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Sample records for age blood samples

  1. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamalandua, Aubeline

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0–91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19–70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals PMID:26280308

  2. The Use of Dried Blood Spot Sampling in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This paper describes the methods used for and issues associated with collection and analysis of dried blood spot (DBS) samples for the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project and provides the basic distributions of the resulting analytes. Methods DBSs from capillary finger sticks were collected by nonmedically trained interviewers from 2,044 individuals, aged 57–85 years. The quality and quantity of DBS samples were evaluated to allow for analysis of interviewer performance. Levels of C-reactive protein, antibodies to the Epstein–Barr virus, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were assayed using various analytic methods. Results Cooperation rate for DBS collection was 84.5%, with 99% of the cards yielding enough sample for at least one analysis. The distribution, mean, and standard deviation of the analytes obtained from DBSs are also presented in this paper. Conclusions The high cooperation rate and quality of the spots collected suggest that the collection of DBSs in population-based research is a feasible and viable alternative to venous blood draws. The relative ease of sample collection, transport, and storage are significant benefits. Care should be taken, however, when comparing results from analysis of DBS samples with those obtained from serum or plasma samples. PMID:19244547

  3. Evaluation of status of trace and toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of normal and anemic children of two age groups.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Anemia affects a substantial portion of the world's population, provoking severe health problems as well as important economic losses to the region in which this condition is found. This study was designed to compare the levels of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of anemic children (n = 132) with age range 1-5 and 6-10 years of both genders. For a comparative study, 134 non-anemic age- and sex-matched children as control subjects, residing in the same city, were selected. The metals in the biological samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The proposed method was validated using certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The results indicated significantly lower levels of iron, copper, and zinc in the biological samples as compared to the control children of both genders (p = 0.01-0.008). The mean values of lead and cadmium were significantly high in all three biological samples of anemic children as compared to non-anemic children of both age groups (p = 0.005-0.001). The ratios of essential metal to toxic metals in the biological samples of anemic children of both age groups were significantly lower than that of controls. Deficiency of essential trace metals and high level of toxic metals may play a role in the development of anemia in the subjects under study.

  4. Evidence that a single gene with gender- and age-dependent effects influences systolic blood pressure determination in a population-based sample.

    PubMed Central

    Pérusse, L; Moll, P P; Sing, C F

    1991-01-01

    A biometrical study was carried out to evaluate the role of genetic variation in determining interindividual differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the population at large. SBP was measured in 1,266 Caucasian individuals in 278 pedigrees ascertained through children enrolled in the Rochester, MN, school system. The sample included 646 males and 620 females 550 years of age and not taking antihypertensive medication or oral contraceptives. Complex segregation analysis was first applied to these data by using a regression model for age, in which the intercept was gender and ousiotype specific but in which the slope was only gender specific. When the slope was independent of ousiotype, neither variation at a single gene combined with polygenic effects (mixed genetic model) nor variation in a single environmental factor combined with polygenetic effects (mixed environmental model) explained the distribution of SBP in this sample. However, when the regression model for age allowed both the intercept and slope to be gender and ousiotype specific, the mixed environmental model was rejected whereas the mixed genetic model was not. These results suggest that variability in SBP may be influenced by major effects of allelic variation at a single gene that are both gender and age dependent. This study (1) suggests that particular genotypes determined by a single gene are associated with a steeper increase of SBP with age among males and females 550 years of age in the general population and (2) illustrates the need to consider models that more realistically represent the relationship between genotypic variability and phenotypic variability, to understand the genetics of human quantitative traits. PMID:2063879

  5. Age-specific discrimination of blood plasma samples of healthy and ovarian cancer prone mice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikechi, Noureddine; Markushin, Yuri; Connolly, Denise C.; Lasue, Jeremie; Ewusi-Annan, Ebo; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2016-09-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mortality rates are strongly correlated with the stage at which it is diagnosed. Detection of EOC prior to its dissemination from the site of origin is known to significantly improve the patient outcome. However, there are currently no effective methods for early detection of the most common and lethal subtype of EOC. We sought to determine whether laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and classification techniques such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and random forest (RF) could classify and differentiate blood plasma specimens from transgenic mice with ovarian carcinoma and wild type control mice. Herein we report results using this approach to distinguish blood plasma samples obtained from serially bled (at 8, 12, and 16 weeks) tumor-bearing TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic and wild type cancer-free littermate control mice. We have calculated the age-specific accuracy of classification using 18,000 laser-induced breakdown spectra of the blood plasma samples from tumor-bearing mice and wild type controls. When the analysis is performed in the spectral range 250 nm to 680 nm using LDA, these are 76.7 (± 2.6)%, 71.2 (± 1.3)%, and 73.1 (± 1.4)%, for the 8, 12 and 16 weeks. When the RF classifier is used, we obtain values of 78.5 (± 2.3)%, 76.9 (± 2.1)% and 75.4 (± 2.0)% in the spectral range of 250 nm to 680 nm, and 81.0 (± 1.8)%, 80.4 (± 2.1)% and 79.6 (± 3.5)% in 220 nm to 850 nm. In addition, we report, the positive and negative predictive values of the classification of the two classes of blood plasma samples. The approach used in this study is rapid, requires only 5 μL of blood plasma, and is based on the use of unsupervised and widely accepted multivariate analysis algorithms. These findings suggest that LIBS and multivariate analysis may be a novel approach for detecting EOC.

  6. Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... htm Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  7. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and identification of pneumococcal serotypes by real-time polymerase chain reaction using blood samples from Italian children ≤ 5 years of age with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anna; Esposito, Susanna; Coppo, Erika; Rossi, Giovanni A; Tozzi, Alberto; Romano, Mariateresa; Da Dalt, Liviana; Schito, Gian Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe life-threatening infections. Laboratory identification and serotyping of this pathogens is desirable to monitor vaccine impact and coverage; however, especially in pediatric patients, the yield of traditional microbiological diagnostic procedures can be very low. The aim of this study was to develop real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to be performed directly on blood samples to identify the most common capsular serotypes causing pneumonia in Italian children (≤ 5 years of ages) after the introduction of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Our real-time PCR-based assays showed high sensitivity (at least 35 fg of pneumococcal DNA), and they were validated with 49 well-characterized pneumococcal isolates, 8 nonpneumococcal isolates, 13 simulated blood clinical samples loaded with S. pneumoniae of known serotypes, and 46 blood clinical samples. All the strains tested and the simulated blood clinical samples were correctly typed by the technique. Real-time PCR allowed serotyping in 37/46 children ≤ 5 years of age (80.4%) in whom pneumonia was diagnosed in four Italian hospitals. Non-PCV7 serotypes accounted for at least 47.8% (22/46) of cases, serotype 19A being the most common (34.7%, 16/46). Although, it is not known at present whether the incidence of 19A serotype is attributable to the use of PCV7 only, expanding pneumococcal serotype coverage has clearly the potential to prevent a larger number of pneumonias in Italian children less than ≤ 5 years of age. Molecular methods are of increasing importance in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and in monitoring serotype distribution and replacement.

  8. Detection of progesterone in whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Scheller, Frieder W; Bier, Frank F

    2003-04-01

    The progesterone concentration in blood samples can be utilised as a marker for the diagnosis of early pregnancy, endocrinopathy and virilism. Here, we describe a method for progesterone detection and measurement in whole blood samples by a surface sensitive biosensor used in conjunction with an integrated optical grating coupler. This device determines refractive index changes near the biosensor's surface. Hence, biological species bound to a surface layer can be measured in real-time without any label. For the measurements, we have modified the indirect competitive immunoassay principle. The concentration of the progesterone antibody was kept at 1 microg/ml. Progesterone concentration was determined in buffer solution and whole blood in a range between 0.005 and 10 ng/ml. The detection limit was determined to be 3 pM. The relative standard deviation was calculated to be 3.5%.

  9. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yinan; Joyce, Brian T; Colicino, Elena; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Qi; Shrubsole, Martha J; Kibbe, Warren A; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Zhou; Jafari, Nadereh; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hou, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality (P = 0.02). Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a 'J-shaped' manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  10. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process. PMID:27545843

  11. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  15. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  16. Manual versus automated blood sampling: impact of repeated blood sampling on stress parameters and behavior in male NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling by automated blood sampling and from the tail vein is less stressful than cheek blood sampling. The choice between automated blood sampling and tail blood sampling should be based on the study requirements, the resources of the laboratory and skills of the staff. PMID:24958546

  17. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - aging; Atherosclerosis - aging ... Some changes in the heart and blood vessels normally occur with age. However, many other changes that are common with aging are due to modifiable ...

  18. Prepubertal stature and blood pressure in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, S.; Berney, L.; Blane, D.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To test the hypothesis that childhood growth rate is a marker for formation of control mechanisms that influence blood pressure in early old age.
METHODS—Data are from a sample of 149 (74 male) members of Sir John Boyd Orr's survey of British families conducted between 1937 and 1939. Measured heights were collected between ages 5 and 8 years, and in early old age between 1997 and 1998. Multiple linear regression investigated the relations of blood pressure with age and sex standardised childhood height with adjustment for potential confounding factors, including adult height. Inclusion of both childhood and adult heights in the same model was used to estimate growth, as measures of childhood height are relative to adult height.
RESULTS—Mean blood pressures in early old age for those in the shortest childhood height fifth were 167.8 and 76.3 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, respectively. For the tallest fifth they were 150.8 and 63.7 mm Hg, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including adult height, the mean increase for the shortest childhood height fifth compared with the tallest was 28.5 mm Hg for systolic pressure (p = 0.015) and 22.8 mm Hg (p = 0.010) for pulse pressure. The relations of blood pressure with adult height were not statistically significant in the adjusted models.
CONCLUSION—Prepubertal growth rate is associated with the formation of mechanisms associated with the control of blood pressure in later life.

 PMID:10799423

  19. Guide to capillary heelstick blood sampling in infants.

    PubMed

    Folk, Laura A

    2007-08-01

    Capillary blood sampling is an essential method of blood collection performed by nurses of all skill levels to obtain samples for routine laboratory tests in neonates. Accuracy of results depends on proper heelstick and sample collection technique. Recent advances including development of devices designed specifically for heelstick capillary blood sampling and research into expanded safe heel capillary sampling sites are discussed. A step-by-step guide to capillary blood sampling is outlined along with evidence-based practice incorporating neonatal-appropriate disinfection and nonpharmacological analgesia that contribute to improved infant safety and comfort during and after the procedure.

  20. A technique for improved blood sampling during sleep studies.

    PubMed

    Ona, E; Dimsdale, J E; Ancoli-Israel, S; Dillon, E; Watkins, L; Coy, T V; Clausen, J

    1994-11-01

    Research protocols often require that blood samples be drawn during sleep. This study compares the efficacy of obtaining nocturnal blood samples using a standard heparinized intravenous setup versus the same intravenous setup used in conjunction with a small chemical heating pad. The chemical heating pad significantly improved the number of blood samples obtained and the maintenance of intravenous patency. The use of a chemical heating pad is an economical way to resolve the frustration of lost blood samples while maintaining a reasonable environment to monitor sleep.

  1. Brain metabolism and blood flow during aging.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, B

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of cerebral metabolism have suggested that although cerebral blood flow is reduced during rest in the healthy aged brain, there is little or no decline in resting glucose consumption. Intercorrelations between resting regional cerebral rates for glucose (rCMRglc), as determined by positron emission tomography using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, were shown to provide a measure of the functional associativity of brain regions. Partial correlation coefficients, controlling for whole brain glucose metabolism, were used in the analysis. Dividing the brain into 59 regions, we found, for 40 healthy males (21-83 years in age) in a state of reduced sensory input, that the strongest correlations generally were between bilaterally symmetric brain regions, and that there were many statistically significant correlations (P less than 0.01) among frontal and parietal lobe regions and also among temporal and occipital lobe areas, but few significant correlations between these two domains. The correlation analysis then was applied to two groups (15 healthy males each) of young (20-32 years old) and elderly (64-83 years old) subjects in the same resting state. Compared with the young group, we found that the elderly subjects have fewer statistically significant (P less than 0.01) correlations, with the most noteworthy reductions being between parietal and frontal lobe regions, and among parietal lobe areas. These findings indicated that cerebral functional interactions were reduced in the healthy elderly. The same analysis, applied to 21 mainly mildly-to-moderately impaired presumed Alzheimer subjects (and 21 age-matched controls), revealed fewer significant correlations between homologous brain regions which correspond to metabolic asymmetries linked to neuropsychological deficiencies.

  2. Blood oxygen saturation determined by transmission spectrophotometry of hemolyzed blood samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Use of the Lambert-Beer Transmission Law determines blood oxygen saturation of hemolyzed blood samples. This simplified method is based on the difference in optical absorption properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

  3. Sampling problems in the micro determination of blood lead.

    PubMed

    Juselius, R E; Lupovich, P; Moriarty, R

    1975-01-01

    Sampling tube and fingertip contamination were found to present potential problems in the collection of samples for micro blood lead analyses. Large differences between micro screening and macro confirming lead levels were frequently observed when the time between collection of the two samples was 1-2 weeks. The magnitude of these differences decreased as macro blood lead concentration increased and were apparently a result of episodic lead ingestion in the population.

  4. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  5. Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

  6. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  7. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  8. Intraoperative blood loss and gestational age at pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Marchiano; Thomas; Lapinski; Balwan; Patel

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To establish the relationship of measured intraoperative blood loss to gestational age at pregnancy termination, and to determine which factors, if any, affect the risk of bleeding.Methods: A single-operator series of 363 consecutive women undergoing pregnancy termination between 5 and 24 weeks gestational age, as dated by ultrasound, was prospectively evaluated. All pregnancies under 13 weeks gestation were terminated by mechanical dilation and suction curettage without preoperative cervical ripening. All pregnancies between 13 and 24 weeks gestation were terminated by preoperative osmotic cervical dilation with laminaria tents and subsequent uterine evacuation by a combination of suction curettage, sharp curettage, and Bierer forceps extraction. All patients over 12 weeks gestation received a postoperative oxytocin infusion. Whenever possible, amniotic fluid and blood were collected and measured separately. Patients were excluded from the data analysis for pregnancy demise, PPROM, Potter's syndrome, or inability to separate blood establish their relationship. After adjustment for gestational age, the results were analyzed to determine if blood loss was related to maternal age, smoking history, body habitus, or operative indication.Results: A curvilinear relationship between blood loss and gestational age was observed. Mean blood loss at 24 weeks exceeded 800 mL. After adjustment for gestational age, no factors significantly affected blood loss at dilation and aspiration of first trimester pregnancies. In those patients undergoing dilation and evacuation in the second trimester, both simple and stepwise regression analyses showed obesity (BMI >/=32.3) to be significantly associated with increased blood loss (P <.05). Neither age, parity, previous cesarean section, nor smoking history were significantly associated with increased blood loss at dilation and evacuation.Conclusions: With advancing gestational age, intraoperative blood loss increases in

  9. Relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow during supine cycling: influence of aging.

    PubMed

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Keegan; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Hansen, Alex; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-03-01

    The cerebral pressure-flow relationship can be quantified as a high-pass filter, where slow oscillations are buffered (<0.20 Hz) and faster oscillations are passed through relatively unimpeded. During moderate intensity exercise, previous studies have reported paradoxical transfer function analysis (TFA) findings (altered phase or intact gain). This study aimed to determine whether these previous findings accurately represent this relationship. Both younger (20-30 yr; n = 10) and older (62-72 yr; n = 9) adults were examined. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, large oscillations in blood pressure (via oscillatory lower body negative pressure; OLBNP) were induced during steady-state moderate intensity supine exercise (∼45-50% of heart rate reserve). Beat-to-beat blood pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) range spontaneous data were quantified. Driven OLBNP point estimates were sampled at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. The OLBNP maneuvers augmented coherence to >0.97 at 0.05 Hz and >0.98 at 0.10 Hz in both age groups. The OLBNP protocol conclusively revealed the cerebrovascular system functions as a high-pass filter during exercise throughout aging. It was also discovered that the older adults had elevations (+71%) in normalized gain (+0.46 ± 0.36%/%: 0.05 Hz) and reductions (-34%) in phase (-0.24 ± 0.22 radian: 0.10 Hz). There were also age-related phase differences between resting and exercise conditions. It is speculated that these age-related changes in the TFA metrics are mediated by alterations in vasoactive factors, sympathetic tone, or the mechanical buffering of the compliance vessels.

  10. [Blood sampling using "dried blood spot": a clinical biology revolution underway?].

    PubMed

    Hirtz, Christophe; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Blood testing using the dried blood spot (DBS) is used since the 1960s in clinical analysis, mainly within the framework of the neonatal screening (Guthrie test). Since then numerous analytes such as nucleic acids, small molecules or lipids, were successfully measured on the DBS. While this pre-analytical method represents an interesting alternative to classic blood sampling, its use in routine is still limited. We review here the different clinical applications of the blood sampling on DBS and estimate its future place, supported by the new methods of analysis as the LC-MS mass spectrometry.

  11. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  12. Determination of chlorinated insecticides in blood samples of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Rosell, M G; Obiols, J; Berenguer, M J; Guardino, X; López, F; Brosa, J

    1993-11-26

    Lindane, aldrin and p,p'-DDT were determined in blood samples from 71 farmers by means of an analytical method which combines a direct whole-blood extraction with n-hexane and gas chromatography (GC)-electron-capture detection (ECD), using a capillary column, applied to the organic extract. This technique allowed the determination of pesticides at levels varying from 0.1 to 180 micrograms per l of blood, the detection limit for every pesticide being 0.1 microgram/l. GC-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the identity of each pesticide. The advantage of capillary column GC-ECD for pesticide determination is its sensitivity and high resolution, which makes it possible to separate pesticides from a complex n-hexane extract obtained in a very simple pretreatment of the blood sample, which is itself a very complex matrix.

  13. Viscosity measurements on very small capillary blood samples.

    PubMed

    Eugster, M; Häusler, K; Reinhart, W H

    2007-01-01

    Viscosity measurements on very small capillary blood samples could be of considerable clinical interest. We have developed an oscillating viscometer for very small volumes, which consists of a glass capillary containing 7 mul of blood, which is part of an oscillating torsional resonator. The damping of the sinusoidal oscillations depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid, which allows blood viscosity measurements. The instrument was first evaluated in comparison with a standard blood viscometer (Contraves LS 30). Blood from healthy volunteers anticoagulated with EDTA was adjusted to hematocrit levels of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60%, respectively. A strong correlation was found between hematocrit and oscillating viscosity (y=0.17x-2.05, r=0.969, p<0.0001) and between oscillating and conventional high shear viscosity (y=1.11x-0.62, r=0.971, p<0.0001). Blood viscosity measured in venous or capillary blood of normal subjects was similar (p=0.63). Bedside viscosity measurements on capillary blood drawn from a finger prick during routine blood glucose measurements in patients with diabetes mellitus showed lower blood viscosity than controls (3.62+/-0.87 vs 4.79+/-0.59 mPa.s, p=0.0007), which is in contrast to earlier publications, and may be explained by the lower hematocrit in our diabetic patients (34.7+/-6.0% vs. 43.1+/-1.9%, p<0.0001). Blood viscosity was independent of the actual glucose level (range 3-17 mmol/l). Capillary blood anticoagulated with EDTA was drawn by heel prick from 23 newborns. Blood viscosity was higher (5.66 +/-2.47 mPa.s) than in adult controls (see above), which could be explained by the dependence on the higher hematocrit (46.4 +/-8.6%). We conclude that viscosity measurements can be made on very small samples such as capillary blood from diabetic patients or newborn babies with this new oscillating viscometer. It remains to be determined if such new informations have clinical implications.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples.

    PubMed Central

    Mazdai, Anita; Dodder, Nathan G; Abernathy, Mary Pell; Hites, Ronald A; Bigsby, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in consumer goods, such as plastics, electronics, textiles, and construction material. PBDEs have been found in human milk, fat, and blood samples. Rodent studies indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to neurodevelopment, possibly by lowering thyroid hormone concentrations in blood. In the present study, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and thyroid hormones in human fetal and maternal serum. Patients presenting in labor to Indiana University and Wishard Memorial County hospitals in Indianapolis, who were older than 18 years, were recruited to participate. Twelve paired samples of maternal and cord blood were obtained and analyzed using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry; thyroid hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Six congeners of PBDE were measured in maternal and fetal serum samples. The concentrations of total PBDEs found in maternal sera ranged from 15 to 580 ng/g lipid, and the concentrations found in fetal samples ranged from 14 to 460 ng/g lipid. Individual fetal blood concentrations did not differ from the corresponding maternal concentrations, indicating that measurement of maternal PBDE blood levels is useful in predicting fetal exposure; similarly, other reports have shown a high correlation between PBDE in mother's milk and fetal exposure. In accord with reports on other biologic samples, the tetrabrominated PBDE congener BDE-47 accounted for 53-64% of total PBDEs in the serum. The concentrations of PBDEs found in maternal and fetal serum samples were 20-106-fold higher than the levels reported previously in a similar population of Swedish mothers and infants. In this small sample, there was no apparent correlation between serum PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations. Our study shows that human fetuses in the United States may be exposed to relatively high levels of PBDEs. Further investigation is required to determine if these levels are

  15. Quality of plasma sampled by different methods for multiple blood sampling in mice.

    PubMed

    Christensen, S D; Mikkelsen, L F; Fels, J J; Bodvarsdóttir, T B; Hansen, A K

    2009-01-01

    For oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in mice, multiple blood samples need to be taken within a few hours from conscious mice. Today, a number of essential parameters may be analysed on very small amounts of plasma, thus reducing the number of animals to be used. It is, however, crucial to obtain high-quality plasma or serum in order to avoid increased data variation and thereby increased group sizes. The aim of this study was to find the most valid and reproducible method for withdrawal of blood samples when performing OGTT. Four methods, i.e. amputation of the tail tip, lateral tail incision, puncture of the tail tip and periorbital puncture, were selected for testing at 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C after a pilot study. For each method, four blood samples were drawn from C57BL/6 mice at 30 min intervals. The presence of clots was registered, haemolysis was monitored spectrophotometrically at 430 nm, and it was noted whether it was possible to achieve 30-50 microL blood. Furthermore, a small amount of extra blood was sampled before and after the four samplings for testing of whether the sampling induced a blood glucose change over the 90 min test period. All methods resulted in acceptable amounts of plasma. Clots were observed in a sparse number of samples with no significant differences between the methods. Periorbital puncture did not lead to any haemolysed samples at all, and lateral tail incision resulted in only a few haemolysed samples, while puncture or amputation of the tail tip induced haemolysis in a significant number of samples. All methods, except for puncture of the tail tip, influenced blood glucose. Periorbital puncture resulted in a dramatic increase in blood glucose of up to 3.5 mmol/L indicating that it is stressful. Although lateral tail incision also had some impact on blood glucose, it seems to be the method of choice for OGTT, as it is likely to produce a clot-free non-haemolysed sample, while periorbital sampling, although producing a

  16. DNA methylome profiling using neonatal dried blood spot samples: a proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grauholm, Jonas; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Hougaard, David Michael

    2013-04-01

    DNA methylation is the most common DNA modification and perhaps the best described epigenetic modification. It is believed to be important for genomic imprinting and gene regulation and has been associated with the development of diseases such as schizophrenia and some types of cancer. Neonatal dried blood spot samples, commonly known as Guthrie cards, are routinely collected worldwide to screen newborns for diseases. Some countries, including Denmark, have been storing the excess neonatal dried blood spot samples in biobanks for decades. Representing a high percentage of the population under a certain age, the neonatal dried blood spot samples are a potential alternative to collecting new samples to study diseases. As such, neonatal dried blood spot samples have previously been used for DNA genotyping studies with excellent results. However, the amount of material available for research is often limited, challenging researchers to generate the most data from a limited quantity of material. In this proof-of-principle study, we address whether two 3.2mm disks punched from a neonatal dried blood spot sample contain enough DNA for genome-wide methylome profiling, measuring 27,578 loci at the same time. We selected two subjects and carried out the following with each: 1) collected an adult whole-blood sample as reference, 2) spotted a fraction of the whole-blood sample onto a similar type of filter paper as used in the newborn screening and stored it for 3years to serve as a dried blood spot reference, and 3) identified the archived neonatal dried blood spot samples, stored for 26-28years, in the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank as a representative of the archived samples. For comparison, we used two different kits for DNA extraction. The DNA, extracted using the Extract-N-Amp Blood PCR kit, was analyzed, and no statistically significant differences were observed (P<0.001) when we compared the methylation profile of the reference whole-blood samples to the dried blood

  17. Blood DNA methylation age is not associated with cognitive functioning in middle-aged monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Starnawska, A; Tan, Q; Lenart, A; McGue, M; Mors, O; Børglum, A D; Christensen, K; Nyegaard, M; Christiansen, L

    2017-02-01

    The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals. In 486 monozygotic twins, we investigated the association of DNAmAge, difference between DNAmAge and chronological age and age acceleration with cognition. Despite using a powerful paired twin design, we found no evidence for association of blood DNAmAge with cognitive abilities. This observation was confirmed in unpaired analyses, where DNAmAge initially correlated with cognitive abilities, until adjusting for chronological age. Overall, our study shows that for middle-aged individuals DNAmAge calculated in blood does not correlate with cognitive abilities.

  18. Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Lundby, C

    2014-05-01

    The collection of blood, its storage as red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and its reinjection is prohibited; until now, the practice cannot be reliably detected. A recent innovation-the haematological module of the athlete's biological passport-can provide authorities with indications towards autologous blood transfusion. In situations where a given athlete has been exposed to altitude, heat stress, sickness, etc, additional evidence may be needed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that a blood transfusion may actually have occurred. Additional evidence may be obtained from at least three different approaches using parameters related to blood and urine matrices.Genomics applied to mRNA or miRNA is one of the most promising analytical tools. Proteomics of changes associated with RBC membranes may reveal the presence of cells stored for some time, as can an abnormal pattern of size distribution of aged cells. In urine, high concentrations of metabolites of plasticisers originating from the blood storing bags strongly suggest a recent blood transfusion. We emphasise the usefulness of simultaneously obtaining and then analysing blood and urine for complementary evidence of autologous blood transfusion ('blood doping').

  19. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  20. Design of Er:YAG laser blood-sampling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-chao; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Ling, Ming; Liang, Zhu

    2009-07-01

    Laser blood-sampling device is one of the foremost tasks in medicine domain. It has a lot of merits such as un-touching, avoiding infection, indolence, and fast healing etc. The Er:YAG laser with wavelength of 2.94μm which is just close to the absorbency peak of water can be strongly absorbed by water molecular, so it has very wide application value in clinical medicine. In the paper, based on the mutual action characters of the laser with 2.94μm wave length on biological tissues, such as high absorption, acting on surface, the design of a new type of laser blood-sampling device is introduced. According to the needs of practice, the main component of the blood-sampling device is the laser, which includes optical resonator, optical collector, pumping source, optical guidance and focusing system. All of them are designed in the paper, and the reflection index of output coupling mirror of laser is optimized, the laser threshold is reduced, and pumping efficiency is improved. Moreover, thermal effect of Er:YAG solid-state laser is analyzed and a reasonable cooling method is designed. As a result, an excellent laser blood- sampling is obtained, the maximum output power is about 1J, the optical to optical conversion efficiency is 1.2%. For the better production-grade, the cuprum-based conduction is adopt to eliminate heat, the precision modulation and fixing of the optical resonance is achieved by the special adjusting structure that not only improve the stability and reliability, but also reduce the size of laser bloodsampling device. The size is 110×190×320mm, the weight is about 5.8kg, and the laser blood- sampling efficiency is 100%.

  1. [The Rheological Properties of Blood Depending on Age and Sex].

    PubMed

    Filatova, O V; Sidorenko, A A; Agarkova, S A

    2015-01-01

    The rheological properties of blood (viscosity, concentration of red blood cells, erythrocyte sedimantation rate, prothrombin index, and fibrinogen and blood lipid concentration) were studied in apparently healthy subjects of both sexes within the age range from 1 to 75 years. We observed an increase in blood viscosity from infancy to adulthood, followed by a decrease in older age in males. A progressive increase in viscosity is observed in females with aging. We determined three age periods during which the viscosity values remain constant: 1) from the period of early infancy to the second childhood (3.6 ± 0.07 mPa s regardless of sex); 2) from adolescence to the second period of adulthood (5.1 ± 0.06 in men; 4.3 ± 0.05 mPa s in women); 3) elderly and senile age (4.7 ± 0.13 in men; 4.4 ± 0.09 mPa s in women). Sex-related differences in the absolute value of blood viscosity (p < 0.001) were discovered in the period of adulthood. Moreover, we observed sex-related differences in the values of determination coefficients of interrelation between viscosity and the level of red blood cells (R(M)2 = 0.41, p < 0.001; R(F)2 = 0.35, p < 0.001), and viscosity and cholesterol level (R(M)2 = 0.47, p < 0.001; R(F)2 = 0.68, p < 0.001) among men and women. The factor analysis showed that blood viscosity correlates with the concentration of red blood cells by 28%; with the level of fibrinogen, by 23%; with the cholesterol concentration, by 20%.

  2. Malaria PCR detection in Cambodian low-transmission settings: dried blood spots versus venous blood samples.

    PubMed

    Canier, Lydie; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Eam, Rotha; Khean, Chanra; Loch, Kaknika; Ken, Malen; Pannus, Pieter; Bosman, Philippe; Stassijns, Jorgen; Nackers, Fabienne; Alipon, SweetC; Char, Meng Chuor; Chea, Nguon; Etienne, William; De Smet, Martin; Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Ménard, Didier

    2015-03-01

    In the context of malaria elimination, novel strategies for detecting very low malaria parasite densities in asymptomatic individuals are needed. One of the major limitations of the malaria parasite detection methods is the volume of blood samples being analyzed. The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a malaria polymerase chain reaction assay, from dried blood spots (DBS, 5 μL) and different volumes of venous blood (50 μL, 200 μL, and 1 mL). The limit of detection of the polymerase chain reaction assay, using calibrated Plasmodium falciparum blood dilutions, showed that venous blood samples (50 μL, 200 μL, 1 mL) combined with Qiagen extraction methods gave a similar threshold of 100 parasites/mL, ∼100-fold lower than 5 μL DBS/Instagene method. On a set of 521 field samples, collected in two different transmission areas in northern Cambodia, no significant difference in the proportion of parasite carriers, regardless of the methods used was found. The 5 μL DBS method missed 27% of the samples detected by the 1 mL venous blood method, but most of the missed parasites carriers were infected by Plasmodium vivax (84%). The remaining missed P. falciparum parasite carriers (N = 3) were only detected in high-transmission areas.

  3. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Peters, Marjolein J; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F; Göring, Harald H H; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M; Munson, Peter J; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Smith, Alicia K; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Montgomery, Grant W; Turner, Stephen T; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M; Neely, G Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Johnson, Andrew D

    2015-10-22

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the 'transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts.

  4. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Gibbs, Raphael J.; Hardy, John; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Dillman, Allissa; Traynor, Bryan; Smith, Colin; Longo, Dan L.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Weale, Michael E.; O'Brien, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Walker, Robert; Zielke, Ronald H.; Arepalli, Sampath; Ryten, Mina; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ramos, Yolande F.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the ‘transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  5. A study of blood alcohol stability in forensic antemortem blood samples.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaoqin; Tiscione, Nicholas B; Alford, Ilene; Yeatman, Dustin Tate

    2011-09-10

    The effect of long-term storage on alcohol stability in preserved forensic antemortem blood samples was investigated. Thirty-two whole blood case samples (each with two tubes of blood) were used for this study. One tube from each case was analyzed for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for court proceedings of driving under the influence (DUI), and all blood samples were then stored under refrigeration. After the storage time (ranging from 13 to 39 months) both tubes of blood for each case were reanalyzed for BAC and the results were compared to the original analysis. Seven samples originally negative for alcohol analysis remained negative. The comparative data for 25 samples demonstrated various losses in BAC in both tubes. A significant loss with a mean of 0.015g/dL, was observed in previously opened tubes compared to a mean loss of 0.010g/dL in unopened tubes. In order to determine the effect of other storage conditions, the same blood samples were then stored at room temperature for 6 months followed by 38°C for 7 and 28 days and analyzed for BAC at the end of each storage time period. The seven alcohol negative cases remained negative when stored at room temperature or at 38°C. Six months of storage at room temperature decreased BAC further for both tubes of the alcohol positive cases with a mean loss of 0.014g/dL. Further storage at 38°C for 7 days did not cause any significant change in BAC. Storage at 38°C for 28 days caused some loss in BAC which was determined to be significant by statistical analysis.

  6. [Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents].

    PubMed

    Yuvs, G G; Ignatova, T N; Anuchin, A M; Lebedeva, V L; Shilov, V V; Khapalyuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0-100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0-20 years (66-69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26-85 years was significantly lower (59-62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85-100 years (57-59 mg/kg). Thisreductionin the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10-100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0-25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25-55 years (0,13-0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person's age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person's age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25-65 years. Perhaps a

  7. Association of pulsatile and mean cerebral blood flow velocity with age and neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Pipingas, Andrew

    2014-05-10

    Low cerebral blood flow velocity is associated with cognitive decline. However, the association between pulsatile brain blood flow velocity and cognition has not been investigated. High pulsatile hemodynamic stress in the brain may impair cognitive function through damage to small cerebral vessels. The current objective was to examine the cross-sectional association of pulsatile and mean cerebral blood flow velocity with age and neuropsychological performance. We also examined whether cerebral blood flow velocity was associated with aortic pulse pressure, a measure of arterial ageing and aortic stiffness. Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery using Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TDU) while neuropsychological performance was measured using a computerized cognitive test battery. Aortic pulse pressure was non-invasively derived from applanation tonometry of the radial artery. The sample comprised 160 healthy adults aged 50-70 years. Results indicated that increasing age correlated with lower mean (r=-0.23, p<0.01) and higher pulsatile (r=0.27, p<0.01) brain blood flow velocity. In multivariate adjusted models, both peripheral (β=0.28, p<0.05) and aortic (β=0.24, p<0.05) pulse pressure were associated with higher pulsatile flow velocity through the middle cerebral artery. In adjusted models, neither mean nor pulsatile cerebral blood flow velocity was associated with performance on any cognitive task. In conclusion, arterial ageing was associated with increased pulsatile hemodynamic stress in the brain. However, this was not associated with impaired neuropsychological performance.

  8. Vesicle-associated microRNAs are released from blood cells on incubation of blood samples.

    PubMed

    Köberle, Verena; Kakoschky, Bianca; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Schmithals, Christian; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulating extracellularly in the blood are currently intensively studied as novel disease markers. However, the preanalytical factors influencing the levels of the extracellular miRNAs are still incompletely explored. In particular, it is unknown, whether the incubation of blood samples as occurring in clinical routine can lead to a release of miRNAs from blood cells and thus alter the extracellular miRNA levels before the preparation of serum or plasma from the blood cells. Using a set of marker miRNAs and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the levels of extracellular miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 were increased in EDTA and serum collection tubes incubated for 1-3 hours at room temperature and declined thereafter; the levels of the liver-specific miRNA-122 declined monophasically. These events occurred in the absence of significant hemolysis. When the blood was supplemented with Ribonuclease A inhibitor, the levels of miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 increased substantially during the initial 3 hours of incubation and those of miRNA-122 remained unchanged, indicating that the release of blood cell-derived miRNAs occurred during the initial 3 hours of incubation of the blood tubes, but not at later time points. Separation of 5-hour preincubated blood into vesicle and nonvesicle fractions revealed a selective increase in the portion of vesicle-associated miRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the release of vesicle-associated miRNAs from blood cells can occur in blood samples within the time elapsing in normal clinical practice until their processing without significant hemolysis. This becomes particularly visible on the inhibition of miRNA degradation by Ribonuclease A inhibitor.

  9. Foetal blood sampling. Practical approach to management of foetal distress.

    PubMed

    Coltart, T M; Trickey, N R; Beard, R W

    1969-02-08

    The practical application of foetal blood sampling in the routine management of patients in labour has been reviewed in a six-month survey, during which time 1,668 patients were delivered at Queen Charlotte's Hospital.Foetal acidaemia (pH 7.25 or less) occurred in 45 of the 295 patients who showed clinical signs of foetal distress. Foetal tachycardia was the presenting sign in 33 of these 45 patients, underlining the importance of this physical sign. Foetal acidaemia in association with clinical foetal distress occurred twice as often in patients who had complications of pregnancy and who were therefore regarded as obstetrically "at risk" as it did in patients who were obstetrically "normal" No cases of acidaemia were detected in any of the foetal blood samples performed routinely on "at-risk" patients in the absence of clinical foetal distress.

