AN-1792 clinical trials. The current review assesses the pharmacological validity of the canine model of human aging and dementia. We tested the efficacy of (1) CP-118,954 and phenserine, two acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, (2) an ampakine, (3) selegiline hydrochloride, two drugs that have failed human AD trials, and (4) adrafinil, a putative CET. Our research demonstrates that dogs not only develop isomorphic changes in human cognition and brain pathology, but also accurately predict the efficacy of known AD treatments and the absence or limited efficacy of treatments that failed clinical trials. These findings collectively support the utilization of the dog model as a preclinical screen for identifying novel CETs for both age-associated memory disorder and dementia. PMID:15795058

  9. Reliability of Schmeling's stages of ossification of medial clavicular epiphyses and its validity to assess 18 years of age in living subjects.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; De Angelis, D; Merelli, V; Giuliodori, A; Cingolani, M; Cattaneo, C; Ferrante, L

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, due to the global increase in migration movements, forensic age estimation of living young adults has become an important focus of interest. Minors often have no identification documents providing their correct birth dates. Establishing the age of majority is therefore fundamental in order to determine whether juvenile penal systems or penal systems in force for adults are to be applied. Radiological examination of the clavicles is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. In this retrospective study, a sample of chest radiographs of 274 subjects, aged between 12 and 25 years, was studied according to Schmeling's method in order to examine the ossification of both medial clavicular epiphyses. All stage classifications were evaluated by five examiners. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was analysed by Cohen's K statistic. Intra-examiner agreement was insufficient for two of the experts. Inter-examiner agreement, among the other three operators, was moderate (K = 0.509). Study of reliability highlighted difficulties in interpretation, the need to select qualified personnel and choice of the best radiographic image in order to reduce any anatomic overlaps. Although ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses is recommended to assess whether an individual has already reached the age of majority or not, these results suggested that it is very difficult to clearly identify the five stages of ossification by using conventional chest radiography.

  10. The Deccan Trap - Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary connection; new 40Ar/39Ar ages and critical assessment of existing argon data pertinent to this hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Ajoy K.

    2014-04-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPgB) was dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method herein from the western interior of North America at 65.48 ± 0.12 Ma (1σ), in good agreement with other recent published estimates. For the Deccan Traps, India, new argon ages as well as others available in the literature, are assessed for reliability based on (a) statistical reliability of plateau/isochron sections and (b) freshness of material dated utilizing the alteration index method. From tholeiitic lavas from the Composite Western Ghats Section (CWGS), only six ages are found to be reliable estimates of the time of crystallization. These ages along with the magnetic polarity of the lavas agree with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) at ˜67-64 Ma. Alkaline rocks from the Anjar area of Kutch, provide three reliable ages that suggest a hiatus in lava extrusion around KPgB. For the Rajahmundry basalts, the upper flow's age defines its formation during chron 29n; a single age from the lower reversed polarity flow appears somewhat dichotomous when plotted against the GPTS. The reliable lava ages indicate the most voluminous (reversed polarity) sections of the CWGS were extruded at a time statistically indistinguishable from that of the KPgB. The Deccan Trap - KPgB faunal extinction hypothesis remains plausible, but must compete with the latest report, favoring a very close temporal connection (˜0.03 m.y.) between the Chixculub (Impact) Crater and the KPgB.

  11. Paradigm shift: implementing MEGA, a new tool proposed to define and assess sexually abusive dynamics in youth ages 19 and under.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A; Miccio-Fonseca, L C

    2007-01-01

    Previous definitions of sexually abusive behavior in children and adolescents were deficient in failing to (1) highlight salient neuropsychological elements and antisocial behaviors that may contribute to a youth's functioning; (2) discriminate among possible types of coercion (e.g., manipulation, threats, physical force, and use of weapons); and (3) include predatory elements of sexual abuse against strangers or casual acquaintances. This article discusses a new comprehensive assessment tool that assists in defining sexually abusive youth. This tool, the Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Children and Adolescents (Ages 19 and under) (MEGA; Miccio-Fonseca, 2006b), encompasses neuropsychological elements, coercive aspects, and predatory elements as essential factors to consider in comprehensive assessments of sexually abusive youth. PMID:17255078

  12. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  13. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  14. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  15. Catch-Up Growth Assessment in Long-Term Physically Neglected and Emotionally Abused Preschool Age Male Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivan, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study examined 20 neglected and emotionally abused boys (ages 30-42 months) who entered foster residential care and remained a year after initial placement. At placement, children showed a mild form of chronic malnutrition with growth failure. Growth failure was reversible after the first year of stay. (Contains references.)…

  16. Assessing the Acquisition of Incidental Information by Secondary-Age Students with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Response Prompting Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, David L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study, involving four secondary-age students with moderate to severe mental retardation, found that four response prompting conditions (progressive time delay and the system of least prompts, both with and without a descriptive consequent event) were effective in teaching reading of recipe words with similar efficiency and maintenance. (JDD)

  17. Internet Use by Transition-Aged Youths with Visual Impairments in the United States: Assessing the Impact of Postsecondary Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Youths and adults without disabilities have been increasing the regularity of their online connectivity at a rapid pace, as previous research has indicated. The study presented here examined the degree to which transition-aged youths with visual impairments have used the Internet and what outcomes they have achieved following their…

  18. Kidney function changes with aging in adults: comparison between cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses in renal function assessment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang M; Lee, David J; Hand, Austin; Young, Philip; Vaidyanathan, Jayabharathi; Sahajwalla, Chandrahas

    2015-12-01

    The study evaluated whether the renal function decline rate per year with age in adults varies based on two primary statistical analyses: cross-section (CS), using one observation per subject, and longitudinal (LT), using multiple observations per subject over time. A total of 16628 records (3946 subjects; age range 30-92 years) of creatinine clearance and relevant demographic data were used. On average, four samples per subject were collected for up to 2364 days (mean: 793 days). A simple linear regression and random coefficient models were selected for CS and LT analyses, respectively. The renal function decline rates per year were 1.33 and 0.95 ml/min/year for CS and LT analyses, respectively, and were slower when the repeated individual measurements were considered. The study confirms that rates are different based on statistical analyses, and that a statistically robust longitudinal model with a proper sampling design provides reliable individual as well as population estimates of the renal function decline rates per year with age in adults. In conclusion, our findings indicated that one should be cautious in interpreting the renal function decline rate with aging information because its estimation was highly dependent on the statistical analyses. From our analyses, a population longitudinal analysis (e.g. random coefficient model) is recommended if individualization is critical, such as a dose adjustment based on renal function during a chronic therapy.

  19. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight < 30 days. Data from males and females were analyzed separately. Models of SD observations revealed that TBS and BMD had similar curvilinear declines with age for both male and female astronauts. However, models of LD observations showed TBS declining with age while

  20. Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites-National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents selected age data interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers in groundwater from 1,399 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites across the United States. The tracers of interest were chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis primarily were from wells representing two types of NAWQA groundwater studies - Land-Use Studies (shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings) and Major-Aquifer Studies (wells, usually domestic supply wells, in principal aquifers and representing the shallow, used resource). Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) associated with Land-Use Studies also were included. Tracer samples were collected between 1992 and 2005, although two networks sampled from 2006 to 2007 were included because of network-specific needs. Tracer data from other NAWQA Program components (Flow System Studies, which are assessments of processes and trends along groundwater flow paths, and various topical studies) were not compiled herein. Tracer data from NAWQA Land-Use Studies and Major-Aquifer Studies that previously had been interpreted and published are compiled herein (as piston-flow ages), but have not been reinterpreted. Tracer data that previously had not been interpreted and published are evaluated using documented methods and compiled with aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages, and selected ancillary data, such as redox indicators, well construction, and major dissolved gases (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2). Tracer-based piston-flow ages documented in this report are simplistic representations of the tracer data. Tracer-based piston-flow ages are a convenient means of conceptualizing groundwater age. However, the piston

  1. Short forms of the "reference-" and "working-memory" Morris water maze for assessing age-related deficits.

    PubMed

    Lindner, M D; Balch, A H; VanderMaelen, C P

    1992-09-01

    Short forms of the reference- and working-memory versions of the Morris water maze, each limited to 10 trials, were examined for their reliability and sensitivity to age-related deficits in 16- and 24-month F-344 rats, relative to 2- to 2.5-month young controls. The reference-memory task used long intertrial intervals of 23 h, but required learning only one target location, while the working-memory task used shorter intertrial intervals of 60 min but required learning many different target locations. The reference-memory task was very reliable, revealed large age-related deficits, and correctly identified almost all aged rats as impaired relative to young controls. The working-memory task was less reliable, revealed smaller deficits than the reference memory task at 24 months, and did not discriminate as well between 2.5- and 24-month rats. Furthermore, in the working-memory task 16- and 24-month rats had longer swim paths than 2- to 2.5-month rats on the first trial of each trial pair, which is suggestive of a deficit in processing spatial information and raises questions about the validity of this test as a specific test of working memory. Although the working-memory procedures may be preferable under certain conditions, perhaps as a measure specific to hippocampal dysfunction, the reference-memory task seems more sensitive to age-related deficits and more accurately identifies older rats as impaired. These results are consistent with previous reports that age-related deficits in acquiring spatial learning tasks are common and that the magnitude of the deficit increases as the length of the retention interval increases.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Methods Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox’s discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors. Results Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time. Conclusions Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions. PMID:27163286

  3. TANF and the Status of Teen Mothers Under Age 18. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acs, Gregory; Koball, Heather

    This brief uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort to profile teen mothers under welfare reform policies. Initially, it assesses the extent to which teen childbearing among 15- to 17-year-old girls has changed between the start of federal welfare reform in 1997 and 2000. Then, it examines changes in teen mothers'…

  4. Assessing defense structure in school-age children using the Response Evaluation Measure-71-Youth version (REM-Y-71).

    PubMed

    Araujo, Katy B; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n = 290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean = 11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and adult samples. The composite REM-Y defense scores for each factor were significant predictors of social desirability, using the Children's Defensiveness Scale (CDS); anxiety, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC); and psychosocial functioning. This study represents the first cross-sectional empirical analysis of overall defense structure and use among children and early adolescents.