  10. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  11. Molecular recognition of HER-1 in whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Iuliana; Stanciu Gavan, Camelia; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana

    2014-11-01

    Multimode sensing was proposed for molecular screening and recognition of HER-1 in whole blood. The tools used for molecular recognition were platforms based on nanostructured materials such as the complex of Mn(III) with meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin, and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalence between 4 and 7), immobilized in diamond paste, graphite paste or C60 fullerene paste. The identification of HER-1 in whole-blood samples, at molecular level, is performed using stochastic mode and is followed by the quantification of it using stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. HER-1 can be identified in the concentration range between 280 fg/ml and 4.86 ng/ml using stochastic mode, this making possible the early detection of cancers such as gastrointestinal, pancreatic and lung cancers. The recovery tests performed using whole-blood samples proved that the platforms can be used for identification and quantification of HER-1 with high sensitivity and reliability in such samples, these making them good molecular screening tools.

  12. Long-Term Blood Alcohol Stability in Forensic Antemortem Whole Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Vacha, Ruth E; Alford, Ilene; Yeatman, Dustin Tate; Shan, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term room temperature storage on the stability of ethanol in whole blood specimens was investigated. One hundred and seventeen preserved whole blood case samples (110 of 117 with two tubes of blood in each case) were used for this study. One tube from each case was initially tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for criminal driving under the influence proceedings. Cases positive for ethanol ranged in BAC from 0.023 to 0.281 g/dL. The second tube, if present, remained sealed. All blood samples were then stored at room temperature. After 5.4-10.3 years, the opened tubes were reanalyzed for BAC by the same laboratory that performed the initial testing using the same method and same instrumentation. After the same storage period, the unopened tubes were sent to a different laboratory, using a different method and different instrumentation, and reanalyzed for BAC after a total of 5.6-10.5 years of room temperature storage. Seven samples initially negative for alcohol remained negative. All samples initially positive for ethanol demonstrated a decrease in BAC over time with a statistically significant difference in loss observed based on blood sample volume and whether or not the tube had been previously opened. The decrease in BAC ranged from 0.005 to 0.234 g/dL. Tubes that were not previously opened and were more than half full demonstrated better BAC stability with 89% of these tubes demonstrating a loss of BAC between 0.01 and 0.05 g/dL.

  13. Characterization of differences between blood sample matrices in untargeted metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Denery, Judith R; Nunes, Ashlee A K; Dickerson, Tobin J

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale proteomic and metabolomic technologies are increasingly gaining attention for their use in the diagnosis of human disease. In order to ensure the statistical power of relevant markers, such analyses must incorporate a large number of representative samples. While in a best-case scenario these samples are collected through a study design that is specifically tailored for the desired analysis, often studies must rely upon the analysis of large numbers of previously banked samples that may or may not have complete and accurate documentation of their associated collection and storage methods. In this study, several human blood matrices were analyzed and compared for the quality of metabolomic output. The sample types that were tested include plasma prepared with a variety of anticoagulants and serum collected by venipuncture and capillary blood collection protocols. Analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed only subtle differences between the various plasma preparation methods. Differences between the serum and plasma samples appear to be largely peptide/protein-based and are consistent with the biological distinction of the two matrices. Interestingly, the small molecule lysophosphatidylinositol was found to be in higher abundance in plasma, as a possible consequence of the effect of the intrinsic clotting cascade on adjacent metabolic pathways. Comparison of the small-molecule profiles of the capillary- and venipuncture-collected samples revealed 23 statistically significant compound differences between these sample types. Most of these features can be attributed to surfactants and detergents used to pretreat the skin in order to maintain the sterility of sample collection. However, several have identical mass and molecular formulas as endogenous human metabolites and could be erroneously attributed to actual metabolic perturbations. Understanding the extent of these matrix effects is important for control of systematic bias

  14. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  15. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  16. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  17. Bacterial and fungal DNA extraction from blood samples: manual protocols.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Michael G; Mühl, Helge; Disqué, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    A critical point of molecular diagnosis of systemic infections is the method employed for the extraction of microbial DNA from blood. A DNA isolation method has to be able to fulfill several fundamental requirements for optimal performance of diagnostic assays. First of all, low- and high-molecular-weight substances of the blood inhibitory to downstream analytical reactions like PCR amplification have to be removed. This includes human DNA which is a known source of false-positive results and factor decreasing the analytical sensitivity of PCR assays by unspecific primer binding. At the same time, even extremely low amounts of microbial DNA need to be supplied to molecular diagnostic assays in order to detect low pathogen loads in the blood. Further, considering the variety of microbial etiologies of sepsis, a method should be capable of lysing Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal organisms. Last, extraction buffers, reagents, and consumables have to be free of microbial DNA which leads to false-positive results. Here, we describe manual methods which allow the extraction of microbial DNA from small- and large-volume blood samples for the direct molecular analysis of pathogen.

  18. Evaluation of pesticide residues in human blood samples from Punjab (India)

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Jasbir Singh; Gill, J. P. S.; Kaur, P.; Sharma, A.; Aulakh, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to estimate the current status of residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphates (OPs) and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) pesticides in human blood. Materials and Methods: Human blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of human blood samples collected from Punjab revealed the presence of p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), p,p’ dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), o,p’ DDE and β-endosulfan at mean levels of 15.26, 2.71, 5.62 and 4.02 ng/ml, respectively. p,p’ DDE residue was observed in 18.0% blood samples, and it contributes 55% of the total pesticide burden in human blood. The difference of total dichlorordiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) between different age groups of humans was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The difference of DDT and endosulfan between dietary habits, gender and spraying of pesticides was found statistically non-significant, however endosulfan residues were observed only in pesticide sprayer’s population. Conclusion: Occurrence of p,p’ DDE, p,p’ DDD, o,p’ DDE in human blood indicated restricted use of DDT. However, presence of endosulfan residues in occupationally exposed population is a matter of public health concern. PMID:27046999

  19. Nanoliter viscometer for analyzing blood plasma and other liquid samples.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Davenport, Robertson D; Burns, Mark A

    2005-01-15

    We have developed a microfabricated nanoliter capillary viscometer that quickly, easily, and inexpensively measures the viscosity of liquids. The measurement of viscosity is based on capillary pressure-driven flow inside microfluidic channels (depth approximately 30 microm and width approximately 300 microm). Accurate and precise viscosity measurements can be made in less than 100 s while using only 600 nL of liquid sample. The silicon-glass hybrid device (18 mm by 15 mm) contains on-chip components that measure the driving capillary pressure difference and the relevant geometrical parameters; these components make the nanoliter viscometer completely self-calibrating, robust, and easy to use. Several different microfabricated viscometers were tested using solutions with viscosities ranging from 1 to 5 cP, a range relevant to biological fluids (urine, blood, blood plasma, etc.). Blood plasma samples collected from patients with the symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome were tested on the nanoliter capillary viscometer to an accuracy of 3%. Such self-calibrating nanoliter viscometers may have widespread applications in chemical, biological, and medical laboratories as well as in personal health care.

  20. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  1. Experience of fetal scalp blood sampling during labor.

    PubMed

    Liljeström, Lena; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Akerud, Helena; Jonsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) is often claimed to be painful for women in labor and difficult for obstetricians to perform. Our aim was to assess women's experience of pain during FBS and obstetricians' experience of difficulty in performing the test. At a tertiary center in Sweden, a questionnaire with answers on a 10-point scale was completed by 51 women and the obstetricians performing the test. Women's experience of pain had a median of 3.5. FBS was well tolerated in women who had epidural analgesia but might be associated with pain in women without. Higher maternal body mass index and less cervical dilation were associated with higher pain ratings. Obstetricians did not generally experience scalp sampling as difficult to perform (median score 3.0). However, the sampling procedure can be more complicated in situations with higher maternal body mass index, less cervical dilation, and a higher station of the fetal head.

  2. Kinetics of ethanol degradation in forensic blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, L A; Triszcz, J M; Giannuzzi, L

    2006-09-12

    To determine ethanol in human post-mortem blood samples is problematic, largely due to the inappropriate and variable methods of preserving and storing, which can cause decomposition and loss of alcohol concentration. In this study, four crucial parameters of sample conservation were studied: temperature (T), percentage of air chamber in container (%CA), ethanol concentration in blood and post-mortem time. Blood samples from post-mortem cases were stored under different conditions (ethanol levels were known in all cases); factorial design variables: (%CA) 0, 5, 20, 35, 65%; storage temperature: 25, 4 and -10 degrees C; in a total of 15 experiments. No preserving agent was used in samples. Quantification of ethanol in blood was carried out by gas chromatography with head-space FID detector. Initial ethanol concentration ranged from 0.50 to 4.30 g/L. The kinetics of degradation observed was pseudo-first-order. The parameter that characterised the kinetics of ethanol degradation (k(0)) ranged from (4 x 10(-4) and 5.0 x 10(-1) day(-1)), depending on storage conditions. A strong dependence between ethanol degradation and the content of the air chamber was observed and this dependence was found to be stronger than that between degradation and temperature; there was an experimental relation between (k(0)) and (%CA). Activation energy for different conditions, i.e. 0, 5, 20, 35 and 65 (%CA), were calculated and contour plots were made. A mathematical equation relating air chamber, temperature and ethanol concentration at a certain time was determined. This equation allowed estimation of initial concentrations of ethanol with minimal error. A good correlation between experimental data and data calculated with the equation was obtained (r(2) = 0.9998). The best storage conditions were: 0% CA and storage at -10 degrees C, obtaining an ethanol degradation of 0.01% after 15 days. However, 33% of ethanol degradation was obtained with 35% CA at 25 degrees C after 15 days. This

  3. Sex identification of polar bears from blood and tissue samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Garner, G.W.; Cronin, M.A.; Patton, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be adversely affected by hunting and other human perturbations because of low population densities and low reproduction rates. The sustainable take of adult females may be as low as 1.5% of the population. Females and accompanying young are most vulnerable to hunting, and hunters have not consistently reported the sex composition of the harvest, therefore a method to confirm the sexes of polar bears harvested in Alaska is needed. Evidence of the sex of harvested animals is often not available, but blood or other tissue samples often are. We extracted DNA from tissue and blood samples, and amplified segments of zinc finger (ZFX and ZFY) genes from both X and Y chromosomes with the polymerase chain reaction. Digestion of amplified portions of the X chromosome with the restriction enzyme HaeIII resulted in subdivision of the original amplified segment into four smaller fragments. Digestion with HaeIII did not subdivide the original segment amplified from the Y chromosome. The differing fragment sizes produced patterns in gel electrophoresis that distinguished samples from male and female bears 100% of the time. This technique is applicable to the investigation of many wildlife management and research questions.

  4. Effects of Aged Stored Autologous Red Blood Cells on Human Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Kanias, Tamir; Triulzi, Darrel; Donadee, Chenell; Barge, Suchitra; Badlam, Jessica; Jain, Shilpa; Belanger, Andrea M.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A major abnormality that characterizes the red cell “storage lesion” is increased hemolysis and reduced red cell lifespan after infusion. Low levels of intravascular hemolysis after transfusion of aged stored red cells disrupt nitric oxide (NO) bioavailabity, via accelerated NO scavenging reaction with cell-free plasma hemoglobin. The degree of intravascular hemolysis post-transfusion and effects on endothelial-dependent vasodilation responses to acetylcholine have not been fully characterized in humans. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of blood aged to the limits of Food and Drug Administration–approved storage time on the human microcirculation and endothelial function. Methods: Eighteen healthy individuals donated 1 U of leukopheresed red cells, divided and autologously transfused into the forearm brachial artery 5 and 42 days after blood donation. Blood samples were obtained from stored blood bag supernatants and the antecubital vein of the infusion arm. Forearm blood flow measurements were performed using strain-gauge plethysmography during transfusion, followed by testing of endothelium-dependent blood flow with increasing doses of intraarterial acetylcholine. Measurements and Main Results: We demonstrate that aged stored blood has higher levels of arginase-1 and cell-free plasma hemoglobin. Compared with 5-day blood, the transfusion of 42-day packed red cells decreases acetylcholine-dependent forearm blood flows. Intravascular venous levels of arginase-1 and cell-free plasma hemoglobin increase immediately after red cell transfusion, with more significant increases observed after infusion of 42-day-old blood. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the transfusion of blood at the limits of Food and Drug Administration–approved storage has a significant effect on the forearm circulation and impairs endothelial function. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01137656) PMID:26222884

  5. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Phan-Tang, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  6. Analysis of DNA methylation of potential age-related methylation sites in canine peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Genta; Yoshimura, Kuniko; Momoi, Yasuyuki

    2017-04-08

    Reliable methodology for predicting the age of mature dogs is currently unavailable. In this study, amplicon sequencing of 50 blood samples obtained from diseased dogs was used to measure methylation in seven DNA regions. Significant correlations between methylation level and age were identified in four of the seven regions. These four regions were then tested in samples from 31 healthy toy poodles, and correlations were detected in two regions. The age of another 11 dogs was predicted using data from the diseased dogs and the healthy poodles. The mean difference between the actual and calculated ages was 34.3 and 23.1 months, respectively. Further research is needed to identify additional sites of age-related methylation and allow accurate age prediction in dogs.

  7. Toxoplasma polymerase chain reaction on experimental blood samples.

    PubMed

    Joss, A W; Chatterton, J M; Evans, R; Ho-Yen, D O

    1993-01-01

    A two-stage polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay employing oligonucleotide primers from the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii was developed and assessed for sensitivity and specificity. It was able to detect T. gondii DNA from as little as one parasite/sample in mock-infected rat or mouse leucocyte preparations. Parasitaemia was also identified in animals at five stages between 16 and 66 h after infection with the virulent RH strain, and at 12 stages between 2 and 38 days after infection with the cyst-forming Beverley strain. In the latter case, PCR was more sensitive than animal culture. No cross-reactions were observed in samples containing various opportunist pathogens which may also be found in the blood of immunocompromised patients.

  8. [Quantitation of cerebral blood flow and partition coefficient using 123I-IMP dynamic SPECT with single arterial blood sampling].

    PubMed

    Mizumura, S; Kumita, S; Kumazaki, T

    1996-03-01

    A method base on the two-compartment model was developed to measure quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and partition coefficient (lambda) of IMP from dynamic SPECT and single arterial blood sampling. In this method, the linear differential equation of two-compartment model, Yokoi proposed, was employed and quantitative CBF and lambda values were measured with the standard input function calibrated by single arterial sampling. The input function was derived from the standard input function scaled by a factor determined by the single arterial blood sample. This new technique was applied to 5 normal volunteers (Ages ranged from 25 to 29 yr., average 26 yr.). The optimal time to calibrate the standard input function in the individual study and optimal the period of the upper limit time to which input function is integrated from IMP administration for analysis of the equation were determined to minimize the difference between integration of the calibrated standard input function and of the individual input function. Minimization of the difference yields an optimal calibration time (4 to 10 min after IMP administration) and the period of the upper limit time (8 to 60 min after acquisition start). Comparison of CBF and lambda values obtained by the graphical method using the calibrated standard data and individual input function were performed. It should be noted that CBF values were in good agreement between the two methods, respectively (r = 0.92, P<0.01; r = 0.72, p = 0.01). This method is easy to estimate CBF and lambda by only single arterial blood sampling and IMP dynamic SPECT, and useful for routine studies.

  9. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  10. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  11. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  12. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Marco; Somigliana, Edgardo; Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  13. Blood sampling in juvenile buff-breasted sandpipers: Movement, weight change and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of blood sampling on juvenile Buff-breasted Sandpipers (Tryngites subruficollis) was evaluated by comparing movements, mass, and survival of 10 broods (37 chicks) that were bled and eight broods (31 chicks) that were not bled. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein of chicks when they weighed 9.1 ± 0.9 g (x̄ ± SD) on or within 1 d of hatch. Chicks showed few short-term negative effects from blood sampling. Individual chicks suffered little physical injury, and five of eight chicks where injury occurred (i.e., hematomas formed) survived to fledging. Furthermore, bled broods gained mass at a comparable rate during the first 5 d post-hatch, and were resighted at similar frequencies as broods that were not bled. Bled broods moved slightly longer distances than control broods 1 d after hatch, however. This increased activity may have been stress-induced, but was only temporary; bled and control broods made similar long-term movements, and the probability of resighting was similar at fledging. With the proper precautions, it appears that Buff-breasted Sandpiper young can be safely sampled for blood at an early age without causing undue harm.

  14. Cellular Aging and Restorative Processes: Subjective Sleep Quality and Duration Moderate the Association between Age and Telomere Length in a Sample of Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cribbet, Matthew R.; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M.; Uchino, Bert N.; Williams, Paula G.; Smith, Timothy W.; Gunn, Heather E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Design: Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Setting: Social Neuroscience Laboratory. Participants: One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging. Citation: Cribbet MR; Carlisle M; Cawthon RM; Uchino BN; Williams PG; Smith TW; Gunn HE; Light KC. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and

  15. Blood lead levels in children aged 24 to 36 months in Vancouver.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, A; Hertzman, C; Peck, S H; Lockitch, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the blood lead levels in children and to identify risk factors for elevated levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Vancouver. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of children aged 24 to 36 months, born and still resident in Vancouver. The sample was stratified proportionally by the median annual family income in the census tract where each family resided. OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood lead levels and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels, determined from a questionnaire administered to parents. RESULTS: Of the children in the sample, 42% (178/422) were ineligible or could not be located. Of the remaining children, 73% (177/244) participated and adequate blood specimens were obtained from 172. The mean blood lead level was 0.29 mumol/L (standard deviation 0.13 mumol/L). (A blood lead level of 1 mumol/L is equivalent to 20.7 micrograms/dL.) The lowest level was 0.06 mumol/L, and the highest was 0.85 mumol/L. Of children with adequate samples, 8.1% (14/172) had blood lead levels of 0.48 mumol/L or higher, and 0.6% (1/172) had a level higher than 0.72 mumol/L. The logarithms of the levels were normally distributed, with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.26 mumol/L (geometric standard deviation 1.56). Of approximately 70 possible predictors of blood lead levels analysed, those that showed a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with increased blood lead levels were soldering performed in the home as part of an electronics hobby (GM blood lead level 0.34 mumol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27 to 0.39 mumol/L), aboriginal heritage (GM blood lead level 0.33 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.39 mumol/L), dwelling built before 1921 (GM blood lead level 0.32 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37 mumol/L), age of water service connection to dwelling (predicted blood lead level 0.00087 mumol/L [95% CI 0.00005 to 0.00169 mumol/L] higher per year since service connection) and decreased stature (predicted blood lead level 0.018 mumol/L [95% CI 0.0353 to 0

  16. Sampling and storage conditions influencing the measurement of parathyroid hormone in blood samples: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hanon, Elodie A; Sturgeon, Catharine M; Lamb, Edmund J

    2013-10-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is relatively unstable: optimisation of pre-analytical conditions, including specimen type, sampling time and storage conditions, is essential. We have undertaken a systematic review of these pre-analytical conditions. An electronic search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Centre for Research and Dissemination and Bandolier databases was undertaken. Of 5511 papers identified, 96 underwent full text review, of which 83 were finally included. At room temperature PTH was stable in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) preserved whole blood for at least 24 h and in EDTA plasma for at least 48 h after venepuncture. Losses were observed in clotted blood samples after 3 h and in serum after 2 h. At 4°C PTH was more stable in EDTA plasma (at least 72 h) than serum (at least 24 h). Central venous PTH concentrations were higher than peripheral venous concentrations. In the northern hemisphere, PTH concentrations were higher in winter than summer. PTH has a circadian rhythm characterised by a nocturnal acrophase and mid-morning nadir. Data related to frozen storage of PTH (-20°C and -80°C) were limited and contradictory. We recommend that blood samples for PTH measurement should be taken into tubes containing EDTA, ideally between 10:00 and 16:00, and plasma separated within 24 h of venepuncture. Plasma samples should be stored at 4°C and analysed within 72 h of venepuncture. Particular regard must be paid to the venepuncture site when interpreting PTH concentration. Further research is required to clarify the suitability of freezing samples prior to PTH measurement.

  17. Comparison of Cord Blood Lipid Profile in Preterm Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Katragadda, Tejasree; Shetty, Subodh; Baliga, Shantharam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Coronary heart disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in current era. The roots of this epidemic have been traced to as early as foetal life by foetal origin hypothesis. There are a few studies which have compared the cord blood lipid profile of preterm and term babies and thereby leading a path to primordial prevention of chronic diseases. Aim To study cord blood lipid profile of preterm appropriate for gestational age and preterm small for gestational age neonates and compare atherogenic index of both groups. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 109 preterm infants. Cord blood samples were collected from placental side of umbilical cord at birth and analyzed for lipid profile which includes serum cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoproteins which include ApoA1, Apo B. Results Preterm Small for Gestational Age (SGA) neonates had statistically significant higher values of triglycerides, Apo B and atherogenic index compared to preterm Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) neonates. Other measured lipid levels were not statistically significant, though the values were higher than reference ranges for term babies. Conclusion Prematurity as a factor associated with a more atherogenic lipid profile is re-affirmed and SGA as an additional risk factor has been proven giving scope for future research and primordial prevention. PMID:28274013

  18. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocytes characteristic for CH-S (C-HS-leukocytes). Abnormal leukocytes with characteristic signs of C-HS were found in blood smears from all mink included in this study. Four teeth in one half of the mandible (P3, P4, M1, M2) were subjected to quantitative radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and tooth loss. There was a high prevalence of destructive periodontal disease among blue mink included in this study. Mild to moderate periodontal disease (defined by less than 50% alveolar bone loss related to 1 or more teeth) affected 73.7% of young mink (age = 7 mo) and 67.9% of older animals (age ≥ 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The prevalence of tooth loss was found to be high among blue mink aged >19 mo (21.6%) and was also significantly related to age (P < 0.01). A significant positive interaction between alveolar bone loss and tooth loss (P < 0.01), implies that the highly prevalent tooth loss in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink. PMID:15971677

  19. Screening for lead poisoning in urban school children of southern India using capillary and venous blood samples.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Herman S; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2002-01-01

    Our study aimed at comparing lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in capillary and venous blood samples in a small population and to employ an easier method of sample collection for a major screening program in school children in major Indian cities. An awareness program on lead and its effects was conducted in two different schools. A total of thirty urban school children from South India, with an age group between 4-12 years consented for dual blood sampling and reported for the study. Venous and capillary blood samples were obtained simultaneously. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were estimated using ESA Lead Analyzer and Haematofluorometer respectively. A significant correlation between capillary and venous ZPP (r=0.98) and lead (r=0.99) was observed. Rank sum test showed that there is no statistically significant difference between capillary and venous ZPP (P=0.891) and lead (P=0.672) values. This pilot study recommends that screening for lead may be done using capillary blood samples since significant correlation is observed between capillary and venous blood measurements. Obtaining samples using this mode is a non-invasive, less expensive, quick and easy method in children. Appropriately performed capillary sampling may be considered as an acceptable alternative to venipuncture for screening of blood for lead poisoning both in children and adults.

  20. Blood Sampling Seasonality as an Important Preanalytical Factor for Assessment of Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    Bonelli, Patrizia; Buonocore, Ruggero; Aloe, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The measurement of vitamin D is now commonplace for preventing osteoporosis and restoring an appropriate concentration that would be effective to counteract the occurrence of other human disorders. The aim of this study was to establish whether blood sampling seasonality may influence total vitamin D concentration in a general population of Italian unselected outpatients. Methods We performed a retrospective search in the laboratory information system of the University Hospital of Parma (Italy, temperate climate), to identify the values of total serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) measured in outpatients aged 18 years and older, who were referred for routine health check-up during the entire year 2014. Results The study population consisted in 11,150 outpatients (median age 62 years; 8592 women and 2558 men). The concentration of vitamin D was consistently lower in samples collected in Winter than in the other three seasons. The frequency of subjects with vitamin D deficiency was approximately double in samples drawn in Winter and Spring than in Summer and Autumn. In the multivariate analysis, the concentration of total vitamin D was found to be independently associated with sex and season of blood testing, but not with the age of the patients. Conclusions According to these findings, blood sampling seasonality should be regarded as an important preanalytical factor in vitamin D assessment. It is also reasonable to suggest that the amount of total vitamin D synthesized during the summer should be high enough to maintain the levels > 50 nmol/L throughout the remaining part of the year. PMID:28356869

  1. Accuracy and sampling error of two age estimation techniques using rib histomorphometry on a modern sample.

    PubMed

    García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-02-01

    Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results.

  2. Effects of Adult Age and Blood Pressure on Executive Function and Speed of Processing

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that the effects of chronically increased blood pressure (BP) on cognition interact with adult age, but the relevant cognitive processes are not well defined. In this cross sectional study, using a sample matched for age, years of education, and sex, 134 individuals with either normal BP (n = 71) or chronically high BP (n = 63) were categorized into younger (19-39 years), middle-aged (41-58 years), and older (60-79 years) groups. Using a between-subjects ANOVA, covarying for race and years of education, composite measures of executive function and perceptual speed both exhibited age-related decline. The executive function measure, however, was associated with a differential decline in high BP older adults. This result held even when the executive function scores were covaried for speed, demonstrating an independent, age-related effect of higher BP on executive function. PMID:20209419

  3. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.

  4. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (P<0.05) age difference in blood values of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (P<0.05) sex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  5. Trace element levels in whole blood samples from residents of the city Badajoz, Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M A; Marin, C; Vinagre, F; Ostapczuk, P

    1999-05-19

    Copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc were determined by anodic stripping voltammetry after sample digestion and potentiometric stripping analysis was used for Pb and Cd determination in original samples. Selenium was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry or hydride generation AAS. Element levels found in the whole blood sample in a group of 82 people are for Cd: 0.98 +/- 0.94 ng/ml; for Pb: 46.7 +/- 28.6 ng/ml; for Cu: 1.07 +/- 0.12 micrograms/ml; for Zn: 6.95 +/- 1.08 micrograms/ml, and for Se: 116 +/- 25 ng/ml. Analytical data have been correlated to age, sex, smokers or non-smokers, drinking and food habits.

  6. Effects of repeated blood samplings on locomotor activity, evasion and wheel-running activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Pfeil, R

    1988-01-01

    The effects of serial blood sampling on nocturnal locomotor activity, evasion, wheel-running activity and body mass were studied in male NMRI mice aged 7-8 weeks. The erythrocyte count, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration at the beginning and end of the study showed no difference in group 1 (two samples per week, 0.08 ml each) while there was a significant decrease in the group 2 values (three samples per week, 0.08 ml each). The total amount of nocturnal locomotor activity decreased in the animals bled repeatedly while the periods with locomotor activity increased. These alterations appeared particularly after bleeding. In the test-group animals evasion showed a decrease compared with the untreated control animals, but there was no evidence of a relation to the timing of the bleedings.

  7. Active tracking of rejected dried blood samples in a large program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inalegwu, Auchi; Phillips, Sunny; Datir, Rawlings; Chime, Christopher; Ozumba, Petronilla; Peters, Samuel; Ogbanufe, Obinna; Mensah, Charles; Abimiku, Alash’Le; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the impact of rejection at different levels of health care by retrospectively reviewing records of dried blood spot samples received at the molecular laboratory for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) early infant diagnosis (EID) between January 2008 and December 2012. METHODS: The specimen rejection rate, reasons for rejection and the impact of rejection at different levels of health care was examined. The extracted data were cleaned and checked for consistency and then de-duplicated using the unique patient and clinic identifiers. The cleaned data were ciphered and exported to SPSS version 19 (SPSS 2010 IBM Corp, New York, United States) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Sample rejection rate of 2.4% (n = 786/32552) and repeat rate of 8.8% (n = 69/786) were established. The mean age of infants presenting for first HIV molecular test among accepted valid samples was 17.83 wk (95%CI: 17.65-18.01) vs 20.30 wk (95%CI: 16.53-24.06) for repeated samples. HIV infection rate was 9.8% vs 15.9% for accepted and repeated samples. Compared to tertiary healthcare clinics, secondary and primary clinics had two-fold and three-fold higher likelihood of sample rejection, respectively (P < 0.05). We observed a significant increase in sample rejection rate with increasing number of EID clinics (r = 0.893, P = 0.041). The major reasons for rejection were improper sample collection (26.3%), improper labeling (16.4%) and insufficient blood (14.8%). CONCLUSION: Programs should monitor pre-analytical variables and incorporate continuous quality improvement interventions to reduce errors associated with sample rejection and improve patient retention. PMID:27175352

  8. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary; Silva, Anelise Damiani; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. Objectives To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5th and 8th grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Methods Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5th to the 8th grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. Results The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). Conclusion We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition. PMID:24676224

  9. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion’s disease. PMID:24651298

  10. Front microrheology of the non-Newtonian behaviour of blood: scaling theory of erythrocyte aggregation by aging.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Soto, C; Costa-Miracle, E; Rodriguez-Villarreal, I; Cid, J; Castro, M; Alarcon, T; Hernandez-Machado, A

    2017-04-04

    We introduce a new framework to study the non-Newtonian behaviour of fluids at the microscale based on the analysis of front advancement. We apply this methodology to study the non-linear rheology of blood in microchannels. We carry out experiments in which the non-linear viscosity of blood samples is quantified at different haematocrits and ages. Under these conditions, blood exhibits a power-law dependence on the shear rate. In order to analyse our experimental data, we put forward a scaling theory which allows us to define an adhesion scaling number. This theory yields a scaling behaviour of the viscosity expressed as a function of the adhesion capillary number. By applying this scaling theory to samples of different ages, we are able to quantify how the characteristic adhesion energy varies as time progresses. This connection between microscopic and mesoscopic properties allows us to estimate quantitatively the change in the cell-cell adhesion energies as the sample ages.

  11. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels in paired South Korean cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Bang, Du Yeon; Lim, Hyun Jung; Won, A Jin; Ahn, Mee Young; Patra, Nabanita; Chung, Ki Kyung; Kwack, Seung Jun; Park, Kui Lea; Han, Soon Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Han, Jung Yeol; Lee, Byung Mu; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2012-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used flame retardants, have been reported as potential endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicants, thus giving rise to the public health concern. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk concentrations of PBDEs in South Korean. We assessed PBDE levels in paired samples of umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk. The levels of seven PBDE congeners were measured in 21 paired samples collected from the Cheil Woman's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) in 2008. We also measured thyroid hormones levels in maternal and cord blood to assess the association between PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormone levels. However, there was no correlation between serum thyroxin (T4) and total PBDEs concentrations. The total PBDEs concentrations in the umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk were 10.7±5.1 ng g(-1) lipid, 7.7±4.2 ng g(-1) lipid, and 3.0±1.8 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The ranges of total PBDE concentrations observed were 2.28-30.94 ng g(-1) lipid in umbilical cord blood, 1.8-17.66 ng g(-1) lipid in maternal blood, and 1.08-8.66 ng g(-1) lipid in breast milk. BDE-47 (45-73% of total PBDEs) was observed to be present dominantly in all samples, followed by BDE-153. A strong correlation was found for major BDE-congeners between breast milk and cord blood or maternal blood and cord blood samples. The measurement of PBDEs concentrations in maternal blood or breast milk may help to determine the concentration of PBDEs in infant.

  12. [Detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in Somoto, Nicaragua, using indirect ELISA and IFI on blood samples on filter paper].

    PubMed

    Palacios, X; Belli, A; Espino, A M

    2000-12-01

    We standardized a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to study the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in asymptomatic persons who live in an area of Nicaragua endemic for Chagas' disease. The test was standardized to analyze filter-paper blood samples, which are easy to transport. In the first phase of our investigation, ELISA was used to study 18 samples of total serum and 18 eluates of blood from patients with chronic Chagas' disease; 30 samples of serum and 30 eluates of blood from healthy people, used as negative controls; and 14 samples of serum and 14 eluates of blood from patients with cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, which were used to study cross-reactions. Both with the total-serum and the blood-eluate samples, the ELISA test provided 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Cross-reactions in the patient samples were observed only with visceral leishmaniasis. The second phase of our investigation was a population study that included eight rural communities in the area of Somoto, Nicaragua. Through random sampling, filter-paper blood samples were collected from 2,434 people (1,335 men and 1,099 women) from the communities of Aguas Calientes, El Brocal, La Manzana, Las Playas, Los Canales, Santa Isabel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Teresa. Studied by ELISA and by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), the samples included 260 found seropositive by ELISA (10.7%), of which 207 were positive according to IIF (8.5%). With both techniques, the majority of seropositives were among women, but the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. There was a high level of agreement between the results obtained with the two techniques. There was an upward trend with age, with 5.4% of those found seropositive by ELISA being persons 10 years of age or younger and 42.7% of those found seropositive being older than 50. The vast majority of the individuals analyzed were asymptomatic.

  13. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  14. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children

    PubMed Central

    Martial, Lisa C.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Henriet, Stefanie S.; Brüggemann, Roger J. M.; Joore, Manuela A.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling. PMID:27941974

  15. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Schreuder, Michiel F; Henriet, Stefanie S; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Joore, Manuela A

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling.

  16. Relation of cord blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels to gestational age and birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Prato, F S; Reese, L; Tevaarwerk, G J; Mackenzie, R; Hurst, C J

    1980-01-01

    A program of screening cord blood for evidence of primary neonatal hypothyroidism was implemented in a general hospital. In 13 months 3456 newborns were screened: the thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured in cord blood samples, and when the T4 level was below 8.0 micrograms/dl thyrotropin was also assayed in the sample. The two-tier program was effective. One hypothyroid newborn was detected and treated. More boys than girls had T4 levels below 8.0 micrograms/dl (9.7% v. 4.7%). The T4 level correlated with birth weight slightly better in the boys (r = 0.28 v. 0.21), and in the boys this correlation was stronger when the birth weight was lower. Regression analysis of the data for 54 sets of twins indicated that the T4 level was more strongly related to gestational age than to birth weight. PMID:7192594

  17. High blood pressure in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Helena; Antonio, Natália; Rodrigues, Dina; Da Silva, Marinho; Pêgo, Mariano; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The definition of hypertension (HT) in the pediatric age group is based on the normal distribution of blood pressure (BP) in healthy children. Normal BP is defined as being below the 90th percentile for gender, age and height, and hypertension as equal to or higher than the 95th percentile on at least three separate occasions. If the values are above the 90th percentile but below the 95th percentile, the child should be considered prehypertensive. Ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in the assessment of BP levels in the young. P values in children and adolescents have creased in the last decade, in parallel with increases in body mass index, and HT now has a prevalence of 2-5%. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is one of the main predictors of HT in adulthood, but it is also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and impaired vascular function. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent evidence of target organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents. The goal for antihypertensive treatment is to reduce BP below the 95th percentile. Weight control, with regular physical activity and dietary changes, is the primary therapy for obesity-related hypertension. Weight loss decreases not only BP but also other cardiovascular risk factors. The indications for use of antihypertensive drugs are: symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, established hypertensive target organ damage, stage 2 hypertension and failure of nonpharmacologic measures.

  18. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    PubMed

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient.

  19. Microcontroller-based system for collecting anaerobic blood samples from a running greyhound.

    PubMed

    Schmalzried, R T; Toll, P W; Devore, J J; Fedde, M R

    1992-04-01

    Many physiological variables change rapidly in the blood during sprint exercise. To characterize the dynamics and extent of these changes, blood samples must be obtained during exercise. We describe herein a portable, microcontroller-based system used to automatically obtain repeated, anaerobic, arterial blood samples from greyhounds before, during, and following a race on a track. In addition, the system also records the blood temperature in the pulmonary artery each time a blood sample is taken. The system has been tested for more than 2 years and has proven to be reliable and effective.

  20. A micro blood sampling system for catheterized neonates and pediatrics in intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wooseok; Ahn, Chong H

    2013-04-01

    A new micro blood sampling system has been designed, fabricated, and characterized to reduce iatrogenic blood loss from the catheterized neonates and pediatrics in intensive care unit by providing micro-volume of blood to analytical biomedical microdevices which can do point-of-care testing for their critical care. The system can not only save enormous iatrogenic blood loss through 1 to 10 μL of blood sampling and re-infusion of 1 to 5 mL of discard blood but also reduce the infection risk through the closed structure while satisfying the key criteria of the blood sampler. The sampled blood preserved its quality without rupturing of red blood cells verified by blood potassium concentrations of 3.86 ± 0.07 mM on the sampled blood which is similar to 3.81 ± 0.04 mM measured from the blood which did not go through the system. The sampling volume among the sampling channels showed consistency with the relative standard deviation of 1.41 %. In addition to the micro blood sampling capability, the sampling system showed negligible sample cross-contamination. The analyte-free samples collected after aspirating 7,500 times higher signal sample showed the same output signal as blank. The system was also demonstrated not to cause air-embolism by having no bubble generation during flushing procedure and the system was verified as leak-free since there was no fluid leakage under 30 times higher pressure than central venous pressure for 24 h.