  5. Biomarker-based drug safety assessment in the age of systems pharmacology: from foundational to regulatory science.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Hong, Huixiao; Mendrick, Donna L; Tang, Yun; Cheng, Feixiong

    2015-01-01

    Improved biomarker-based assessment of drug safety is needed in drug discovery and development as well as regulatory evaluation. However, identifying drug safety-related biomarkers such as genes, proteins, miRNA and single-nucleotide polymorphisms remains a big challenge. The advances of 'omics' and computational technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, systems biology, network biology and systems pharmacology enable us to explore drug actions at the organ and organismal levels. Computational and experimental systems pharmacology approaches could be utilized to facilitate biomarker-based drug safety assessment for drug discovery and development and to inform better regulatory decisions. In this article, we review the current status and advances of systems pharmacology approaches for the development of predictive models to identify biomarkers for drug safety assessment.

  6. Assessment of antibody level and avidity against Bordetella pertussis in a cohort of Egyptian individuals aged 1-18 years.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nihal M; El-Kady, Ebtsam M; Eissa, Somiaa A; Wahby, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis specific antibodies were studied with respect to quality and quantity in a cohort of apparently healthy Egyptian children and adolescents, with their age range between 1 and 18 years, in an attempt to get a close and clear insight into the current humoral immunization status in this specified group and to try find a relation between the antibody levels and their avidities in eradication of this devastating infectious disease. Our results showed that avidity increase was most marked in young school children (6-8 years) where it seemed to reach a plateau in older children and adolescents. Antibody titer was highest in toddlers (1-2 years) and young school children (6-8 years) groups, most probably following vaccination and/or booster doses. Among children aged 1-5 years, 28% had highly avid and 50% had high titer antibodies, whereas in adolescents aged 13-18 years, 70% had highly avid antibodies and only 30% had high titer antibodies. The results clearly demonstrated that while levels of anti-Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) antibodies wane with growing age, the avidity seems to increase, to a plateau, irrespective of further antigen exposure in a pattern showing complete independence of avidity on concentration. The present study draws attention to the importance of avidity measurements, together with conventional ELISAs, for evaluating immunity against pertussis. Being based on a limited sample size, it could open doors for larger-scale surveys to be possible indicators for the need and timing of booster vaccination doses among Egyptians.

  7. Assessment of antibody level and avidity against Bordetella pertussis in a cohort of Egyptian individuals aged 1-18 years.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nihal M; El-Kady, Ebtsam M; Eissa, Somiaa A; Wahby, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis specific antibodies were studied with respect to quality and quantity in a cohort of apparently healthy Egyptian children and adolescents, with their age range between 1 and 18 years, in an attempt to get a close and clear insight into the current humoral immunization status in this specified group and to try find a relation between the antibody levels and their avidities in eradication of this devastating infectious disease. Our results showed that avidity increase was most marked in young school children (6-8 years) where it seemed to reach a plateau in older children and adolescents. Antibody titer was highest in toddlers (1-2 years) and young school children (6-8 years) groups, most probably following vaccination and/or booster doses. Among children aged 1-5 years, 28% had highly avid and 50% had high titer antibodies, whereas in adolescents aged 13-18 years, 70% had highly avid antibodies and only 30% had high titer antibodies. The results clearly demonstrated that while levels of anti-Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) antibodies wane with growing age, the avidity seems to increase, to a plateau, irrespective of further antigen exposure in a pattern showing complete independence of avidity on concentration. The present study draws attention to the importance of avidity measurements, together with conventional ELISAs, for evaluating immunity against pertussis. Being based on a limited sample size, it could open doors for larger-scale surveys to be possible indicators for the need and timing of booster vaccination doses among Egyptians. PMID:26843976

  8. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Samuel W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Dib, Gerges; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.; Hartman, Trenton S.

    2015-09-08

    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any “state-of-the-art” report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  9. Diffusional anisotropy of the human brain assessed with diffusion-weighted MR: Relation with normal brain development and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kan; Tagami, Tomoyasu; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi )

    1994-02-01

    To analyze diffusional anisotropy in frontal and occipital white matter of human brain quantitatively as a function of age by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Ten neonates (<1 month), 13 infants (1-10 months), 9 children (1-11 years), and 16 adults (20-79 years) were examined. After taking axial spin-echo images of the brain, diffusion-sensitive gradients were added parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nerve fibers. The apparent diffusion coefficient parallel to the nerve fibers (0) and that perpendicular to the fibers (90) were computed. The anisotropic ratio (90/0) was calculated as a function of age. Anisotropic ratios of frontal white matter were significantly larger in neonates as compared with infants, children, or adults. The ratios showed rapid decrease until 6 months and thereafter were identical in all subjects. In the occipital lobe, the ratios were also greater in neonates, but the differences from other age groups were not so prominent as in the frontal lobe. Comparing anisotropic ratios between frontal and occipital lobes, a significant difference was observed only in neonates. Diffusion-weighted images demonstrated that the myelination process starts earlier in the occipital lobe than in the frontal lobe. The changes of diffusional anisotropy in white matter are completed within 6 months after birth. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides earlier detection of brain myelination compared with the conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Assessment of organ-specific neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy using computational whole-body age-dependent voxel phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharatou Jarlskog, Christina; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Xu, X. George; Paganetti, Harald

    2008-02-01

    Proton beams used for radiotherapy will produce neutrons when interacting with matter. The purpose of this study was to quantify the equivalent dose to tissue due to secondary neutrons in pediatric and adult patients treated by proton therapy for brain lesions. Assessment of the equivalent dose to organs away from the target requires whole-body geometrical information. Furthermore, because the patient geometry depends on age at exposure, age-dependent representations are also needed. We implemented age-dependent phantoms into our proton Monte Carlo dose calculation environment. We considered eight typical radiation fields, two of which had been previously used to treat pediatric patients. The other six fields were additionally considered to allow a systematic study of equivalent doses as a function of field parameters. For all phantoms and all fields, we simulated organ-specific equivalent neutron doses and analyzed for each organ (1) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of distance to the target; (2) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of patient age; (3) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of field parameters; and (4) the ratio of contributions to secondary dose from the treatment head versus the contribution from the patient's body tissues. This work reports organ-specific equivalent neutron doses for up to 48 organs in a patient. We demonstrate quantitatively how organ equivalent doses for adult and pediatric patients vary as a function of patient's age, organ and field parameters. Neutron doses increase with increasing range and modulation width but decrease with field size (as defined by the aperture). We analyzed the ratio of neutron dose contributions from the patient and from the treatment head, and found that neutron-equivalent doses fall off rapidly as a function of distance from the target, in agreement with experimental data. It appears that for the fields used in this study, the neutron dose lateral to the

  11. Assessment of legal adult age of 18 by measurement of open apices of the third molars: Study on the Albanian sample.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Santoro, Valeria; Roca, Roberta; Lozito, Piercarlo; Introna, Francesco; Cingolani, Mariano; Galić, Ivan; Ferrante, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical structures in development available for estimating the age of individuals in the late adolescence. This study tests the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in an Albanian sample. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 286 living subjects (152 female and 134 male) aged between 15 and 22 years was analyzed. Intra-rater and inter-raters agreement of I3M were 0.998 and 0.998, respectively and Cohen Kappa for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement in decision on adult or minor was 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The mean age of females is higher than that of males when I3M is between 0.04 and 0.08. Sensitivity test for males was 94.1%, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 85.6-98.4%, and specificity was 90.9% (95%CI 81.3-96.6%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 92.5%, with a 95%CI of (86.7%, 96.4%). For females, the sensitivity test was 75.4%, with a 95%CI of (63.1%, 85.2%) and specificity was 96.6%, with a 95%CI of (90.3%, 99.3%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 87.5%, with a 95%CI of (81.2%, 92.3%). The results indicate that Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M=0.08) is useful in discriminating between Albanian adults and juveniles, and encourage us to test its suitability for determining the adult age in individuals from other populations.

  12. Ultrasound assessment of the caliber of the arteries in the lower extremities in healthy persons – the dependency on age, sex and morphological parameters of the subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ustymowicz, Andrzej; Krysiuk, Kamil; Witkowski, Paweł; Zonenberg, Mateusz; Dobrzycki, Konrad; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this paper was to evaluate the caliber of the following arteries in the lower extremities: the common femoral artery, superficial femoral artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery and dorsalis pedis artery and to determine the relation of the calibers to age, sex and morphological parameters of the body such as weight, height and BMI of the subject. Material Two hundred and twenty-eight healthy persons aged 18–81 were examined (average ±SD; 43.1±16.71): 134 women aged 19–74 (43.2±15.63) and 94 men aged 18–81 (43±18.22). Methods The study was conducted with the use of a linear probe of 7.5 MHz frequency. The vascular caliber was assessed after the color map (color Doppler) was placed on a B-mode image. Results The average and standard deviation values for the calibers of examined vessels were determined. The calibers of all vessels examined in the group of men were statistically significantly larger than those in the group of women. No statistically significant differences between the calibers of the right and left sides were determined. The statistically significant correlations were specified between the age and the caliber of the examined vessels; positive for large femoral arteries and negative for the arteries of the crus and foot. Positive, statistically significant correlations between the caliber and the height, weight and BMI were also reported. Conclusions The reported calibers of the arteries in the lower extremities and their relation to age, sex and morphological parameters of the subjects enable the differentiation of the physiological remodeling of the vessels from the pathological processes in e.g. atherosclerosis or hypertension. PMID:26675343

  13. Assessment of the phytotoxicity of seaport sediments in the framework of a quarry-deposit scenario: germination tests of sediments aged artificially by column leaching.

    PubMed

    Bedell, J-P; Bazin, C; Sarrazin, B; Perrodin, Y

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the Sustainable Management of Sediments Dredged in Seaports (SEDIGEST) project is to assess the risks of treated port sediments for terrestrial ecosystems when deposited in quarries. We simulated the "ageing" of these sediments up to the "moment" when plants can germinate. Sediments were leached by water percolating through a laboratory column. Sediments 1 and 2, taken from the port of Toulon (France), were dried and aired. Sediment 3, taken from the port of Guilvinec (France), was stabilised with lime. Phytotoxicity was evaluated on the three artificially aged sediments using germination and early development tests (48 h to 7 days) by Phytotoxkit F(TM) bioassays. The three dilutions tested were performed with the reference "ISO substrate" and with Lolium perenne sp. (rye grass), Sinapis alba (white mustard), and Lepidium sativum (watercress). The tests performed with sediments 1 and 2 showed (1) a decrease of their toxicity to the germination of the species selected following leaching and (2) that L. perenne was the most sensitive species. The tests performed with sediment 3 showed that it was improper for colonisation even after leaching simulating 16 months of ageing. These germination tests on aged sediments identified the effects of leaching and made it possible to appreciate the capacity of the sediments to allow colonisation by plants.