  1. Red Blood Cell Volume, Plasma Volume and Total Blood Volume in Healthy Elderly Men and Women Aged 64 to 100

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    had an adeguate oxygen supply to the tissues. The deficiency in red blood cell volume in our elderly subjects was consistent with an adaptive and... ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 BY C.R. VALERI, L.E. PIVACEK, H. SIEBENS, and M.D. ALTSCHULE NAVAL BLOOD RESEARCH LABORATORY BOSTON...TITLE (and Submit) RED BLOOD CELL VOLUME, PLASMA VOLUME AND TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN HEALTHY ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN AGED 64 TO 100 7. AUTHORf»J C

  2. Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen G.; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Νikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography–tandem Mass Spectrometry). Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples. PMID:28241477

  3. Antioxidant protection against curative and palliative doses of ionizing irradiation in human blood decreases with aging.

    PubMed

    Kasapović, Jelena; Stojiljković, Vesna; Gavrilović, Ljubica; Popović, Nataša; Milićević, Zorka

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are independently recognized to play a significant role in radiation-induced damage on healthy tissue and in aging process. However, an age-related alteration of antioxidant (AO) system in radiation response in humans is poorly investigated. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the irradiation effects on the activities and expression of AO system in the blood of healthy women during aging. Blood samples were irradiated with curative and palliative doses of 2 Gy or 9 Gy γ-rays. AO capacity for detoxification of O(2)•(-) and H(2)O(2) in response to 2 Gy γ-irradiation decreases in women above 58 years, while in response to 9 Gy shows signs of weakening after 45 years of age. Due to reduction of AO capacity during aging, cytotoxic effects of curative and palliative doses of irradiation, mediated by ROS, may significantly increase in older subjects, while removal of H(2)O(2) excess could reduce them.

  4. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed.

  5. Measurement of hematological, clinical chemistry, and infection parameters from hirudinized blood collected in universal blood sampling tubes.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Brandt, N; Leben, R; Müller, F; Thiel, E; Melber, K

    2001-08-01

    Hirudin, the anticoagulatory polypeptide of the leech Hirudo medicinalis, strongly inhibits thrombus formation by specifically interacting with thrombin. For diagnostic purposes, hirudin should be superior to other anticlotting compounds because it only minimally alters the mineral, protein, and cellular blood constituents. To test this hypothesis, hirudinized and routinely processed venous blood from 80 healthy volunteers and patients was subjected to a variety of automated blood tests. A strong correlation was found between the results of automated complete blood counts obtained from K(2)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulated and hirudinized blood (1000 antithrombin units [ATU] hirudin/ml). In addition, clinical chemistry and serological infection parameters (asparlat amintransferase [ASAT], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], sodium, and so on, and antibodies against hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]1/2, respectively) correlated well when measured in serum as compared with hirudinized plasma. Contrary to single clotting factors, global coagulation parameters (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT]) could not be measured in hirudinized blood. Recombinant hirudin neither interfered with immunophenotyping of mononuclear cells using FACScan analysis, nor did it alter the detection of Wilms' tumor gene expression by RT-PCR technology even at high doses (5000 ATU hirudin). Thus, a hirudin-containing blood sampling tube can be designed as a universal blood sampling tube (UBT) for testing the majority of diagnostic blood parameters.

  6. Validation of a less invasive blood sampling technique in rabies serology using reduviid bugs (Triatominae, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Vos, Ad C; Müller, Thomas; Neubert, Larissa; Voigt, Christian C

    2010-03-01

    During serologic rabies surveys, bleeding is often difficult or almost impossible in small or endangered mammals such as bats. Therefore, the usefulness of an alternative, less invasive technique--that is, the use of blood-sucking reduviid bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus and Rhodnius prolixus)--was investigated. Bugs were used in combination with a conventional method (retro-orbitale bleeding) to obtain blood samples from the same individual NMRI-mice (Mus musculus) vaccinated against rabies. Rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers between paired blood samples obtained from the same mice were compared. The accuracy (between-method comparison), precision (repeatability of results), and robustness (influence of digestion on blood parameter) of the bug method was evaluated. VNA titers in the blood sample obtained from the bugs' crops were equivalent to those from samples collected directly from the mice. No differences between samples taken from different bugs that had fed on the same mouse were noted. In addition, there were no changes in VNA titers in blood samples collected from the triatomine bugs for up to 4 hr after completion of the blood meal. This study demonstrates that the application of blood-sucking bugs offers a validated alternative for obtaining blood samples to determine rabies virus-neutralizing antibody titers and is highly suitable for animals with limited or no accessibility of veins by conventional sampling techniques.

  7. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

    PubMed

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects.

  8. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  9. Novel blood sampling method of an artificial endocrine pancreas via the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.

    PubMed

    Kawahito, Shinji; Higuchi, Seiichi; Mita, Naoji; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    We tried to perform continuous blood glucose monitoring during cardiovascular surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass using an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-22 or -55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan); however, we often encountered problems during these procedures because insufficient blood was obtained for monitoring. Thus, we started performing the blood sampling via the venous side of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. As a result, continuous blood glucose monitoring using an artificial endocrine pancreas was proven to be stable and reliable during cardiovascular surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David; Peterson, Karen; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-10-01

    Nursing infants may be exposed to lead from breast milk, but relatively few data exist with which to evaluate and quantify this relationship. This route of exposure constitutes a potential infant hazard from mothers with current ongoing exposure to lead as well as from mothers who have been exposed previously due to the redistribution of cumulative maternal bone lead stores. We studied the relationship between maternal breast milk lead and infant blood lead levels among 255 mother-infant pairs exclusively or partially breast-feeding through 1 month of age in Mexico City. A rigorous, well-validated technique was used to collect, prepare, and analyze the samples of breast milk to minimize the potential for environmental contamination and maximize the percent recovery of lead. Umbilical cord and maternal blood lead were measured at delivery; 1 month after delivery (+/- 5 days) maternal blood, bone, and breast milk and infant blood lead levels were obtained. Levels of lead at 1 month postpartum were, for breast milk, 0.3-8.0 microg/L (mean +/- SD, 1.5 +/- 1.2); maternal blood lead, 2.9-29.9 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 9.4 +/- 4.5); and infant blood lead, 1.0-23.1 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 5.5 +/- 3.0). Infant blood lead at 1 month postpartum was significantly correlated with umbilical cord (Spearman correlation coefficient rS = 0.40, p < 0.0001) and maternal (rS= 0.42, p < 0.0001) blood lead at delivery and with maternal blood (rS= 0.67, p < 0.0001), patella rS = 0.19, p = 0.004), and breast milk (rS = 0.32, p < 0.0001) lead at 1 month postpartum. Adjusting for cord blood lead, infant weight change, and reported breast-feeding status, a difference of approximately 2 microg/L (ppb; from the midpoint of the lowest quartile to the midpoint of the highest quartile) breast milk lead was associated with a 0.82 microg/dL increase in blood lead for breast-feeding infants at 1 month of age. Breast milk lead accounted for 12% of the variance of infant blood lead levels, whereas

  11. Distribution of blood lead levels in a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21.

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, J P; Williams, S M; Heydon, J L; Walmsley, T A; Menkes, D B

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about lead exposure in the general population of young adults. In this study, whole blood lead concentration (PbB) was determined in a sample of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a well-documented birth cohort of New Zealanders aged 21 years in 1993-1994. PbB in those who consented to venipuncture at 21 years of age (n = 779; 411 males, 368 females) was compared to PbB for the same cohort at age 11 years. The PbB at age 21 ranged from 0.4 to 56 micrograms/dl with a geometric mean of 4.5 micrograms/dl (95% CI, 4.3-4.7 micrograms/dl). Only three individuals had a PbB above 30 micrograms/dl. Males had significantly higher PbB than females (geometric mean 6.0 vs. 3.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.0001). The PbB at age 21 was 53% lower than in the same individuals at age 11 (geometric mean 4.8 vs. 10.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.001; n = 480) and the correlation between corresponding values was weak (r = 0.19; p < 0.001). PbB at age 21 showed significant associations with high risk occupational activities, recreational exposure, domicile close to a main road, smoking, and male sex. Blood lead concentrations continue to fall in New Zealand, but occupational and recreational activities remain a significant source of lead exposure. Images Figure 1. PMID:9118875

  12. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  13. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  14. Quantitative analysis of mechanisms that govern red blood cell age structure and dynamics during anaemia.

    PubMed

    Savill, Nicholas J; Chadwick, William; Reece, Sarah E

    2009-06-01

    Mathematical modelling has proven an important tool in elucidating and quantifying mechanisms that govern the age structure and population dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs). Here we synthesise ideas from previous experimental data and the mathematical modelling literature with new data in order to test hypotheses and generate new predictions about these mechanisms. The result is a set of competing hypotheses about three intrinsic mechanisms: the feedback from circulating RBC concentration to production rate of immature RBCs (reticulocytes) in bone marrow, the release of reticulocytes from bone marrow into the circulation, and their subsequent ageing and clearance. In addition we examine two mechanisms specific to our experimental system: the effect of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) and blood sampling on RBC dynamics. We performed a set of experiments to quantify the dynamics of reticulocyte proportion, RBC concentration, and erythropoietin concentration in PHZ-induced anaemic mice. By quantifying experimental error we are able to fit and assess each hypothesis against our data and recover parameter estimates using Markov chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference. We find that, under normal conditions, about 3% of reticulocytes are released early from bone marrow and upon maturation all cells are released immediately. In the circulation, RBCs undergo random clearance but have a maximum lifespan of about 50 days. Under anaemic conditions reticulocyte production rate is linearly correlated with the difference between normal and anaemic RBC concentrations, and their release rate is exponentially correlated with the same. PHZ appears to age rather than kill RBCs, and younger RBCs are affected more than older RBCs. Blood sampling caused short aperiodic spikes in the proportion of reticulocytes which appear to have a different developmental pathway than normal reticulocytes. We also provide evidence of large diurnal oscillations in serum erythropoietin levels during anaemia.

  15. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  16. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  17. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, M. Yu; Priezzhev, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.; Wang, R. K.; Myllylä, R.

    2005-08-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media.

  18. [Age-related changes in blood plasma antioxidant activity in population of the southern Altai].

    PubMed

    Chanchaev, E A; Aĭzman, R I

    2012-01-01

    The blood plasma antioxidant activity was studied in the Russian and Kazakh aborigines of the southern Altai low and high mountains. There was established a decrease of the blood plasma antioxidant activity with age and a relatively low plasma antioxidant activity in the mid-mountain population; in its senior age groups, the gender differences of this parameter were revealed.

  19. Use of filter paper blood samples for rabies antibody detection in foxes and raccoon dogs.

    PubMed

    Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Combes, Benoit; Guiot, Anne Laure; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in wildlife is usually evaluated by the detection of rabies antibodies. However, the assessment of rabies antibodies has several technical difficulties in the field, such as the collection, storage, transport and titration of blood samples, often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of collecting blood on a filter paper (FP) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titration of rabies antibodies in raccoon dogs and red foxes. The FP blood sampling method was found highly specific and repeatable in both species. Overall, results obtained with the FP sampling method were highly concordant with the conventional (venipuncture) sampling methods. Blood eluates from FP samples from foxes and raccoon dogs tested using ELISA showed concordance values of 92% and 95%, respectively, with serum samples tested using the seroneutralisation test and values of 95% and 91%, respectively, when the ELISA was used on both types of sample. The use of FP blood sampling coupled with the titration of rabies antibodies by ELISA provides a reliable alternative to conventional blood sampling and serum testing by seroneutralisation. This simple procedure is particularly attractive and cost-effective for assessing the effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in field conditions.

  20. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  1. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  2. Long-term preservation of blood samples for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A C; Cura, E; Subías, E; Lansetti, J C; Segura, E L

    1990-03-01

    Feasability and suitability for field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 1209 samples under different conditions. Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preserved capillary blood (CBP) and sera from venous blood (VBS) were studied by specific techniques. Over 96% concordance was found on indoor studies carried out with samples without storage or after 15 or 30 days preservation of CBP at 37 degrees C and VBS at -20 degrees C. Outdoor studies performed at field conditions, achieved a 92.1% concordance.

  3. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature or in iced water and blood gas analysis was performed at baseline and after 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. RESULTS--In the first 10 minutes measured PaO2 in plastic syringes at room temperature fell by an average of 1.21 kPa/min; placing the sample on ice reduced the rate of PaO2 decline to 0.19 kPa/min. The rate of fall of PaO2 in glass at room temperature was 0.49 kPa/min. The changes in PaCO2 were less dramatic and at room temperature averaged increases of 0.47 kPa for plastic syringes and 0.71 kPa for glass syringes over the entire two hour period. These changes in gas tension for plastic syringes would lead to an overestimation of pulmonary shunt measured by the 100% oxygen technique of 0.6% for each minute left at room temperature before analysis. CONCLUSIONS--Glass syringes are superior to plastic syringes in preserving samples with a high PaO2, and prompt and adequate cooling of such samples is essential for accurate blood gas analysis. PMID:8016801

  4. The relationship between blood and muscle samples to monitor for residues of the antibiotic enrofloxacin in chickens.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Herrera, I; Schneider, M J; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J

    2011-02-01

    In 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration withdrew approval for use of enrofloxacin in poultry, thus effectively imposing zero tolerance for residues of this antibiotic in poultry. Conventional residue monitoring for most antibiotics, including enrofloxacin, involves removing poultry carcasses from the processing line and collecting muscle tissues for analysis. Because of the loss of valuable edible products and the difficulties and expense of sampling all the carcasses, only a small portion of carcasses are tested for violative residues. Unlike muscle tissue, blood is readily available from all birds at the beginning of processing and may be used to screen for illegal residues in all poultry carcasses. It is unknown, however, if enrofloxacin concentrations in blood are predictive of muscle concentrations. In an effort to evaluate this relationship, 156 broiler chickens, 5 wk of age, were dosed with either 25 or 50 µg/mL of enrofloxacin for 3 or 7 d, respectively, in the drinking water. Blood and muscle samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h (n = 6 birds/group) during the first dosing day, every 48 h during the dosing period, and every 12 h during the withdrawal period for up to 60 h after withdrawal. Enrofloxacin residues were determined in all blood and tissue samples during the dosing periods and in most of the withdrawal period for both doses. These results support the potential to use blood to screen for illegal enrofloxacin residues in edible poultry tissues in an effort to protect the human food supply.

  5. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  6. Microwave Blood Thawing: Biochemical Analysis of Small Samples of Thawed Red Blood Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    lactate + NAD+ ( Lehninger , 1977) The large increase in pyruvate observed at 6 hours post-wash was most likely due to the large lactate concentrations at...Storage of Blood. London: Academic Press. Lehninger , A.L. 1977. Biochemistry. New York: Worth Publishers, Inc. Lewis, G.P. 1965. Method using o-tolidine

  7. Impact of the age of stored blood on trauma patient mortality: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Nicholas; Froese, Patrick C.; Erdogan, Mete; Green, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of the age of stored red blood cells on mortality in patients sustaining traumatic injuries requiring transfusion of blood products is unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and describe the available literature on the use of older versus newer blood in trauma patient populations. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Lilac and the Cochrane Database for published studies comparing the transfusion of newer versus older red blood cells in adult patients sustaining traumatic injuries. Studies included for review reported on trauma patients receiving transfusions of packed red blood cells, identified the age of stored blood that was transfused and reported patient mortality as an end point. We extracted data using a standardized form and assessed study quality using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Results Seven studies were identified (6780 patients) from 3936 initial search results. Four studies reported that transfusion of older blood was independently associated with increased mortality in trauma patients, while 3 studies did not observe any increase in patient mortality with the use of older versus newer blood. Three studies associated the transfusion of older blood with adverse patient outcomes, including longer stay in the intensive care unit, complicated sepsis, pneumonia and renal dysfunction. Studies varied considerably in design, volumes of blood transfused and definitions applied for old and new blood. Conclusion The impact of the age of stored packed red blood cells on mortality in trauma patients is inconclusive. Future investigations are warranted. PMID:26384149

  8. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples

    PubMed Central

    Podestà, Marina; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cossu, Claudia; Sabatini, Federica; Dagnino, Monica; Romantsik, Olga; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Frassoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups. Methods and Results Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15–4.8) vs 0.3% (0.032–2.23) p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA) compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18–4.8) and 0.36% (0.15–3.2) respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term) and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP) did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL) resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004) and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017). The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168). Conclusions We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144)The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies

  9. Quality standards in Biobanking: authentication by genetic profiling of blood spots from donor's original sample

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Sergio; Valverde, Laura; Odriozola, Adrian; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2010-01-01

    The field of Biobanking requires extensive work to maintain traceability of samples. However, sometimes the necessity to authenticate a sample may arise. To address these circumstances, we herein present a method for authenticating derivatives by using a blood spot from each donor, attached to a sample authentication form, by means of genetic profiling. Blood spots are collected at the time a blood sample is donated at a health centre and before processing the blood sample at the biobank. To test the validity of our approach over time, we analyzed 26 blood spots stored at room temperature in our facilities for more than 15 years. DNA was successfully extracted from the three storage materials tested in this study and 15 STR markers plus amelogenin were subsequently analyzed. The storage of a small blood spot attached to a sample authentication form proved to be efficient for genetic profiling and, therefore, may constitute a long-lasting (at least 15 years), cost-effective and effortless approach for genetic authentication of samples in biobanks. PMID:20234395

  10. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals.

  11. Accuracy of cyclosporin measurements made in capillary blood samples obtained by skin puncture.

    PubMed

    Merton, G; Jones, K; Lee, M; Johnston, A; Holt, D W

    2000-10-01

    International consensus guidelines suggest that cyclosporin should be measured in whole blood. In some instances it may be advantageous to collect capillary blood, by a finger or ear prick method. However, drug concentrations in skin-puncture blood may not necessarily correlate with those measured in venous blood. This study compared cyclosporin concentrations in blood collected from the fingertip or earlobe with blood collected by standard venipuncture. Patient preference for each of the blood collection methods was also assessed. Specimens were obtained from organ transplant patients receiving cyclosporin, using each of the three methods: venipuncture, finger prick, and earlobe prick. The samples were assayed using a specific radioimmunoassay and the results were compared. In the 102 sets of samples collected, the mean difference (+/- standard deviation) in cyclosporin concentration between finger prick and venipuncture and ear prick and venipuncture was 2.6% (+/- 9.5%) and 2.7% (+/- 12.1%), respectively, while the comparable median (IQR) differences were 1.9% (-3.4% to +6.6%) and -1.1% (-2.8% to +7.2%), respectively. A high degree of correlation was observed between finger prick and venipuncture or ear prick and venipuncture or ear prick and finger prick (r2 > 0.86). Of the three methods of blood collection, finger prick was the patients' preferred method (P < 0.01). These data suggest that capillary blood collected by skin puncture is suitable for use in cyclosporin blood monitoring and acceptable to patients.

  12. Methylome-wide association study of whole blood DNA in the Norfolk Island isolate identifies robust loci associated with age.

    PubMed

    Benton, Miles C; Sutherland, Heidi G; Macartney-Coxson, Donia; Haupt, Larisa M; Lea, Rodney A; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-02-28

    Epigenetic regulation of various genomic functions, including gene expression, provide mechanisms whereby an organism can dynamically respond to changes in its environment and modify gene expression accordingly. One epigenetic mechanism implicated in human aging and age-related disorders is DNA methylation. Isolated populations such as Norfolk Island (NI) should be advantageous for the identification of epigenetic factors related to aging due to reduced genetic and environmental variation. Here we conducted a methylome-wide association study of age using whole blood DNA in 24 healthy female individuals from the NI genetic isolate (aged 24-47 years). We analysed 450K methylation array data using a machine learning approach (GLMnet) to identify age-associated CpGs. We identified 497 CpG sites, mapping to 422 genes, associated with age, with 11 sites previously associated with age. The strongest associations identified were for a single CpG site in MYOF and an extended region within the promoter of DDO. These hits were validated in curated public data from 2316 blood samples (MARMAL-AID). This study is the first to report robust age associations for MYOF and DDO, both of which have plausible functional roles in aging. This study also illustrates the value of genetic isolates to reveal new associations with epigenome-level data.

  13. Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.

    1989-01-01

    A device and a method for automated processing and separation of an unmeasured sample of whole blood into multiple aliquots of plasma. Capillaries are radially oriented on a rotor, with the rotor defining a sample chamber, transfer channels, overflow chamber, overflow channel, vent channel, cell chambers, and processing chambers. A sample of whole blood is placed in the sample chamber, and when the rotor is rotated, the blood moves outward through the transfer channels to the processing chambers where the blood is centrifugally separated into a solid cellular component and a liquid plasma component. When the rotor speed is decreased, the plasma component backfills the capillaries resulting in uniform aliquots of plasma which may be used for subsequent analytical procedures.

  14. How You Can Help Medical Research: Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples

    MedlinePlus

    National Cancer Institute How You Can Help Medical Research U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples You have the choice to ...

  15. Selenium status and GSH-Px activity in semen and blood of boars at different ages used for artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Lasota, B; Błaszczyk, B; Seremak, B; Udała, J

    2004-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between selenium (Se) content and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood and semen, and semen quality of boars at different age used in an artificial insemination (AI) station. Routine macroscopic and microscopic analyses of semen quality were accompanied by measurement of Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen. The Se concentration in blood plasma, seminal fluid and spermatozoa was measured by fluorometric method, the GSH-Px activity by a method based on NADPH-coupled reaction. A total of 155 ejaculates and 58 blood samples were investigated. The results of this study showed that there was no direct relationship between the Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood plasma and semen, and semen quality of sexual matured boars. The mechanisms controlling Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen seem to be independent. The age of boars as a differentiating factor for Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen is possible. It is concluded that a determination of Se status and/or GSH-Px activity in organism before Se supplementation is indicated.

  16. A Clinical Evaluation of Routine Blood Sampling Practices in Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Mitchel; Pynes, Mary Kate; Katz, Laurence B.; Ginsberg, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a perception that patients with diabetes struggle to produce sufficient blood to fill glucose test strips, including strips with 1-µL fill requirements. The purpose of this study was to determine the volume of blood expressed when these patients perform routine fingersticks using their own lancing device and sampling technique and to evaluate the relationship between blood volume and pain. Methods: Sixty-four patients (type 1 or type 2 diabetes) performed 8 fingersticks using their own lancing device and preferred depth setting and lancing technique. Eight different commercially available lancing systems were used (8 patients/system). Blood volume and perceived pain were recorded after each fingerstick. Results: The mean blood volume across all patients was 3.1 µL (512 fingersticks), with 97% of patients expressing a mean of ≥1.0 µL of blood. There was no correlation between pain response and the volume of blood expressed. Nearly all patients agreed that they could easily and comfortably obtain a 1-µL blood sample, and most patients actually preferred a larger drop size to ease sampling and avoid wasting strips. Conclusion: These results provide evidence across 8 lancing systems that challenge the current perceptions that patients with diabetes struggle to produce sufficient blood samples to fill most test strips, including those with 1-µL fill requirements, and that obtaining larger volumes of blood is more painful. These results are consistent with the previous literature suggesting that patients derive no real benefits from very low strip volumes and generally prefer a blood drop size that enables them to confidently fill their test strip. PMID:24876439

  17. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Hansen, Naja Liv; Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hallam, Dorte Merete; Pedersen, Esben Thade; Chappell, Michael; Lauritzen, Martin Johannes; Rostrup, Egill

    2017-01-01

    Background Although dementia is associated with both global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, little is known about cerebral perfusion in the early pre-clinical stages of cognitive decline preceding overt cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF. Materials and Methods The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94) and poorer (Group B, n = 95) on cognitive testing at age 57 than expected from testing at age 20. Participants underwent supplementary cognitive testing, blood sampling and MRI including measurements of regional and global CBF. Results Regional CBF was lower in group B than in group A in the posterior cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. The associations were attenuated when corrected for global atrophy, but remained significant in regions of interest based analysis adjusting for regional gray matter volume and vascular risk factors. No influence of group on global CBF was observed. Conclusions We conclude that early sub-clinical cognitive decline is associated with reduced perfusion in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus independently of regional atrophy and vascular risk factors, but cannot be statistically separated from an association with global atrophy. PMID:28095458

  18. Investigation of prothrombin time in human whole-blood samples with a quartz crystal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lothar; Sinn, Stefan; Drechsel, Hartmut; Ziegler, Christiane; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis is an important issue in treatment of patients with cardiovascular problems and in surgery when blood gets into contact with artificial surfaces. In this work a new method for measuring the coagulation time (prothrombin time, PT) of human whole-blood samples based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor is presented. The 10 MHz sensors used in this work respond with a frequency shift to changes in viscosity during blood clot formation. For driving and for readout of the quartz, both a network analyzer and an oscillator circuit were utilized. The sensor surfaces were specifically coated with a thin polyethylene layer. We found that both frequency analysis methods are suitable to measure exact prothrombin times in a very good conformity with a mechanical coagulometer as a reference. The anticoagulant effect of heparin on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown as well as the reverse effect of the heparin antagonist polybrene. The change of the viscoelastic properties during blood coagulation, reflected by the ratio of frequency and dissipation shifts, is discussed for different dilutions of the whole-blood samples. In conclusion, QCM is a distinguished biosensor technique to determine prothrombin time and to monitor heparin therapy in whole-blood samples. Due to the excellent potential of miniaturization and the availability of direct digital signals, the method is predestinated for incorporation and integration into other devices and is thus opening the field of application for inline coagulation diagnostic in extracorporeal blood circuits.

  19. Sample taking during orthopedic surgery: sensitivity and specificity using the BACTEC blood culture system.

    PubMed

    Podleska, L E; Lendemans, S; Schmid, E; Hussmann, B; Nast-Kolb, D; Taeger, G

    2012-02-01

    The use of blood culture systems for sterile body fluids other than blood has proven to be superior to routine culture methods. This study was conducted in order to assess the performance of the BACTEC blood culture system compared to swab/tissue sample collection for the detection of infection from intraoperative samples taken during surgical procedures. Sensitivity was determined by taking samples (BACTEC and swab/tissue samples) from patients with clinically evident infection (Infection group). Specificity was tested by taking the same sample sets from patients who had aseptic operations with no history of infection (Control group). The sensitivity was found to be much higher for the BACTEC group (50 isolates from 56 samples, sensitivity: 89%) compared to the swab/tissue samples (29 isolates out of 56 samples, sensitivity: 52%). The specificity was lower in the BACTEC group (32 isolates out of 44 samples, specificity: 27%) compared to the swab/tissue samples (1 isolate out of 44 samples, specificity: 98%). We conclude that BACTEC is useful for intraoperative sample collection in cases of low-grade infection. However, it is less specific and there is always the possibility for contamination. Therefore, it is advisable to use this technique in combination with regular tissue samples.

  20. Decreased cord-blood phospholipids in young age-at-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Daria; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Larsson, Helena E; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ivarsson, Sten A; Lernmark, Ake; Oresic, Matej

    2013-11-01

    Children developing type 1 diabetes may have risk markers already in their umbilical cord blood. It is hypothesized that the risk for type 1 diabetes at an early age may be increased by a pathogenic pregnancy and be reflected in altered cord-blood composition. This study used metabolomics to test if the cord-blood lipidome was affected in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age. The present case-control study of 76 index children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age and 76 healthy control subjects matched for HLA risk, sex, and date of birth, as well as the mother's age and gestational age, revealed that cord-blood phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were significantly decreased in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 4 years of age. Reduced levels of triglycerides correlated to gestational age in index and control children and to age at diagnosis only in the index children. Finally, gestational infection during the first trimester was associated with lower cord-blood total lysophosphatidylcholines in index and control children. In conclusion, metabolomics of umbilical cord blood may identify children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Low phospholipid levels at birth may represent key mediators of the immune system and contribute to early induction of islet autoimmunity.

  1. Postmortem measurement of caffeine in bone marrow: influence of sample location and correlation with blood concentration.

    PubMed

    Cartiser, N; Bévalot, F; Chatenay, C; Le Meur, C; Gaillard, Y; Malicier, D; Guitton, J; Fanton, L

    2011-07-15

    Bone marrow (BM) analysis is of forensic interest in postmortem toxicological investigation in case of limited, unavailable or unusable blood samples. However, it remains difficult to determine whether a drug BM concentration is therapeutic or represents overdose, due to the lack of studies on this alternative matrix. Given the variations in BM composition in the body, sample location was suggested to be a relevant factor in assessing BM concentration. The aim of the present study was to compare postmortem caffeine concentrations in various BM sample locations and secondly to consider the correlation between BM and blood concentrations. Six BM samples (right and left side: proximal and medial femur and 5th rib) and a blood sample were collected from 21 forensic autopsies. Gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Blood caffeine concentrations ranged from 60 to 7591ng/mL. Femoral and rib BM concentrations ranged from 51 to 6171ng/g and 66 to 7280ng/g, respectively. Blood concentrations were always higher than BM concentrations. As a good correlation was demonstrated between blood and rib BM and between blood and the average of the four femoral BM concentrations, blood caffeine concentrations could be correctly extrapolated from BM concentrations. BM caffeine concentration was found to depend on sample location. Rib BM caffeine concentrations appeared to be systematically greater than averaged femur values and concentrations were much more variable between the 4 femur BM samples than between the 2 ribs. From a practical point of view, for caffeine analysis, rib BM appeared more relevant than femoral BM, which requires multisampling to overcome the concentration variability problem.

  2. Heat stabilization of blood spot samples for determination of metabolically unstable drug compounds

    PubMed Central

    Blessborn, Daniel; Sköld, Karl; Zeeberg, David; Kaewkhao, Karnrawee; Sköld, Olof; Ahnoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Sample stability is critical for accurate analysis of drug compounds in biosamples. The use of additives to eradicate the enzymatic activity causing loss of these analytes has its limitations. Results A novel technique for sample stabilization by rapid, high-temperature heating was used. The stability of six commercial drugs in blood and blood spots was investigated under various conditions with or without heat stabilization at 95°C. Oseltamivir, cefotaxime and ribavirin were successfully stabilized by heating whereas significant losses were seen in unheated samples. Amodiaquine was stable with and without heating. Artemether and dihydroartemisinin were found to be very heat sensitive and began to decompose even at 60°C. Conclusion Heat stabilization is a viable technique to maintain analytes in blood spot samples, without the use of chemical additives, by stopping the enzymatic activity that causes sample degradation. PMID:23256470

  3. Limited blood sampling for pharmacokinetic dose tailoring of FVIII in the prophylactic treatment of haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Björkman, S

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of limited blood sampling and Bayesian analysis to estimate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tailor the dose of factor VIII (FVIII) in an individual patient. In a Bayesian analysis, PK parameters are estimated from only a few plasma concentration measurements, using a previously established PK model. First the necessary model was created using intense blood sampling FVIII data from 10 patients. Then FVIII data from another 21 patients were used for 'clinical' evaluation. Three scenarios were created retrospectively by reduction of the original 7-sample data set; blood sampling at 4, 24 and 48 h, at 8 and 30 h and at 24 h after the infusion. PK parameters were estimated for each individual using Bayesian analysis and compared with those obtained using conventional methods from the full data. The accuracy of predictions of FVIII levels during prophylactic treatment 5-17 months later and implications for dose tailoring were also investigated. Blood sampling at 4, 24 and 48 h was found to give practically the same PK information as a full, conventional (7-10-sample) study. Even a single 24-h FVIII level provided adequate data for initial dose tailoring and gave predictions of FVIII levels 5-17 months later that were not appreciably worse than predictions based on the full PK analysis. By contrast, dose tailoring based on body weight failed completely. In conclusion, PK-based dose tailoring of FVIII can be performed using limited blood sampling during prophylactic treatment.

  4. Age-Associated Induction of Cell Membrane CD47 Limits Basal and Temperature-Induced Changes in Cutaneous Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Natasha M.; Roberts, David D.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We tested the hypothesis that the matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), through binding to and activation of the cell receptor CD47, inhibits basal and thermal-mediated cutaneous blood flow. Background Data Abnormal and decreased cutaneous blood flow in response to temperature changes or vasoactive agents is a feature of cardiovascular disease and aging. The reasons for decreased cutaneous blood flow remain incompletely understood. Further, a role for matricellular proteins in the regulation skin blood flow has never been proposed. Methods C57BL/6 wild type, TSP1- and CD47-null 12 and 72 week old male mice underwent analysis of skin blood flow (SkBF) via laser Doppler in response to thermal stress and vasoactive challenge. Results Young and aged TSP1- and CD47-null mice displayed enhanced basal and thermal sensitive SkFB changes compared to age matched wild type controls. Nitric oxide-mediated increases in SkBF were also greater in null mice. TSP1 and CD47 were expressed in skin from young wild type mice, and both were significantly upregulated in aged animals. Tissue 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, was greater in skin samples from null mice compared to wild type regardless of age. Finally, treating wild type animals with a CD47 monoclonal antibody, that inhibits TSP1 activation of CD47, enhanced SkBF in both young and aged animals. Conclusions The above results suggest that secreted TSP1, via its cognate receptor CD47, acutely modulates SkBF. These data further support therapeutically targeting CD47 to mitigate age-associated loss of SkBF and maximize wound healing. PMID:23275312

  5. SEM analysis of red blood cells in aged human bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Hortolà, P

    1992-08-01

    Mammal red blood cells (RBC) in bloodstains have been previously detected by light microscopy on stone tools from as early as 100,000 +/- 25,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the degree of morphological preservation of erythrocytes in bloodstains, an accidental human blood smear on white chert and several experimental bloodstains on hard substrates (the same stone-white chert; another type of stone-graywacke; a non-stone support-stainless steel), were stored in a room, in non-sterile and fluctuating conditions, for lengths of time ranging from 3 to 18 months. Afterwards, the specimens were coated with gold and examined by a Cambridge Stereoscan 120 scanning electron microscope. Results revealed a high preservation of RBC integrity, with the maintenance of several discocytary shapes, a low tendency to echinocytosis and a frequent appearance of a moon-like erythrocytary shape in the thinner areas of the bloodstains.

  6. Haematology and some blood chemical parameters of young carp till the age of three years.

    PubMed

    Svetina, A; Matasin, Zeljka; Tofant, Alenka; Vucemilo, Marija; Fijan, N

    2002-01-01

    Haematological and biochemical analyses of blood were performed in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) kept in small ponds. Caught and anaesthetised carp were clinically examined and blood samples were taken at regular intervals during the three years. In the first year of examinations, the haemoglobin and haematocrit values of carp fry significantly increased (P < 0.01) from June to September. The intensive growth of carp in the summer period in the second year was accompanied by adequate erythropoiesis. During hibernation haematocrit and haemoglobin significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) increased (P < 0.01) in both scaly and mirror carp. MCHC increased also with the age and increasing body weight of the fish. Mirror carp had lower haematocrit and haemoglobin values than scaly carp (P < 0.01). Comparative haematological analyses between carp of normal and poor body condition showed that moderate anaemia appeared in those with poor body condition. The results indicate that there is marked seasonal and age-dependent variation in the values of haematocrit and haemoglobin. Pond water quality investigations indicated good environmental conditions. A 50% increase (P < 0.05) of glucose concentration was found from June to September in the blood plasma of carp in the third year, accompanied by an even more increased (80%; P < 0.01) concentration of total lipids. At the same time, considerable changes of cholesterol and total protein concentrations were not observed. The results suggest that the investigated haematological and biochemical variables could be successfully utilised in monitoring the metabolic balance and health status of fish in intensive culture.