  14. Assessing Social Skills in Early Elementary-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Social Skills Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a newly developed measure, the Social Skills Q-Sort (SSQ), to assess paraprofessionals' and teachers' reports of social skills for children with and without ASD. Paraprofessionals and teachers showed good rater-agreement on the SSQ. ROC curve analyses yielded an excellent profile of sensitivity and specificity for…

  15. Assessing Attachment Security at Age Three: Q-Sort Home Observations and the MacArthur Strange Situation Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German

    2006-01-01

    The construction of developmentally appropriate and valid assessments is central to the study of attachment relationships beyond infancy. A common procedure has been that of validating new measures for older children against strange situation classifications obtained in infancy. Although reasonable, a key criterion against which to validate new…

  16. Assessment in the Digital Age: An Overview of Online Tools and Considerations for School Psychologists and School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellins, Laura

    2015-01-01

    With recent developments in technology, online tests and digital tools offer school psychologists and school counsellors alternate modes of assessment. These new technologies have the potential to increase accessibility to tests (through greater portability), allow school psychologists and school counsellors to service more students (through…

  17. Developmental Screening and Assessment Instruments with an Emphasis on Social and Emotional Development for Young Children Ages Birth through Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Sharon, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the mental health and social and behavioral developmental needs of very young children. In response, state administrators and local providers of early intervention and preschool programs have worked to strengthen their screening and assessment of children's social and emotional development. The…

  18. Validation of a web-based questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of Brazilian children aged 7-10 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (CAAFE) comprises an online questionnaire to self-report diet and physical activity of Brazilian schoolchildren. The present study aimed to assess the validity (matches, omissions and intrusions) and moderating factors of the CAAFE. Direct obs...

  19. Validation of a web-based questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of Brazilian children aged 7-10 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (CAAFE) comprises an online questionnaire to self-report diet and physical activity of Brazilian schoolchildren. The present study aimed to assess the validity (matches, omissions, and intrusions) and moderating factors of the CAAFE. Direct ob...

  20. Assessment of pretend play in preschool-aged children: validation and factor analysis of the affect in play scale-preschool version.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Karla K; Russ, Sandra W

    2014-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale-Preschool (APS-P) and Affect in Play Scale-Preschool-Brief Rating (APS-P-BR) versions assess cognitive and affective play processes during a 5-min standardized play task. In this study, construct validity, external validity, and factor analyses for each scale were examined in 107 preschoolers. Reliability and validity were supported. Unlike results found with school-aged samples, positive affect loaded with the cognitive variables on factor analyses of the APS-P and APS-P-BR, suggesting that negative and undefined affect might represent a separate factor in preschool-aged children. Developmental significance and implications for use of the 2 scoring versions are discussed. PMID:24090344

  1. Age structured stochastic recruitment model for assessment of power plant impact. [Simulation of striped bass population dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Swartzman, G.L.

    1984-03-01

    The dynamics of the Hudson river striped bass (Morone saxatilis) stock were analyzed using a stochastic age structured model. The effect of river flow on recruitment was combined with the mortality due to fishing and power plant water uptake to obtain an overall effect of these variables on the fishery. Model equations and parameters were documented and their underlying assumptions presented. Preliminary model runs resulted in yields well below those actually observed. Calibration of model parameters brought these values closer to the observed yields, but stock values proved inexact. The influence of power plant mortality on fishery yield was evident, but the simulation results remain inconclusive. 11 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Using optical coherence tomography to assess the role of age and region in corneal epithelium and palisades of vogt

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsuan-Chieh; Tew, Teck Boon; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Huai-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong; Chen, Wei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to observe the morphology and epithelial thickness (ET) of the palisades of Vogt (POV), and to evaluate the role of age and region on these structures. One hundred twelve eyes of 112 healthy subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: A (0–19), B (20–39), C (40–59), and D (≥60 years old). RTvue-100 OCT was applied on the cornea and the limbus. The morphology of the subepithelial stroma underneath the epithelium of POV was classified into typical and atypical types. Maximum ET of POV was measured manually from OCT images. The positive rate of typical POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 100%, 69.2%, 65.4%, 100%; Group B: 100%, 73.5%, 61.8%, 94.1%; Group C: 95.8%, 41.7%, 37.5%, 83.3%; Group D: 67.9%, 0%, 3.6%, 25%, showing a significant decreasing tendency with age. The maximum ET of POV in superior, nasal, temporal, and inferior limbus was: Group A: 103.5 ± 10.1 um, 89.2 ± 9.7 um, 87.9 ± 13.6 um, 104.7 ± 14.1 um; Group B: 111.4 ± 15.8 um, 85.3 ± 9.9 um, 88.2 ± 8.6 um, 112.6 ± 19.7 um; Group C: 116.4 ± 16.4 um, 82.8 ± 11.6 um, 87.0 ± 11.6 um, 120.0 ± 25.6 um; Group D: 96.3 ± 17.9 um, 73.8 ± 15.9 um, 79.2 ± 16.7 um, 87.4 ± 18.5 um. Age-dependent change was observed. In general, the maximum ET of POV in superior/inferior quadrants was thicker than the other 2 quadrants. Spectral-domain OCT is a useful tool to observe the limbal microstructure and provide invaluable information. Aging and anatomic regions had significant effects on the microstructure of these areas. PMID:27583846

  3. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  4. Online self-assessment of cardiovascular risk using the Joint British Societies (JBS3)-derived heart age tool: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Riyaz S; Lagord, Catherine; Waterall, Jamie; Moth, Martin; Knapton, Mike; Deanfield, John E

    2016-01-01

    Objective A modified version of the Joint British Societies (JBS3) ‘heart age’ tool was introduced online to broaden access to personalised risk assessment to the general population and encourage participation in the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme. This study reports on its early uptake and the profiles of those who used the self-assessment tool to determine their own cardiovascular risk. Design Observational, retrospective analysis of online tool use. Setting Between February and July 2015, user data collected from the NHS Choices website, where the tool was hosted, were analysed anonymously using standard analytic packages. Results The online tool landing page was viewed 1.4 million times in the first 5 months, with increased activity following limited media coverage. Of the 575 782 users completing the data journey with a valid ‘heart age’ result, their demographic and risk factor profiles broadly resembled the population of England, although both younger users and males (60%) were over-represented. Almost 50% and 79% did not know or enter their blood pressure or total cholesterol values, respectively. Estimated heart age was higher than chronological age for 79% of all users, and also for 69% of younger users under 40 years who are at low 10-year risk and not invited for NHS Health Checks. Conclusions These data suggest a high level of public interest in self-assessment of cardiovascular risk when an easily understood metric is used, although a large number of users lack awareness of their own risk factors. The heart age tool was accessed by a group not easily reached by conventional approaches yet is at high cardiovascular risk and would benefit most from early and sustained risk reduction. These are both important opportunities for interventions to educate and empower the public to manage better their cardiovascular risk and promote population-level prevention. PMID:27683512

  5. A Study on the Validity of a Computer-Based Game to Assess Cognitive Processes, Reward Mechanisms, and Time Perception in Children Aged 4-8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hurks, Petra PM; Aldenkamp, Albert P; van der Spek, Erik D; Rauterberg, GWM; Vles, Johan SH; Hendriksen, Jos GM

    2016-01-01

    Background A computer-based game, named Timo’s Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo’s Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A total of 96 normally developing children aged 4-8 years and 40 children with ADHD were assessed using the game. Clinical validity was investigated by examining the effects of age on performances within the normally developing children, as well as performance differences between the healthy controls and the ADHD group. Results Our analyses in the normally developing children showed developmental effects; that is, older children made fewer inhibition mistakes (r=−.33, P=.001), had faster (and therefore better) reaction times (r=−.49, P<.001), and were able to produce time intervals more accurately than younger children (ρ=.35, P<.001). Discriminant analysis showed that Timo’s Adventure was accurate in most classifications whether a child belonged to the ADHD group or the normally developing group: 78% (76/97) of the children were correctly classified as having ADHD or as being in the normally developing group. The classification results showed that 72% (41/57) children in the control group were correctly classified, and 88% (35/40) of the children in the ADHD group were correctly classified as having ADHD. Sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.69) of Timo’s Adventure were satisfying. Conclusions Computer-based games seem to be a valid tool to assess specific strengths and weaknesses in young children with ADHD. PMID:27658428

  6. Use of tritium-helium groundwater age and anthropogenic VOCs to assess deep groundwater susceptibility in California urban and agricultural basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Leif, R. N.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Moran, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    With the discovery of MTBE contamination in public supply wells in the 1990's and the subsequent demonstration that most public supply wells were in close proximity to leaking underground fuel tanks, the State of California recognized the need to rapidly assess the vulnerability of public supply wells throughout the State. The California Aquifer Susceptibility project funded by the State of California GAMA Program used a cost-effective approach to assess ambient groundwater susceptibility at large scales through the use of groundwater age (using the tritium/helium-3 method), the presence of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ultra-trace levels, and stable isotopes of water. To date, over 2000 wells have been sampled in the major agricultural and urban basins in California. One pattern that has emerged is a significantly greater vulnerability to contamination in the alluvial aquifers of the Central Valley than in either southern or northern Coastal Basins. The project also has allowed investigation of the utility of the tritium/helium-3 method for vulnerability assessment. This method in conjunction with noble gas analysis allows determination of mean apparent groundwater age from 2 to 50 years, and the fraction of water recharged before atmospheric weapons testing in mid-century. Long-screened supply wells can produce waters with old mean apparent ages (indicating that they are not vulnerable) and still contain small fractions of young highly vulnerable water (through improper well construction, short-circuiting, screening across shallow zones, and dispersive transport). The recent introduction and wide dispersion of anthropogenic VOCs into the environment coupled with our ability to detect these compounds at ultra-trace levels (low ppt) allow their use as proxies for small mixing fractions of young contaminated water. The occurrence of anthropogenic VOCs in tritium-dead groundwater is infrequent but not rare, evidence for apparent groundwater age

  7. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    PubMed

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Pinborg, Anja; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing create a need for pro-fertility initiatives. Three years ago we established a new separate unit: The Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) clinic. The FAC clinic offers free individual counselling based on a clinical assessment including measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone and ovarian and pelvic sonography in women, sperm analysis in men, and a review of reproductive risk factors in both sexes. The FAC clinic includes a research programme with the goal to improve prediction and protection of fertility. Our first proposition is that clinics for individual assessment and counselling need to be established, as there is a strong unmet demand among women and men to obtain: (i) knowledge of fertility status, (ii) knowledge of reproductive lifespan (women) and (iii) pro-fertility advice. Addressing these issues is often more challenging than treating infertile patients. Therefore, we propose that fertility assessment and counselling should be developed by specialists in reproductive medicine. There are two main areas of concern: As our current knowledge on reproductive risk factors is primarily based on data from infertile patients, the first concern is how precisely we are able to forecast future reproductive problems. Predictive parameters from infertile couples, such as duration of infertility, are not applicable, diagnostic factors like tubal patency are unavailable and other parameters may be unsuitable when applied to the general population. Therefore, strict validation of reproductive forecasting in women and men from the general population is crucial. The second main concern is that we may turn clients into patients. Screening including reproductive forecasting

  8. Accurate assessment of early gestational age in normal and diabetic women by serum human placental lactogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P G; Aspillaga, M O; Lind, T

    1983-08-01

    Serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were assayed and fetal crown-rump length (CRL) was determined by sonar in three groups of pregnant women--35 with uncomplicated pregnancies, 13 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 21 who represented a general pregnancy population. Each patient had a regular cycle and recorded last menstrual period, ovulated spontaneously, and was delivered of a single live baby. Serum hPL concentrations within the range 0.01-0.80 microU/ml in patients in the first group gave estimates of gestation with an SD of 6.3 days which was the same as the SD derived from CRL measurements. When the hPL regression equation was applied to the diabetic mothers the difference between the gestational age estimated from hPL and that estimated from LMP had a mean value of - 0.9 days with an SD of 6.2 days; this difference was not significantly different from zero. The third group of patients had a mean difference between hPL and LMP derived gestational age of 0.7 days (+/- 6.7 SD). Serum hPL offers a method of estimating gestation sufficiently precise to be used as a practical alternative to sonar measurements of CRL.

  9. World Health Organization generic protocol to assess drug-resistant HIV among children <18 months of age and newly diagnosed with HIV in resource-limited countries.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolio, Silvia; Penazzato, Martina; Jordan, Michael R; Persaud, Deborah; Mofenson, Lynne M; Bennett, Diane E

    2012-05-01

    Increased use of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in pregnant and breastfeeding women will result in fewer children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, among children infected despite prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), a substantial proportion will acquire NNRTI-resistant HIV, potentially compromising response to NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). In countries scaling up PMTCT and pediatric ART programs, it is crucial to assess the proportion of young children with drug-resistant HIV to improve health outcomes and support national and global decision making on optimal selection of pediatric first-line ART. This article summarizes a new World Health Organization surveillance protocol to assess resistance using remnant dried blood spot specimens from a representative sample of children aged <18 months being tested for early infant diagnosis.

  10. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P < 0.0001), although the COR accumulation in the two matrices was different in relation to the class of age. Moreover, the puppies age influenced both coat and claws COR concentrations (P < 0.05), with premature puppies showing higher values when compared to term born-dead puppies or puppies dead between 1 and 30 days of age. The present study reported that COR is quantifiable in coat and claws of newborn dogs. Moreover, both matrices appear as useful tools for new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species.

  11. Cross-Sectional and 35-Year Longitudinal Assessment of Salivary Cortisol and Cognitive Functioning: The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; O’Brien, Robert C.; Hauger, Richard L.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J.; Jacobson, Kristen; Lyons, Michael J.; Lupien, Sonia; Hellhammer, Dirk; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of cortisol, a sign of potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, have been associated with poor cognitive outcomes in older adults. Most cortisol research has focused on hippocampal-related abilities such as episodic memory; however, the presence of glucocorticoid receptors in the human prefrontal cortex suggests that cortisol regulation is likely to be associated with prefrontally-mediated executive function abilities. We hypothesized that elevated cortisol levels would be associated with poorer frontal-executive function in addition to episodic memory. We assessed cortisol from 15 saliva samples paralleling individual diurnal rhythms across three non-consecutive days in a group of 778 middle-aged twin men ages 51 to 60. Cognitive domains created from 24 standard measures included: general cognitive ability, verbal and visual-spatial ability, verbal and visual-spatial memory, short-term/immediate memory, working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning, and psychomotor processing speed. Adjusting for general cognitive ability at age 20, age, race, and multiple health and lifestyle indicators, higher levels of average area-under-the-curve cortisol output across three days were significantly associated with poorer performance in three domains: executive (primarily set-shifting) measures, processing speed, and visual-spatial memory. In a 35-year longitudinal component of the study, we also found that general cognitive ability at age 20 was a significant predictor of midlife cortisol levels. These results possibly support the notion that glucocorticoid exposure is associated with cognitive functions that are mediated by frontal-striatal systems, and is not specific to hippocampal-dependent memory. The results also suggest that the direction of effect is complex. PMID:21295410

  12. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative.

  13. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  14. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  15. Biomechanical properties of the mid-shaft femur in middle-aged hypophysectomized rats as assessed by bending test.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Picasso, Emilio O; Champin, Graciela M; Alippi, Rosa María; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2012-10-01

    Both stiffness and strength of bones are thought to be controlled by the "bone mechanostat". Its natural stimuli would be the strains of bone tissue (sensed by osteocytes) that are induced by both gravitational forces (body weight) and contraction of regional muscles. Body weight and muscle mass increase with age. Biomechanical performance of load-bearing bones must adapt to these growth-induced changes. Hypophysectomy in the rat slows the rate of body growth. With time, a great difference in body size is established between a hypophysectomized rat and its age-matched control, which makes it difficult to establish the real effect of pituitary ablation on bone biomechanics. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare mid-shaft femoral mechanical properties between hypophysectomized and weight-matched normal rats, which will show similar sizes and thus will be exposed to similar habitual loads. Two groups of 10 female rats each (H and C) were established. H rats were 12-month-old that had been hypophysectomized 11 months before. C rats were 2.5-month-old normals. Right femur mechanical properties were tested in 3-point bending. Structural (load-bearing capacity and stiffness), geometric (cross-sectional area, cortical sectional area, and moment of inertia), and material (modulus of elasticity and maximum elastic stress) properties were evaluated. The left femur was ashed for calcium content. Comparisons between parameters were performed by the Student's t test. Average body weight, body length, femur weight, femur length, and gastrocnemius weight were not significantly different between H and C rats. Calcium content in ashes was significantly higher in H than in C rats. Cross-sectional area, medullary area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia were higher in C rats, whereas cortical area did not differ between groups. Structural properties (diaphyseal stiffness, elastic limit, and load at fracture) were about four times higher in hypophysectomized rats

  16. Combined cobalamin and iron deficiency anemia: a diagnostic approach using a model based on age and homocysteine assessment.

    PubMed

    Remacha, Angel F; Sardà, M P; Canals, C; Queraltò, J M; Zapico, E; Remacha, J; Carrascosa, C

    2013-04-01

    Macrocytosis, the hallmark of cobalamin/folate deficiency anemia, is frequently absent. Clinicians have to be aware of coexisting conditions that can mask the macrocytosis expression of megaloblastic anemia, especially iron deficiency. The objective of this work was to investigate the degree of overlap between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and cobalamin deficiency and to develop a predictive model for differentiating IDA from combined deficiency. A prospective case and control study was carried out to investigate vitamin B12 and folate status in iron deficiency anemia. A total of 658 patients were recruited, 41 of whom (6.2 %) were excluded. The remaining 617 subjects consisted of 130 controls and 487 with IDA. Low vitamin B12 (LB12) was considered when serum vitamin B12 was ≤200 pmol/L. High serum homocysteine (Hcy) was defined by Hcy >17 μM/L. A multivariate analysis (including a logistic regression) was performed to develop a diagnostic model. Low vitamin B12 levels were found in 17.8 % of IDA subjects. Ten out of 11 subjects (91 %) with IDA and serum vitamin B12 (B12) ≤100 pmol/L showed vitamin B12 deficiency. Moreover, vitamin B12 deficiency was demonstrated in 48 % of cases with IDA and B12 between 101 and 150 pmol/L and in 40 % with IDA and B12 between 151 and 200 pmol/, respectively. As a result of multivariate logistic analysis, neutrophil counts and age predicted subjects with vitamin B12 ≤200 and Hcy >17 μmol/L, [Formula: see text]. Using the age of 60 as a cutoff, sensitivity was 91 % (39 out of the 43 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and IDA were identified). In summary, low vitamin B12 was found in 18 % of patients with IDA. Vitamin B12 deficiency was demonstrated in many patients with LB12 and IDA. Age over 60 years was used to separate patients with combined deficiency (sensitivity 91 %). Therefore, for a diagnostic purpose, serum vitamin B12 should be evaluated in IDA patients over 60 years. This diagnostic model needs to

  17. Biomechanical properties of the mid-shaft femur in middle-aged hypophysectomized rats as assessed by bending test.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Picasso, Emilio O; Champin, Graciela M; Alippi, Rosa María; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2012-10-01

    Both stiffness and strength of bones are thought to be controlled by the "bone mechanostat". Its natural stimuli would be the strains of bone tissue (sensed by osteocytes) that are induced by both gravitational forces (body weight) and contraction of regional muscles. Body weight and muscle mass increase with age. Biomechanical performance of load-bearing bones must adapt to these growth-induced changes. Hypophysectomy in the rat slows the rate of body growth. With time, a great difference in body size is established between a hypophysectomized rat and its age-matched control, which makes it difficult to establish the real effect of pituitary ablation on bone biomechanics. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare mid-shaft femoral mechanical properties between hypophysectomized and weight-matched normal rats, which will show similar sizes and thus will be exposed to similar habitual loads. Two groups of 10 female rats each (H and C) were established. H rats were 12-month-old that had been hypophysectomized 11 months before. C rats were 2.5-month-old normals. Right femur mechanical properties were tested in 3-point bending. Structural (load-bearing capacity and stiffness), geometric (cross-sectional area, cortical sectional area, and moment of inertia), and material (modulus of elasticity and maximum elastic stress) properties were evaluated. The left femur was ashed for calcium content. Comparisons between parameters were performed by the Student's t test. Average body weight, body length, femur weight, femur length, and gastrocnemius weight were not significantly different between H and C rats. Calcium content in ashes was significantly higher in H than in C rats. Cross-sectional area, medullary area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia were higher in C rats, whereas cortical area did not differ between groups. Structural properties (diaphyseal stiffness, elastic limit, and load at fracture) were about four times higher in hypophysectomized rats