  7. Liquid chromatography coupled with multi-channel electrochemical detection for the determination of daidzin in rat blood sampled by an automated blood sampling system.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feifei; Zhu, Yongxin; Long, Hong; Cregor, Meloney; Xie, Fuming; Kissinger, Candice B; Kissinger, Peter T

    2002-05-25

    Daidzin, a soy-derived biologically active natural product, has been reported to inhibit mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppress ethanol intake. This paper describes a method for the determination of daidzin in rat blood. After administration of daidzin, blood samples were periodically collected from awake, freely moving animals by a Culex automated blood sampler. Daidzin was extracted from 50 microl of diluted blood (blood and saline at a ratio of 1:1) with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 12 min using a microbore C(18) (100 x 1.0 mm) 3 microm column with a mobile phase containing 20 mM sodium acetate, 0.25 mM EDTA, pH 4.3, 4% methanol and 11% acetonitrile at a flow-rate of 90 microl/min. Detection was attained using a four-channel electrochemical detector with glassy carbon electrodes using oxidation potentials of +1100, 950, 850, 750 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The limit of detection for daidzin in rat plasma was 5 ng/ml at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The extraction recovery of daidzin from rat plasma was over 74%. Linearity was obtained for the range of 25-1000 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were in the ranges of 2.7-6.6 and 1.9-3.7%, respectively. This method is suitable to routine in vivo monitoring of daidzin in rat plasma.

  8. Regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in ageing humans.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Christopher M; Dinenno, Frank A

    2016-04-15

    The regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery to contracting skeletal muscle is complex and involves the mechanical effects of muscle contraction; local metabolic, red blood cell and endothelium-derived substances; and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). With advancing age in humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is typically reduced during dynamic exercise and this is due to a lower vascular conductance, which could ultimately contribute to age-associated reductions in aerobic exercise capacity, a primary predictor of mortality in both healthy and diseased ageing populations. Recent findings have highlighted the contribution of endothelium-derived substances to blood flow control in contracting muscle of older adults. With advancing age, impaired nitric oxide availability due to scavenging by reactive oxygen species, in conjunction with elevated vasoconstrictor signalling via endothelin-1, reduces the local vasodilatory response to muscle contraction. Additionally, ageing impairs the ability of contracting skeletal muscle to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction (i.e. 'functional sympatholysis'), which is critical for the proper regulation of tissue blood flow distribution and oxygen delivery, and could further reduce skeletal muscle perfusion during high intensity and/or large muscle mass exercise in older adults. We propose that initiation of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization is the underlying signalling event necessary to properly modulate sympathetic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle, and that age-associated impairments in red blood cell adenosine triphosphate release and stimulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may explain impairments in both local vasodilatation and functional sympatholysis with advancing age in humans.

  9. Blood pressure and body mass index in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents in Paramaribo, Suriname

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Oudeman, Eline; Zijlmans, Wilco; Wendte, Johannes; Stronks, Karien

    2009-01-01

    Background High blood pressure (BP) is now an important public health problem in non-industrialised countries. The limited evidence suggests ethnic inequalities in BP in adults in some non-industrialised countries. However, it is unclear whether these ethnic inequalities in BP patterns in adults reflect on adolescents. Hence, we assessed ethnic differences in BP, and the association of BP with body mass index (BMI) among adolescents aged 12–17 years in Paramaribo, Suriname. Methods Cross-sectional study with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A random sample of 855 adolescents (167 Hindustanis, 169 Creoles, 128 Javanese, 91 Maroons and 300 mixed-ethnicities) were studied. Ethnicity was based on self-reported ethnic origin. Results Among boys, Maroons had a lower age- and height-adjusted systolic BP than Creoles, and a lower diastolic BP than other ethnic groups. However, after further adjustment for BMI, only diastolic BP in Maroons was significantly lower than in Javanese (67.1 versus 70.9 mmHg). Creole boys had a lower diastolic BP than Hindustani (67.3 versus 70.2 mmHg) and Javanese boys after adjustment for age, height and BMI. Among girls, there were no significant differences in systolic BP between the ethnic groups. Maroon girls, however, had a lower diastolic BP (65.6 mmHg) than Hindustani (69.1 mmHg), Javanese (71.2 mmHg) and Mixed-ethnic (68.3 mmHg) girls, but only after differences in BMI had been adjusted for. Javanese had a higher diastolic BP than Creoles (71.2 versus 66.8 mmHg) and Mixed-ethnicity girls. BMI was positively associated with BP in all the ethnic groups, except for diastolic BP in Maroon girls. Conclusion The study findings indicate higher mean BP levels among Javanese and Hindustani adolescents compared with their African descent peers. These findings contrast the relatively low BP reported in Javanese and Hindustani adult populations in Suriname and underscore the need for public health measures early in life to prevent

  10. Does blood pressure inevitably rise with age?: longitudinal evidence among forager-horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D; Rodríguez, Daniel Eid; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Kaplan, Hillard

    2012-07-01

    The rise in blood pressure with age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Age-related increases in blood pressure have been observed in almost every population, except among hunter-gatherers, farmers, and pastoralists. Here we tested for age-related increases in blood pressure among Tsimane forager-farmers. We also test whether lifestyle changes associated with modernization lead to higher blood pressure and a greater rate of age-related increase in blood pressure. We measured blood pressure longitudinally on 2248 adults age ≥ 20 years (n=6468 observations over 8 years). Prevalence of hypertension was 3.9% for women and 5.2% for men, although diagnosis of persistent hypertension based on multiple observations reduced prevalence to 2.9% for both sexes. Mixed-effects models revealed systolic, diastolic, and pulse blood pressure increases of 2.86 (P<0.001), 0.95 (P<0.001), and 1.95 mmHg (P<0.001) per decade for women and 0.91 (P<0.001), 0.93 (P<0.001), and -0.02 mmHg (P=0.93) for men, substantially lower than rates found elsewhere. Lifestyle factors, such as smoking and Spanish fluency, had minimal effect on mean blood pressure and no effect on age-related increases in blood pressure. Greater town proximity was associated with a lower age-related increase in pulse pressure. Effects of modernization were, therefore, deemed minimal among Tsimane, in light of their lean physique, active lifestyle, and protective diet.

  11. Method of evaluation of process of red blood cell sedimentation based on photometry of droplet samples.

    PubMed

    Aristov, Alexander; Nosova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The paper focuses on research aimed at creating and testing a new approach to evaluate the processes of aggregation and sedimentation of red blood cells for purpose of its use in clinical laboratory diagnostics. The proposed method is based on photometric analysis of blood sample formed as a sessile drop. The results of clinical approbation of this method are given in the paper. Analysis of the processes occurring in the sample in the form of sessile drop during the process of blood cells sedimentation is described. The results of experimental studies to evaluate the effect of the droplet sample focusing properties on light radiation transmittance are presented. It is shown that this method significantly reduces the sample volume and provides sufficiently high sensitivity to the studied processes.

  12. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  13. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8-10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail.

  14. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Discussion Canine

  15. Lead and cadmium levels in blood samples from the general population of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Friberg, L.; Lind, B.; Jawaid, M.

    1983-02-01

    Lead and cadmium was determined in whole blood samples obtained from 473 nonoccupationally exposed adult persons in Sweden in 1980. Analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry equipped with an electrothermal atomization unit. Blood lead concentrations were shown to be significantly influenced by sex, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption. Current male smokers had a median blood lead level of 92 ..mu..g Pb/liter, as compared to 77 ..mu..g Pb/liter for nonsmokers. For females the corresponding values were 69 ..mu..g Pb/liter and 57 ..mu..g Pb/liter for current smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between stated alcohol consumption and blood lead in most of the different sex and smoking categories. People living in apartments close to streets with heavy traffic in Stockholm had slightly, but not significantly, higher blood lead levels when compared to people living in areas of this city with low traffic density. Blood cadmium levels were very strongly affected by smoking habits. A significant correlation existed between the number of cigarettes consumed daily and blood cadmium concentration. The median blood cadmium level for nonsmoking males was 0.2 ..mu..g Cd/liter (less than or equal to0.2, detection limit) and for females 0.3 ..mu..g Cd/liter. About 90% of the current male and female smokers had cadmium concentrations in blood of 0.6 ..mu..g Cd/liter or more.

  16. Age-related changes in pial arterial structure and blood flow in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Min; Sohn, Inkyung; Jung, Junyang; Jeong, Joo-Won; Park, Chan

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cerebral blood flow decreases are thought to deteriorate cognition and cause senescence, although the related mechanism is unclear. To investigate the relationships between aging and changes in cerebral blood flow and vasculature, we obtained fluorescence images of young (2-month-old) and old (12-month-old) mice using indocyanine green (ICG). First, we found that the blood flow in old mice's brains is lower than that in young mice and that old mice had more curved pial arteries and fewer pial artery junctions than young mice. Second, using Western blotting, we determined that the ratio of collagen to elastin (related to cerebral vascular wall distensibility) increased with age. Finally, we found that the peak ICG intensity and blood flow index decreased, whereas the mean transit time increased, with age in the middle cerebral artery and superior sagittal sinus. Age-related changes in pial arterial structure and composition, concurrent with the observed changes in the blood flow parameters, suggest that age-related changes in the cerebral vasculature structure and distensibility may induce altered brain blood flow.

  17. [Investigation of uninterpretative HLA typing in 311 umbilical cord blood samples].

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing-Xin; Liang, Xiao-Lan; Han, Jun-Ling; Li, Qian; Qiu, Lu-Gui

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors which affect HLA typing in 311 umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples. The HLA low resolution typing of UCB samples with misinterpreted HLA types from 311 UCB samples analyzed by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP was performed. 7 samples difficult to determine their HLA genotype were sequenced directly and the reason leading to misinterpret HLA typing was analyzed. The results indicated that 99.4% of misinterpreted samples resulted from the restriction of HLA typing method itself and 0.6% of misinterpreted samples were suspected to be contaminated with maternal blood in UCB. It is concluded that HLA typing is mainly affected by the shortcomings of oligonucleotide probe design for PCR-SSO and lack of allele specific primers of PCR-SSP.

  18. Enhanced Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus using Molecular Assays on Whole Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Grolla, Allen; Mehedi, Masfique; Lindsay, Robbin; Bosio, Catharine; Duse, Adriano; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses of global agricultural and public health importance. In December 2006, an RVF outbreak was recognized in Kenya which led to the deployment of international response laboratory teams to the area. Objectives A field laboratory was operated in Malindi, Kenya to provide safe sample handling and molecular testing for RVF virus (RVFV) as well as selected other pathogens for differential diagnosis. Study Design Safe sample handling was carried out using a negative pressure flexible film isolator (glovebox) and commercial reagents to inactivate clinical specimens and purify nucleic acid. Whole blood was routinely used for diagnostic testing although paired plasma samples were also tested in select cases. Subsequently, human macrophages were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to RVFV. Results The field laboratory received samples from 33 individuals and a definite laboratory diagnosis was provided in 16 of these cases. Using molecular diagnostic techniques, RVFV was more consistently detected in whole blood than in plasma samples most likely due to association of RVFV with blood cells. Subsequent in vitro studies identified macrophages as a target cell for RVFV replication. Conclusions RVFV appears to replicate in blood cells such as macrophages. Thus, the sensitivity of molecular diagnostic testing is improved if whole blood is used as the clinical specimen rather than plasma or serum. PMID:22632901

  19. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    By combining easy and fast leukocyte enrichment with aminophenyl-fluorescein (APF) staining we developed a method to quickly and specifically address the halogenating activity of the immunological relevant blood heme peroxidases myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, respectively. For leukocyte enrichment a two-fold hypotonic lysis procedure of the blood with Millipore water was chosen which represents a cheap, fast and reliable method to diminish the amount of erythrocytes in the samples. This procedure is shown to be suitable both to human and murine blood micro-samples, making it also applicable to small animal experiments with recurring blood sampling. As all types of leukocytes are kept in the sample during the preparation, they can be analysed separately after discrimination during the flow cytometry analysis. This also holds for all heme peroxidase-containing cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Moreover additional parameters (e.g. antibody staining) can be combined with the heme peroxidase activity determination to gain additional information about the different immune cell types. Based on previous results we applied APF for specifically addressing the halogenating activity of leukocyte peroxidases in blood samples. This dye is selectively oxidized by the MPO and EPO halogenation products hypochlorous and hypobromous acid. This approach may provide a suitable tool to gain more insights into the immune-physiological role of the halogenating activity of heme peroxidases.

  20. Using blood samples to estimate persistent organic pollutants and metals in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Hodge, Mary; Olszowy, Henry A; Whittier, Joan M; Lee, Shing Y

    2010-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals have been reported in a number of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations worldwide. However, due to ethical considerations, these studies have generally been on tissues from deceased and stranded animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of blood samples to estimate the tissue contamination of live C. mydas populations. This study analysed 125 POP compounds and eight heavy metals in the blood, liver, kidney and muscle of 16 C. mydas from the Sea World Sea Turtle Rehabilitation Program, Gold Coast, Australia. Strong correlations were observed between blood and tissue concentrations for a number of POPs and metals. Furthermore, these correlations were observed over large ranges of turtle size, sex and condition. These results indicate that blood samples are a reliable non-lethal method for predicting chemical contamination in C. mydas.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale in cattle blood samples from Nigeria using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Elelu, Nusirat; Ferrolho, Joana; Couto, Joana; Domingos, Ana; Eisler, Mark C

    2016-12-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are some of the most important animal health and management problems in Africa, including Nigeria. This study aims to determine the prevalence of an important TBD, anaplasmosis, in a North-central region of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from cattle and stored on Whatman FTA(®) cards. Information on village, age and sex associated with each cattle was also recorded. The packed red blood cell volume (PCV) for each blood sample was determined. After DNA extraction, pathogen presence was evaluated by TaqMan(®) based qPCR of which 75.9 % of the cattle tested positive for Anaplasma marginale. Statistical analysis revealed that the presence of A. marginale infection differed significantly between cattle age groups. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of this pathogen between the sexes or among cattle grouped by PCV level. Finally, using a highly sensitive molecular method our pioneer study contributes to the improvement of the current knowledge regarding tick-borne pathogens that seriously affect animal health in specific areas of Nigeria.

  2. Gold, Blood, and Power: Finance and War Through the Ages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    spending in the event of a future military crisis. The Strategic Studies Institute hopes this historical survey will draw attention to an aspect of...bad as this fragmentation was, the true dam- age to the Empire’s future prospects was the economic changes that were occurring almost unnoticed...foundation of wisdom grounded in mastery of the profession of arms, and by serving as a crucible for educating future leaders in the analysis

  3. Fast multi-spectral imaging technique for detection of circulating endothelial cells in human blood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnyy, Ihor V.; Berezhna, Svitlana Y.

    2012-08-01

    The appearance of non-blood cells circulating in human peripheral bloodstream indicates an abnormal condition. One important category of these cells is circulating endothelial cells (CECs) shed by compromised blood vessels. Clinical applications that measure the blood level of CECs are hindered due to a lack of standardized instruments. The major challenge in detecting circulating non-blood cells is their extreme scarcity; 1 in 106 to 107. Described here is a new method for detection of rare cells in blood samples deposited on the adhesive microscopic slides and immunostained with distinct fluorescent markers. The key novelty of the proposed approach is an intelligent search principle and a dual-mode scanner to implement this principle. To begin, a fast scanning that uses a single beam is performed in the spectral channel where only rare cells produce florescence. Once a target cell is registered, the scanner switches on the imaging mode, auto-focuses and then records images in multiple spectral channels at the selected area. The instrument runs in repetitive cycles until the entire slide is scanned. The technology has been validated via detection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells spiked into human blood samples. In addition, the operational principle can be adapted for detection of other types of rare cells in blood.

  4. Hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; Margalida, A

    2010-04-01

    Normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. No significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. Reference ranges have been established for Bearded Vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living Bearded Vultures, with subadult and adult data combined without affecting clinical interpretation. Some reference values for the parameters reported in this study are similar to those previously described for vultures and other raptor species, although creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were higher than those reported for birds of prey. Significant age-related differences were identified in urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total serum protein, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and lipase activities (P<0.05). Additionally, significant age-related differences were noted in red and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, fibrinogen level, and heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P<0.005). The results obtained from this study provide reference ranges that will be useful for evaluating the pathologic conditions and general health of Bearded Vulture populations and reveal the existence of important age-related differences in the species.

  5. Microwaving Blood as a Non-Destructive Technique for Haemoglobin Measurements on Microlitre Samples

    PubMed Central

    Basey-Fisher, Toby H.; Guerra, Nadia; Triulzi, Chiara; Gregory, Andrew; Hanham, Stephen M.; Stevens, Molly M.; Maier, Stefan A.; Klein, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The non-destructive ex vivo determination of haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration offers the capability to conduct multiple red blood cell haematological measurements on a single sample, an advantage that current optical techniques are unable to offer. Here, a microwave method and device for the accurate and non-destructive determination of Hgb concentration in microlitre blood samples are described. Using broadband microwave spectroscopy, a relationship is established between the dielectric properties of murine blood and Hgb concentration that is utilized to create a technique for the determination of Hgb concentration. Subsequently, a microwave dielectric resonator-microfluidic system is implemented in the analysis of 52 murine samples with microlitre volumes and Hgb concentrations ranging from 0 to 17 g dL−1. Using the characterized relationship, independent and minimally invasive Hgb measurements are made on nine healthy mice as well as seven with mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that leads to colorectal cancer and consequently anaemia. PMID:24002989

  6. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine. PMID:26925892

  7. Microfluidic, marker-free isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Nezihi Murat; Spuhler, Philipp S; Fachin, Fabio; Lim, Eugene J; Pai, Vincent; Ozkumur, Emre; Martel, Joseph M; Kojic, Nikola; Smith, Kyle; Chen, Pin-i; Yang, Jennifer; Hwang, Henry; Morgan, Bailey; Trautwein, Julie; Barber, Thomas A; Stott, Shannon L; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Kapur, Ravi; Haber, Daniel A; Toner, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The ability to isolate and analyze rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has the potential to further our understanding of cancer metastasis and enhance the care of cancer patients. In this protocol, we describe the procedure for isolating rare CTCs from blood samples by using tumor antigen–independent microfluidic CTC-iChip technology. The CTC-iChip uses deterministic lateral displacement, inertial focusing and magnetophoresis to sort up to 107 cells/s. By using two-stage magnetophoresis and depletion antibodies against leukocytes, we achieve 3.8-log depletion of white blood cells and a 97% yield of rare cells with a sample processing rate of 8 ml of whole blood/h. The CTC-iChip is compatible with standard cytopathological and RNA-based characterization methods. This protocol describes device production, assembly, blood sample preparation, system setup and the CTC isolation process. Sorting 8 ml of blood sample requires 2 h including setup time, and chip production requires 2–5 d. PMID:24577360

  8. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Pelle; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples in the laboratory were used as the evaluation criteria. Four different scenarios were tested and compared with the current approach: (1) Using AGVs (mobile robots), (2) using a pneumatic tube system, (3) using porters that are called upon, or (4) using porters that come to the wards every 45 minutes. Furthermore, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT and MWT with approx. 36% and 18%, respectively. Additionally, all of the scenarios had a more even distribution of arrivals except for porters coming to the wards every 45 min. As a consequence of the results obtained in the study, the hospital decided to implement a pneumatic tube system.

  9. Microfluidic, marker-free isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood samples.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Nezihi Murat; Spuhler, Philipp S; Fachin, Fabio; Lim, Eugene J; Pai, Vincent; Ozkumur, Emre; Martel, Joseph M; Kojic, Nikola; Smith, Kyle; Chen, Pin-i; Yang, Jennifer; Hwang, Henry; Morgan, Bailey; Trautwein, Julie; Barber, Thomas A; Stott, Shannon L; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Kapur, Ravi; Haber, Daniel A; Toner, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    The ability to isolate and analyze rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has the potential to further our understanding of cancer metastasis and enhance the care of cancer patients. In this protocol, we describe the procedure for isolating rare CTCs from blood samples by using tumor antigen-independent microfluidic CTC-iChip technology. The CTC-iChip uses deterministic lateral displacement, inertial focusing and magnetophoresis to sort up to 10⁷ cells/s. By using two-stage magnetophoresis and depletion antibodies against leukocytes, we achieve 3.8-log depletion of white blood cells and a 97% yield of rare cells with a sample processing rate of 8 ml of whole blood/h. The CTC-iChip is compatible with standard cytopathological and RNA-based characterization methods. This protocol describes device production, assembly, blood sample preparation, system setup and the CTC isolation process. Sorting 8 ml of blood sample requires 2 h including setup time, and chip production requires 2-5 d.

  10. The Gilded Age: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Gilded Age and directions for obtaining the full text of these materials; topics include, but are not limited to, immigration, the 1896 presidential election, the Populist movement, the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and the development of…

  11. Aging and Sexuality: Perceptions of a Puerto Rican Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Judith; Drew, Benjamin

    While there are acknowledged physical, psychological, and social benefits to be derived from maintaining sexual activity in old age, the negative cultural attitudes displayed by younger members of society as well as by their own peers constitute a barrier to the achievement of a satisfactory sex life for the elderly. A study was undertaken to…

  12. Rapid Microbial Sample Preparation from Blood Using a Novel Concentration Device

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Anna K.; Campbell, Jennifer; Wirz, Holger; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate care for bacteremic patients is dictated by the amount of time needed for an accurate diagnosis. However, the concentration of microbes in the blood is extremely low in these patients (1–100 CFU/mL), traditionally requiring growth (blood culture) or amplification (e.g., PCR) for detection. Current culture-based methods can take a minimum of two days, while faster methods like PCR require a sample free of inhibitors (i.e., blood components). Though commercial kits exist for the removal of blood from these samples, they typically capture only DNA, thereby necessitating the use of blood culture for antimicrobial testing. Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The process can efficiently lyse 10 mL of bacteremic blood while maintaining the microorganisms’ viability, giving a 30‑μL final output volume. A suite of six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans) at a range of clinically relevant concentrations was tested. All of the microorganisms had recoveries greater than 55% at the highest tested concentration of 100 CFU/mL, with three of them having over 70% recovery. At the lowest tested concentration of 3 CFU/mL, two microorganisms had recoveries of ca. 40–50% while the other four gave recoveries greater than 70%. Using a Taqman assay for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA)to prove the feasibility of downstream analysis, we show that our microbial pellets are clean enough for PCR amplification. PCR testing of 56 spiked-positive and negative samples gave a specificity of 0.97 and a sensitivity of 0.96, showing that our sample preparation protocol holds great promise for the rapid diagnosis of bacteremia directly from a primary sample. PMID:25675242

  13. Venepuncture is preferable to heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, S; Ogihara, T; Fujiwara, E; Ito, K; Nakano, M; Nakayama, S; Hachiya, T; Fujimoto, N; Abe, H; Ban, S; Ikeda, E; Tamai, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The analgesic effect of oral sucrose in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures is generally accepted. For blood sampling, some studies have shown that venepuncture (VP) is less painful than heel lance (HL). Objective: To determine the least painful and most effective method among blood sampling by VP or HL with or without sucrose. Design: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Subjects: A total of 100 healthy, full term newborn infants being screened for inborn errors of metabolism were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups (25 infants in each). Intervention and outcome measure: Seven specially trained nurses took turns to carry out blood sampling two minutes after administration of oral sucrose or water. Neonatal pain was assessed by the neonatal facial coding system (NFCS), as well as by crying. Results: Without sucrose, the NFCS score was higher in the HL group than the VP group during blood sampling (median 58 v 23, p<0.001). Oral sucrose significantly reduced the score of the HL group (58 v 47, p<0.01) and also tended to reduce the score of the VP group (23 v 2, p<0.1). However, the HL with sucrose group still had a higher score than the VP without sucrose group (47 v 23, p<0.01). Crying and the total procedure time showed the same trends as the NFCS score. Conclusions: VP is less painful and more effective than HL for blood sampling in newborn infants. Although oral sucrose may have an additive analgesic effect, it is not necessarily required if VP is used for blood sampling. PMID:15871991

  14. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises (1) a whole blood sample disc, (2) a serum sample disc, (3) a sample preparation rotor, and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc in capillary tubes filled by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analytical rotor for analysis by conventional methods.

  15. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1985-08-05

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises: (1) a whole blood sample disc; (2) a serum sample disc; (3) a sample preparation rotor; and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analyticaly rotor for conventional methods. 5 figs.

  16. Red blood cells open promising avenues for longitudinal studies of ageing in laboratory, non-model and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Reichert, Sophie; Criscuolo, Francois; Bize, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Ageing is characterized by a progressive deterioration of multiple physiological and molecular pathways, which impair organismal performance and increase risks of death with advancing age. Hence, ageing studies must identify physiological and molecular pathways that show signs of age-related deterioration, and test their association with the risk of death and longevity. This approach necessitates longitudinal sampling of the same individuals, and therefore requires a minimally invasive sampling technique that provides access to the larger spectrum of physiological and molecular pathways that are putatively associated with ageing. The present paper underlines the interest in using red blood cells (RBCs) as a promising target for longitudinal studies of ageing in vertebrates. RBCs provide valuable information on the following six pathways: cell maintenance and turnover (RBC number, size, and heterogeneity), glucose homeostasis (RBC glycated haemoglobin), oxidative stress parameters, membrane composition and integrity, mitochondrial functioning, and telomere dynamics. The last two pathways are specific to RBCs of non-mammalian species, which possess a nucleus and functional mitochondria. We present the current knowledge about RBCs and age-dependent changes in these pathways in non-model and wild species that are especially suitable to address questions related to ageing using longitudinal studies. We discuss how the different pathways relate with survival and lifespan and give information on their genetic and environmental determinants to appraise their evolutionary potential.

  17. Morphine to codeine concentration ratio in blood and urine as a marker of illicit heroin use in forensic autopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Svetlana V; Normann, Per T; Arnestad, Marianne; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2012-04-10

    A morphine to codeine ratio greater than unity (M/C>1) has been suggested as an indicator of heroin use in living individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the morphine to codeine ratio in a large population (N=2438) of forensically examined autopsy cases positive for 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and/or morphine in blood and/or urine. Blood and urine concentrations of 6-MAM, morphine and codeine were examined using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods. In 6-MAM positive samples, the M/C ratio was greater than unity in 98% (N=917) of the blood samples and 96% (N=665) of the urine samples. Stratification of 6-MAM negative cases by M/C above or below unity revealed similarities in morphine and codeine concentrations in cases where M/C>1 and 6-MAM positive cases. Median blood and urine morphine concentrations were 8-10 times greater than codeine for both groups. Similarly to 6-MAM positive cases, 25-44 year-old men prevailed in the M/C>1 group. In comparison to cases where M/C ≤ 1, the M/C ratio was a hundred times higher in both 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The range of morphine concentration between the lowest and the highest quintile of codeine in M/C>1 cases was similar to that in 6-MAM positive cases. This range was much higher than for M/C ≤ 1 cases. Moreover, linear regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, revealed a strong positive association between morphine and codeine in 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The M/C ratio appeared to be a good marker of heroin use in post-mortem cases. Both blood and urine M/C>1 can be used to separate heroin users from other cases positive for morphine and codeine.

  18. Biomarkers for Monitoring Pre-Analytical Quality Variation of mRNA in Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Korenková, Vlasta; Sjöback, Robert; Švec, David; Björkman, Jens; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Verderio, Paolo; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Wyrich, Ralf; Oelmueller, Uwe; Kubista, Mikael; Lindahl, Torbjørn; Lönneborg, Anders; Rian, Edith

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need for proper quality control tools in the pre-analytical phase of the molecular diagnostic workflow. The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical mRNA quality variations in two different types of blood collection tubes, K2EDTA (EDTA) tubes and PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes (PAXgene tubes). These tubes are extensively used both in the diagnostic setting as well as for research biobank samples. Blood specimens collected in the two different blood collection tubes were stored for varying times at different temperatures, and microarray analysis was performed on resultant extracted RNA. A large set of potential mRNA quality biomarkers for monitoring post-phlebotomy gene expression changes and mRNA degradation in blood was identified. qPCR assays for the potential biomarkers and a set of relevant reference genes were generated and used to pre-validate a sub-set of the selected biomarkers. The assay precision of the potential qPCR based biomarkers was determined, and a final validation of the selected quality biomarkers using the developed qPCR assays and blood samples from 60 healthy additional subjects was performed. In total, four mRNA quality biomarkers (USP32, LMNA, FOSB, TNRFSF10C) were successfully validated. We suggest here the use of these blood mRNA quality biomarkers for validating an experimental pre-analytical workflow. These biomarkers were further evaluated in the 2nd ring trial of the SPIDIA-RNA Program which demonstrated that these biomarkers can be used as quality control tools for mRNA analyses from blood samples. PMID:25369468

  19. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001).

  20. Correlation of Cardiac Markers and Biomarkers With Blood Pressure of Middle-Aged Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Ahn, Jae Ki; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2015-11-01

    Runners with exercise-induced high blood pressure have recently been reported to exhibit higher levels of cardiac markers, vasoconstrictors, and inflammation. The authors attempted to identify correlations between exercise-related personal characteristics and the levels of biochemical/cardiac markers in marathon runners in this study. Forty healthy runners were enrolled. Blood samples were taken both before and after finishing a full marathon. The change in each cardiac/biochemical marker over the course of the marathon was determined. All markers were significantly (P<.001) increased immediately after the marathon (creatine kinase-MB [CK-MB]: 7.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL, cardiac troponin I (cTnI): 0.06 ± 0.10 ng/mL, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP): 95.7 ± 76.4, endothelin-1: 2.7 ± 1.16, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]: 0.1 ± 0.09, creatine kinase [CK]: 315.7 ± 94.0, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]: 552.8 ± 130.3) compared with their premarathon values (CK-MB: 4.3 ± 1.3, cTnI: 0.01 ± 0.003, NT-proBNP: 27.6 ± 31.1, endothelin-1: 1.11 ± 0.5, hs-CRP: 0.06 ± 0.07, CK: 149.2 ± 66.0, LDH: 399 ± 75.1). In middle-aged marathon runners, factors related to increased blood pressure were correlated with marathon-induced increases in cTnI, NT-proBNP, endothelin-1, and hs-CRP. These correlations were observed independent of running history, records of finishing, and peak oxygen uptake.

  1. The effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Jong-Won

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men. To achieve the goal of the study, a total of 23 subjects were selected. Among them, 14 subjects who exercised regularly were selected as the exercise group, while the remaining 9 subjects were selected as the control group. In terms of data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Regarding the verification of difference on the change of means between the groups, analysis of covariance was used for statistical process. As a result, significant differences were found in cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, flexibility, and triglyceride. These results indicate that the resistance exercise only had slight effect on hypertensive middle-aged men. PMID:28349040

  2. Chronic stress impairs collateral blood flow recovery in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Sood, Subeena; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Jhamnani, Sunny; Aghili, Nima; Nashin, Hajra; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Epstein, Stephen E; Burnett, Mary Susan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that chronic stress accelerates collateral dysfunction in old mice. Mice were subjected to either chronic social defeat (CSD) or chronic cold stress (CCS). The CSD mice were housed in a box inside an aggressor's cage and exposed to the aggressor. The CCS group was placed in iced water. After chronic stress, mice underwent femoral artery ligation (FAL) and flow recovery was measured. For the CSD group, appearance and use scores of the foot and a behavioral test were performed. CSD impaired collateral flow recovery after FAL. Further, stressed mice had greater ischemic damage, impaired foot function, and altered behavior. The CCS mice also showed impaired collateral flow recovery. Chronic stress causes hind limb collateral dysfunction in old mice, a conclusion reinforced by the fact that two types of stress produced similar changes.

  3. Peripheral mechanisms of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    Human skin blood flow is controlled via dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are both impaired with primary aging, rendering the aged more vulnerable to hypothermia and cardiovascular complications from heat-related illness. Age-related alterations in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow occur at multiple points along the efferent arm of the reflex, including 1) diminished sympathetic outflow, 2) altered presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis, 3) reduced vascular responsiveness, and 4) impairments in downstream (endothelial and vascular smooth muscle) second-messenger signaling. This mechanistic review highlights some of the recent findings in the area of aging and the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. PMID:20413421

  4. Age-related memory impairments due to reduced blood glucose responses to epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ken A; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G; Gold, Paul E

    2010-12-01

    Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in 2-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and glucose were about equally effective in enhancing memory and in prolonging post-training release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. However, glucose was more effective than epinephrine in enhancing both memory and acetylcholine release in aged rats. These results suggest that an uncoupling between circulating epinephrine and glucose levels in old rats may lead to an age-related reduction in the provision of glucose to the brain during training. This in turn may contribute to age-related changes in memory and neural plasticity.

  5. Direct and long-term detection of gene doping in conventional blood samples.

    PubMed

    Beiter, T; Zimmermann, M; Fragasso, A; Hudemann, J; Niess, A M; Bitzer, M; Lauer, U M; Simon, P

    2011-03-01

    The misuse of somatic gene therapy for the purpose of enhancing athletic performance is perceived as a coming threat to the world of sports and categorized as 'gene doping'. This article describes a direct detection approach for gene doping that gives a clear yes-or-no answer based on the presence or absence of transgenic DNA in peripheral blood samples. By exploiting a priming strategy to specifically amplify intronless DNA sequences, we developed PCR protocols allowing the detection of very small amounts of transgenic DNA in genomic DNA samples to screen for six prime candidate genes. Our detection strategy was verified in a mouse model, giving positive signals from minute amounts (20 μl) of blood samples for up to 56 days following intramuscular adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer, one of the most likely candidate vector systems to be misused for gene doping. To make our detection strategy amenable for routine testing, we implemented a robust sample preparation and processing protocol that allows cost-efficient analysis of small human blood volumes (200 μl) with high specificity and reproducibility. The practicability and reliability of our detection strategy was validated by a screening approach including 327 blood samples taken from professional and recreational athletes under field conditions.

  6. 1-Hydroxypyrene Levels in Blood Samples of Rats After Exposure to Generator Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Ifegwu, Clinton; Igwo-Ezikpe, Miriam N.; Anyakora, Chimezie; Osuntoki, Akinniyi; Oseni, Kafayat A.; Alao, Eragbae O.

    2013-01-01

    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major component of fuel generator fumes. Carcinogenicity of these compounds has long been established. In this study, 37 Swiss albino rats were exposed to generator fumes at varied distances for 8 hours per day for a period of 42 days and the level of 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood was evaluated. This study also tried to correlate the level of blood 1-hyroxypyrene with the distance from the source of pollution. Plasma was collected by centrifuging the whole blood sample followed by complete hydrolysis of the conjugated 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide to yield the analyte of interest, 1-hydroxypyrene, which was achieved using beta glucuronidase. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector was used to determine the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the blood samples. The mobile phase was water:methanol (12:88 v/v) isocratic run at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/min with CI8 stationary phase at 250 nm. After 42 days of exposure, blood concentration level of 1-hydroxypyrene ranged from 34 μg/mL to 26.29 μg/mL depending on the distance from source of exposure. The control group had no 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood. After the period of exposure, percentage of death correlated with the distance from the source of exposure. Percentage of death ranged from 56% to zero depending on the proximity to source of pollution. PMID:24179393

  7. The application of blood flow measurements to the study of aging muscle.

    PubMed

    McCully, K K; Posner, J D

    1995-11-01

    Blood flow to skeletal muscle is a potentially important factor in the reduction of muscle function associated with aging (sarcopenia). The main influence of reduced blood flow capacity on muscle function is in limiting oxidative metabolism. Direct measures of blood flow include: intravital-microscopy, plethysmography, radioactive microspheres, 133Xenon washout, thermodilution, and Doppler ultrasound. Indirect measurement of blood flow includes arm-to-ankle pressure index and the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise. Several new methodologies have been developed to evaluate muscle blood flow, including color-Doppler imaging, magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). As adaptations of traditional techniques, these methods promise more precise information under less invasive conditions. MRI is an expensive and technically challenging method able to measure vessel location, blood flow, and wall diameter in blood vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. Color-Doppler provides excellent temporal resolution blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle, along with some anatomical information. NIRS is an inexpensive and portable technology that can measure changes in oxygen saturation and provide information on tissue oxygen delivery in studies of frailer and more difficult-to-study subjects. Muscle blood flow is not thought to limit oxidative metabolism under normal conditions in young individuals. However, it is not clear what happens to muscle blood flow in healthy older individuals. Reduced capillary density, less maximal blood flow, and a slower hyperemic flow response have been reported in some, but not all, studies. Further studies with the newer methodologies are needed to re-examine age-related changes in muscle blood flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Detection of the BLV provirus from nasal secretion and saliva samples using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: Comparison with blood samples from the same cattle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Saito, Susumu; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Haga, Satoshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Ayumu; Murakami, Hironobu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. Sero-epidemiological studies show that BLV infection occurs worldwide. Direct contact between infected and uninfected cattle is thought to be one of the risk factors for BLV transmission. Contact transmission occurs via a mixture of natural sources, blood, and exudates. To confirm that BLV provirus is detectable in these samples, matched blood, nasal secretion, and saliva samples were collected from 50 cattle, and genomic DNA was extracted. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2, an assay developed for the highly sensitive detection of BLV, was then used to measure the proviral load in blood (n=50), nasal secretions (n=48), and saliva (n=47) samples. The results showed that 35 blood samples, 14 nasal secretion samples, and 6 saliva samples were positive for the BLV provirus. Matched blood samples from cattle that were positive for the BLV provirus (either in nasal secretion or saliva samples) were also positive in their blood. The proviral load in the positive blood samples was >14,000 (copies/1×10(5) cells). Thus, even though the proviral load in the nasal secretion and saliva samples was much lower (<380 copies/1×10(5) cells) than that in the peripheral blood, prolonged direct contact between infected and healthy cattle may be considered as a risk factor for BLV transmission.