  18. Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to Coturnix: Sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiologic responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicities of mercuric chloride (HgCl(,2)) and methylmercuric chloride (CH(,3)HgCl) were compared for coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from hatching to adulthood. Comparisons were based on: (1) Median lethal dosages (LD50) derived by administering single peroral and single intramuscular dosages of mercury, (2) median lethal concentrations (LC50) derived by feeding mercury for 5 days, (3) median toxic concentrations (TC50) derived by feeding mercury 9 weeks and measuring plasma enzyme activity, plasma electrolytes, and other blood constituents, and (4) transient changes of various blood chemistries following a single peroral dose of mercury. Acute peroral and intramuscular LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl increased by two- to threefold for coturnix chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Concomitantly, the LC50s also increased, but the important difference between test procedures was that with both single dose routes of exposure the toxicity ratios, i.e., HgCl(,2)/CH(,3)HgCl, at each age were about 2 to 2.5 compared to about 100 for the LC50s. For example, at 2 weeks of age the peroral LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl were 42 and 18 mg/kg; the dietary LC50s were 5086 and 47 ppm for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl. The 9 week feeding trial was not associated with gross effects from either HgCl(,2) at 0.5 to 32 ppm or CH(,3)HgCl at 0.125 to 8 ppm. However, subtle responses were detected for the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase and could be quantified by probit analysis. This quantal procedure was based on establishment of a normal value for each enzyme and classing outliers as respondents. A 'hazard index' based on the TC50 for an enzyme divided by the LD50 or LC50 was introduced. The single oral dosages of HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl showed that ratios of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and orinthine carbamoyl transferase for the liver and kidneys of adult coturnix were opposite from

  19. Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to Coturnix: sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiologic responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicities of mercuric chloride (HgCl(,2)) and methylmercuric chloride (CH(,3)HgCl) were compared for coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from hatching to adulthood. Comparisons were based on: (1) Median lethal dosages (LD50) derived by administering single peroral and single intramuscular dosages of mercury, (2) median lethal concentrations (LC50) derived by feeding mercury for 5 days, (3) median toxic concentrations (TC50) derived by feeding mercury 9 weeks and measuring plasma enzyme activity, plasma electrolytes, and other blood constituents, and (4) transient changes of various blood chemistries following a single peroral dose of mercury. Acute peroral and intramuscular LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl increased by two- to threefold for coturnix chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Concomitantly, the LC50s also increased, but the important difference between test procedures was that with both single dose routes of exposure the toxicity ratios, i.e., HgCl(,2)/CH(,3)HgCl, at each age were about 2 to 2.5 compared to about 100 for the LC50s. For example, at 2 weeks of age the peroral LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl were 42 and 18 mg/kg; the dietary LC50s were 5086 and 47 ppm for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl. The 9 week feeding trial was not associated with gross effects from either HgCl(,2) at 0.5 to 32 ppm or CH(,3)HgCl at 0.125 to 8 ppm. However, subtle responses were detected for the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase and could be quantified by probit analysis. This quantal procedure was based on establishment of a normal value for each enzyme and classing outliers as respondents. A 'hazard index' based on the TC50 for an enzyme divided by the LD50 or LC50 was introduced. The single oral dosages of HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl showed that ratios of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and orinthine carbamoyl transferase for the liver and kidneys of adult coturnix were opposite from

  20. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, G A

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  1. Assessment of cardiorespiratory stability using the infant car seat challenge before discharge in preterm infants (<37 weeks' gestational age).

    PubMed

    Narvey, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Preterm infants younger than 37 weeks corrected gestational age are at increased risk for abnormal control of respiration. The infant car seat challenge has been used as a screening tool to ensure cardiorespiratory stability before discharging preterm infants from many hospitals in Canada. While it is clear that infants placed in a car seat are more likely to experience oxygen desaturation and/or bradycardia than when they are supine, neither positioning predicts an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or mortality post-discharge. A review of the literature yielded insufficient evidence to recommend routine use of the infant car seat challenge as part of discharge planning for preterm infants. This finding has prompted a change in recommendation from a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2000. PMID:27398056

  2. Development and validation of a Q-sort procedure to assess temperament and behavior in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Maureen E; Klein, Daniel N; Durbin, C Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Moerk, Kirstin C

    2002-12-01

    Few broad observational measures of preschool-age children's temperament and behavior currently exist. Studied the Child Temperament and Behavior Q-Set (CTBQ-Set) as a naturalistic observation measure to tap the major domains of temperament and behavior in preschoolers. Pairs of observers rated the behavior of a community sample of preschoolers during 2 independent home visits using q-sort methodology. The CTBQ-Set scales displayed good levels of internal consistency and convergent and discriminant content saturation. The scales displayed good interrater reliability at each observation and moderate test-retest stability between observations. The construct validity of the CTBQ-Set scales was supported by correlations with mothers' ratings of their children's behavior using the Child Behavior Checklist for 2- and 3-year-olds (CBCL/2-3) and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. The CTBQ-Set shows promise as an observer-reated measure of preschoolers' behavior and temperament in their natural home environment.

  3. Vitamin B6 status assessment in relation to dietary intake in high school students aged 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Hsiao, Li-Ju; Lee, Yi-Chun; Hsuen, Shou-Ying

    2007-04-01

    The vitamin B6 status of high school students and its relationship with dietary intake were investigated in this cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview. A total of 157 healthy students aged 16-18 years (eighty-three boys and seventy-four girls) were randomly recruited from two out of nineteen senior high schools in Tainan, Taiwan. Vitamin B6 intakes were calculated from three 24-h dietary records. Direct and indirect vitamin B6 status indicators were measured in plasma, erythrocytes and urine. The anthropometric data, being similar to those of the first Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1993-1996), showed the normal growth and development of these students. All students except one girl (28.7 nmol/l) had plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) levels >35 nmol/l, indicating an adequate vitamin B6 status. The mean dietary vitamin B6 intakes of boys and girls were 1.04 (sd 0.29) and 0.96 (sd 0.27) mg/d, respectively. Vitamin B6 status indicators, including plasma PLP, erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficient (EALT-AC), aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (EAST-AC) and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), were correlated with vitamin B6 intake. Students with adequate values of plasma PLP (>35 nmol/l), EALT-AC ( < 1.25), EAST-AC ( < 1.8) and urinary 4-PA (>3.0 micromol/d) had median intakes of 1.08 and 1.01 mg/d, respectively, for boys and girls. This study suggests that vitamin B6 requirements for boys and girls aged 16-18 years were approximately 1.1 and 1.0 mg/d, respectively.

  4. Maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy affects autonomic function of Peruvian children assessed at 54 months of age.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 μg/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

  5. Assessing the Age of Particulate Organic Matter Exported from a Temperate Rainforest Catchment of the North American Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Ingalls, A. E.; Santos, G.; Keil, R. G.; Wefferling, L.; Jones, A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although temperate rainforests of the North American Pacific Coast contain a small proportion of the world's forests, they contain some of the highest densities of biomass of any terrestrial system, and they store large quantities of carbon in soil. Understanding the residence time of organic carbon in these watersheds is of ecological significance. Given that rivers can mobilize sediment (and associated carbon) from across the catchment, carefully deciphering the organic signatures found within riverine particles can be a powerful tool to inform our understanding of carbon cycling catchment-wide. Here we examine the lignin phenol content (lignin is a biomarker unique to vascular plants) and the radiocarbon age (Δ14C) of fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC) exported by the Queets River of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula over the course of one year, targeting winter storm events. This mountainous catchment is one of the largest and most pristine found on the Olympic Peninsula. The Δ14C of FPOC was quantified for each of the twelve sampling events, whereas the Δ14C of the individual lignin phenols was determined during a late-winter storm event. Sediments were enriched in lignin phenols at the end of the summer dry season and into the first storm of the fall, suggesting that surface soils were transported early on. The Δ14C of individual lignin phenols ranged from -161 to 26‰, with biomarkers for non-woody vegetation being most depleted. These results suggest that particulate lignin exported from temperate catchments is considerably aged, especially relative to the tropics. These findings are consistent with cool temperatures and abundant moisture limiting microbial decomposition, increasing the residence time of plant-derived organic carbon in temperate rainforests. We will compare the Δ14C content of lignin phenols to that of bulk organic matter to partition riverine FPOC amongst possible organic matter sources.

  6. Assessing the cognitive impact of Alzheimer disease pathology and vascular burden in the aging brain: the Geneva experience.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Gold, Gabriel; Kövari, Enikö; von Gunten, Armin; Imhof, Anouk; Bouras, Constantin; Hof, Patrick R

    2007-01-01

    The progressive development of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related lesions, such as neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), amyloid deposits and synaptic loss, and the occurrence of microvascular and small macrovascular pathology within the cerebral cortex are conspicuous neuropathologic features of brain aging. Recent neuropathologic studies strongly suggested that the clinical diagnosis of dementia depends more on the severity and topography of pathological changes than on the presence of a qualitative marker. However, several methodological problems, such as selection biases, case-control design, density-based measures and masking effects, of concomitant pathologies persisted. In recent years, we performed several clinicopathologic studies using stereological counting of AD lesions. In order to define the cognitive impact of lacunes and microvascular lesions, we also analyzed pure vascular cases without substantial AD pathology. Our data revealed that total NFT numbers in the CA1 field, cortical microinfarcts and subcortical gray matter lacunes were the stronger determinants of dementia. In contrast, the contribution of periventricular and subcortical white matter demyelinations had a modest cognitive effect even in rare cases with isolated microvascular pathology. Importantly, in cases with pure AD pathology, more than 50% of Clinical Dementia Rating scale variability was not explained by NFT, amyloid deposits and neuronal loss in the hippocampal formation. In cases with microvascular pathology or lacunes, this percentage was even lower. The present review summarizes our data in this field and discusses their relevance within the theoretical framework of the functional neuropathology of brain aging and with particular reference to the current efforts to develop standardized neuropathological criteria for mixed dementia. PMID:17036244

  7. Assessment of reading behavior with an infrared eye tracker after 360° macular translocation for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Gurmit; Feely, Mary P; Crossland, Michael D; Membrey, Luke; Lee, John; da Cruz, Lyndon; Rubin, Gary S

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. Macular translocation (MT360) is complex surgery used to restore reading in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MT360 involves retinal rotation and subsequent oculomotor globe counterrotation and is not without significant surgical risk. This study attempts to gauge the optimal potential of MT360 in restoring reading ability and describe the quality and extent of recovery. METHODS. The six best outcomes were examined from a consecutive series of 23 MT360 cases. Reading behavior and fixation characteristics were examined with an infrared eye tracker. Results were compared to age-matched normal subjects and patients with untreated exudative and nonexudative AMD. Retinal sensitivity was examined with microperimetry to establish threshold visual function. RESULTS. MT360 produced significant improvements in visual function over untreated disease and approximated normal function for reading speed and fixation quality. Relative to the comparative groups, eye tracking revealed the MT360 cohort generated a greater number of horizontal and vertical saccades, of longer latency and reduced velocity. In contrast, saccadic behavior when reading (forward and regressive saccades) closely matched normal function. Microperimetry revealed a reduction in the central scotoma with three patients recovering normal foveal sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS. Near normal reading function is recovered despite profound surgical disruption to the anatomy (retinal/oculomotor). MT360 restores foveal function sufficient to produce a single stable locus of fixation, with marked reduction of the central scotoma. Despite the limitations on saccadic function, the quality of reading saccadic behavior is maintained with good reading ability. Oculomotor surgery appears not to limit reading ability, and the results of retinal surgery approximate normal macular function. PMID:21596822

  8. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Patrick; Haure, Marie-José; Ceruti, Isabelle; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Castex-Rizzi, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO). Materials and methods The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation). The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12) activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG) alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. PMID:27382322

  9. Bone micro-fragility caused by the mimetic aging processes in α-klotho deficient mice: in situ nanoindentation assessment of dilatational bands.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Noriko; Shibata, Yo; Mochizuki, Ayako; Yamada, Atsushi; Maki, Koutaro; Inoue, Tomio; Kamijo, Ryutaro; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The nanoscale structure-function relationship is a key determinant of bone toughness or micro-fragility. The loss of bone toughness during the aging process has been accepted based on empirical evidence, but this concept has not yet been fully supported by evidence at the material level. Here, we demonstrate a reduction in bone toughening mechanism in mimetic aged cortical bone obtained from α-klotho deficient (α-klotho(-/-)) mice and assessed by in situ dynamic mechanical analysis. The strain-rate nanoindentation tests showed enhanced stiffening of the wild-type calvarial bone and a large dimensional recovery during rapid loading following the constant displacement test. Such strain-dependent stiffening was likely associated with nanoscale dilatational bands and subsequent strain-energy transfer to the superior wild-type cross-linked collagen matrix network. The absence of dilatational bands formed by hydroxyapatite crystals and non-collagenous proteins in the α-klotho(-/-) bone samples likely diminished the intrinsic bone toughening mechanisms almost independent of viscoelastic behaviors. Such nanoscale structural alternations that occur during aging processes lead to crack propagation and result in overall bone fractures under large external stresses. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis using instrumented nanoindentation was useful for the evaluation of bone mechanical properties in this pathological model of a genetic knockout mouse.

  10. Assessing the Relative Ages of Admixture in the Bovine Hybrid Zones of Africa and the Near East Using X Chromosome Haplotype Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Abigail R.; Hoggart, Clive J.; Hanotte, O.; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    Historical hybridization events between the two subspecies of cattle, Bos taurus and B. indicus, have occurred in several regions of the world, while other populations have remained nonadmixed. We typed closely linked X chromosome microsatellites in cattle populations with differing histories of admixture from Africa, Europe, the Near East, and India. Haplotype breakdown will occur as admixed populations age, and longer ancestral haplotypes will remain intact in more recently admixed populations compared to older ones. We genotyped male animals from these populations, obtaining unambiguous haplotypes, and measured levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and ancestral mosaicism. Extensive LD, likely to be the result of ongoing admixture, was discovered in hybrid cattle populations from the perimeter of the tsetse zone in West Africa. A Bayesian method to assign microsatellite allele ancestry was used to designate the likely origin of each chromosomal segment and assess the relative ages of admixture in the populations. A gradient of the age of admixture in the African continent emerged, where older admixture has produced more fragmented haplotypes in the south, and longer intact haplotypes, indicating more recent hybridization, feature in the northwest. PMID:16582445

  11. Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Frenz, Patricia; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Methods We obtained data on 16 631 participants aged 50 years or older who had at least one diagnosed chronic condition from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Access to basic chronic care and financial hardship were assessed and the influence of health insurance and rural or urban residence was determined by logistic regression analysis. Findings The weighted proportion of participants with access to basic chronic care ranged from 20.6% in Mexico to 47.6% in South Africa. Access rates were unequally distributed and disadvantaged poor people, except in South Africa where primary health care is free to all. Rural residence did not affect access. The proportion with catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure for the last outpatient visit ranged from 14.5% in China to 54.8% in Ghana. Financial hardship was more common among the poor in most countries but affected all income groups. Health insurance generally increased access to care but gave insufficient protection against financial hardship. Conclusion No country provided access to basic chronic care for more than half of the participants with chronic illness. The poor were less likely to receive care and more likely to face financial hardship in most countries. However, inequity of access was not fully determined by the level of economic development or insurance coverage. Future health reforms should aim to improve service quality and increase democratic oversight of health care. PMID:27034521

  12. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  13. Assessment of the vitamin A status of preschool and school age Senegalese children during a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Carlier, C; Etchepare, M; Ceccon, J F; Amédée-Manesme, O

    1992-01-01

    The increasing concern about vitamin A deficiency in even its mild subclinical form has created the need for a mass screening test. Various clinical, biochemical and cytological methods for assessing the vitamin A status have been widely used but all are unsatisfactory for technical, ethical or public health reasons. The two prevalence criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) for a vitamin A deficiency problem of public health significance are xerophthalmia and serum retinol concentrations. Recently we proposed a prevalence criterion for impression cytology with transfer (ICT) at the level of 50% of ICT results being abnormal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and also undernutrition during the dry season in a random sample of 1,259 children (n = 442 for the 2-6 years and n = 817 for the 7-14 years) from a rural area in Senegal. Prevalence was 0 times and 4.2 times the WHO criteria for xerophthalmia and deficient serum retinol levels, respectively in preschool children. Abnormal ICT results were more frequent in preschool than in school children (53.4% versus 21.0%). There was an association between abnormal ICT results and stunting. Vitamin A deficiency was a public health problem in preschool children as assessed by the biochemical criterion (20.9% of serum retinol values under 0.35 mumol/l) or the cytological cut-off (53.4% of abnormal ICT results) but was also found in school children (21.0% of abnormal ICT results). PMID:1473901

  14. Development and testing of a work measurement tool to assess caregivers' activities in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Munyisia, Esther; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computerized information systems into health care practices may cause changes to the way healthcare workers conduct their routine work activities, such as work flow and the time spend on each activity. To date the available work measurement tools are confined to activities in hospitals and do not cover residential aged care facilities (RACFs). There is little evidence about the effects of technology on caregivers' work practices, including the distribution of time on activities in a RACF. This requires the measurement of caregivers' activities using a valid and reliable measurement tool. The contribution of this research is to develop and test such a tool. The tool was developed based on literature research and validation in two RACFs. The final instrument contains 48 activities that are grouped into seven categories. They include direct care, indirect care, communication, documentation, personal activities, in-transit and others. This measurement tool can be used to measure the changes in caregivers' work activities associated with the introduction of computerized information systems in RACFs, including the efficiency gains of such systems. PMID:20841879

  15. [Reliability of the PRISCUS-PAQ. Questionnaire to assess physical activity of persons aged 70 years and older].

    PubMed

    Trampisch, U; Platen, P; Burghaus, I; Moschny, A; Wilm, S; Thiem, U; Hinrichs, T

    2010-12-01

    A questionnaire (Q) to measure physical activity (PA) of persons ≥70 years for epidemiological research is lacking. The aim was to develop the PRISCUS-PAQ and test the reliability in community-dwelling people (≥70 years). Validated PA questionnaires were translated and adapted to design the PRISCUS-PAQ. Its test-retest reliability for 91 randomly selected people (36% men) aged 70-98 (76±5) years ranged from 0.47 (walking) to 0.82 (riding a bicycle). The overall activity score was 0.59 as determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Recording of general activities, e.g., housework (ICC=0.59), was in general less reliable than athletic activities, e.g., gymnastics (ICC=0.76). The PRISCUS-PAQ, which is a short instrument with acceptable reliability to collect the physical activity of the elderly in a telephone interview, will be used to collect data in a large cohort of older people in the German research consortium PRISCUS.

  16. Assessment of cheating behavior in young school-age children: distinguishing normative behaviors from risk markers of externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Callender, Kevin A; Olson, Sheryl L; Kerr, David C R; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems (EXT). Cheating behavior was measured using two resistance-to-temptation tasks and coded for extent of cheating, latency to cheat, and inappropriate positive affect. Mothers rated internalized conduct and three forms of self-regulation: inhibitory control, impulsivity, and affective distress. Mothers and teachers reported EXT concurrently (T1) and 4 years later, when children averaged 10 years of age (T2). Children categorized as severe cheaters manifested lower inhibitory control, greater impulsivity, and lower levels of internalized conduct at T1. Children in this group also manifested higher levels of EXT in home and school settings at T1 and more EXT in the school setting at T2, even after accounting for T1 ratings. PMID:21058125

  17. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Monson, D H; Doak, D F; Ballachey, B E; Johnson, A; Bodkin, J L

    2000-06-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses. PMID:10823920

  18. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Monson, D H; Doak, D F; Ballachey, B E; Johnson, A; Bodkin, J L

    2000-06-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long-term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  19. Long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otters, assessed through age-dependent mortality patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    We use age distributions of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1976 and 1998 in conjunction with time-varying demographic models to test for lingering effects from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Our results show that sea otters in this area had decreased survival rates in the years following the spill and that the effects of the spill on annual survival increased rather than dissipated for older animals. Otters born after the 1989 spill were affected less than those alive in March 1989, but do show continuing negative effects through 1998. Population-wide effects of the spill appear to have slowly dissipated through time, due largely to the loss of cohorts alive during the spill. Our results demonstrate that the difficult-to-detect long- term impacts of environmental disasters may still be highly significant and can be rigorously analyzed by using a combination of population data, modeling techniques, and statistical analyses.

  20. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  1. Assessment of cheating behavior in young school-age children: distinguishing normative behaviors from risk markers of externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Callender, Kevin A; Olson, Sheryl L; Kerr, David C R; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems (EXT). Cheating behavior was measured using two resistance-to-temptation tasks and coded for extent of cheating, latency to cheat, and inappropriate positive affect. Mothers rated internalized conduct and three forms of self-regulation: inhibitory control, impulsivity, and affective distress. Mothers and teachers reported EXT concurrently (T1) and 4 years later, when children averaged 10 years of age (T2). Children categorized as severe cheaters manifested lower inhibitory control, greater impulsivity, and lower levels of internalized conduct at T1. Children in this group also manifested higher levels of EXT in home and school settings at T1 and more EXT in the school setting at T2, even after accounting for T1 ratings.