  9. Large-Scale Prospective T Cell Function Assays in Shipped, Unfrozen Blood Samples: Experiences from the Multicenter TRIGR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Roy K.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Girgis, Rose; Palmer, Jerry P.; Cuthbertson, David; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Broad consensus assigns T lymphocytes fundamental roles in inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. However, clinical investigations have lacked fully characterized and validated procedures, equivalent to those of widely practiced biochemical tests with established clinical roles, for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to tetanus toxin around the timing of infant vaccinations. This assay platform and shipping protocol satisfy the criteria for robust and reproducible long-term measurements of human T cell function, comparable to those of established blood biochemical tests. We present a stable technology for prospective disease-relevant T cell analysis in immunological diseases, vaccination medicine, and measurement of herd immunity. PMID:24334687

  10. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples: experiences from the multicenter TRIGR trial.

    PubMed

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J; Girgis, Rose; Palmer, Jerry P; Cuthbertson, David; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Dosch, Hans-Michael

    2014-02-01

    Broad consensus assigns T lymphocytes fundamental roles in inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. However, clinical investigations have lacked fully characterized and validated procedures, equivalent to those of widely practiced biochemical tests with established clinical roles, for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to tetanus toxin around the timing of infant vaccinations. This assay platform and shipping protocol satisfy the criteria for robust and reproducible long-term measurements of human T cell function, comparable to those of established blood biochemical tests. We present a stable technology for prospective disease-relevant T cell analysis in immunological diseases, vaccination medicine, and measurement of herd immunity.

  11. Age-related alterations in blood and colonic dendritic cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Lydia; Reddi, Durga; Hart, Ailsa L.; Fell, John M. E.; Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Knight, Stella C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) determine initiation, type and location of immune responses and, in adults, show decreased Toll-like receptors and some increased cytokine levels on ageing. Few studies in children have characterised DC or explored DC-related mechanisms producing age-related immune changes. Results The pDC marker BDCA2 (but not CD123) was absent in pre-pubertal children and numbers of pDC decreased with age. Blood and colonic DC were more mature and activated in adults. Decrease in pDC numbers correlated with reduced GM-CSF levels with aging, but increasing IL-4 and IL-8 levels correlated with a more activated DC profile in blood. CXCL16 levels decreased with age. Methods Blood and colonic DC phenotypes were determined in healthy adults and children by flow cytometry and correlated with aging. Blood DC were divided into plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) while only mDC were identified in colon. Serum cytokine levels were determined by multiplex cytokine assays and correlated with DC properties. Conclusions In children, lack of BDCA2, a receptor mediating antigen capture and inhibiting interferon induction, may be immunologically beneficial during immune development. Conversely, reduced pDC numbers, probably secondary to decreasing GM-CSF and increasing cytokine-induced maturation of DC are likely to determine deteriorating immunity with ageing. PMID:26942871

  12. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Centile Curves and Distributions by Age of Hospitalized Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Eytan, Danny; Goodwin, Andrew J.; Greer, Robert; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Laussen, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) form the basis for monitoring the physiological state of patients. Although norms have been published for healthy and hospitalized children, little is known about their distributions in critically ill children. The objective of this study was to report the distributions of these basic physiological variables in hospitalized critically ill children. Continuous data from bedside monitors were collected and stored at 5-s intervals from 3,677 subjects aged 0–18 years admitted over a period of 30 months to the pediatric and cardiac intensive care units at a large quaternary children’s hospital. Approximately 1.13 billion values served to estimate age-specific distributions for these two basic physiological variables: HR and intra-arterial BP. Centile curves were derived from the sample distributions and compared to common reference ranges. Properties such as kurtosis and skewness of these distributions are described. In comparison to previously published reference ranges, we show that children in these settings exhibit markedly higher HRs than their healthy counterparts or children hospitalized on in-patient wards. We also compared commonly used published estimates of hypotension in children (e.g., the PALS guidelines) to the values we derived from critically ill children. This is a first study reporting the distributions of basic physiological variables in children in the pediatric intensive care settings, and the percentiles derived may serve as useful references for bedside clinicians and clinical trials. PMID:28367430

  13. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  14. DNA Methylation Patterns in Cord Blood of Neonates Across Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Braid, Susan M.; Okrah, Kwame; Shetty, Amol; Corrada Bravo, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Background A statistical methodology is available to estimate the proportion of cell types (cellular heterogeneity) in adult whole blood specimens used in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). However, there is no methodology to estimate the proportion of cell types in umbilical cord blood (also a heterogeneous tissue) used in EWAS. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns in umbilical cord blood are the result of blood cell type proportion changes that typically occur across gestational age and to demonstrate the effect of cell type proportion confounding by comparing preterm infants exposed and not exposed to antenatal steroids. Methods We obtained DNAm profiles of cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation27k BeadChip array for 385 neonates from the Boston Birth Cohort. We estimated cell type proportions for six cell types using the deconvolution method developed by Houseman et al. (2012). Results The cell type proportion estimates segregated into two groups that were significantly different by gestational age, indicating that gestational age was associated with cell type proportion. Among infants exposed to antenatal steroids, the number of differentially methylated CpGs dropped from 127 to 1 after controlling for cell type proportion. Discussion EWAS utilizing cord blood are confounded by cell type proportion. Careful study design including correction for cell type proportion and interpretation of results of EWAS using cord blood are critical. PMID:28125511

  15. In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples.

    PubMed

    Trümpler, Stefan; Meermann, Björn; Nowak, Sascha; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe; Sperling, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, thimerosal is used as a preservative in drugs and vaccines and is thus deliberately injected into the human body. In aqueous environment, it decomposes into thiosalicylic acid and the ethylmercury cation. This organomercury fragment is a potent neurotoxin and is suspected to have similar toxicity and bioavailability like the methylmercury cation. In this work, human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions were incubated with thimerosal to investigate its behaviour and binding partners in the blood stream. Inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for total mercury determination in different blood fractions, while liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on the individual mercury species in plasma surrogate samples. Analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified.

  16. Blood, sweat, and tears: embedding biological samples in social science research on children.

    PubMed

    Kall, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st Century, calls for interdisciplinary research are commonplace. Yet, relatively few papers discuss how to complete such research successfully. In this paper, I describe the details of data collection focused on five, six and seven-year old children. The project examined the effect of environmental contaminants on children's educational outcomes. It included a primary caregiver interview, a skill test with the child, and a venous blood draw from the child to test for lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, nicotine, and cotinine. This paper describes key issues and the solutions I adopted. Challenges discussed here include navigating the Institutional Review Board Process, analyzing the blood, obtaining the supplies needed to draw blood, banking blood for future research, hiring a phlebotomist, and recruiting subjects. While not all details will apply directly to other research projects, this paper provides some perspective on the current realities facing social scientists who decide to collect biological samples.

  17. Age Differences in Personality: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional age differences in the Big Five personality traits were examined in a nationally representative sample of Australians (N = 12,618; age range = 15-84). Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age. Effect sizes comparing…

  18. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for

  19. Comparison of manual and automated nucleic acid extraction from whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Kathrin; Adamzik, Michael; Frauenrath, Stefan; Egensperger, Rupert; Schmid, Kurt W; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; Siffert, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid extraction and purification from whole blood is a routine application in many laboratories. Automation of this procedure promises standardized sample treatment, a low error rate, and avoidance of contamination. The performance of the BioRobot M48 (Qiagen) and the manual QIAmp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen) was compared for the extraction of DNA from whole blood. The concentration and purity of the extracted DNAs were determined by spectrophotometry. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by common PCR and genotyping techniques. The quantity and quality of the generated DNAs were slightly higher using the manual extraction method. The results of downstream applications were comparable to each other. Amplification of high-molecular-weight PCR fragments, genotyping by restriction digest, and pyrosequencing were successful for all samples. No cross-contamination could be detected. While automated DNA extraction requires significantly less hands-on time, it is slightly more expensive than the manual extraction method.

  20. Effect of Ibuprofen Dose on Platelet Aggregation and Coagulation in Blood Samples From Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    responses between human and pig blood samples in trauma situations. INTRODUCTION Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic ... analgesic , and antipyretic effects, different profiles of actions have been observed in Aspirin and ibupro- fen. At equivalent effective doses of

  1. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  2. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-arginine, N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD+, and NADP+. Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson’s coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4–2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  3. Application of the Triage panel for drugs of abuse to forensic blood samples.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

    1996-04-01

    A simple and rapid screening procedure with Triage has been developed to detect 7 classes of drugs of abuse, phencyclidine (PCP), benzodiazepines (BZO), cocaine metabolite (COC), amphetamines (AMP), cannabinoids (THC), opiates (OPI), and barbiturates (BAR), in hemolyzed blood. A clear supernatant was obtained by mixing the blood with sulfosalicylic acid. The supernatant was neutralized with ammonium acetate and then screened using Triage. The lower limits of detection of the Triage screening method for PCP, diazepam, benzolyecgonine, methamphetamine, morphine, 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), phenobarbital, and secobarbital were 50 ng/mL, 900 ng/mL, 1,000 ng/mL, 600 ng/mL, 900 ng/mL, and 900 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivity of Triage for THC-COOH in deproteinized blood samples was much lower than that in urine samples. No false positive reactions were observed for the 6 classes of the drugs of abuse with the exception of AMP when the blood was decomposed. Phenethylamine, a putrefactive amine, gave positive results for AMP at concentrations over 5,000 ng/mL. The method was applied to 9 hemolyzed blood samples and 3 turbid urine samples from 12 forensic autopsy cases suspected of drug misuse. Among these, 5 were positive for AMP, 1 for OPI, and 4 for BAR. The presence of methamphetamine is only one of the 5, codeine in 1, and phenobarbital in 4 was confirmed by gas chromatography. All 4 samples which were false positive for AMP contained phenethylamine at relatively high concentrations because of moderate to heavy putrefaction. This method, although disadvantageous to test for AMP and THC, is helpful for the forensic toxicologist because any kind of bloody fluid can be tested rapidly with Triage to detect toxic levels of PCP, BZO, COC, OPI, and BAR.

  4. Direct RNA-based detection of CTX-M β-lactamases in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudia; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-05-01

    Bloodstream infections with ESBL-producers are associated with increased mortality, which is due to delayed appropriate treatment resulting in clinical failure. Current routine diagnostics for detection of bloodstream infections consists of blood culture followed by species identification and susceptibility testing. In attempts to improve and accelerate diagnostic procedures, PCR-based methods have been developed. These methods focus on species identification covering only a limited number of ESBL coding genes. Therefore, they fail to cover the steadily further evolving genetic diversity of clinically relevant β-lactamases. We have recently designed a fast and novel RNA targeting method to detect and specify CTX-M alleles from bacterial cultures, based on an amplification-pyrosequencing approach. We further developed this assay towards a diagnostic tool for clinical use and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity when applied directly to human blood samples. An optimized protocol for mRNA isolation allows detection of specific CTX-M groups from as little as 100 CFU/mL blood via reverse transcription, amplification, and pyrosequencing directly from human EDTA blood samples as well as from pre-incubated human blood cultures with a turnaround time for test results of <7 h.

  5. Differences between blood donors and a population sample: implications for case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Miller, Laura L; Davey Smith, George; Pembrey, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Background Selecting appropriate controls for studies of genetic variation in case series is important. The two major candidates involve the use of blood donors or a random sample of the population. Methods We compare and contrast the two different populations of controls for studies of genetic variation using data from parents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In addition we compute different biases using a series of hypothetical assumptions. Results The study subjects who had been blood donors differed markedly from the general population in social, health-related, anthropometric, and personality-related variables. Using theoretical examples, we show that blood donors are a poor control group for non-genetic studies of diseases related to environmentally, behaviourally, or socially patterned exposures. However, we show that if blood donors are used as controls in genetic studies, these factors are unlikely to make a major difference in detecting true associations with relatively rare disorders (cumulative incidence through life of <10%). Nevertheless, for more common disorders, the reduction in accuracy resulting from the inclusion in any control population of individuals who have or will develop the disease in question can create a greater bias than can socially patterned factors. Conclusions Information about the medical history of a control and the parents of the control (as a proxy for whether the control will develop the disease) is more important with regard to the choice of controls than whether the controls are a random population sample or blood donors. PMID:23825379

  6. Prediction of Arterial Blood pH and Partial Pressure of Carbon dioxide from Venous Blood Samples in Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Kamran; Ghahramanpoori, Bahareh; Fararouei, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Substitution of arterial with venous blood samples to estimate blood gas status is highly preferable due to practical and safety concerns. Numerous studies support the substitution of arterial by venous blood samples, reporting strong correlations between arterial and venous values. This study further investigated the predictive ability of venous blood samples for arterial Acid-Base Balance (pH) and pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Participants were 51 post-brain surgery patients receiving mechanical ventilation, who had blood samples taken simultaneously from radial artery of the wrist and elbow vein. Results showed significant associations between arterial and venous pH and pCO2. However, the variation of regression residuals was not homogenous, and the regression line did not fit properly to the data, indicating that simple linear regression is sub-optimal for prediction of arterial pH and pCO2 by venous blood sample. Although highly significant correlations were found between arterial and venous blood pH and pCO2, the results did not support the reliability of prediction of arterial blood pH and pCO2 by venous blood samples across a range of concentrations.

  7. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    CONNAHAN, LAURA E.; OTT, CHRISTOPHER A.; BARRY, VAUGHN W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1–2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population. PMID:28344739

  8. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Connahan, Laura E; Ott, Christopher A; Barry, Vaughn W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m(2)): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1-2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population.

  9. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  10. Effect of age on cerebral blood flow during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Brusino, F.G.; Reves, J.G.; Smith, L.R.; Prough, D.S.; Stump, D.A.; McIntyre, R.W.

    1989-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured in 20 patients by xenon 133 clearance methodology during nonpulsatile hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass to determine the effect of age on regional cerebral blood flow during these conditions. Measurements of cerebral blood flow at varying perfusion pressures were made in patients arbitrarily divided into two age groups at nearly identical nasopharyngeal temperature, hematocrit value, and carbon dioxide tension and with equal cardiopulmonary bypass flows of 1.6 L/min/m2. The range of mean arterial pressure was 30 to 110 mm Hg for group I (less than or equal to 50 years of age) and 20 to 90 mm Hg for group II (greater than or equal to 65 years of age). There was no significant difference (p = 0.32) between the mean arterial pressure in group I (54 +/- 28 mm Hg) and that in group II (43 +/- 21 mm Hg). The range of cerebral blood flow was 14.8 to 29.2 ml/100 gm/min for group I and 13.8 to 37.5 ml/100 gm/min for group II. There was no significant difference (p = 0.37) between the mean cerebral blood flow in group I (21.5 +/- 4.6 ml/100 gm/min) and group II (24.3 +/- 8.1 ml/100 gm/min). There was a poor correlation between mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow in both groups: group I, r = 0.16 (p = 0.67); group II, r = 0.5 (p = 0.12). In 12 patients, a second cerebral blood flow measurements was taken to determine the effect of mean arterial pressure on cerebral blood flow in the individual patient. Changes in mean arterial pressure did not correlate with changes in cerebral blood flow (p less than 0.90). We conclude that age does not alter cerebral blood flow and that cerebral blood flow autoregulation is preserved in elderly patients during nonpulsatile hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  11. Attic dust and human blood samples collected near a former wood treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Hensley, A R; Scott, A; Rosenfeld, P E; Clark, J J J

    2007-10-01

    A wood treatment facility operating in southern Alabama released dioxins and other hazardous substances into the surrounding community over a period of approximately 35 years. The facility used a variety of chemical insecticides including pentachlorophenol (PCP), chromated copper arsenate (CCA), and creosote (which contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) to treat wood. The health risks associated with the released contaminants are numerous and significant. To evaluate the historic exposure to the contaminants from the facility, blood samples and health surveys were collected from 21 current and past residents of the adjacent, isolated community and analyzed for concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (furans). In addition, attic dust sampling was performed in 11 buildings located within a 1-mile radius of the former wood treatment facility. The average total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the residents' blood samples was 36.6 pg/g lipids. In the attic dust, the average total dioxin TEQ concentration, benzo[a]pyrene (PAH) TEQ concentration, and arsenic concentration were 145 ng/kg, 0.98 and 29.8 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of dioxins measured in the blood samples exceed the 90th percentile total dioxin levels found in the general US adult population. Concentrations of dioxin, arsenic, and PAHs found in the attic samples exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 4 soil exposure cancer risk preliminary remediation goal (PRG) values. These findings indicate a very significant potential for related health effects in these communities.

  12. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Raman Spectroscopy: A New Proposal for the Detection of Leukemia Using Blood Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Espinosa, J. C.; Gonzalez-Solis, J. L.; Miranda-Beltran, M. L.; Soria-Fregoso, C.; Medina-Valtierra, J.; Sanchez-Gomez, R.

    2008-08-11

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze blood biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal blood was investigated. The blood samples were obtained from 6 patients who were clinically diagnosed with leukemia and 6 healthy volunteer. The imprint was put under the microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (Renishaw) with NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the serum samples from patients with leukemia and from the control group can be discriminated when the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminated analysis (LDA) is applied to their Raman spectra. The ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and some band ratios were significant and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. In addition, currently the degree of damage to the bone marrow is estimated through biopsies and therefore it is a very procedure painful. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a new technique to study the bone marrow using just blood samples.

  14. Evaluation of PCR Approaches for Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martinez-Puchol, Sandra; Pons, Maria J.; Bazán, Jorge; Tinco, Carmen; del Valle, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Background The lack of an effective diagnostic tool for Carrion’s disease leads to misdiagnosis, wrong treatments and perpetuation of asymptomatic carriers living in endemic areas. Conventional PCR approaches have been reported as a diagnostic technique. However, the detection limit of these techniques is not clear as well as if its usefulness in low bacteriemia cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection limit of 3 PCR approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the detection limit of 3 different PCR approaches: Bartonella-specific 16S rRNA, fla and its genes. We also evaluated the viability of dry blood spots to be used as a sample transport system. Our results show that 16S rRNA PCR is the approach with a lowest detection limit, 5 CFU/μL, and thus, the best diagnostic PCR tool studied. Dry blood spots diminish the sensitivity of the assay. Conclusions/Significance From the tested PCRs, the 16S rRNA PCR-approach is the best to be used in the direct blood detection of acute cases of Carrion’s disease. However its use in samples from dry blood spots results in easier management of transport samples in rural areas, a slight decrease in the sensitivity was observed. The usefulness to detect by PCR the presence of low-bacteriemic or asymptomatic carriers is doubtful, showing the need to search for new more sensible techniques. PMID:26959642

  15. Shear-induced hemolysis: effects of blood chemistry (including aging in storage) and shearing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Offeman, R D; Williams, M C

    1976-01-01

    Rotating disks were used to hemolyze blood under low-stress laminar flow conditions. In the first sequence of tests, kinetic hemolysis curves (KHC) were obtained with polyethylene disks for three well-characterized bloods and repeated over a period of four weeks. Each blood had a KHC with different shape, which maintained its characteristics while aging. Correlations were sought between D6000 (percent of complete hemolysis, after 6000 sec of shear) and D0 (measured before shear) by two means of data analysis, in terms of blood chemistry. It was found that uric acid and very-low-density lipoprotein levels were most useful in predicting the characteristic D6000 vs. D0 relation for each blood, and that glucose levels correlated the rate of aging as measured by hemolysis. Other chemical factors are also displayed in terms of their influence on D0. The second series of tests consisted of comparing the KHC for four disk materials using a fourth blood, then repeating with a fifth blood. Hemolytic rankings of the materials were the same with these two blood, although the KHC shapes differed. The rankings were: polyvinyl chloride greater than Silastic approximately equal to polyethylene greater than polyether urethane, with PVC most hemolytic. In another sequence for examining materials effects, five different bloods were used to compare the hemolytic properties of Teflon, nylon, and polyethylene disks. Although the KHC for the three disks bore different relationships to each other with each different blood, extrapolation of data beyond 6000 sec suggests a ranking of Teflon greater than nylon greater than polyethylene.

  16. Hemodynamic Correlates of Blood Pressure Across the Adult Age Spectrum: Noninvasive Evaluation in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Gary F.; Wang, Na; Palmisano, Joseph N.; Larson, Martin G.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure are substantially higher in older adults. The relative contributions of increased forward versus reflected pressure wave amplitude or earlier arrival of the reflected wave to elevated pulse pressure remain controversial. Methods and Results We measured proximal aortic pressure and flow, forward pressure wave amplitude, global wave reflection, reflected wave timing and pulse wave velocity noninvasively in 6417 (age range, 19 to 90 years; 53% women) Framingham Heart Study Third Generation and Offspring participants. Variation in forward wave amplitude paralleled pulse pressure throughout adulthood. In contrast, wave reflection and pulse pressure were divergent across adulthood: in younger participants, pulse pressure was lower and wave reflection higher with advancing age whereas in older participants, pulse pressure was higher and wave reflection lower with age. Reflected wave timing differed modestly across age groups despite considerable differences in pulse wave velocity. Forward wave amplitude explained 80% (central) and 66% (peripheral) of the variance in pulse pressure in younger participants (<50 years) and 90% and 84% in the older participants (≥50 years, all P<0.0001). In a stepwise model that evaluated age-pulse pressure relations in the full sample, the late accelerated increases in central and peripheral pulse pressure were markedly attenuated when variation in forward wave amplitude was considered. Conclusions Higher pulse pressure at any age and higher pulse pressure with advancing age is predominantly associated with a larger forward pressure wave. The influence of wave reflection on age-related differences in pulse pressure was minor. PMID:20855656

  17. Measured blood pressure and hypertension among young adults: a comparison between two nationally representative samples.

    PubMed

    Chyu, Laura; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and related health risk factors in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were compared with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Sociodemographic patterns of blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension, and measurement characteristics in Add Health were also examined. Prevalence of hypertension (20.88%) in Add Health was significantly higher than that in NHANES (4.60%). This difference was only partially explained by body mass index and waist circumference and could reflect different measurement techniques, sample composition differences, or masked hypertension.

  18. An effective strategy to reduce blood pressure after forest walking in middle-aged and aged people

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Akatsuka, Shin; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Eriko; Uno, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Forest walking may be effective for human health, but little information is available about effects of energy expenditure on blood pressure responses after forest walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity energy expenditure and changes in blood pressure in individuals after forest walking. [Subjects] The subjects were 54 middle-aged and elderly people. [Methods] All subjects walked in the forest for approximately 90 min. Blood pressure, salivary amylase, and the Profile of Mood States were evaluated before and after forest walking, and activity energy expenditure was monitored throughout forest walking. Subjects were divided into two groups according to mean arterial pressure changes: a responder group (>5% decreases) and a nonresponder group (<5%). [Results] Forest walking significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and improved the Profile of Mood States in both groups. Activity energy expenditure was related to changes in mean arterial pressure in the responder group, while this relation was not observed in the nonresponder group. Differential activity energy expenditure did not strongly affect improvement of the Profile of Mood States. [Conclusion] Greater walking-related greater activity energy expenditure might be required to accentuate physiological beneficial effects on in middle-aged and aged people. Furthermore, the forest environment per se can attenuate psychological stress. PMID:26834337

  19. Postmortem tissue samples: an alternative to urine and blood for drug analysis in racehorses.

    PubMed

    Uboh, C E; Rudy, J A; Railing, F A; Enright, J M; Shoemaker, J M; Kahler, M C; Shellenberger, J M; Kemecsei, Z; Das, D N

    1995-09-01

    Although urine is the sample of choice for drug tests in racehorses, it is rarely obtained following the sudden death of a racehorse on the track while racing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the significance of postmortem tissue samples as an alternative to urine and blood samples in equine drug analysis following the sudden death of a racehorse on the track while participating in a competitive race. Postmortem tissue samples were frozen (-80 degrees C) until analyzed. A 30-40-g portion of each organ was homogenized in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), deproteinized, hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase, extracted, and screened by thin-layer chromatography and immunoassay. Samples that initially tested positive for drug(s) were then extracted using high-flow, solid-phase extraction cartridges. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The presence of butorphanol in horses HB355 and CD387, pentobarbital in horse HO940, and ergotamine in horses HO940 and CD387 was detected and confirmed. Thus, in the absence of urine and blood samples following sudden death, postmortem tissue samples are equally useful for forensic toxicological investigations of racehorses.

  20. Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A

    2006-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  1. Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Schloegl, Haiko; Dresen, Sebastian; Spaczynski, Karin; Stoertzel, Mylène; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    The stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under conditions of degradation was examined in urine samples of nine volunteers and in post-mortem tissue (liver, skeletal muscle) and blood taken from seven corpses at autopsies. Analysis was performed via LC-MS/MS. EtG concentrations in urine samples ranged from 2.5 to 296.5 mg/l. When stored at 4 degrees C in airtight test tubes, EtG concentrations remained relatively constant; when stored at room temperature (RT) for 5 weeks in ventilated vials, variations of EtG concentrations ranged from a 30% decrease to an 80% increase, with an average of 37.5% increase. Liver and skeletal muscle tissue of three corpses with positive blood alcohol concentrations (BAC; ranging from 0.106 to 0.183 g%) were stored for 4 weeks and analysed periodically. EtG concentrations decreased 27.7% on average in 4 weeks storage at RT but EtG was still detectable in all samples with initial EtG concentrations higher than 1 mug/g. Blood and liver samples of four corpses with negative BACs were stored at RT after addition of 0.1 g% ethanol, and no new formation of EtG was observed.

  2. Cancer diagnosis by discrimination between normal and malignant human blood samples using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khanmohammadi, M; Ansari, M A; Garmarudi, A Bagheri; Hassanzadeh, G; Garoosi, G

    2007-09-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is a common technique for cancer diagnosis. Applied tissue samples are heterogeneous and may be damaged in preparation procedures. Easier sampling, more available samples and also easier process with assured results would be interesting. Whole blood samples include all of these qualifications and our hypothesis was the bio-molecular changes in blood which manifest themselves in different optical signatures, detectable by FTIR spectroscopy. Noncancerous blood samples were differentiated from cancerous ones using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and LDA classification method. Procedure was 100 percent and 90 percent accurate in prediction of cancerous or noncancerous situation for 33 known and 10 unknown samples, respectively.

  3. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  4. Decreases in bone blood flow and bone material properties in aging Fischer-344 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Susan A.; Hogan, Harry A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify precisely aging-induced changes in skeletal perfusion and bone mechanical properties in a small rodent model. Blood flow was measured in conscious juvenile (2 months old), adult (6 months old), and aged (24 months old) male Fischer-344 rats using radiolabeled microspheres. There were no significant differences in bone perfusion rate or vascular resistance between juvenile and adult rats. However, blood flow was lower in aged versus adult rats in the forelimb bones, scapulas, and femurs. To test for functional effects of this decline in blood flow, bone mineral density and mechanical properties were measured in rats from these two age groups. Bone mineral density and cross-sectional moment of inertia in femoral and tibial shafts and the femoral neck were significantly larger in the aged versus adult rats, resulting in increased (+14%-53%) breaking strength and stiffness. However, intrinsic material properties at midshaft of the long bones were 12% to 25% lower in the aged rats. Although these data are consistent with a potential link between decreased perfusion and focal alterations in bone remodeling activity related to clinically relevant bone loss, additional studies are required to establish the mechanisms for this putative relationship.

  5. Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study

    PubMed Central

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological aging; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation age (DNAm-age), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological age. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-age with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC exposure levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-age was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-age using linear mixed effects models adjusted for age, lifestyle/environmental factors, and aging-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-age. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-age in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-age were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-age and suggest that DNAm-age is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791

  6. Assessment of erythrocyte aggregation in whole blood samples by light backscattering: clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, Holger; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1999-05-01

    We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.

  7. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood samples stored as high-salt lysates.

    PubMed

    Zolg, J W; Lanciotti, R S; Wendlinger, M; Meyer, W A

    1990-09-01

    Blood samples to be tested for the presence of parasite DNA by using specific DNA probes are routinely stored in our laboratory as high-salt lysates (HSL). To safeguard against the risk of accidental infection with etiological agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) while manipulating large numbers of blood samples in preparation for DNA probing, we determined the residual infectivity of HIV-1 after exposure to HSL components. Both high-titer virus stocks or provirus-carrying cells, suspended either in tissue culture medium or freshly drawn blood, were completely inactivated upon contact with the HSL components. This was verified by the absence of any detectable HIV-1-specific antigen in the supernatants of long-term cultures and the absence of virus-specific DNA fragments after amplification by polymerase chain reaction with DNA from such cultures as target DNA. These results support the conclusion that the virus is in fact completely inactivated by contact with the HSL components, rendering blood specimens stored as HSL noninfectious in regard to HIV-1.

  8. Surgical vascular access in the porcine model for long-term repeated blood sampling.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Carlo; Damiano, Giuseppe; Cassata, Giovanni; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Cacciabaudo, Francesco; Spinelii, Gabriele; Calvagna, Cristiano; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Maione, Caro-lina; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2010-09-01

    A simple technique for implanting a long-term jugular catheter in piglets under general anesthesia is described. We report our experience in 10 young female pigs with a body weight of 20-30 Kg. The surgical procedure involves implantation of a jugular central venous catheter (11Fr polyurethane) tunneled in the subcutaneous fat layer of the neck. This procedure may be performed in about 15 minutes. The maintenance of the catheter is described which allows several daily blood samples to be taken. This procedure reduces both the stress in piglets and the chance of catheter dislodgement due to the animals scratching or rubbing. Blood sampling can be easily performed with a low incidence of infection or thrombosis.

  9. Endothelium-mediated coronary blood flow modulation in humans. Effects of age, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Zeiher, A M; Drexler, H; Saurbier, B; Just, H

    1993-01-01

    The effects of age, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia on vascular function of the coronary circulation were studied by subselective intracoronary infusions of acetylcholine, which releases endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and papaverine, which directly relaxes vascular smooth muscle, in normal patients (n = 18; no risk factors for coronary artery disease), in patients with evidence of early atherosclerosis but normal cholesterol levels and normal blood pressure (n = 12), in patients with hypertension without left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 12), and in patients with hypercholesterolemia (n = 20). Papaverine-induced maximal increases in coronary blood flow were significantly greater in normals, but no differences were noted between the groups of patients with early atherosclerosis, with hypertension, and with hypercholesterolemia. The capacity of the coronary system to increase blood flow in response to acetylcholine was similar in normal and normocholesterolemic patients with epicardial atherosclerosis and/or hypertension but was significantly impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia, irrespective of evidence of epicardial atherosclerotic lesions. Age (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) and total serum cholesterol levels (r = -0.70; P < 0.0001) were the only significant independent predictors of a blunted coronary blood flow response to acetylcholine. Thus, hypercholesterolemia and advanced age selectively impair endothelium-mediated relaxation of the coronary microvasculature in response to acetylcholine, whereas endothelial dysfunction is restricted to epicardial arteries in age-matched normocholesterolemic patients with evidence of coronary atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Images PMID:8349804

  10. Acetaminophen and Meloxicam Inhibit Platelet Aggregation and Coagulation in Blood Samples from Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    participant was sampled once with a total of 100-ml blood volume. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, on- going therapeutic anticoagulation , and use...of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) from prostaglandin H2, which is generated from arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1). The antiplatelet effects of...is acetaminophen? Some practical cautions with this widely used agent . Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1973; 12:692– 696. 3 Whyte IM, Buckley NA, Reith DM

  11. Red blood cell complement receptor one level varies with Knops blood group, α+thalassaemia and age among Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    Opi, D H; Uyoga, S; Orori, E N; Williams, T N; Rowe, J A

    2016-01-01

    Both the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the sequestration of parasite-infected RBCs in the microvasculature are mediated in part by complement receptor one (CR1). RBC surface CR1 level can vary between individuals by more than 20-fold and may be associated with the risk of severe malaria. The factors that influence RBC CR1 level variation are poorly understood, particularly in African populations. We studied 3535 child residents of a malaria-endemic region of coastal Kenya and report, for the first time, that the CR1 Knops blood group alleles Sl2 and McCb, and homozygous HbSS are positively associated with RBC CR1 level. Sickle cell trait and ABO blood group did not influence RBC CR1 level. We also confirm the previous observation that α+thalassaemia is associated with reduced RBC CR1 level, possibly due to small RBC volume, and that age-related changes in RBC CR1 expression occur throughout childhood. RBC CR1 level in malaria-endemic African populations is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple factors that should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future studies on CR1 and malaria susceptibility. PMID:26844958

  12. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  13. Effect of blood sample handling post-collection on Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibody titres.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eric J; Bonistalli, Kathryn N

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of blood sample mishandling on the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Eleven sample maltreatments (storage at -10 degrees C, storage at 4 degrees C, heat treatment of clotted blood, haemolysis, repetitive freeze-thaw cycling, and substitution of plasma in place of serum) were simulated in a laboratory environment and then run concurrently against a gold standard sample (storage at -80 degrees C). The mishandling treatment groups that simulated high levels of haemolysis had significantly lower optical density (OD) readings when compared to the gold standard. However, the magnitude of the effects was relatively small and only samples with OD values close to the cut-off changed state from positive to negative. Heat treatment had a minor, but non-significant, effect on OD values. Findings from this study suggested that immunoglobulin G antibody was stable in the face of most common sample mishandling events.

  14. The effect of sodium fluoride on the stability of cyanide in postmortem blood samples from fire victims.

    PubMed

    McAllister, J L; Roby, R J; Levine, Barry; Purser, David

    2011-06-15

    Assigning a level of significance to cyanide concentrations found in the blood of fire victims is often hampered by the fact that cyanide is inherently unstable in cadavers and in stored blood samples. A few researchers have proposed that sodium fluoride can be used to minimize the instability of cyanide in blood samples; however, controlled studies have not been performed to support validation of this hypothesis. To test the sodium fluoride hypothesis, both treated and control blood samples from 14 autopsied fire victims were tested over a 25-30 day period. A 2% concentration of sodium fluoride was added to the blood samples at the start of testing and the samples were refrigerated between testing intervals. Cyanide concentrations in the treated and control samples were measured between 9 and 11 days post treatment and between 25 and 30 days post treatment. A statistically significant difference was not present between blood cyanide concentrations in treated and control samples between 9 and 11 days. During this time period, although there were small statistically significant increases in both treated and untreated samples the fluctuations were minor. Since the treated and control samples did not exhibit instability between 9 and 11 days, it is not surprising that the sodium fluoride appeared to have no effect. However, a statistically significant difference between blood cyanide concentrations in treated and control samples was observed between 25 and 30 days. Those samples treated with sodium fluoride showed a reduction in blood cyanide variability with virtually no overall change, over a 25-30 day period when compared to control samples, while unconditioned samples showed a significant, average increase of 35%. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that 2% sodium fluoride be added to blood samples obtained from fire victims to reduce cyanide instability due to bacteriological activity.

  15. Human red blood cell aging: correlative changes in surface charge and cell properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Wu, Zheng-Jie; Mehrishi, Jitendra; Huang, Bao-Tian; Chen, Xing-Yao; Zheng, Xin-Jing; Liu, Wen-Jing; Luo, Man

    2011-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) during microcirculation, aging and storage, lose N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) and other biomaterials thereby altering cell structures, some properties and functions. Such cell damage very likely underlies the serious adverse effects of blood transfusion. However, a controversy has remained since 1961-1977 as to whether with aging, the RBCs, suffering loss of NANA, do have a decreased charge density. Any correlation between the changes in the cell properties with cell aging is also not clear. Therefore, to remove the ambiguity and uncertainty, we carried out multiparameteric studies on Percoll fractions of blood of 38 volunteers (lightest-young-Y-RBCs, densest-old-O-RBCs, two middle fractions).We found that there were striking differences between the properties of Y-RBCs and O-RBCs. The ζ-potential of Y-RBCs decreased gradually with aging. Studies in parallel on RBC fractions incubated with both positively charged quantum dots and Sambucus Nigra-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) along with their ζ-potentials provide for the first time direct visual evidence about the lesser amount of charge density and NANA on O-RBCs, and a collinear decrease in their respective ζ-potentials. Close correlation was found between the surface charge on an aging RBC and its structure and functions, from the cell morphology, the membrane deformability to the intracellular Hb structure and oxidation ability. This quantitative approach not only clarifies the picture but also has implications in biology and medicine.

  16. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  17. Targeting prohibited substances in doping control blood samples by means of chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2013-12-01

    Urine samples have been the predominant matrix for doping controls for several decades. However, owing to the complementary information provided by blood (as well as serum or plasma and dried blood spots (DBS)), the benefits of its analysis have resulted in continuously increasing appreciation by anti-doping authorities. On the one hand, blood samples allow for the detection of various different methods of blood doping and the abuse of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) via the Athlete Biological Passport; on the other hand, targeted and non-targeted drug detection by means of chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods represents an important tool to increase doping control frequencies out-of-competition and to determine drug concentrations particularly in in-competition scenarios. Moreover, blood analysis seldom requires in-depth knowledge of drug metabolism, and the intact substance rather than potentially unknown or assumed metabolic products can be targeted. In this review, the recent developments in human sports drug testing concerning mass spectrometry-based techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of therapeutics and emerging drug candidates are summarized and reviewed. The analytical methods include both low and high molecular mass compounds (e.g., anabolic agents, stimulants, metabolic modulators, peptide hormones, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)) determined from serum, plasma, and DBS using state-of-the-art instrumentation such as liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), LC-low resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  18. Determination of proflavine in rat whole blood without sample pretreatment by laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaxin; Hu, Yongjun; Lu, Qiao; Wang, Pengchao; Zhan, Huaqi

    2017-02-10

    A novel pretreatment-free method involving laser desorption postionization (LDPI) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the monitoring of proflavine level in rat whole blood. It comprises a protocol for dosing via intravenous administration and collection of whole blood, followed by direct LDPI-MS analysis without any sample pretreatment. An intense ion signal at m/z 209 was observed from whole blood without any interference signals, except some background signals below m/z 100. The calibration curve was established with use of 9-phenylacridine as the internal standard for proflavine determination from the plotting of the peak ratios of proflavine to the internal standard, with a correlation coefficient (R (2)) greater than 0.99. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.48 pmol/mm(2) and the quantification range was 0.5-16.5 μg/mL for proflavine. In addition, only a minimal matrix effect was observed, as expected from considerations of the desorption and ionization mechanism. Interday and intraday accuracy and precision were calculated to be within 13% and 82-114%, respectively. Estimated concentrations of proflavine residue in whole blood were also successfully obtained at selected time points after dosing. The proposed method is simple, low cost, and sensitive, and should be seen as a complementary method for monitoring drug levels in blood. Graphical Abstract Monitoring proflavine levels in rat whole blood at different time points using laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS).

  19. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  20. Dried Blood Spot sampling in psychiatry: Perspectives for improving therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martial, Lisa C; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Mulder, Martina; Schellekens, Arnt; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Burger, David M; Schene, Aart H; Batalla, Albert

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of drug concentrations is indicated to guide dosing of a selected number of drugs used in psychiatry. Conventionally this is done by vena puncture. Novel sampling strategies such as dried blood spot (DBS) sampling have been developed for various drugs, including antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood-stabilizers. DBS sampling is typically performed by means of a finger prick. This method allows for remote sampling, which means that patients are not required to travel to a health care facility. The number of DBS assays for drugs used in psychiatry has increased over the last decade and includes antidepressants (tricyclic and serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), mood stabilizers and first- and second-generation antipsychotics. Available assays often comply with analytical validation criteria but are seldom used in routine clinical care. Little attention has been paid to the clinical validation and implementation processes of home sampling. Ideally, not only medicines but also clinical chemistry parameters should be measured within the same sample. This article reflects on the position of DBS remote sampling in psychiatry and provides insight in the requisites of making such a sampling tool successful.

  1. Array CGH Analysis of Paired Blood and Tumor Samples from Patients with Sporadic Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Crespo, María; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares-Bralo, María; Martin-Arenas, Rubén; Rueda-Arenas, Inmaculada; Silvestre de Faria, Paulo Antonio; García-Miguel, Purificación; Lapunzina, Pablo; Regla Vargas, Fernando; Seuanez, Hector N.; Martínez-Glez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT), the most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children, has a complex etiology that is still poorly understood. Identification of genomic copy number variants (CNV) in tumor genomes provides a better understanding of cancer development which may be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. In paired blood and tumor DNA samples from 14 patients with sporadic WT, analyzed by aCGH, 22% of chromosome abnormalities were novel. All constitutional alterations identified in blood were segmental (in 28.6% of patients) and were also present in the paired tumor samples. Two segmental gains (2p21 and 20q13.3) and one loss (19q13.31) present in blood had not been previously described in WT. We also describe, for the first time, a small, constitutive partial gain of 3p22.1 comprising 2 exons of CTNNB1, a gene associated to WT. Among somatic alterations, novel structural chromosomal abnormalities were found, like gain of 19p13.3 and 20p12.3, and losses of 2p16.1-p15, 4q32.5-q35.1, 4q35.2-q28.1 and 19p13.3. Candidate genes included in these regions might be constitutively (SIX3, SALL4) or somatically (NEK1, PIAS4, BMP2) operational in the development and progression of WT. To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in paired blood and tumor samples in sporadic WT. PMID:26317783

  2. Sensitivity of PCR Assays for Murine Gammaretroviruses and Mouse Contamination in Human Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li Ling; Lin, Lin; Bell, David S.; Levine, Susan; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2012-01-01

    Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV) have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples. PMID:22629404

  3. Comparative analysis of RNA-Seq data from brain and blood samples of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Paulami; Roy, Debjani

    2017-03-11

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorders throughout the world. In order to search for PD biomarkers, we performed a system-level study of RNA-Seq data from PD brain and blood samples. Differentially expressed miRs of RNA-Seq data were subjected to generate the Co-expression networks. Three highly co-expressed clusters were identified based on their correlation coefficient values and fold change ratio. SM2miR drugs of the miRs contained in the three highly co-expressed clusters were identified, and drugs common among these clusters were selected. Co-expressed miRs not previously known to be associated with PD were identified from both the samples. Functional enrichment analyses of these miR targets were done, and the pathways common and unique to both the samples were identified. Thus, our study presents a comparative analysis of miRs, their associated pathways, and drugs from brain and blood samples of PD that may help in system level understanding of this disease. miRs identified from our study may serve as biomarkers for PD.

  4. Human muscle nerve sympathetic activity at rest. Relationship to blood pressure and age

    PubMed Central

    Sundlöf, G.; Wallin, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    1. Recordings of multi-unit sympathetic activity were made from median or peroneal muscle nerve fascicles in thirty-three healthy subjects, resting in recumbent position. Simultaneous recordings of intra-arterial blood pressure were made in seventeen subjects. The neural activity, quantified by counting the number of pulse synchronous sympathetic bursts in the mean voltage neurogram (burst incidence), was plotted against the arterial blood pressure level and the age of the subjects. The effects of spontaneous temporary blood pressure fluctuations were studied by correlating different pressure parameters of individual heart beats to the probability of occurrence of a sympathetic burst and to the amplitude of the occurring burst. 2. Between different subjects there were marked differences in burst incidence, from less than 10 to more than 90 bursts/100 heart beats. No correlation was found to interindividual differences in the arterial blood pressure level but there was a slight tendency for increasing burst incidence with increasing age. 3. Irrespective of the magnitude of the burst incidence, the bursts always occurred more frequently during spontaneous transient blood pressure reductions than during transient increases in blood pressure. When, for each heart cycle, the occurrence of a sympathetic burst was correlated with different blood pressure parameters there was regularly a close negative correlation to diastolic pressure, a low correlation to systolic and an intermediary negative correlation to mean blood pressure. There was a positive correlation to pulse pressure and to pulse interval. 4. When measured for individual heart beats, not only the occurrence but also the mean voltage amplitude of the sympathetic bursts tended to increase with decreasing diastolic pressure. 5. In a given subject when comparing heart beats with the same diastolic pressure, the occurrence as well as the amplitude of the sympathetic bursts was higher for heart beats occurring

  5. Involvement of blood mononuclear cells in the infertility, age-associated diseases and cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo. Lack of proper differentiation of tissue cells by TCS causes either tissue underdevelopment, e.g., muscular dystrophy, or degenerative functional failures, e.g., type 1 diabetes and age-associated diseases. With the gradual IMS regression after 35 years of age the gonadal infertility develops, followed by a growing incidence of age-associated diseases and cancers. Without restoring an altered TCS function in a degenerative disease, the implantation of tissue-specific stem cells alone by regenerative medicine can not be successful. Transfused young blood could temporarily restore fertility to enable parenthood. The young blood could also temporarily alleviate aging diseases, and this can be extended by substances inducing IMS regeneration, like the honey bee propolis. The local and/or systemic use of honey bee propolis stopped hair and teeth loss, regressed varicose veins, improved altered hearing, and lowered high blood pressure and sugar levels. Complete regression of stage IV ovarian cancer with liver metastases after a simple elaborated immunotherapy is also reported. PMID:28074124

  6. Determination of DDT and related compounds in blood samples from agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Guardino, X; Serra, C; Obiols, J; Rosell, M G; Berenguer, M J; López, F; Brosa, J

    1996-01-05

    An analytical method combining a solid-phase (C18) clean-up and GC-electron-capture detection using a capillary column, was implemented to determine p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), as well as other organochlorine pesticides in whole blood samples from 30 farmers and 24 non-occupationally exposed workers. The average concentrations for the quantified pesticides, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE, were 0.9, 1.5 and 8.0 micrograms/l whole blood for exposed workers and 0.3, 0.5 and 3.3 micrograms/l for unexposed workers, respectively. GC-MS was used to confirm the identity of the pesticides found. Solid-phase extraction and the protocol used give a cleaner analytical matrix, not only improving sensitivity and resolution, but also allowing analyses with smaller blood samples as compared to other methods.

  7. Poppy seed consumption and toxicological analysis of blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Manfred R; Hammer, Karin; Engel, Oliver

    2004-07-16

    Poppy seeds contain morphine in different amounts. Reported concentrations are up to 294 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds. Since penalties based on Street Traffic Law (parapgraph 24a StVG) in Germany (administrative offence) require definitive proof of morphine in blood samples, and the "Grenzwertkommission" in consultation with the Ministry of Transportation recommended a threshold of free morphine of 10 ng/mL, the question arose whether the consumption of poppy seeds can lead to a blood concentrations equal or higher than 10 ng/mL of free morphine. Therefore, five volunteers ate poppy seed products (50 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds). In urine, all on-site tests were enzyme immunologically positive for opiates and were positive to morphine by GC/MS. All the blood samples were negative to morphine by EIA and to free morphine by GC/MS. However, after hydrolysis, morphine was detected by GC/MS in all cases. Accordingly, in Germany, penalties based on parapgraph 24a StVG are not likely to cause road users any concerns should they have consumed poppy seeds. Driver Licensing Authorities, however, should be advised of this problem to avoid unjustified legal measures.

  8. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4–6 years old

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Rivero-Merino, Irene; Lucas-De La Cruz, Lidia; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of high blood pressure in children is increasing worldwide, largely, but not entirely, driven by the concurrent childhood obesity epidemic. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in 4-to-6-year-old Spanish schoolchildren, and to evaluate the association between different blood pressure (BP) components with different adiposity indicators. Methods Cross-sectional study including a sample of 1.604 schoolchildren aged 4-to-6-years belonging to 21 schools from the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca, Spain. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (%FM), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. Results The estimates of prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 12.3% and 18.2%, respectively. In both sexes, adiposity indicators were positively and significantly associated with all BP components (p<0.001), thus schoolchildren in the higher adiposity categories had significantly higher BP levels (p<0.001). Conclusions Our results show a high prevalence of high blood pressure in Spanish children. Moreover, high levels of adiposity are associated with high blood pressure in early childhood, which support that it could be related to cardiovascular risk later in life. PMID:28141860

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness mediates the effects of aging on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Benjamin; Sutton, Bradley P.; Low, Kathy A.; Fletcher, Mark A.; Tan, Chin Hong; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Li, Yanfen; Ouyang, Cheng; Maclin, Edward L.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The brain's vasculature is likely to be subjected to the same age-related physiological and anatomical changes affecting the rest of the cardiovascular system. Since aerobic fitness is known to alleviate both cognitive and volumetric losses in the brain, it is important to investigate some of the possible mechanisms underlying these beneficial changes. Here we investigated the role that estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) plays in determining the relationship between aging and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a group of older adults (ages 55–85). Using arterial spin labeling to quantify CBF, we found that blood flow in the gray matter was positively correlated with eCRF and negatively correlated with age. Subsequent analyses revealed that eCRF fully mediated the effects of age on CBF in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. Additionally, regional measures of CBF were related to regional measures of brain volume. These findings provide evidence that age-related effects on cerebrovascular health and perfusion in older adults are largely influenced by their eCRF levels. PMID:24778617

  10. Age-associated physiological and pathological changes at the blood-brain barrier: A review.

    PubMed

    Erdő, Franciska; Denes, László; de Lange, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The age-associated decline of the neurological and cognitive functions becomes more and more serious challenge for the developed countries with the increasing number of aged populations. The morphological and biochemical changes in the aging brain are the subjects of many extended research projects worldwide for a long time. However, the crucial role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment and disruption in the pathological processes in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders received special attention just for a few years. This article gives an overview on the major elements of the blood-brain barrier and its supporting mechanisms and also on their alterations during development, physiological aging process and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, pharmacoresistant epilepsy). Besides the morphological alterations of the cellular elements (endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, neuronal elements) of the BBB and neurovascular unit, the changes of the barrier at molecular level (tight junction proteins, adheres junction proteins, membrane transporters, basal lamina, extracellular matrix) are also summarized. The recognition of new players and initiators of the process of neurodegeneration at the level of the BBB may offer new avenues for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of numerous chronic neurodegenerative disorders currently without effective medication.

  11. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  12. Fetal growth and blood pressure in a Danish population aged 31-51 years.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, H T; Thulstrup, A M; Nørgdård, B; Engberg, M; Madsen, K M; Johnsen, S P; Olsen, J; Lauritzen, T

    2000-08-01

    During the past decade, studies have shown an inverse association between birth weight and blood pressure and risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. From old public archives we were able to trace the birth records of 545 out of 905 persons (60.2%) aged 31-51 years who participated in the Ebeltoft Health Promotion Project in Denmark. We examined the associations between birth weight, length at birth, Ponderal Index and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. No associations were found for women. For men, the mean systolic blood pressure fell from 131.1 mmHg with a birth weight of less than 3300 g to 129.6 mmHg with a birth weight of more than 4000 g, and for diastolic blood pressure 81.6 mmHg to 80.3 mmHg, respectively. For men, the mean systolic blood pressure fell from 135.7 mm Hg with a birth length of 30-51 cm to 131.6 with a birth length of 55-62 cm, and for diastolic blood pressure 83.0 mmHg to 78.8 mmHg, respectively. The associations may reflect organ programming in fetal life.

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents: coming of age?

    PubMed

    Lurbe, Empar; Torró, María Isabel; Alvarez, Julio

    2013-06-01

    Over the last years, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been introduced into the pediatric population, contributing to a significant increase in the bulk of knowledge of crucial clinically relevant issues. Guidelines have established the currently known conditions where ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is useful and where it will provide additional information in children and adolescents. How common and important the intra-individual differences are within clinical and ambulatory blood pressure is the keystone to the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as a diagnostic tool. By using not only office, but also ambulatory blood pressure, four possible situations arise. Two of these have values in agreement for normotension or hypertension. Two have values that are discrepant. The latter two are known as white coat and masked hypertension. The relationship with hypertension-induced organ damage, the prognostic value and the assessment of treatment goals are key issues of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. In children, the accurate identification of hypertension at the earliest possible age would, therefore, give health-care providers the opportunity to initiate preventive measures, thereby reducing the chance of developing end-organ damage and its attendant morbidity and mortality.

  14. Direct identification of bacteria in blood culture samples using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Trincavelli, Marco; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Söderquist, Bo; Thunberg, Per

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method for identification of bacteria in human blood culture samples using an electronic nose. The method uses features, which capture the static (steady state) and dynamic (transient) properties of the signal from the gas sensor array and proposes a means to ensemble results from consecutive samples. The underlying mechanism for ensembling is based on an estimation of posterior probability, which is extracted from a support vector machine classifier. A large dataset representing ten different bacteria cultures has been used to validate the presented methods. The results detail the performance of the proposed algorithm and show that through ensembling decisions on consecutive samples, significant reliability in classification accuracy can be achieved.

  15. First Molecular Identification of Dirofilaria repens in a Dog Blood Sample from Guanajuato, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Lopez, Sandra; León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Salas-Alatorre, Mariana; Lechuga-Arana, Alma A; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Gutiérrez-Chávez, Abner J

    2016-11-01

    Dirofilaria repens is the causative zoonotic agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis. Although the American continent is considered currently free of D. repens infections, in the past few years there have been some reports suggesting the presence of this agent in the Americas. In Guanajuato, Mexico, there is a report of the presence of D. repens. To determine whether this parasite is really present in Guanajuato, a total of 177 EDTA blood samples from dogs were tested using the modified Knott's technique. Using this technique, we found 15 positive samples, which were then analyzed using the PCR technique, with a panfilarial set of primers and a specific primer pair for D. repens. In one sample, the expected band was present and the corresponding amplicon, sequenced, displayed a 100% identity to D. repens, confirming the presence of this exotic and zoonotic filarial species in the municipality of Silao, Guanajuato, Mexico.

  16. Determination of ketorolac in blood and plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Flores-Murrieta, F J; Granados-Soto, V; Hong, E

    1994-10-01

    A new method for determination of ketorolac in blood or plasma samples by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. The method includes a double extraction with diethyl ether and detection by absorbance at 313 nm. Quantitation was performed by height ratios of ketorolac and the internal standard (sodium tolmetin). Detection limit of the method was 3 ng/ml using 1 ml of plasma and 10 ng/ml using 0.2 ml of blood. The method is linear in the range of concentrations typically obtained after therapeutic doses of the drug, has the advantages of using low volume of body fluid and the internal standard used is commercially available. Those characteristics allow us to conclude that this method is suitable for pharmacokinetic or drug monitoring studies.

  17. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Jacomini, André M.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F.; Monteiro, Henrique L.; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L.; Zago, Anderson S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50–84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the “Functional Fitness Battery Test,” BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values. PMID:28326041

  18. The effect of different blood sampling sites and analyses on the relationship between exercise intensity and 4.0 mmol.l-1 blood lactate concentration.

    PubMed

    Foxdal, P; Sjödin, A; Ostman, B; Sjödin, B

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether the difference in lactate concentration in different blood fractions is of practical importance when using blood lactate as a test variable of aerobic endurance capacity. Ten male firefighters performed submaximally graded exercise on a cycle ergometer for 20-25 min. Venous and capillary blood samples were taken every 5 min for determination of haematocrit and lactate concentrations in plasma, venous and capillary blood. At the same time, expired air was collected in Douglas bags for determination of the oxygen consumption. A lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol.l-1 was used as the reference value to compare the oxygen consumption and exercise intensity when different types of blood specimen and sampling sites were used for lactate analysis. At this concentration the exercise intensity was 17% lower (P less than 0.01) when plasma lactate was compared to venous blood lactate, and 12% lower (P less than 0.05) when capillary blood lactate was used. Similar discrepancies were seen in oxygen consumption. The results illustrated the importance of standardizing sampling and handling of blood specimens for lactate determination to enable direct comparisons to be made among results obtained in different studies.

  19. Capillary blood sampling: national recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    PubMed

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana; Maradin, Miljenka

    2015-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure aimed at assisting in patient diagnosis, management and treatment, and is increasingly used worldwide, in part because of the increasing availability of point-of-care testing. It is also frequently used to obtain small blood volumes for laboratory testing because it minimizes pain. The capillary blood sampling procedure can influence the quality of the sample as well as the accuracy of test results, highlighting the need for immediate, widespread standardization. A recent nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia has shown that capillary sampling procedures are not standardized and that only a small proportion of Croatian laboratories comply with guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this document is to provide recommendations for capillary blood sampling. This document has been produced by the Working Group for Capillary Blood Sampling within the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Our recommendations are based on existing available standards and recommendations (WHO Best Practices in Phlebotomy, CLSI GP42-A6 and CLSI C46-A2), which have been modified based on local logistical, cultural, legal and regulatory requirements. We hope that these recommendations will be a useful contribution to the standardization of capillary blood sampling in Croatia.

  20. Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

  1. Luminol chemiluminescence biosensor for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwang-Soo; Lee, JungHoon; Park, Jong-Myeon; Choi, Han Nim; Lee, Won-Yong

    2016-01-15

    Luminol chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor based on boronic acid modified gold substrate has been developed for the determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples. In order to selectively capture HbA1c in sample, carboxy-EG6-undecanethiol was self-assembled on a gold thin-film substrate, followed by covalent coupling of 3-aminophenyl boronic acid (3-APBA). The captured HbA1c containing four iron heme groups plays as a catalyst for luminol CL reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and thus the luminol CL response is linearly proportional to the amount of HbA1c captured on the biosensor surface. The present biosensor showed linear dynamic range of HbA1c from 2.5% to 17.0%, which well covers the clinically important concentration range. In addition, the present biosensor exhibited negligible response to interfering species such as hemoglobin, fructose, and sorbitol. The present HbA1c biosensor was applied to the determination of HbA1c in human blood samples and the results were well agreed with that obtained with a conventional method.

  2. Chromatographic resolution, characterisation and quantification of VX enantiomers in hemolysed swine blood samples.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Georg; Mikler, John; Hill, Ira; Weatherby, Kendal; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2008-09-15

    The present study was initiated to develop a sensitive and highly selective method for the analysis of the enantiomers of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) in blood samples for toxicokinetic and therapeutic research. To achieve this goal, analytical and semi-preparative enantioseparation of VX were carried out with gas and liquid chromatography. The GC chiral stationary phase was HYDRODEX-beta-TBDAc (beta cyclodextrin), on which VX was baseline-resolved. On the chiral HPLC phase CHIRALCEL OD-H the enantiomers of VX were isolated with enantiomeric excess >99.99%. They were characterised by specific optical rotation (+/-25.8 deg ml dm(-1)g(-1) at 20 degrees C and 589 nm) and by determination of cholinesterase inhibition rate constants. For the quantitative chiral detection of VX the enantioresolution was realized on the HPLC chiral phase CHIRAL AGP. A specific procedure was developed to isolate VX from swine blood samples thereby stabilising its enantiomers. The limit of detection was 200 fg per enantiomer on column. The absolute recovery of the overall sample preparation procedure was 75%. After an intravenous and percutaneous administration of a supralethal dose of VX in anesthetised swine (+)-VX and (-)-VX could be quantified up to 720 min.

  3. In situ UV monitoring of wastewater: a response to sample aging.

    PubMed

    Baurès, E; Berho, C; Pouet, M F; Thomas, O

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of wastewater sample aging is supposed to be treated with a low temperature autosampler. This work presents two examples of treated wastewater, the quality of which varies with the time of conservation. This evolution may pose some problems with respect to regulation compliance or process control. After the explanation of the mechanisms involved in sample aging, some recommendations are proposed in order to improve the UV off-line measurement of TSS and COD of treated wastewater.

  4. How Cell Number and Cellular Properties of Blood-Banked Red Blood Cells of Different Cell Ages Decline during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Di; Liang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Yao-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims Numerous studies have suggested that transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) stored over a long period of time may induce harmful effects due to storage-induced lesions. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this damage have not been identified. Furthermore, it is unclear why and how up to 30% of long-stored RBCs disappear from the circulation within 24 hours after transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine how the cell number of RBCs of different ages changes during storage and how these cells undergo cumulative structural and functional changes with storage time. Methods and Results We used Percoll centrifugation to fractionate the RBCs in blood bank stored RBC units into different aged sub-populations and then measured the number of intact cells in each sub-population as well the cells’ biomechanical and biochemical parameters as functions of the storage period. We found that the RBC units stored for ≤ 14 days could be separated into four fractions: the top or young cell fraction, two middle fractions, and the lower or old fraction. However, after 14 days of storage, the cell number and cellular properties declined rapidly whereby the units stored for 21 days only exhibited the three lower fractions and not the young fraction. The cell number within a unit stored for 21 days decreased by 23% compared to a fresh unit and the cells that were lost had hemolyzed into harmful membrane fragments, microparticles, and free hemoglobin. All remaining cells exhibited cellular properties similar to those of senescent cells. Conclusion In RBC units stored for greater than 14 days, there were fewer intact cells with no healthy cells present, as well as harmful membrane fragments, microparticles, and free hemoglobin. Therefore, transfusion of these stored units would not likely help patients and may induce a series of clinical problems. PMID:25167052

  5. Effects of aging and exercise training on skeletal muscle blood flow and resistance artery morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michael W.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    With old age, blood flow to the high-oxidative red skeletal muscle is reduced and blood flow to the low-oxidative white muscle is elevated during exercise. Changes in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle are thought to contribute to this altered hyperemic response during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would ameliorate age-related differences in blood flow during exercise and feed artery structure in skeletal muscle. Young (6–7 mo old, n = 36) and old (24 mo old, n = 25) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (Sed), old Sed, young exercise-trained (ET), and old ET groups, where training consisted of 10–12 wk of treadmill exercise. In Sed and ET rats, blood flow to the red and white portions of the gastrocnemius muscle (GastRed and GastWhite) and the number and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of all feed arteries perforating the muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. In the old ET group, blood flow was greater to GastRed (264 ± 13 and 195 ± 9 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) and lower to GastWhite (78 ± 5 and 120 ± 6 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) than in the old Sed group. There was no difference in the number of feed arteries between the old ET and old Sed group, although the CSA of feed arteries from old ET rats was larger. In young ET rats, there was an increase in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle. Exercise training mitigated old age-associated differences in blood flow during exercise within gastrocnemius muscle. However, training-induced adaptations in resistance artery morphology differed between young (increase in feed artery number) and old (increase in artery CSA) animals. The altered blood flow pattern induced by exercise training with old age would improve the local matching of O2 delivery to consumption within the skeletal muscle. PMID:23042906

  6. Age-Related Somatic Structural Changes in the Nuclear Genome of Human Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Lars A.; Rasi, Chiara; Razzaghian, Hamid R.; Pakalapati, Geeta; Waite, Lindsay; Thilbeault, Krista Stanton; Ronowicz, Anna; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Boomsma, Dorret; Westerman, Maxwell P.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Lyle, Robert; Essand, Magnus; Eriksson, Fredrik; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Iribarren, Carlos; Strachan, Eric; O'Hanlon, Terrance P.; Rider, Lisa G.; Miller, Frederick W.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Absher, Devin; Dumanski, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Structural variations are among the most frequent interindividual genetic differences in the human genome. The frequency and distribution of de novo somatic structural variants in normal cells is, however, poorly explored. Using age-stratified cohorts of 318 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 296 single-born subjects, we describe age-related accumulation of copy-number variation in the nuclear genomes in vivo and frequency changes for both megabase- and kilobase-range variants. Megabase-range aberrations were found in 3.4% (9 of 264) of subjects ≥60 years old; these subjects included 78 MZ twin pairs and 108 single-born individuals. No such findings were observed in 81 MZ pairs or 180 single-born subjects who were ≤55 years old. Recurrent region- and gene-specific mutations, mostly deletions, were observed. Longitudinal analyses of 43 subjects whose data were collected 7–19 years apart suggest considerable variation in the rate of accumulation of clones carrying structural changes. Furthermore, the longitudinal analysis of individuals with structural aberrations suggests that there is a natural self-removal of aberrant cell clones from peripheral blood. In three healthy subjects, we detected somatic aberrations characteristic of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. The recurrent rearrangements uncovered here are candidates for common age-related defects in human blood cells. We anticipate that extension of these results will allow determination of the genetic age of different somatic-cell lineages and estimation of possible individual differences between genetic and chronological age. Our work might also help to explain the cause of an age-related reduction in the number of cell clones in the blood; such a reduction is one of the hallmarks of immunosenescence. PMID:22305530

  7. Acetaminophen and meloxicam inhibit platelet aggregation and coagulation in blood samples from humans.

    PubMed

    Martini, Angela K; Rodriguez, Cassandra M; Cap, Andrew P; Martini, Wenjun Z; Dubick, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    Acetaminophen (Ace) and meloxicam (Mel) are the two types of analgesic and antipyretic medications. This study investigated the dose responses of acetaminophen and meloxicam on platelet aggregation and coagulation function in human blood samples. Blood samples were collected from six healthy humans and processed to make platelet-adjusted (100 × 10 cells/μl) blood samples. Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Q-PAP, 100 mg/ml) was added at the doses of 0 μg/ml (control), 214 μg/ml (the standard dose, 1 ×), 4 ×, 8 ×, 10 ×, 12 ×, 16 ×, and 20 ×. Similarly, meloxicam (Metacam, 5 mg/ml) was added at doses of 0 μg/ml (control), 2.85 μg/ml (the standard dose, 1 ×), 4 ×, 8 ×, 10 ×, 12 ×, 16 ×, and 20 ×. Fifteen minutes after the addition of acetaminophen and/or meloxicam, platelet aggregation was stimulated with collagen (2 μg/ml) or arachidonic acid (0.5 mmol/l) and assessed using a Chrono-Log 700 aggregometer. Coagulation function was assessed by prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and using Rotem thrombelastogram. A robust inhibition by acetaminophen and/or meloxicam was observed in arachidonic acid-stimulated platelet aggregation starting at 1 × dose. Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was inhibited by ACE starting at 1 × (78 ± 10% of control), and by meloxicam starting at 4 × (72 ± 5% of control, both P < 0.05). The inhibitions by acetaminophen and meloxicam combined were similar to those by acetaminophen or meloxicam. aPTT was prolonged by meloxicam starting at 4 ×. No changes were observed in PT or any of Rotem measurements by acetaminophen and/or meloxicam. Acetaminophen and meloxicam compromised platelet aggregation and aPTT. Further effort is warranted to characterize the effects of acetaminophen and meloxicam on bleeding in vivo.

  8. Comparisons of Measured and Self-Reported Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Hong Kong Female Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yao Jie; Ho, Suzanne C.; Liu, Zhao Min; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the validity of self-reported weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure compared with standardized clinical measurements and to determine the classification accuracy in overweight/obesity and central adiposity. Methods This pilot study was integrated into a life-course study entitled “Hong Kong Women's Health Study” among 1,253 female nurses in Hong Kong who were aged 35 years to 65 years. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires that were mailed to the respondents. Of these participants, we obtained the standard body measurements of 144 (11.5%) at our research center. We then compared the self-reported anthropometric variables and blood pressure with the measured data to assess validity based on the level of misreporting, percentage of agreement, consistency, sensitivity and specificity. Results The self-reported and measured values were highly correlated in terms of anthropometry and blood pressure (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.96). Height was overestimated at an average of 0.42 cm, and waist circumference was underestimated at 2.33 cm (both P<0.05), while no significant differences were observed from weight, blood pressure and BMI (all P>0.05). The proportions of overweight, obesity, and central adiposity by self-reported data did not vary greatly from the measured data (all P>0.05). The self-reporting resulted in correct classifications of BMI, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure in 85%, 78%, and 87% of women, with corresponding Kappa index values of 0.79, 0.55, and 0.82, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 95.7%, respectively, with respect to overweight/obesity detection, whereas those for central adiposity detection were 70.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Conclusion In a sample of female Hong Kong nurses, the self-reported measures of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were generally valid. Furthermore, the

  9. Validation of a non-invasive blood-sampling technique for doubly-labelled water experiments.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Helversen, Otto Von; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for bleeding small mammals have been used in doubly-labeled water (DLW) studies, including vena puncture and the use of starved nymphal stages of hematophagous reduviid bugs (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). In this study, we tested the validity of using reduviid bugs in doubly-labeled water experiments. We found that the isotope enrichment in initial blood samples collected with bugs was significantly lower compared to isotope enrichment in blood samples obtained using vena puncture. We therefore used the desiccation method for estimating total body water (TBW) in DLW experiments because TBW calculated using the isotope dilution method was overestimated when blood samples were collected using reduviid bugs. In our validation experiment with nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), we compared estimates of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using DLW with those derived from the energy balance method. We considered Speakman's equation (controlling for 25% fractionated water loss) as the most appropriate for our study animal and calculated DEE accordingly. On average, DEE estimated with DLW was not significantly different from the mean value obtained with the energy balance method (mean deviation 1.2%). We conclude that although bug hemolymph or intestinal liquids most likely contaminate the samples, estimates of DEE are still valid because the DLW method does not depend on absolute isotope enrichments but on the rate of isotope decrease over time. However, dilution of blood with intestinal liquids or hemolymph from a bug may lead to larger variation in DEE estimates. We also tested how the relative error of DLW estimates changed with varying assumptions about fractionation. We used three additional equations for calculating DEE in DLW experiments. The basic equation for DLW experiments published by Lifson and McClintock (LM-6) assumes no fractionation, resulted in an overestimate of DEE by 10%. Nagy's equation (N-2) controls for changes in body mass but not for

  10. [Some disorder features of blood circulation in lungs in older age influenza patients].

    PubMed

    Roganova, I V

    2011-01-01

    Patients aged 51-65 years with influenza develop circulatory disorders of the lung. Tone of the arteries of small and medium-caliber and venular vessels of the vascular bed of the lungs persistently reduced during the illness and a month after its start. The flow of venous blood from the vessels of the lungs disturbs: it is slow, difficult and becomes unstable. Such circulatory disorders in the lungs of influenza patients of older age groups appear during the illness and persist for a long time in the recovery period, which is a risk factor associated with complications of the respiratory system, not only during the illness, but after the disease.

  11. Aging in blood vessels. Medicinal agents FOR systemic arterial hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Soto, María Elena; Pastelín, Gustavo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2014-11-01

    Aging impairs blood vessel function and leads to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the age-related endothelial, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix vascular dysfunction are discussed. Vascular dysfunction is caused by: (1) Oxidative stress enhancement. (2) Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, by diminished NO synthesis and/or augmented NO scavenging. (3) Production of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator factor imbalances. (4) Low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. (5) Impaired angiogenesis. (6) Endothelial cell senescence. The aging process in vascular smooth muscle is characterized by: (1) Altered replicating potential. (2) Change in cellular phenotype. (3) Changes in responsiveness to contracting and relaxing mediators. (4) Changes in intracellular signaling functions. Systemic arterial hypertension is an age-dependent disorder, and almost half of the elderly human population is hypertensive. The influence of hypertension on the aging cardiovascular system has been studied in models of hypertensive rats. Treatment for hypertension is recommended in the elderly. Lifestyle modifications, natural compounds and hormone therapies are useful for initial stages and as supporting treatment with medication but evidence from clinical trials in this population is needed. Since all antihypertensive agents can lower blood pressure in the elderly, therapy should be based on its potential side effects and drug interactions.