  2. A Longitudinal Assessment of Associations between Adolescent Environment, Adversity Perception, and Economic Status on Fertility and Age of Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338

  3. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman’s correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7–12 years in Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  4. Age- and Sex-Specific Criterion Validity of the Health Survey for England Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire as Compared With Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Coombs, Ngaire; Pedisic, Zeljko; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Bauman, Adrian; Rowlands, Alex V.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The criterion validity of the 2008 Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ) was examined in a nationally representative sample of 2,175 persons aged ≥16 years in England using accelerometry. Using accelerometer minutes/day greater than or equal to 200 counts as a criterion, Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) for PASBAQ-assessed total activity was 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.35) in women and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.26) in men. Correlations between accelerometer counts/minute of wear time and questionnaire-assessed relative energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent-minutes/day) were higher in women (ρ = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.46) than in men (ρ = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.38). Similar correlations were observed for minutes/day spent in vigorous activity (women: ρ = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.46; men: ρ = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.36) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (women: ρ = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.48; men: ρ = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.45). Correlations for time spent being sedentary (<100 counts/minute) were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.35) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.30) in women and men, respectively. Sedentary behavior correlations showed no sex difference. The validity of sedentary behavior and total physical activity was higher in older age groups, but validity was higher in younger persons for vigorous-intensity activity. The PASBAQ is a useful and valid instrument for ranking individuals according to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. PMID:24863551

  5. Early identification of social-emotional problems: Applicability of the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) at its lower age limit.

    PubMed

    Sanner, Nina; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2016-02-01

    ITSEA is an often recommended tool for assessment of social-emotional problems and competence delays in children aged 12-36 months, but concerns have been raised about low variability and age-inappropriate questions for children as young as 12 months. This study explored ITSEA's (1) psychometric properties, (2) properties concerning the detection of clinically significant problems and competence delays and (3) discriminant validity at 12 months. A total of 102 children with high versus low risk scores on marker measures of developmental status and parenting stress obtained at 6 months, were selected from a longitudinal population-based study to participate in the present study. Risk status was operationalized as Bayley III Screening Test (Bayley, 2005a. Bayley scales of infant and toddler development: Screening test manual (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) Composite Subscale scores and Parenting Stress Index total score (PSI, 3rd edition, Abidin, 1995. Parenting Stress Index. Professional manual. (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). At 12 months, ITSEA was administered to parents as a structured interview to identify guidance needs and to collect qualitative information about the items, and the assessment of developmental level and parenting stress was repeated. All ITSEA domains and subscales were found to be relevant. However, nearly all respondents needed guidance. Moreover, there were substantial floor/ceiling effects on subscale level and one item had to be discarded. ITSEA was used in combination with the Bayley-III Screener and PSI to detect cases with clinically significant scores, with ITSEA making a unique contribution to case detection. Dysregulation problems were the most frequently detected, and the differences between high-risk and low-risk group children and gender differences indicated adequate discriminant validity. The results suggest that ITSEA may be meaningfully applied even among children as young as 12 months. PMID

  6. Assessing the Feasibility of a Web-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley A; Robbins, Cheryl L; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ni, Ai; Morrow, John; Vu, Maihan B; Johnston, Larry F; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income women of reproductive age are at increased risk for obesity and resulting increases in the risk of maternal/fetal complications and mortality and morbidity. Very few weight-loss interventions, however, have been targeted to this high-risk group. Based on the high prevalence of social media use among young and low-income individuals and previous successes using group formats for weight-loss interventions, the use of social media as a platform for weight-loss intervention delivery may benefit low-income women of reproductive age. Objective Examine the feasibility of delivering group-based weight-loss interventions to low-income women of reproductive age using face-to-face meetings and Web-based modalities including social media. Methods Participants attended a family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina and received a 5-month, group- and Web-based, face-to-face weight-loss intervention. Measures were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks. Results Forty participants enrolled, including 29 (73%) African American women. The mean body mass index of enrollees was 39 kg/m2. Among the 12 women who completed follow-up, mean weight change was -1.3 kg. Participation in the intervention was modest and retention at 5 months was 30%. Returnees suggested sending reminders to improve participation and adding activities to increase familiarity among participants. Conclusions Engagement with the intervention was limited and attrition was high. Additional formative work on the barriers and facilitators to participation may improve the intervention’s feasibility with low-income women of reproductive age. PMID:26920252

  7. Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites: National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.; Runkle, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Piston-flow age dates were interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers from 812 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites from 27 Study Units across the United States. The tracers of interest include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis were collected from 2006 to 2010 from groundwater wells in NAWQA studies, including: * Land-Use Studies (LUS, shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, located in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings), * Major-Aquifer Studies (MAS, wells, usually domestic supply wells, located in principal aquifers and representing the shallow drinking water supply), * Flow System Studies (FSS, networks of clustered wells located along a flowpath extending from a recharge zone to a discharge zone, preferably a shallow stream) associated with Land-Use Studies, and * Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) also associated with Land-Use Studies. Tracer data were evaluated using documented methods and are presented as aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), and tracer-based piston-flow ages. Selected ancillary data, such as redox data, well-construction data, and major dissolved-gas (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2) data, also are presented. Recharge temperature was inferred using climate data (approximated by mean annual air temperature plus 1°C [MAAT +1°C]) as well as major dissolved-gas data (N2-Ar-based) where available. The N2-Ar-based temperatures showed significantly more variation than the climate-based data, as well as the effects of denitrification and degassing resulting from reducing conditions. The N2-Ar-based temperatures were colder than the climate-based temperatures in networks where recharge was limited to the winter months when evapotranspiration was reduced. The tracer-based piston-flow ages

  8. An assessment of the reliability of palaeointensity results obtained from the Cretaceous aged Suhongtu section, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi J.; Pan, Yongxin; Davies, Ceri J.

    2008-08-01

    Here we present microwave palaeointensity results from 89 sister samples from the study of Zhu et al. [Zhu, R., Pan, Y., He, H., Qin, H., Ren, S., 2008. Palaeomagnetism and 40Ar/ 39Ar age from a Cretaceous volcanic sequence, Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the field variation during the Cretaceous normal superchron. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 169, 59-75] who carried out Thellier palaeointensity analysis as part of their integrated palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating study of Cretaceous lava from the Suhungtu section, Inner Mongolia, China. Additionally, a comprehensive rock magnetic investigation has been carried out in order to determine the mineralogy and hence the validity of assuming that the remanence is a thermal remanent magnetisation (TRM). The microwave results are of apparent high quality and give flow mean palaeointensity estimates ranging from 13 to 49 μT corresponding to virtual dipole moment (VDM) estimates ranging from 2.5 to 8.9 × 10 22 Am 2, and an overall mean VDM of 5.5 ± 1.9 × 10 22 Am 2 for the 24 flows (aged 110.6 ± 0.1 Ma). When the microwave results (using the perpendicular applied field method with partial microwave thermal remanence (pT MRM) and pT MRM tail checks) are compared to those obtained with the Thellier method (Coe version with pTRM but not tail checks, and heating in argon atmosphere) differences are seen at the sample, flow and palaeomagnetic unit level however, the overall means and spread in palaeointensity estimates are consistent. Some discrepancy is due to the differing sized sample sets and sample inhomogeneity but discrepancy is also interpreted to be due to the differing protocols, methodology, plus the subjectivity in interpretation. Considering only those results that are consistent to within 20% the spread in palaeointensity estimates remains. There is substantial rock magnetic evidence from progressive heating in air and argon experiments (both showing irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour) as well as

  9. Assessment of targeting accuracy of a low-energy stereotactic radiosurgery treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Chell, Erik; Hansen, Steven; Gertner, Michael; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2010-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the United States, is a neovascular disease that may be controlled with radiation therapy. Early patient outcomes of external beam radiotherapy, however, have been mixed. Recently, a novel multimodality treatment was developed, comprising external beam radiotherapy and concomitant treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor. The radiotherapy arm is performed by stereotactic radiosurgery, delivering a 16 Gy dose in the macula (clinical target volume, CTV) using three external low-energy x-ray fields while adequately sparing normal tissues. The purpose of our study was to test the sensitivity of the delivery of the prescribed dose in the CTV using this technique and of the adequate sparing of normal tissues to all plausible variations in the position and gaze angle of the eye. Using Monte Carlo simulations of a 16 Gy treatment, we varied the gaze angle by ±5° in the polar and azimuthal directions, the linear displacement of the eye ±1 mm in all orthogonal directions, and observed the union of the three fields on the posterior wall of spheres concentric with the eye that had diameters between 20 and 28 mm. In all cases, the dose in the CTV fluctuated <6%, the maximum dose in the sclera was <20 Gy, the dose in the optic disc, optic nerve, lens and cornea were <0.7 Gy and the three-field junction was adequately preserved. The results of this study provide strong evidence that for plausible variations in the position of the eye during treatment, either by the setup error or intrafraction motion, the prescribed dose will be delivered to the CTV and the dose in structures at risk will be kept far below tolerance doses.