  12. A round robin approach to the analysis of bisphenol a (BPA) in human blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous, yet there are concerns about whether BPA can be measured in human blood. This Round Robin was designed to address this concern through three goals: 1) to identify collection materials, reagents and detection apparatuses that do not contribute BPA to serum; 2) to identify sensitive and precise methods to accurately measure unconjugated BPA (uBPA) and BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), a metabolite, in serum; and 3) to evaluate whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA-G occurs during sample handling and processing. Methods Four laboratories participated in this Round Robin. Laboratories screened materials to identify BPA contamination in collection and analysis materials. Serum was spiked with concentrations of uBPA and/or BPA-G ranging from 0.09-19.5 (uBPA) and 0.5-32 (BPA-G) ng/mL. Additional samples were preserved unspiked as ‘environmental’ samples. Blinded samples were provided to laboratories that used LC/MSMS to simultaneously quantify uBPA and BPA-G. To determine whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA metabolites occurred, samples spiked with only BPA-G were analyzed for the presence of uBPA. Finally, three laboratories compared direct and indirect methods of quantifying BPA-G. Results We identified collection materials and reagents that did not introduce BPA contamination. In the blinded spiked sample analysis, all laboratories were able to distinguish low from high values of uBPA and BPA-G, for the whole spiked sample range and for those samples spiked with the three lowest concentrations (0.5-3.1 ng/ml). By completion of the Round Robin, three laboratories had verified methods for the analysis of uBPA and two verified for the analysis of BPA-G (verification determined by: 4 of 5 samples within 20% of spiked concentrations). In the analysis of BPA-G only spiked samples, all laboratories reported BPA-G was the majority of BPA detected (92.2 – 100%). Finally, laboratories were more likely to be verified

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  14. Identification of food-derived bioactive peptides in blood and other biological samples.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenji; Iwai, Koji; Aito-Inoue, Misako

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of food-derived peptides in human blood after ingestion of enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins, while most peptides in food are degraded into amino acids during digestion and absorption. To capture and clarify the food-derived peptides in blood, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mini-spin column packed with a strong cation exchanger was developed. This technique allows the use of a nonvolatile acid such as trichloroacetic acid, a strong protein denaturant, for the deproteinizing procedure. To improve resolution of hydrophilic peptide and increase specificity and sensitivity in the detection of peptide by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) after subfractionation by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), peptides are derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate. The resultant phenyl thiocarbamyl (PTC)-peptides can be resolved with high resolution and sensitivity by RP-HPLC. By comparing chromatograms of PTC derivatives from blood before and after ingestion of a peptide sample, food-derived peptide can be detected. The isolated PTC-peptide can be applied to a peptide sequencer based on the Edman degradation reaction.

  15. Cytokine assays: an assessment of the preparation and treatment of blood and tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Keustermans, Genoveva C E; Hoeks, Sanne B E; Meerding, Jenny M; Prakken, Berent J; de Jager, Wilco

    2013-05-15

    Cytokines are key components of the innate and adaptive immune system. As pivotal players in the progression or regression of a pathological process, these molecules provide a window through which diseases can be monitored and can thus act as biomarkers. In order to measure cytokine levels, a plethora of protocols can be applied. These methods include bioassays, protein microarrays, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) electrochemiluminescence and bead based multiplex immunoassays (MIA). Due to the interaction and activity of cytokines, multiplex immunoassays are at the forefront of cytokine analysis by allowing multiple cytokines to be measured in parallel. However, even with optimized protocols, sample standardization needs to occur before these proteins can optimally act as biomarkers. This review describes various factors influencing the levels of cytokines measured in plasma, serum, dried blood spots and tissue biopsies, focusing on sample collection and handling, long term storage and the repetitive use of samples. By analyzing how each of these factors influences protein levels, it is concluded that samples should be stored at low temperatures in order to maintain cytokine stability. In addition, within a study, sample manipulations should be kept the same, with measurement protocols being chosen for their compatibility with the research in question. By having a clear understanding of what factors influence cytokine levels and how to overcome these technical issues, minimally confounded data can be obtained and cytokines can achieve optimal biomarker activity.

  16. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Pedro R; Gil, Raúl A; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 microg L(-1) Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 microg L(-1)Hg.

  17. Increased telomere length and proliferative potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adults of different ages stimulated with concanavalin A

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, a direct correlation with telomere length, proliferative potential and telomerase activity has been found in the process of aging in peripheral blood cells. The objective of the study was to evaluate telomere length and proliferative potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after stimulation with Concanavalin A (ConA) of young adults compared with older adults. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 20 healthy young males (20–25 years old) (group Y) and 20 males (60–65 years old) (group O). We compared PBMC proliferation before and after stimulation with ConA. DNA was isolated from cells separated before and after culture with ConA for telomeric measurement by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results In vitro stimulation of PBMCs from young subjects induced an increase of telomere length as well as a higher replicative capacity of cell proliferation. Samples from older adults showed higher loss of telomeric DNA (p = 0.03) and higher levels of senescent (≤6.2 kb) telomeric DNA (p = 0.02) and displayed a marked decrease of proliferation capacity. Viability cell counts and CFSE tracking in 72-h-old cell cultures indicated that group O PBMCs (CD8+ and CD4+ T cells) underwent fewer mitotic cycles and had shorter telomeres than group Y (p = 0.04). Conclusions Our findings confirm that telomere length in older-age adults is shorter than in younger subjects. After stimulation with ConA, cells are not restored to the previous telomere length and undergo replicative senescence. This is in sharp contrast to the response observed in young adults after ConA stimulation where cells increase in telomere length and replicative capacity. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not yet clear and merit further investigation. PMID:24063536

  18. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Desai, Payal C; Deal, Allison M; Pfaff, Emily R; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M; Park, Yara A; Ataga, Kenneth I

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14-27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71-7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66-35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding.

  19. Simplified Assay for Epigenetic Age Estimation in Whole Blood of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Lopez-Golan, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Biological age is not always concordant with chronological age and the departures are of interest for understanding how diseases and environmental insults affect tissue function, organismal health, and life expectancy. The best-known biological age biomarker is telomere length, but there are more accurate biomarkers as the recently developed based in epigenetic, transcriptomic, or biochemical changes. The most accurate are the epigenetic biomarkers based on specific changes in DNA methylation referred as DNA methylation age measures (DmAM). Here, we have developed and validated a new DmAM that addresses some limitations of the previously available. The new DmAM includes the study in whole blood (WB) of 8 CpG sites selected as the most informative on a training set of 390 healthy subjects. The 8 CpG DmAM showed better accuracy than other DmAM based in few CpG in an independent validation set of 335 subjects. Results were not significantly influenced by sex, smoking, or variation in blood cell subpopulations. In addition, the new 8 CpG DmAM was amenable to study in a single multiplex reaction done with methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension (MS-SNuPE), a methodology based on commercially available reagents and run in capillary electrophoresis sequencers. In this way, the high cost of DNA methylation microarrays or of a pyrosequencer, which are needed for alternative DmAM, was avoided. Performance of the DmAM with MS-SNuPE was assessed in a set of 557 donors, showing high call rate (>97%), low CV (<3.3%) and high accuracy (Mean Absolute Deviation = 6.07 years). Therefore, the 8 CpG DmAM is a feasible and accurate tool for assessing the epigenetic component of biological age in blood of adults. PMID:27471517

  20. Performance characteristics of the HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer using whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Voss, E M; Cembrowski, G S

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated the HemoCue B-Glucose (HemoCue Inc, Mission Viejo, Calif) analyzer for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. One hundred eighteen capillary whole-blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on the HemoCue B-Glucose and the YSI 2300 STAT Glucose/L-Lactate (Yellow Springs [Ohio] Instruments) analyzers; corresponding plasma glucose levels were measured in duplicate on the Roche Cobas MIRA (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Nutley, NJ) analyzer. Plasma glucose levels were converted to whole-blood equivalent glucose levels by using a factor of 1.11. The following regression equations were obtained: HemoCue = 1.02 (YSI) + 0.19, Sy/x = 0.52, r2 = .984; and HemoCue = 0.98 (whole-blood equivalent glucose levels) + 0.26, Sy/x = 0.55, r2 = .982. Within-run coefficients of variation were 4.0%, 3.5%, 2.2%, and 1.0% at glucose concentrations of 3.9, 5.4, 8.7, and 17.1 mmol/L (71, 97, 156, and 308 mg/dL), respectively. Between-run imprecision and total imprecision using lyopholized materials with three lot numbers of cuvettes were 4.2% and 5.6% at 2.1 mmol/L (37 mg/dL) and 2.4% and 2.7% at 5.2 mmol/L (95 mg/dL), respectively. The HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer displayed linearity between 0 and 22.2 mmol/L (0 and 400 mg/dL), and the percent recovery averaged 98.7% +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SD). The HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer is a rapid, simple, and reliable method for determinations of whole-blood glucose levels.

  1. Age of the moon: An isotopic study of uranium-thorium-lead systematics of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1970-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, and Pb in Apollo 11 samples studied are low (U. 0.16 to 0.87; Th, 0.53 to 3.4; Pb, 0.29 to 1.7, in ppm) but the extremely radiogenic lead in samples allows radiometric dating. The fine dust and the breccia have a concordant age of 4.66 billion years on the basis of 207Pb/206Pb, 206Pb/238U, 207Pb/235U, and 208Pb/232Th ratios. This age is comparable with the age of meteorites and with the age generally accepted for the earth. Six crystalline and vesicular samples are distinctly younger than the dust and breccia. The 238U/235U ratio is the same as that in earth rocks, and 234U is in radioactive equilibrium with parent 238U.

  2. Age of the moon: an isotopic study of uranium-thorium-lead systematics of lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Tatsumoto, M; Rosholt, J N

    1970-01-30

    Concentrations of U, Th, and Pb in Apollo 11 samples studied are low (U. 0.16 to 0.87; Th, 0.53 to 3.4; Pb, 0.29 to 1.7, in ppm) but the extremely radiogenic lead in samples allows radiometric dating. The fine dust and the breccia have a concordant age of 4.66 billion years on the basis of (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (206)Pb/(238)U, (207)Pb/(235U), and(208)Pb/(232)Th ratios. This age is comparable with the age of meteorites and with the age generally accepted for the earth. Six crystalline and vesicular samples are distinctly younger than the dust and breccia. The (238)U/(235)U ratio is the same as that in earth rocks, and (234)U is in radioactive equilibrium with parent (238)U.

  3. Effect of age and blood pressure on aortic size and stroke distance.

    PubMed Central

    Towfiq, B A; Weir, J; Rawles, J M

    1986-01-01

    The diameters of the ascending and descending aorta at the level of the carina were measured from computerised tomograms in 200 adults without cardiac or aortic disease. At all ages the ascending aorta had a greater cross sectional area than the descending aorta, and both areas increased significantly with age. The increase was proportionately greater in the descending than in the ascending aorta and the percentage changes were similar in males and females, the latter having a smaller mean descending aortic diameter. The extent of the increase in cross sectional area of the aorta is sufficient to explain the observed fall of stroke distance that occurs with age. The effect of changing blood pressure on aortic cross sectional area, and hence the relation between stroke distance and stroke volume, was calculated from published data on aortic compliance at different ages. Assuming constant peripheral resistance, stroke distance would change by 34, 82, and 94% for a 100% change of stroke volume at age 20, 50, and 80 respectively. At age 80 the aorta behaves like a rigid pipe but at age 20 its elasticity is such that constancy of aortic size cannot be assumed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3718794

  4. A comparative evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols from whole blood sample.

    PubMed

    Ghaheri, M; Kahrizi, D; Yari, K; Babaie, A; Suthar, R S; Kazemi, E

    2016-03-31

    All organisms have Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within their cells. DNA is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. DNA extraction is one of the most basic and essential techniques in the study of DNA that allow huge advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and bioinformatics laboratories. Whole blood samples are one of the main sources used to obtain DNA and there are many different protocols available in this issue. In current research, compared four DNA extraction protocols from blood samples; include modified phenol-chloroform protocol, two salting-out and enzyme free method and from commercial kit. The extracted DNAs by these protocols were analyzed according to their time demands, quality and quantity, toxicity and functionality in PCR method. Also the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA were surveyed by gel electrophoresis and Nanodrop spectrophotometry methods. It was observed that there are not significantly differences between these methods about DNA Purity (A260/A280), but the DNA yield (ng DNA/μl) of phenol/chloroform method was higher than other methods. In addition, phenol/chloroform was the most toxic method and it takes more time than other methods. Roche diagnostics GmbH kit was the most expensive among the four methods but the least extraction time was required and it was the safest method.

  5. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  6. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    PubMed

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  7. The trajectory of the blood DNA methylome ageing rate is largely set before adulthood: evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kananen, L; Marttila, S; Nevalainen, T; Kummola, L; Junttila, I; Mononen, N; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T; Hervonen, A; Jylhä, M; Lehtimäki, T; Hurme, M; Jylhävä, J

    2016-06-01

    The epigenetic clock, defined as the DNA methylome age (DNAmAge), is a candidate biomarker of ageing. In this study, we aimed to characterize the behaviour of this marker during the human lifespan in more detail using two follow-up cohorts (the Young Finns study, calendar age i.e. cAge range at baseline 15-24 years, 25-year-follow-up, N = 183; The Vitality 90+ study, cAge range at baseline 19-90 years, 4-year-follow-up, N = 48). We also aimed to assess the relationship between DNAmAge estimate and the blood cell distributions, as both of these measures are known to change as a function of age. The subjects' DNAmAges were determined using Horvath's calculator of epigenetic cAge. The estimate of the DNA methylome age acceleration (Δ-cAge-DNAmAge) demonstrated remarkable stability in both cohorts: the individual rank orders of the DNAmAges remained largely unchanged during the follow-ups. The blood cell distributions also demonstrated significant intra-individual correlation between the baseline and follow-up time points. Interestingly, the immunosenescence-associated features (CD8+CD28- and CD4+CD28- cell proportions and the CD4/CD8 cell ratio) were tightly associated with the estimate of the DNA methylome age. In summary, our data demonstrate that the general level of Δ-cAge-DNAmAge is fixed before adulthood and appears to be quite stationary thereafter, even in the oldest-old ages. Moreover, the blood DNAmAge estimate seems to be tightly associated with ageing-associated shifts in blood cell composition, especially with those that are the hallmarks of immunosenescence. Overall, these observations contribute to the understanding of the longitudinal aspects of the DNAmAge estimate.

  8. Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Teresa L; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R; Dorman, Susan E; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials.

  9. Quantification of Rifapentine, a Potent Antituberculosis Drug, from Dried Blood Spot Samples Using Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Teresa L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  10. Higher detectability method for the analysis of nucleosides, putative tumor biomarkers, in blood serum samples by CE-UV with reversed EOF.

    PubMed

    Buzatto, Adriana Zardini; Guedes, Sumaya Ferreira; de Oliveira Silva, Mariana; Gallafrio, Jéssica Mirela; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2015-12-01

    The development and validation of methodologies for the analysis of biological samples is of outcome importance in order to obtain trustworthy results. This work reports a novel CE-UV method for the assessment of nucleosides, putative tumor biomarkers, in blood serum. The separation of seven nucleosides within c.a. 20 min has been achieved with: BGE 30 mmol/L borate at pH 9.90, 50 mmol/L CTAB, and 10% methanol; V = -10 kV; T = 20°C; and capillary dimensions of 56 cm × 50 μm. The sample plug was concentrated by a modified large volume sample stacking strategy that provided better detectability. Validation showed that the method is suitable for bioanalytical purposes and initial applications in serum samples from healthy subjects are also presented. Finally, statistical methods were applied to verify the effect of characteristics such as age, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption on nucleoside concentrations in blood serum. Univariate statistical analysis tests emphasized the need for age matching, which was confirmed by PCA-DA and PLS-DA. Cancer history in the nearby family may also interfere in nucleoside levels in blood serum, since adenosine concentrations were statistically higher for volunteers who declared having diseased relatives.

  11. ALTERATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF RED BLOOD CELLS MEMBRANES PROTEINS OF DIFFERENT AGE AND SEX VOLUNTEERS.

    PubMed

    Pruidze, N; Khetsuriani, R; Sujashvili, R; Ioramashvili, I; Arabuli, M; Sanikidze, T

    2015-01-01

    Considering the age and sex-dependent trend in the manifestation of various diseases, as well as an important pathogenic role of circulatory disorders, we decided to study the age-dependent changes in the physical properties of RBCs membrane proteins (their electric charge and molecular weight) in healthy people of different sex (males and females) and age. Blood of 56 healthy volunteers (Tbilisi, Georgia) of different sex and gender was studied (the patients were divided in 8 groups (7 patients in each groups): 1 - 18-25 years old male, 2 - 18-25 years old female, 3 - 25-44 years old male, 4 - 25-44 years old female, 5 - 44-60 years old male, 6 - 44-60 years old female; 7 - 60-80 years old male, 8 - 70-80 years old female). In groups 6 and 8 were women in menopause was determined according 12 months of amenorrhea. Individuals often consume alcohol addicts, pregnant women and patients with chronic diseases were excluded from the study. The study protocol was approved by Ethical Committee of the Tbilisi State Medical University. RBCs membrane proteins have been extracted from human heparinized blood and their mobility was studied by electrophoretic method. The electrophoretic mobility of RBCs membrane proteins decreases with age of healthy volunteers, that indicates decrease of total charge of proteins, depending on the electrically charged amino acids content. In female patients the electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs membrane proteins especially intensively decreases in period of menopause. Increase of molecular weight of proteins (100-200 kDa) from RBCs' membranes of alder age group was manifested. Intensively decrease electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes membrane proteins from female patients in period of menopause indicates on estrogen related mechanism of the regulation of membrane protein conformation and composition in females. Increased content of high molecular weight proteins in the RBCs membranes from patients of older age groups may be caused to

  12. Comparison of S. stercoralis Serology Performed on Dried Blood Spots and on Conventional Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Fabio; Buonfrate, Dora; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Caicedo, Cintia; Rizzi, Eleonora; Guevara, Angel G.; Vicuña, Yosselin; Huerlo, Francisco R.; Perandin, Francesca; Bisoffi, Zeno; Anselmi, Mariella

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) are used for epidemiological surveys on infectious diseases in settings where limited resources are available. In fact, DBS can help to overcome logistic difficulties for the collection, transport and storage of biological specimens. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of Strongyloides stercoralis serology performed on DBS. Methods: A survey was proposed to children attending a school in the village of Borbon, Ecuador, and to their parents/guardians. Each participant gave consent to the collection of both serum and DBS specimens. DBS absorbed on filter papers were analyzed with a commercially available ELISA test for S. stercoralis antibodies, as well as with standard serology. The agreement between the two methods was assessed through the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The study sample was composed of 174 children and 61 adults, for a total of 235 serum and 235 DBS samples. The serology was positive in 31/235 (13%) serum samples, and in 27/235 (11%) DBS: 4 samples resulted discordant (positive at standard serology). Cohen’s kappa coefficient was 0.921 (95% CI 0.845 – 0.998), indicating a high rate of concordance. Conclusion: DBS are suitable for in field-surveys requiring serological testing for S. stercoralis. PMID:27877170

  13. Fungal DNA detected in blood samples of patients who received contaminated methylprednisolone injections reveals increased complexity of causative agents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Armeanu, Emilian; DiVerniero, Richard; Lewis, Terri A; Dobson, Richard C; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S

    2014-06-01

    Using Exserohilum rostratum-specific and panfungal real-time PCR, we studied 24 blood samples and 2 synovial fluid specimens from 20 patients with persistent or worsening pain following injections of contaminated methylprednisolone. Seven blood specimens from 6 patients were significantly positive for fungal DNA by panfungal PCR, with multiple fungal species identified.

  14. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  15. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  16. Effects of aging on cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood oxygenation level dependent responses to visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ances, Beau M; Liang, Christine L; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Fleisher, Adam S; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    Calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive technique to assess functional metabolic changes associated with normal aging. We simultaneously measured both the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses in the visual cortex for separate conditions of mild hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) and a simple checkerboard stimulus in healthy younger (n = 10, mean: 28-years-old) and older (n = 10, mean: 53-years-old) adults. From these data we derived baseline CBF, the BOLD scaling parameter M, the fractional change in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) with activation, and the coupling ratio n of the fractional changes in CBF and CMRO(2). For the functional activation paradigm, the magnitude of the BOLD response was significantly lower for the older group (0.57 +/- 0.07%) compared to the younger group (0.95 +/- 0.14%), despite the finding that the fractional CBF and CMRO(2) changes were similar for both groups. The weaker BOLD response for the older group was due to a reduction in the parameter M, which was significantly lower for older (4.6 +/- 0.4%) than younger subjects (6.5 +/- 0.8%), most likely reflecting a reduction in baseline CBF for older (41.7 +/- 4.8 mL/100 mL/min) compared to younger (59.6 +/- 9.1 mL/100 mL/min) subjects. In addition to these primary responses, for both groups the BOLD response exhibited a post-stimulus undershoot with no significant difference in this magnitude. However, the post-undershoot period of the CBF response was significantly greater for older compared to younger subjects. We conclude that when comparing two populations, the BOLD response can provide misleading reflections of underlying physiological changes. A calibrated approach provides a more quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes than the BOLD response alone.

  17. Use of dried blood samples for monitoring hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Lira, Rosalia; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Ruiz-Tachiquin, Martha; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Cano-Dominguez, Carlos; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda; Gomez-Delgado, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma-Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a problem in several regions of the world with limited resources. Blood samples dried on filter paper (DBS) have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. In Mexico there is an urgent need for an affordable and easy sampling method for viral load (VL) testing and monitoring of chronic HBV infection. The purpose of this work was to validate the utility of DBS samples for monitoring HBV infection in patients from Mexico City. Methods Matched samples of plasma and DBS on filter paper from 47 HBV infected patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), were included. To evaluate the DNA stability and purity from DBS stored at different temperature conditions, samples from ten patients were stored at 4 degree, 25 degree, and 37 degree C for 7 days. After DBS elution and DNA extraction, the purity of these samples was determined measuring the O.D. rate 260/280. The DBS utility for molecular studies was assessed with PCR assays to amplify a 322 bp fragment from the "a" determinant region of the HBV "S" gene. The VL from all samples was determined to evaluate the correlation between plasma and DBS matched samples. Results The quality of the DNA from DBS specimen is not adversely affected by storage at 4 degree, 25 degree and 37 degree C for up 7 days. Statistical ANOVA analyses did not show any significant difference. The same amplification efficiency was observed between DNA templates from samples stored at different temperatures. The Pearson correlation between the VL from DBS and plasma matched samples was 0.93 (p = 0.01). The SD was 1.48 for DBS vs.1.32 for Plasma, and an average of log10 copies/mL of 5.32 vs. 5.53. ANOVA analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups (p = 0.92). Conclusion The results provide strong evidence that the isolation and quantification of DNA-HBV from DBS is a viable alternative for patient monitoring

  18. Cerebral blood flow and vasoreactivity in aging: an arterial spin labeling study.

    PubMed

    Leoni, R F; Oliveira, I A F; Pontes-Neto, O M; Santos, A C; Leite, J P

    2017-03-23

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in young and elderly participants were assessed using pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in combination with inhalation of CO2. Pulsed ASL and BOLD-MRI were acquired in seventeen asymptomatic volunteers (10 young adults, age: 30±7 years; 7 elderly adults, age: 64±8 years) with no history of diabetes, hypertension, and neurological diseases. Data from one elderly participant was excluded due to the incorrigible head motion. Average baseline CBF in gray matter was significantly reduced in elderly (46±9 mL·100 g-1·min-1) compared to young adults (57±8 mL·100 g-1·min-1; P=0.02). Decreased pulsed ASL-CVR and BOLD-CVR in gray matter were also observed in elderly (2.12±1.30 and 0.13±0.06 %/mmHg, respectively) compared to young adults (3.28±1.43 and 0.28±0.11 %/mmHg, respectively; P<0.05), suggesting some degree of vascular impairment with aging. Moreover, age-related decrease in baseline CBF was observed in different brain regions (inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri; precentral and postcentral gyri; superior temporal gyrus; cingulate gyri; insula, putamen, caudate, and supramarginal gyrus). In conclusion, CBF and CVR were successfully investigated using a protocol that causes minimal or no discomfort for the participants. Age-related decreases in baseline CBF and CVR were observed in the cerebral cortex, which may be related to the vulnerability for neurological disorders in aging.

  19. Idiopathic scoliosis. Gas exchange and the age dependence of arterial blood gases.

    PubMed Central

    Kafer, E R

    1976-01-01

    The aims were to examine the gas exchange and arterial blood gas abnormalities among patients with scoliosis, and the correlation of these abnormalities with age and severity of deformity. Means among 51 patients were as follows: age 25.4 +/- 17.5 yr, angle of scoliosis 80.2 +/- 29.9 (SD), vital capacity 1.94 +/- 0.91 (SD) (i.e. 60.6 +/- 19.2% of predicted), PaO2 85.8 +/- 12.0 (SD), PaCO2 42.4 +/- 8.0, physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio 0.438 +/- 0.074 (SD), and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference breathing air 14.9 +/- 8.9 (SD). Statistically significant correlations were as follows: the PaCO2 and physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio increased with age, and the PaO2 and alveolar ventilation decreased with age. The PaO2, alveolar ventilation, and tidal volume were inversely related to the angle of scoliosis and directly related to the vital capacity, precent predicted vital capacity, and the compliance of the respiratory system. The physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio and the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference were inversely related to the vital capacity, percent predicted vital capacity, and the compliance of the respiratory system. PaCO2 was directly related to the elastance of the respiratory system. We conclude that ventilation-blood flow maldistribution as a result of deformity of the rib cage was the primary abnormality in gas exchange, and that with age there was progressive deterioration in gas exchange. The age-dependent increase in PaCO2 and decrease in alveolar ventilation were due to the increasing physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio and failure of a compensatory increase in ventilation. PMID:965490

  20. Assessment of DDT and DDE levels in soil, dust, and blood samples from Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Betanzos, Angel F; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Maldonado, Iván Nelinho Pérez

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of DDT and DDE in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) and to investigate the blood levels of these insecticides in exposed children living in a north Mexican state (Chihuahua) where DDT was sprayed several years ago during (1) health campaigns for the control of malaria and (2) agricultural activities. DDT and DDE were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, lower levels were found in household outdoor samples. The levels in outdoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.788 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.642 mg/kg for DDE. The levels in indoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 15.47 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 1.063 mg/kg for DDE. Similar results to those found in indoor soil were found in dust, in which the levels ranged from 0.001 to 95.87 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.797 mg/kg for DDE. Moreover, blood levels showed that all of the communities studied had been exposed to DDT and/or DDE, indicating a general past or present exposure to DDT. It is important to note that the quotient DDT/DDE in all matrices was always >1. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis. However, applying precautionary principles, it is important to initiate a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to DDT and its metabolites in people living in this area.

  1. Quantitative analysis of trace chromium in blood samples. Combination of the advanced oxidation process with catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Yong, Li; Armstrong, Kristie C; Dansby-Sparks, Royce N; Carrington, Nathan A; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-11-01

    A new method for pretreating blood samples for trace Cr analysis is described. The advanced oxidation process (AOP with H2O2 and 5.5-W UV irradiation for 60 min) is used to remove biological/organic species for subsequent analysis. Prior to the AOP pretreatment, acid (HNO3) is used at pH 3.0 to inhibit the enzyme catalase in the blood samples. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a bismuth film electrode gives a Cr concentration of 6.0 +/- 0.3 ppb in the blood samples. This concentration was confirmed by dry-ashing the blood samples and subsequent analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This current method may be used to monitor chromium, a trace metal in humans, and the efficacy and safety of chromium supplements as adjuvant therapy for diabetes.

  2. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  3. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted.

  4. Blood cholesterol screening in several environments using a portable, dry-chemistry analyzer and fingerstick blood samples. Lipid Research Clinics Cholesterol Screening Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bradford, R H; Bachorik, P S; Roberts, K; Williams, O D; Gotto, A M

    1990-01-01

    A multicenter study of blood cholesterol screening was performed in several typical environments, such as community sites (shopping malls and a supermarket), health care sites, work sites, a blood bank and a school. Cholesterol was measured with a portable, dry-chemistry analyzer using capillary blood obtained by fingerstick. Data are reported from a total of 13,824 participants, spanning the entire age spectrum. Overall, 25% of screened subjects had blood cholesterol levels above the age-specific cutpoints used in the current study. Although in the aggregate this screening experience very closely approximates the expected level of referrals, the proportion of referred screened subjects differed significantly among the 5 types of screening environments and by gender. Follow-up telephone interviews indicated that 53% of referrals had initiated a physician contact. More than 75% of those who had seen a physician reported that the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia had been confirmed, and almost 72% had been prescribed a diet. A large proportion of referred screened subjects reported having modified their diet, particularly when recommended to do so by a physician. This study has yielded encouraging evidence that physicians gave referred screened subjects appropriate initial advice for managing hypercholesterolemia. The new technology for blood cholesterol measurement evaluated in the current study has proven to be a feasible and reliable means for measuring blood cholesterol in typical screening settings.

  5. Isotopic composition analysis and age dating of uranium samples by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, A. I.; Pantelica, A.; Sima, O.; Fugaru, V.

    2016-09-01

    Non-destructive methods were applied to determine the isotopic composition and the time elapsed since last chemical purification of nine uranium samples. The applied methods are based on measuring gamma and X radiations of uranium samples by high resolution low energy gamma spectrometric system with planar high purity germanium detector and low background gamma spectrometric system with coaxial high purity germanium detector. The ;Multigroup γ-ray Analysis Method for Uranium; (MGAU) code was used for the precise determination of samples' isotopic composition. The age of the samples was determined from the isotopic ratio 214Bi/234U. This ratio was calculated from the analyzed spectra of each uranium sample, using relative detection efficiency. Special attention is paid to the coincidence summing corrections that have to be taken into account when performing this type of analysis. In addition, an alternative approach for the age determination using full energy peak efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulations with the GESPECOR code is described.

  6. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples.

  7. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qianyu; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Le

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. PMID:27782072

  8. Blood typing profile of a school-aged population of a North Togo township.

    PubMed

    Vovor, Ahoefa; Fétéké, Lochina; Kueviakoe, Irénée M; Kpatarou, Laye; Mawussi, Koffi; Magnang, Hézouwè; Ségbéna, Akuété Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and ABO blood groups in a school population aged 6 to 9 years in the township of Agbandé-Yaka in North Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 children of four primary schools at Agbande-Yaka, between March and July 2010. Hemoglobin characterization was done by alkaline buffer electrophoresis and the blood types ABO-Rhesus (Rh) D by immuno-hematological methods. A Hb variant was detected in 37.0% of the schoolchildren. Among them, the AS trait accounted for 11.9% and the AC trait for 20.2%. Homozygous Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) was not found but Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) appeared at a frequency of 3.3%, while compound heterozygotes carrying Hb SC were seen at a frequency of 1.6%. The O, B and A blood groups accounted for 49.0, 26.8 and 21.9%, respectively. The Hb anomalies reached a high prevalence in this school population. These results are remarkable by the absence of homozygous Hb S individuals compared to homozygous Hb C individuals, which were as numerous as expected. The frequencies of the ABO blood groups are similar to what has been found in other West African populations.

  9. Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajnikant; Pervez, Shamsh

    2005-02-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd.

  10. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    PubMed Central

    Seemann, Tine Lindberg; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An observational study was conducted using a structured observation scheme to assess compliance with the local phlebotomy guideline, to identify necessary focus items, and to investigate whether adherence to the phlebotomy guideline improved. Materials and methods The questionnaire from the EFLM Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase was adapted to local procedures. A pilot study of three months duration was conducted. Based on this, corrective actions were implemented and a follow-up study was conducted. All phlebotomists at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology were observed. Three blood collections by each phlebotomist were observed at each session conducted at the phlebotomy ward and the hospital wards, respectively. Error frequencies were calculated for the phlebotomy ward and the hospital wards and for the two study phases. Results A total of 126 blood drawings by 39 phlebotomists were observed in the pilot study, while 84 blood drawings by 34 phlebotomists were observed in the follow-up study. In the pilot study, the three major error items were hand hygiene (42% error), mixing of samples (22%), and order of draw (21%). Minor significant differences were found between the two settings. After focus on the major aspects, the follow-up study showed significant improvement for all three items at both settings (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion Continuous quality control of the phlebotomy procedure revealed a number of items not conducted in compliance with the local phlebotomy guideline. It supported significant improvements in the adherence to the recommended phlebotomy procedures and facilitated documentation of the phlebotomy quality. PMID:27812302

  11. Concentrations of cyanide in blood samples of corpses after smoke inhalation of varying origin.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Simone; Roider, Gabriele; Keil, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) blood concentration is hardly considered during routine when evaluating smoke gas intoxications and fire victims, although some inflammable materials release a considerable amount of hydrogen cyanide. CN can be significant for the capacity to act and can in the end even be the cause of death. Systematic data concerning the influence of different fire conditions, especially those of various inflammable materials, on the CN-blood concentration of deceased persons do not exist. This study measured the CN level in 92 blood samples of corpses. All persons concerned were found dead in connection with fires and/or smoke gases. At the same time, the carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level was determined, and the corpses were examined to detect pharmaceutical substances, alcohol and drugs. Furthermore, we analysed autopsy findings and the investigation files to determine the inflammable materials and other circumstances of the fires. Due to the inflammable materials, the highest concentration of CN in the victims was found after enclosed-space fires (n = 45) and after motor-vehicle fires (n = 8). The CN levels in these two groups (n = 53) were in 47 % of the cases toxic and in 13 % of the cases lethal. In victims of charcoal grills (n = 17) and exhaust gases (n = 6), no or only traces of CN were found. Only one case of the self-immolations (n = 12) displayed a toxic CN level. The results show that CN can have considerable significance when evaluating action ability and cause of death with enclosed-space fires and with motor-vehicle fires.

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  13. Genetic effect on blood pressure is modulated by age: the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network Study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gang; Gu, Chi C; Kraja, Aldi T; Arnett, Donna K; Myers, Richard H; Pankow, James S; Hunt, Steven C; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed for systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network. We investigated the role of gene-age interactions using a recently developed variance components method that incorporates age variation in genetic effects. Substantially improved linkage evidence, in terms of both the number of linkage peaks and their significance levels, was observed. Twenty-six linkage peaks were identified with maximum logarithm of odds scores ranging between 3.0 and 4.6, 15 of which were cross-validated by the literature. The chromosomal region 1p36 that showed the highest logarithm of odds score in our study was found to be supported by evidence from 3 studies. The new method also led to vastly improved validation across ethnic groups. Ten of the 15 supported linkage peaks were cross-validated between 2 different ethnic groups, and 2 peaks on chromosomal region 1q31 and 16p11 were validated in 3 ethnic groups. In conclusion, this investigation demonstrates that genetic effects on blood pressure vary by age. The improved genetic linkage results presented here should help to identify the specific genetic variants that explain the observed results.

  14. Evaluation of essential trace and toxic elements in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups 3-7 and 8-12 years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Faheem; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Sirajuddin

    2011-10-01

    The most common cause of blindness in developing countries is vitamin A deficiency. The World Health Organization estimates 13.8 million children to have some degree of visual loss related to vitamin A deficiency. The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial, and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological samples composition. Vitamin and mineral deficiency prevents more than two billion people from achieving their full intellectual and physical potential. This study was designed to compare the levels of Zn, Mg, Ca, K, Na, As, Cd, and Pb in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged 3-7 and 8-12 years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment, for the determination of As, Ca, Cd, K, Pb, Mg, Na, and Zn in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results of this study showed that the mean values of As, Cd, Na, and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of male and female night blindness children than in referents (p < 0.001), whereas the concentrations of Zn, Ca, K, and Mg were lower in the scalp hair and blood but higher in the urine samples of night blindness children. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential mineral elements in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children.

  15. Electrochemical aptasensor for lung cancer-related protein detection in crude blood plasma samples

    PubMed Central

    Zamay, Galina S.; Zamay, Tatiana N.; Kolovskii, Vasilii A.; Shabanov, Alexandr V.; Glazyrin, Yury E.; Veprintsev, Dmitry V.; Krat, Alexey V.; Zamay, Sergey S.; Kolovskaya, Olga S.; Gargaun, Ana; Sokolov, Alexey E.; Modestov, Andrey A.; Artyukhov, Ivan P.; Chesnokov, Nikolay V.; Petrova, Marina M.; Berezovski, Maxim V.; Zamay, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of an aptamer-based electrochemical sensor for lung cancer detection is presented in this work. A highly specific DNA-aptamer, LC-18, selected to postoperative lung cancer tissues was immobilized onto a gold microelectrode and electrochemical measurements were performed in a solution containing the redox marker ferrocyanide/ferricyanide. The aptamer protein targets were harvested from blood plasma of lung cancer patients by using streptavidin paramagnetic beads and square wave voltammetry of the samples was performed at various concentrations. In order to enhance the sensitivity of the aptasensor, silica-coated iron oxide magnetic beads grafted with hydrophobic C8 and C4 alkyl groups were used in a sandwich detection approach. Addition of hydrophobic beads increased the detection limit by 100 times. The detection limit of the LC-18 aptasensor was enhanced by the beads to 0.023 ng/mL. The formation of the aptamer – protein – bead sandwich on the electrode surface was visualized by electron microcopy. As a result, the electrochemical aptasensor was able to detect cancer-related targets in crude blood plasma of lung cancer patients. PMID:27694916

  16. Triclosan/triclocarban levels in maternal and umbilical blood samples and their association with fetal malformation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ling; Qiao, Pengyun; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Yan; Yin, Jie; Wu, Qingqing; Shao, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used as antimicrobial compounds in consumer products. TCS and TCC are frequently found in waste water and sewage. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of exposure to triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on fetal abnormalities. We measured TCS and TCC levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 39 pregnant women diagnosed with fetal or post-birth abnormalities at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. 52 pregnant women who gave birth to healthy neonates during the same period of time were included as controls. Applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, TCS and TCC concentrations were measured in maternal and fetal sera. Significantly increased levels of TCS were detected in maternal sera from mothers with abnormal births. Similar levels of TCS or TCC were found in maternal and cord sera in control group. The concentrations of TCS or TCC in maternal sera correlated with those in umbilical cord sera (r=0.649, P<0.01). These observations suggest that maternal blood test could be a useful assay for detecting fetal exposure to TCS and TCC, and high exposure to TCS may be potentially associated with increased risk for fetal malformations.