  10. Benefit/Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention With Raloxifene or Tamoxifen for Women Age 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Andrew N.; Yu, Binbing; Gail, Mitchell H.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Graubard, Barry I.; Vogel, Victor G.; Anderson, Garnet L.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) demonstrated that raloxifene was as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer (IBC) in postmenopausal women and had lower risks of thromboembolic events, endometrial cancer, and cataracts but had a nonstatistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. There is a need to summarize the risks and benefits of these agents. Patients and Methods Baseline incidence rates of IBC and other health outcomes, absent raloxifene and tamoxifen, were estimated from breast cancer chemoprevention trials; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program; and the Women's Health Initiative. Effects of raloxifene and tamoxifen were estimated from STAR and the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. We assigned weights to health outcomes to calculate the net benefit from raloxifene compared with placebo and tamoxifen compared with placebo. Results Risks and benefits of treatment with raloxifene or tamoxifen depend on age, race, breast cancer risk, and history of hysterectomy. Over a 5-year period, postmenopausal women with an intact uterus had a better benefit/risk index for raloxifene than for tamoxifen. For postmenopausal women without a uterus, the benefit/risk ratio was similar. The benefits and risks of raloxifene and tamoxifen are described in tables that can help identify groups of women for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Conclusion We developed a benefit/risk index to quantify benefits from chemoprevention with tamoxifen or raloxifene. This index can complement clinical evaluation in deciding whether to initiate chemoprevention and in comparing the benefits and risks of raloxifene versus tamoxifen. PMID:21537036

  11. ASSESSING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CARIES PREVALENCE AND BODY MASS INDEX AND NUTRITIONAL DATA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6-12 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Arunakul, Malee; Srisuchat, Natchanon; Chotthanakarn, Nutcha; Praisuwanna, Nathaporn; Luckamnuyporn, Natasan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to examine associations between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) and diet in 6 to 12 year old children. One hundred subjects were included in the study. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), height and weight were examined in each subject. The primary caregiver for each subject completed a diet questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a chi-square test, a Fisher's exact test, a Kruskal-Wallis test and an independent sample t-test. Associations between variables and caries were examined using a Spearman's correlation with significance set at a p-value < 0.05. The mean age, BMI and number of DMFT were 9.21 ± 2.1 years old, 18.52 ± 4.8 kg/m2, and 4.03 ± 4.36, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI, 24% were overweight, and 9% were underweight. Twenty-three percent of subjects had no dental caries (DMFT score = 0), 23% had moderate to many caries (DMFT scores = 3.1-6.9), 22% had very many caries (DMFT scores ≥ 7), 17% had few caries (DMFT scores < 3). Overweight and underweight children did not have a significantly different number of DMFT than normal weight children. The number of DMFT did not correlate with reported sugar (R = -0.128) or carbohydrate (R = -0.174) consumption. There was no significant association between BMI and dental caries and amount of sugar and carbohydrate consumption and dental caries. PMID:27086436

  12. A multispecies statistical age-structured model to assess predator-prey balance: application to an intensively managed Lake Michigan pelagic fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsehaye, Iyob; Jones, Michael L.; Bence, James R.; Brenden, Travis O.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Warner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Using a Bayesian model fitting approach, we developed a multispecies statistical catch-at-age model to assess trade-offs between predatory demands and prey productivities, focusing on the Lake Michigan pelagic fish community. We assessed these trade-offs in terms of predation mortalities and productivities of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and functional responses of salmonines. Our predation mortality estimates suggest that salmonine consumption has been a major driver of historical fluctuations in prey abundance, with sharp declines in alewife abundance in the 1980s and 2000s coinciding with estimated increases in predation mortalities. While Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were food limited during periods of low alewife abundance, other salmonines appeared to maintain a (near) maximum per-predator consumption across all observed prey densities, suggesting that feedback mechanisms are unlikely to help maintain a balance between predator consumption and prey productivity in Lake Michigan. This study demonstrates that a multispecies modeling approach that combines stock assessment methods with explicit consideration of predator–prey interactions could provide the basis for tactical decision-making from a broader ecosystem perspective.

  13. End-of-life mental health assessments for older aged, medically ill persons with expressed desire to die.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Linda E; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Garrick, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, assisted suicide has been legalized in four states for those who are terminally ill and wish to end their lives with the assistance of lethal doses of medications prescribed by a physician. The ethics-related and legal questions raised by end-of-life suicide and decisional capacity to refuse treatment assessments are complex. In treating patients with end-stage medical conditions or disorders that severely affect the future quality of their lives, clinicians tend to engage in suicide prevention at all costs. Overriding the patient's expressed desire to die conflicts with another value, however, that of the individual's right to autonomy. We provide a framework for understanding these difficult decisions, by providing a review of the epidemiology of suicide in later life; reviewing findings from a unique dataset of suicides among the elderly obtained from the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office, as well as data from states with legalized assisted suicide; presenting a discussion of the two frameworks of suicidal ideation as a pathological versus an existential reaction; and giving a case example that highlights the dilemmas faced by clinicians addressing decisional capacity to refuse treatment in an elderly, medically ill patient who has expressed the wish to die.

  14. A comparative assessment of genetic diversity among differently-aged populations of Spartina alterniflora on restored versus natural wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Travis, S.E.; Proffitt, C.E.; Lowenfeld, R.C.; Mitchell, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    We collected naturally recolonizing Spartina alterniflora (smooth cord grass) from each of three restored sites and one undisturbed reference site in southwestern Louisiana to assess the impact of wetland restoration on genetic diversity. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to produce 94 polymorphic genetic markers, which were used to characterize genetic diversity as average heterozygosity and the proportion of polymorphic loci . Overall our findings indicate that restored populations of S. alterniflora maintain levels of genetic diversity comparable to natural populations, which should provide some measure of resistance against environmental disturbances. Diversity estimates were lowest for the natural reference site ( = 0.1059; = 0.2763), whereas estimates for the three restored sites ranged from = 0.1148 to 0.1256 and = 0.3114 to 0.3202. All sites maintained sufficiently high diversity levels to suggest significant rates of outcrossing. Overall, genetic differentiation among populations was small (Weir and Cockerham's ?? = 0.0645), with the values from each pairwise comparison among the populations increasing with the geographic distance between sites (range = 0.0490-0.1101). These values indicate an average migration rate of 3.6 migrants, either pollen or seeds, per generation.

  15. Assessment of Difference in Dimensions of Sexual Orientation: Implications for Substance Use Research in a College-Age Population*

    PubMed Central

    McCABE, SEAN ESTEBAN; HUGHES, TONDA L.; BOSTWICK, WENDY; BOYD, CAROL J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present research examines the associations between three distinct dimensions of sexual orientation and substance use in a random sample of undergraduate students. Method A Web-based survey was administered to students attending a large, midwestern research university in the spring of 2003. The sample consisted of 9,161 undergraduate students: 56% female, 68% white, 13% Asian, 6% black, 4% Hispanic and 9% other racial categories. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, several measures of alcohol and other drug use were compared across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior. Results All three dimensions of sexual orientation were associated with substance use, including heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use. Consistent with results of several other recent studies, “nonheterosexual” identity, attraction or behavior was associated with a more pronounced and consistent risk of substance use in women than in men. Conclusions Study findings suggest substantial variability in substance use across the three dimensions of sexual orientation and reinforce the importance of stratifying by gender and using multiple measures to assess sexual orientation. Study results have implications for future research and for interventions aimed at reducing substance use among college students. PMID:16331847

  16. Creating the Multi-Age Classroom: Organization, Curriculum, Instructional Strategies and Assessment for the Multi-Age Classroom Plus Considerations for Getting Started and Techniques for Classroom Management. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Janet Caudill

    Intended for teachers who have asked for information on how to manage a multi-age classroom, this book outlines the ideal classroom as it exists when all of the multi-age components are put in place. Opening sections of the guide discuss creating the multi-age classroom, and the advantages and principles of multi-age instruction. The next sections…

  17. Age assessment by the Greulich and Pyle method compared to other skeletal X-ray and dental methods in data from Finnish child victims of the Southeast Asian Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Varkkola, Olli; Ranta, Helena; Metsäniitty, Mari; Sajantila, Antti

    2011-12-01

    The validity of the age assessment method based on the "Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist" by Greulich and Pyle (1st edition 1950) has been frequently questioned. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of this widely used method and to compare it to various dental and other skeletal age assessment methods. Forty-seven Finnish children of known ages below 16 years, who perished in Thailand in the Southeast Asian Tsunami on 26 December 2004 were examined. Every victim repatriated to Finland underwent a complete forensic autopsy including CT-scan, toxicological screening, and diatom analysis in order to establish the cause of death, as well as DNA testing and dental examination for the verification of the identification established in Thailand. Age assessment was performed by dental and skeletal methods. The average difference between the age assessment values obtained by the Greulich and Pyle method, and the chronological age was 9.7 months. In addition to the Greulich and Pyle method, an alternate skeletal method, Tanner and Whitehouse 2, resulted in an average age difference of 10.3 months. Dental age assessment methods were based either on the eruption (Nyström method, 8 cases, average age difference 5.6 months), or the development of the crown and roots (Demirjian method, 33 cases, average age difference 5.2 months and ABFO method, 7 cases, average differences 12.6 months). Dental methods proved to be most accurate in childhood until the teeth-with the exception of wisdom teeth-have erupted and root development is completed. In adolescence, however, the validity of skeletal methods improves considerably.

  18. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  19. Sonar biparietal diameter. II. Predictive of three fetal growth patterns leading to a closer assessment of gestational age and neonatal weight.

    PubMed

    Sabbagha, R E; Barton, B A; Barton, F B; Kingas, E; Turner, J H

    1976-10-15

    Serial BPD readings were obtained from 142 normal parturients, with established dates, between 20 to 40 weeks of pregnancy. It is noted that fetal BPD's can be separated into one of three percentile rankings: large (i.e. above the seventy-fifth percentile), average (i.e. twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentile), and small (i.e. below the twenty-fifth percentile). In addition, it is shown that, under normal conditions, fetuses intially placed in any one of these cephalic levels will continue to grow within the confines of the same percentile range. This biologic phenomenon has not been previously reported in human fetal growth. It is important because it leads to a closer prediction of fetal age and a better assessment of neonatal weight and outcome.

  20. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo assessment of a new targeted inhibitor for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenbo; Dong, Lijie; Ma, Minwang; Hu, Bojie; Lu, Zhenyu; Liu, Xun; Liu, Juping; Li, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration usually causes blindness. We established a novel targeted inhibitor for CNV in age-related macular degeneration. The inhibitor CR2-sFlt 1 comprises a CR2-targeting fragment and an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) domain (sFlt 1). The targeting of CR2-sFlt 1 was studied using the transwell assay in vitro and frozen sections in vivo using green fluorescent labeling. Transwell assay results showed that CR2-sFlt 1 migrated to the interface of complement activation products and was present in the retinal tissue of the CR2-sFlt 1-treated CNV mice. Treatment effects were assessed by investigating the VEGF concentration in retinal pigmented epithelial cell medium and the thickness of the CNV complex in the mice treated with CR2-sFlt 1. CR2-sFlt 1 significantly reduced the VEGF secretion from retinal pigmented epithelial cells in vitro and retarded CNV progress in a mouse model. Expression analysis of VEGF and VEGFRs after CR2-sFlt 1 intervention indicated the existence of feedback mechanisms in exogenous CR2-sFlt 1, endogenous VEGF, and VEGFR interaction. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that using CR2-sFlt 1 could inhibit CNV with clear targeting and high selectivity. PMID:27799741