  17. Identification of malaria infected red blood samples by digital holographic quantitative phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nimit R.; Chhaniwal, Vani K.; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Development of devices for automatic identification of diseases is desired especially in developing countries. In the case of malaria, even today the gold standard is the inspection of chemically treated blood smears through a microscope. This requires a trained technician/microscopist to identify the cells in the field of view, with which the labeling chemicals gets attached. Bright field microscopes provide only low contrast 2D images of red blood cells and cell thickness distribution cannot be obtained. Quantitative phase contrast microscopes can provide both intensity and phase profiles of the cells under study. The phase information can be used to determine thickness profile of the cell. Since cell morphology is available, many parameters pertaining to the 3D shape of the cell can be computed. These parameters in turn could be used to decide about the state of health of the cell leading to disease diagnosis. Here the investigations done on digital holographic microscope, which provides quantitative phase images, for comparison of parameters obtained from the 3D shape profile of objects leading to identification of diseased samples is described.

  18. Putative Epimutagens in Maternal Peripheral and Cord Blood Samples Identified Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yoshikazu; Hayakawa, Koji; Arai, Daisuke; Ito, Rie; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Saito, Koichi; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Takatori, Satoshi; Ishii, Rie; Hayashi, Rumiko; Izumi, Shun-Ichiro; Sugino, Norihiro; Kondo, Fumio; Horie, Masakazu; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tsunehisa; Hirosawa, Mitsuko; Shiota, Kunio; Ohgane, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of transcription and genome stability by epigenetic systems are crucial for the proper development of mammalian embryos. Chemicals that disturb epigenetic systems are termed epimutagens. We previously performed chemical screening that focused on heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation status in mouse embryonic stem cells and identified five epimutagens: diethyl phosphate (DEP), mercury (Hg), cotinine, selenium (Se), and octachlorodipropyl ether (S-421). Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to confirm the effects of 20 chemicals, including the five epimutagens, detected at low concentrations in maternal peripheral and cord blood samples. Of note, these individual chemicals did not exhibit epimutagenic activity in hiPSCs. However, because the fetal environment contains various chemicals, we evaluated the effects of combined exposure to chemicals (DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421) on hiPSCs. The combined exposure caused a decrease in the number of heterochromatin signals and aberrant DNA methylation status at multiple gene loci in hiPSCs. The combined exposure also affected embryoid body formation and neural differentiation from hiPSCs. Therefore, DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 were defined as an “epimutagen combination” that is effective at low concentrations as detected in maternal peripheral and cord blood. PMID:26339649

  19. Haematospirillum jordaniae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Humrighouse, B W; Emery, B D; Kelly, A J; Metcalfe, M G; Mbizo, J; McQuiston, J R

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, spiral-shaped bacterium, strain H5569(T), was isolated from a human blood sample. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolate were investigated. Optimal growth was found to occur at 35 °C under aerobic conditions on Heart Infusion Agar supplemented with 5 % rabbit blood. The major fatty acids present in the cells were identified as C16:0, C16:1ω7c and C18:1ω7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was found to be ubiquinone-Q10. The G+C content of genomic DNA for strain H5569(T) was found to be 49.9 %. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis results, 13 additional isolates were also analysed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism, represented by strain H5569(T), forms a distinct lineage within the family Rhodospirillaceae, closely related to two Novispirillum itersonii subspecies (93.9-94.1 %) and two Caenispirillum sp. (91.2-91.6 %). Based on these results, the isolate H5569(T) is concluded to represent a new genus and species for which the name Haematospirillum jordaniae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H5569(T) (=DSM(T) 28903 = CCUG 66838(T)).

  20. Determination of lead in paired samples of human blood and synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Villegas-Navarro, A.; Rosales, D.; Bustos, E.; Reyes, R.; Reyes, J.L.; Dieck, T.A.; Heredia, A. )

    1992-09-01

    In spite of the numerous papers published on the toxicity of lead in mammals, little is known about its effects in synovial fluid and bone joints. Our literature search showed a lack of quantitative studies regarding the concentration of lead in human synovial fluid; in addition, normal values regarding the threshold for poisoning by lead in that fluid are unknown. The available literature published corresponds to samples of human wounds by lead bullets localized close to or in a joint. Some of those papers dealing with lead-induced arthritis include symptoms of plumbism. They clearly demonstrate the ability of synovial fluid to dissolve lead and thereby make it available for systemic absorption. The molecular mechanism whereby this process is performed is still unknown, although it would be of interest because of its possible relationship with joint pain, a common problem in patients with lead poisoning that so far has not been fully explained. In a series of experiments with cattle, we found an average ratio of lead between synovial fluid and blood for paired observations of 4.2, although we have not found similar reports, and there is not sufficient information to make a total interpretation of these data. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of lead in synovial fluid and blood of corpses and to establish a possible numerical relationship between those two variables. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Electrochemical aptasensor for lung cancer-related protein detection in crude blood plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Zamay, Galina S; Zamay, Tatiana N; Kolovskii, Vasilii A; Shabanov, Alexandr V; Glazyrin, Yury E; Veprintsev, Dmitry V; Krat, Alexey V; Zamay, Sergey S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Gargaun, Ana; Sokolov, Alexey E; Modestov, Andrey A; Artyukhov, Ivan P; Chesnokov, Nikolay V; Petrova, Marina M; Berezovski, Maxim V; Zamay, Anna S

    2016-10-03

    The development of an aptamer-based electrochemical sensor for lung cancer detection is presented in this work. A highly specific DNA-aptamer, LC-18, selected to postoperative lung cancer tissues was immobilized onto a gold microelectrode and electrochemical measurements were performed in a solution containing the redox marker ferrocyanide/ferricyanide. The aptamer protein targets were harvested from blood plasma of lung cancer patients by using streptavidin paramagnetic beads and square wave voltammetry of the samples was performed at various concentrations. In order to enhance the sensitivity of the aptasensor, silica-coated iron oxide magnetic beads grafted with hydrophobic C8 and C4 alkyl groups were used in a sandwich detection approach. Addition of hydrophobic beads increased the detection limit by 100 times. The detection limit of the LC-18 aptasensor was enhanced by the beads to 0.023 ng/mL. The formation of the aptamer - protein - bead sandwich on the electrode surface was visualized by electron microcopy. As a result, the electrochemical aptasensor was able to detect cancer-related targets in crude blood plasma of lung cancer patients.

  2. [Comparison of the determination of cyclosporin-A in blood samples collected on filter paper and by the ordinary technique].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, L S; Manrique, R; Sabbaga, E

    1995-01-01

    Monitoring cyclosporin-A (CsA) blood levels is of utmost importance for the rational use of this drug. Although many centers perform transplants, in Brazil there are few laboratories able to measure CsA blood levels. Therefore making blood samples reach the laboratory emerged as a problem. Collection of blood on filter paper has been a technique used for a long time in special cases. PURPOSE--To confirm the usefulness of measuring CsA blood levels in blood samples collected on filter paper and in the usual way. METHOD--We studied twenty renal cadaver kidney recipients who were receiving CsA, azathioprine and prednisone. Ninety five blood samples were collected and divided into two aliquots. One of them was sent routinely to one laboratory to perform whole blood CsA measurements. From the other aliquot, 20 microliters were pipetted on filter paper. When dried they were mailed to the other laboratory, where, after elution, CsA was measured. In both cases radioimmunoassay with polyclonal antibody was used. RESULTS--Linear correlation between both measurements revealed r = 0.81 with no statistical difference. CONCLUSION--The technique showed to be useful in clinical practice. In countries with continental size, as Brazil, it may be very helpful.

  3. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language.

    PubMed

    Mack, Wendy J; Teng, Evelyn; Zheng, Ling; Paz, Sylvia; Chui, Helena; Varma, Rohit

    2005-07-01

    The authors know of no published studies that have evaluated the effect of Spanish- versus English-language on category fluency within a sample of United States Latinos only. As part of a pilot study for the institution of a cognitive screening program in a cohort of Latinos, we assessed category fluency (fruits, vegetables, and "other" supermarket items) in a sample of 90 self-identified Latino community residents (aged 52-84, 0-18 years of education). The primary demographic correlates of category fluency were age and education. The decrement in naming of fruits with age was limited to the older old subjects (>age 70). Relatively younger old subjects (aged 61-70) did not differ from middle-aged subjects on category fluency. Gender showed little relationship to category naming. Persons naming in Spanish named significantly fewer 'other supermarket' items, but did not differ from English speakers in the more common fluency categories of fruits and vegetables. This analysis of category fluency in an ethnically homogenous sample with a wide range of formal education provided an evaluation of the effects of chosen language free of possible confounding by cultural differences, and also provided a more complete evaluation of the influence of education on category fluency.

  4. Sulfatide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy in Dried Blood and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spacil, Zdenek; Kumar, Arun Babu; Liao, Hsuan-Chieh; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Stark, Samantha; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. PMID:26585924

  5. Decreased growth rate of P. falciparum blood stage parasitemia with age in a holoendemic population.

    PubMed

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Petravic, Janka; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; Davenport, Miles P

    2014-04-01

    In malaria holoendemic settings, decreased parasitemia and clinical disease is associated with age and cumulative exposure. The relative contribution of acquired immunity against various stages of the parasite life cycle is not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether changes in infection dynamics can be best explained by decreasing rates of infection, or by decreased growth rates of parasites in blood. Here, we analyze the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study participants of different ages. We use both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy detection of parasitemia in order to understand parasite growth rates and infection rates over time. The more sensitive PCR assay detects parasites earlier than microscopy, and demonstrates a higher overall prevalence of infection than microscopy alone. The delay between PCR and microscopy detection is significantly longer in adults compared with children, consistent with slower parasite growth with age. We estimated the parasite multiplication rate from delay to PCR and microscopy detections of parasitemia. We find that both the delay between PCR and microscopy infection as well as the differing reinfection dynamics in different age groups are best explained by a slowing of parasite growth with age.

  6. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

    1988-01-01

    Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research. PMID:3349406

  7. Stable RNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains revealed from whole genome expression analysis of time-wise degraded samples

    PubMed Central

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Hanekamp, Eline; Kokshoorn, Mieke; van IJcken, Wilfred

    2007-01-01

    Human body fluids such as blood and saliva represent the most common source of biological material found at a crime scene. Reliable tissue identification in forensic science can reveal significant insights into crime scene reconstruction and can thus contribute toward solving crimes. Limitations of existing presumptive tests for body fluid identification in forensics, which are usually based on chemoluminescence or protein analysis, are expected to be overcome by RNA-based methods, provided that stable RNA markers with tissue-specific expression patterns are available. To generate sets of stable RNA markers for reliable identification of blood and saliva stains we (1) performed whole-genome gene expression analyses on a series of time-wise degraded blood and saliva stain samples using the Affymetrix U133 plus2 GeneChip, (2) consulted expression databases to obtain additional information on tissue specificity, and (3) confirmed expression patterns of the most promising candidate genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction including additional forensically relevant tissues such as semen and vaginal secretion. Overall, we identified nine stable mRNA markers for blood and five stable mRNA markers for saliva detection showing tissue-specific expression signals in stains aged up to 180 days of age, expectedly older. Although, all of the markers were able to differentiate blood/saliva from semen samples, none of them could differentiate vaginal secretion because of the complex nature of vaginal secretion and the biological similarity of buccal and vaginal mucosa. We propose the use of these 14 stable mRNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains in future forensic practice. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0182-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17579879

  8. Using Dried Blood Spot Sampling to Improve Data Quality and Reduce Animal Use in Mouse Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Perkins, Everett J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pharmacokinetic analysis in nonclinical studies is based on the concentration of a test compound in plasma and requires approximately 100 to 200 µL blood collected per time point. However, the total blood volume of mice limits the number of samples that can be collected from an individual animal—often to a single collection per mouse—thus necessitating dosing multiple mice to generate a pharmacokinetic profile in a sparse-sampling design. Compared with traditional methods, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis requires smaller volumes of blood (15 to 20 µL), thus supporting serial blood sampling and the generation of a complete pharmacokinetic profile from a single mouse. Here we compare plasma-derived data with DBS-derived data, explain how to adopt DBS sampling to support discovery mouse studies, and describe how to generate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from a single mouse. Executing novel study designs that use DBS enhances the ability to identify and streamline better drug candidates during drug discovery. Implementing DBS sampling can reduce the number of mice needed in a drug discovery program. In addition, the simplicity of DBS sampling and the smaller numbers of mice needed translate to decreased study costs. Overall, DBS sampling is consistent with 3Rs principles by achieving reductions in the number of animals used, decreased restraint-associated stress, improved data quality, direct comparison of interanimal variability, and the generation of multiple endpoints from a single study. PMID:25836959

  9. Estimated Pulse Wave Velocity Calculated from Age and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Sara V.; Laurent, Stephan; Olsen, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    In a recently published paper, Greve et al [J Hypertens 2016;34:1279-1289] investigate whether the estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV), calculated using an equation derived from the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), age, and blood pressure, predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) as good as the measured cfPWV. Because ePWV predicts CVD as good as cfPWV, some might wonder whether ePWV could be replaced by cfPWV, which is a time-consuming measurement requiring an expensive apparatus. This question is addressed in this mini-review. PMID:28229052

  10. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. Results The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (<2+ reaction grade), extra serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. Conclusions ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do. PMID:28028997

  11. Comparison of glucose determinations on blood samples collected in three types of tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Geling; Cabanero, Michael; Wang, Zhenglong; Wang, Huiying; Huang, Tao; Alexis, Herol; Eid, Ikram; Muth, Gilad; Pincus, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Because of the metabolism of serum glucose in collection tubes containing blood samples, serum glucose levels may be found to decrease over time. Several types of collection tubes have been designed to, at least partially, block glucose metabolism by red blood cells in blood collection tubes that may not be analyzed immediately after blood collection. These include red-top collection tubes with serum separator, grey-top tubes with a fluoride glycolysis inhibitor, and heparin-containing green-top tubes which prevent clot formation. As part of a quality assurance project, we investigated whether glucose levels differed in the three tube types from each of 18 volunteers on a prolonged standing of 4 hours. We then determined the glucose concentrations of all three tubes from each of the 18 volunteers. We used refrigerated samples over a five-day period to determine if the initial values were reproducible. Surprisingly, after standing for four hours at room temperature, we found that the glucose levels in the three tubes from each volunteer were statistically indistinguishable from one another using the two-tailed paired t-test. Also, a linear regression analysis showed that the values of glucose for the three pairs of two tube types were closely correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of >0.97, slopes close to 1, and Y-intercepts close to 0. These results suggest that blood collection in any of these tubes will render similar values for serum glucose even after standing for four hours. The tubes were then refrigerated at 4°C and re-analyzed after another six hours and then once per day for the next four days. Beginning at the first day at the six-hour determination, the glucose levels in the red- and grey-top tubes were statistically indistinguishable from one another but not in the red- and green-top tubes and in the grey- and green-top tubes. This was due to a steady decrease in the glucose levels in the green-top tubes. The glucose levels in the

  12. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, Rocio; Morrison, Katherine; Teo, Koon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Kubwabo, Cariton; Stewart, Brian; Foster, Warren G.

    2008-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean{+-}S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1{+-}10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2{+-}10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3{+-}5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05{+-}12.3 and 5.05{+-}12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

  13. Effects of Aging on Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygen Metabolism, and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Responses to Visual Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ances, Beau M.; Liang, Christine L.; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Lansing, Amy E.; Buxton, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive technique to assess functional metabolic changes associated with normal aging. We simultaneously measured both the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses in the visual cortex for separate conditions of mild hypercapnia (5% CO2) and a simple checkerboard stimulus in healthy younger (n = 10, mean: 28-years-old) and older (n = 10, mean: 53-years-old) adults. From these data we derived baseline CBF, the BOLD scaling parameter M, the fractional change in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) with activation, and the coupling ratio n of the fractional changes in CBF and CMRO2. For the functional activation paradigm, the magnitude of the BOLD response was significantly lower for the older group (0.57 ± 0.07%) compared to the younger group (0.95 ± 0.14%), despite the finding that the fractional CBF and CMRO2 changes were similar for both groups. The weaker BOLD response for the older group was due to a reduction in the parameter M, which was significantly lower for older (4.6 ± 0.4%) than younger subjects (6.5 ± 0.8%), most likely reflecting a reduction in baseline CBF for older (41.7 ± 4.8 mL/100 mL/min) compared to younger (59.6 ± 9.1 mL/100 mL/min) subjects. In addition to these primary responses, for both groups the BOLD response exhibited a post-stimulus undershoot with no significant difference in this magnitude. However, the post-undershoot period of the CBF response was significantly greater for older compared to younger subjects. We conclude that when comparing two populations, the BOLD response can provide misleading reflections of underlying physiological changes. A calibrated approach provides a more quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes than the BOLD response alone. PMID:18465743

  14. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    PubMed

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients.

  15. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  16. The ageing of the blood supply and the lymphatic drainage of the skin.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Terence

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy and functions of the blood and lymph vessels of human skin are described. Variation in these due to site, ageing and events during life consequent to exposure to a threatening environment are emphasised. Gradual atrophy and greater heterogeneity are features of ageing. Responses to injury and repair are complex and the interaction of mechanical signals distorting skin cells with numerous chemical signals are referred to. The lymphatics are part of an immunosurveillance system to monitor skin barrier penetration. The review attempts to draw attention to key recent advances in our understanding of the cytokine and growth factor production of the skin in the context of previous mainly physiological reviews especially influenced by 50 years of clinical practice as a dermatologist with an eye on both the skin and the fields of microcirculation and lymphology.

  17. Age of red blood cells and mortality in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In critically ill patients, it is uncertain whether exposure to older red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to mortality. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between the age of RBCs and outcome in a large unselected cohort of critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. We hypothesized that exposure to even a single unit of older RBCs may be associated with an increased risk of death. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study in 47 ICUs during a 5-week period between August 2008 and September 2008. We included 757 critically ill adult patients receiving at least one unit of RBCs. To test our hypothesis we compared hospital mortality according to quartiles of exposure to maximum age of RBCs without and with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Results Compared with other quartiles (mean maximum red cell age 22.7 days; mortality 121/568 (21.3%)), patients treated with exposure to the lowest quartile of oldest RBCs (mean maximum red cell age 7.7 days; hospital mortality 25/189 (13.2%)) had an unadjusted absolute risk reduction in hospital mortality of 8.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.2 to 14.0%). After adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, other blood component transfusions, number of RBC transfusions, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac surgery, the odds ratio for hospital mortality for patients exposed to the older three quartiles compared with the lowest quartile was 2.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 3.77). Conclusions In critically ill patients, in Australia and New Zealand, exposure to older RBCs is independently associated with an increased risk of death. PMID:21496231

  18. Simplified [18F]FDG Image-Derived Input Function Using the Left Ventricle, Liver, and One Venous Blood Sample

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Mohammed Noor; Peterson, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    A relatively simple, almost entirely noninvasive imaging-based method is presented for deriving arterial blood input functions for quantitative [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomographic (PET) studies in rodents. It requires only one venous blood sample at the end of the scan. MicroPET images and arterial blood time-activity curves (TACs) were downloaded from the Mouse Quantitation Program database at the University of California, Los Angeles. Three-dimensional regions of interest were drawn around the blood-pool region of the left ventricle and within the liver to derive their respective TACs. To construct the “hybrid” image-derived input function (IDIF), the initial part of the left ventricle TAC, containing the peak concentration of [18F]FDG in the arterial blood, was corrected for spillout (ie, partial-volume effect yielding a recovery coefficient < 1) and then joined to the liver TAC (normalized to the 60-minute arterial blood sample) immediately after it peaks. To validate our method, the [18F]FDG influx constant (Ki) was estimated using a two-tissue compartment model and compared to estimates of Ki obtained using measured arterial blood TACs. No significant difference in the Ki estimates was obtained with the arterial blood input function and our hybrid IDIF. We conclude that the normalized hybrid IDIF can be used in practice to obtain reliable Ki estimates. PMID:20236605

  19. Identification of aged bloodstains through mRNA profiling: Experiments results on selected markers of 30- and 50-year-old samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hemiao; Wang, Chong; Yao, Lan; Lin, Qingluan; Xu, XiuLan; Hu, Lan; Li, Wanshui

    2017-03-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in recent years on the research of body fluid identification through messenger RNA(mRNA) profiling. In order to examine the viability of mRNA profiling as a method to identify aged bloodstains, this study tested two groups of bloodstain samples, dated 30 years and 50 years back respectively, on seven blood specific markers, i.e. HBB, HBA, GYPA, CD93, ALAS2, SPTB (91bp and 247bp primers), and PBGD. Test results indicate that HBA and HBB are the most stable markers in aged bloodstains, returning positive results in over 80% of the 50-year-old samples and over 90% of the 30-year-old samples. This finding proves mRNA profiling an effective way of identifying aged bloodstains.

  20. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100 μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1 μm) to be collected over a 30 min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFU mL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFU mL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  1. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7 ± 0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during

  2. Aging-related differences in cerebral capillary blood flow in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Michèle; Berti, Romain; Lefebvre, Joël; Dubeau, Simon; Lesage, Frédéric

    2014-08-01

    Age-related decreases in baseline cerebral blood flow have been measured with various imaging modalities, however, the contribution of capillary flow to this phenomenon remain to elucidate. This study used 2-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy to measure capillary diameter, red blood cell speed, and flux in individual capillaries in the sensory-motor cortex of 12 adult (3-month-old) and 12 old (24-month-old) male Long-Evans rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The average (± standard deviation) diameter and speed over 921 capillaries were 6.4 ± 1.4 μm and 1.3 ± 1.1 mm/s, respectively. Red blood cell speed and flux were significantly higher, by 48% and 15%, respectively, in old compared with young animals (p < 5%). The diameter also showed a similar tendency (7% higher, p = 5.7%). Furthermore, capillary hematocrit and density were significantly lower in the older group (p < 5%), by 32% and 20%, respectively.

  3. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test…

  4. Effect of age and vascular anatomy on blood flow in major cerebral vessels.

    PubMed

    Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Du, Xinjian; Pandey, Dilip K; Thulborn, Keith R; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of volume flow rates in major cerebral vessels can be used to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of cerebrovascular disease. However, both age and vascular anatomy can affect flow rates independent of disease. We prospectively evaluated 325 healthy adult volunteers using phase contrast quantitative magnetic resonance angiography to characterize these effects on cerebral vessel flow rates and establish clinically useful normative reference values. Flows were measured in the major intracranial and extracranial vessels. The cohort ranged from 18 to 84 years old, with 157 (48%) females. All individual vessel flows and total cerebral blood flow (TCBF) declined with age, at 2.6 mL/minute per year for TCBF. Basilar artery (BA) flow was significantly decreased in individuals with one or both fetal posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). Internal carotid artery flows were significantly higher with a fetal PCA and decreased with a hypoplastic anterior cerebral artery. Indexing vessel flows to TCBF neutralized the age effect, but anatomic variations continued to impact indexed flow in the BA and internal carotid artery. Variability in normative flow ranges were reduced in distal vessels and by examining regional flows. Cerebral vessel flows are affected by age and cerebrovascular anatomy, which has important implications for interpretation of flows in the disease state.

  5. Use of an extracorporeal arterio-venous shunt and capillary tubes for frequent micro-blood sampling in rats.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, T B; Artzer, D

    1983-02-01

    Because of the importance of frequent sampling during kinetic analysis, we have developed a method that permits frequent, reliable, and rapid access to the blood stream in rats. The method comprises the establishment of an extracorporeal arterio-venous shunt between femoral blood vessels. Quantitative samples of whole blood and plasma are obtained with capillary micro hematocrit tubes. The small sample volume permits repetitive analysis without major changes in hematocrit. There is good agreement between these measures and ordinary pipetting techniques. Kinetic analysis showed good resolution with close correspondence between actual measurements and the final curve of best fit. This method could be employed advantageously in small conscious animals, when frequent small samples are required by experimental design.

  6. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  7. In vitro assays and clinical trials in red blood cell aging: Lost in translation.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The age of erythrocyte concentrates (EC) in transfusion medicine and the adverse outcomes when transfusing long-term-stored EC are highly controversial issues. Whereas the definition of a short-term-stored EC or a long-term-stored EC is unclear in clinical trials, data based on in vitro storage assays can help defining a limit in addition of the expiration date. The present review merges together these data in order to highlight an EC age cut-off and points out potential misleading consideration. The analysis of in vitro data highlights the presence of reversible and irreversible storage lesions and demonstrates that red blood cells (RBC) exhibit two limits during storage: one around 2 weeks and another one around 4 weeks of storage. Of particular importance, the first lesions to appear, i.e. the reversible ones, are per se reversible once transfused, whereas the irreversible lesions are not. In clinical trials, the EC age cut-off for short-term storage is in general fewer than 14 days (11 ± 4 days) and more disperse for long-term-stored EC (17 ± 13 days), regardless the clinical outcomes. Taking together, EC age cut-off in clinical trials does not totally fall into line of in vitro aging data, whereas it is the key criteria in clinical studies. Long-term-stored EC considered in clinical trials are not probably old enough to answer the question: "Does transfusion of long-term-stored EC (older than 4 weeks) result in worse clinical outcomes?" Depending on ethical concerns and clinical practices, older EC than currently assayed in clinical trials should have to be considered. These two worlds trying to understand the aging of erythrocytes and the impact on patients do not seem to speak the same language.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  9. Rapid Detection of Candida albicans by Polymerase Spiral Reaction Assay in Clinical Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoqun; Dong, Derong; Bian, Lihong; Zou, Dayang; He, Xiaoming; Ao, Da; Yang, Zhan; Huang, Simo; Liu, Ningwei; Liu, Wei; Huang, Liuyu

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen which causes mucosal infections and invasive fungal diseases. Early detection of this pathogen is needed to guide preventative and therapeutic treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) assay that rapidly and accurately detects C. albicans and to assess the clinical applicability of PSR-based diagnostic testing. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), a region between 5.8S and 28S fungal ribosomal DNA, was used as the target sequence. Four primers were designed for amplification of ITS2 with the PSR method, which was evaluated using real time turbidity monitoring and visual detection using a pH indicator. Fourteen non-C. albicans yeast strains were negative for detection, which indicated the specificity of PSR assay was 100%. A 10-fold serial dilution of C. albicans genomic DNA was subjected to PSR and conventional polimerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare their sensitivities. The detection limit of PSR was 6.9 pg/μl within 1 h, 10-fold higher than that of PCR (69.0 pg/μl). Blood samples (n = 122) were collected from intensive care unit and hematological patients with proven or suspected C. albicans infection at two hospitals in Beijing, China. Both PSR assay and the culture method were used to analyze the samples. Of the 122 clinical samples, 34 were identified as positive by PSR. The result was consistent with those obtained by the culture method. In conclusion, a novel and effective C. albicans detection assay was developed that has a great potential for clinical screening and point-of-care testing. PMID:27379048

  10. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in a nonacademic setting. Effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Khoury, S; Yarows, S A; O'Brien, T K; Sowers, J R

    1992-09-01

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) are likely to eliminate the stress of visits and observer bias in office blood pressure (BP) recordings, allow consideration of the circadian variability in BP, and correlate well with target organ damage. To define the prevalence of "white coat" hypertension in a rural community to a nonacademic setting, and to assess age and sex related differences, we studied 131 patients who had more than two prior office diastolic BP measurements greater than 90 mm Hg and less than 115 mm Hg. Blood pressure was measured every 10 to 60 min for 24 h using the SpaceLabs 90207 device. Office BP readings were higher than ABPM in the group as a whole, in individual age groups, and in both sexes. The differences were more pronounced at night. Average differences between office and ambulatory BP ranged between 14.4 +/- 1.7/2.9 +/- 2.0 (ABPM at 10:00), and 33.8 +/- 2.3/22.8 +/- 1.5 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic +/- SE) (ABPM at 01:00). The nighttime drop in systolic BP was not apparent in subjects more than 65 years old. Women had a proportionately higher mean office BP than men (115.0 +/- 0.9 office v 110.2 +/- 1.3 mm Hg ABPM in women and 112.3 +/- 0.9 v 104.3 +/- 1.1 mm Hg in men) (P = .013), and the elderly did not display the relationship between ambulatory and office mean BP seen in younger subjects (r = 0.15, P = .30 v r = 0.36, P = .0004, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human erythropoietin in athletes. Blood sampling and doping control

    PubMed Central

    SOUILLARD, AGNES; AUDRAN, MICHEL; BRESSOLLE, FRANÇOISE; GAREAU, RAYNALD; DUVALLET, ALAIN; CHANAL, JEAN-LOUIS

    1996-01-01

    1The pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) were initially determined in two healthy volunteers after a single subcutaneous dose (50 u kg−1). Twenty subjects then received repeated subcutaneous administrations of high dose (200 u kg−1) rHuEpo and 10 subjects received placebo. An immunoradiometric assay was used to measure the concentrations of erythropoietin (Epo) in serum and urine. 2Serum Epo concentration-time profiles were best described by a one-compartment open model with zero-order input. The mean elimination half-life (±s.d.) was 42.0±34.2 h. Clearance, uncorrected for bioavailability, was 0.05±0.01 l h−1 kg& minus;1. Erythropoietin concentrations returned to normal values in serum and urine, 7 and 4 days after the last administration, respectively. 3The recombinant hormone was well tolerated. Significant changes in reticulocytes and red blood cells, haemoglobin concentrations and haematocrit were observed after administration of rHuEpo. In the control group, these parameters remained unchanged. 4The change in reticulocytes was used as an index of the therapeutic effect of rHuEpo. The concentration-effect relationship was best described by an exponential model. 5These data show the limitations of the measurement of Epo concentrations in blood and urine samples, collected in athletes during competition, for antidoping control. Epo doping can be detected only during or within 4 to 7 days of ending, a course of rHuEpo. PMID:8877027

  12. A Novel Antibody against Human Properdin Inhibits the Alternative Complement System and Specifically Detects Properdin from Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Diana; Nagel, Benedikt M.; Reinders, Jörg; Killian, Tobias; Wulf, Matthias; Ackermann, Susanne; Ehrenstein, Boris; Zipfel, Peter F.; Skerka, Christine; Weber, Bernhard H. F.

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is an essential part of the innate immune system by acting as a first line of defense which is stabilized by properdin, the sole known positive regulator of the alternative complement pathway. Dysregulation of complement can promote a diversity of human inflammatory diseases which are treated by complement inhibitors. Here, we generated a novel blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) against properdin and devised a new diagnostic assay for this important complement regulator. Mouse mAb 1340 specifically detected native properdin from human samples with high avidity. MAb 1340 inhibited specifically the alternative complement mediated cell lysis within a concentration range of 1–10 µg/mL. Thus, in vitro anti-properdin mAb 1340 was up to fifteen times more efficient in blocking the complement system as compared to anti-C5 or anti-Ba antibodies. Computer-assisted modelling suggested a three-dimensional binding epitope in a properdin-C3(H2O)-clusterin complex to be responsible for the inhibition. Recovery of properdin in a newly established sandwich ELISA using mAb 1340 was determined at 80–125% for blood sample dilutions above 1∶50. Reproducibility assays showed a variation below 25% at dilutions less than 1∶1,000. Systemic properdin concentrations of healthy controls and patients with age-related macular degeneration or rheumatic diseases were all in the range of 13–30 µg/mL and did not reveal significant differences. These initial results encourage further investigation into the functional role of properdin in the development, progression and treatment of diseases related to the alternative complement pathway. Thus, mAb 1340 represents a potent properdin inhibitor suitable for further research to understand the exact mechanisms how properdin activates the complement C3-convertase and to determine quantitative levels of properdin in biological samples. PMID:24797388

  13. A novel antibody against human properdin inhibits the alternative complement system and specifically detects properdin from blood samples.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Diana; Nagel, Benedikt M; Reinders, Jörg; Killian, Tobias; Wulf, Matthias; Ackermann, Susanne; Ehrenstein, Boris; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is an essential part of the innate immune system by acting as a first line of defense which is stabilized by properdin, the sole known positive regulator of the alternative complement pathway. Dysregulation of complement can promote a diversity of human inflammatory diseases which are treated by complement inhibitors. Here, we generated a novel blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) against properdin and devised a new diagnostic assay for this important complement regulator. Mouse mAb 1340 specifically detected native properdin from human samples with high avidity. MAb 1340 inhibited specifically the alternative complement mediated cell lysis within a concentration range of 1-10 µg/mL. Thus, in vitro anti-properdin mAb 1340 was up to fifteen times more efficient in blocking the complement system as compared to anti-C5 or anti-Ba antibodies. Computer-assisted modelling suggested a three-dimensional binding epitope in a properdin-C3(H2O)-clusterin complex to be responsible for the inhibition. Recovery of properdin in a newly established sandwich ELISA using mAb 1340 was determined at 80-125% for blood sample dilutions above 1∶50. Reproducibility assays showed a variation below 25% at dilutions less than 1∶1,000. Systemic properdin concentrations of healthy controls and patients with age-related macular degeneration or rheumatic diseases were all in the range of 13-30 µg/mL and did not reveal significant differences. These initial results encourage further investigation into the functional role of properdin in the development, progression and treatment of diseases related to the alternative complement pathway. Thus, mAb 1340 represents a potent properdin inhibitor suitable for further research to understand the exact mechanisms how properdin activates the complement C3-convertase and to determine quantitative levels of properdin in biological samples.

  14. Testing the applicability of six macroscopic skeletal aging techniques on a modern Southeast Asian sample.

    PubMed

    Gocha, Timothy P; Ingvoldstad, Megan E; Kolatorowicz, Adam; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Meghan-Tomasita J; Sciulli, Paul W

    2015-04-01

    Most macroscopic skeletal aging techniques used by forensic anthropologists have been developed and tested only on reference material from western populations. This study examined the performance of six aging techniques on a known age sample of 88 Southeast Asian individuals. Methods examined included the Suchey-Brooks method of aging the symphyseal face of the os pubis (Brooks and Suchey, Hum. Evol. 5 (1990) 227), Buckberry and Chamberlain's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 231 and Osborne et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 49 (2004) 1 revisions of the Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15 method of aging the auricular surface of the ilium, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 29 (1984) 1094, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 30 (1985) 853 method of aging the sternal end of the fourth rib, and Meindl and Lovejoy's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 57 methods for aging both lateral-anterior and vault sutures on the cranium. The results of this study indicate that application of aging techniques commonly used in forensic anthropology to individuals identified as Asian, and more specifically Southeast Asian, should not be undertaken injudiciously. Of the six individual methods tested here, the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging method performs best, though average age estimates were still off by nearly 10 years or greater. Methods for aging the auricular surface perform next best, though the Osborne et al. method works better for individuals below 50 years and the Buckberry and Chamberlain method works better for those above 50 years. Methods for age estimation from the sternal ends of the fourth rib and vault and lateral-anterior cranial sutures perform poorly and are not recommended for use on remains of Southeast Asian ancestry. Combining age estimates from multiple indicators, specifically the pubic symphysis and one auricular surface method, was superior to individual methods. Data and a worked example are provided for calculating the conditional

  15. [The specific distribution of erythrocytes and blood platelets according to the volume of cells in different-age children].

    PubMed

    Matiushichev, V B; Sharmatova, V G

    2005-01-01

    The reference volumes of erythrocytes and blood platelets were evaluated for different age groups of children. The mean volume of cells and the parameters of its distribution, i.e. SD, As and Ex, were found. The mean volume of erythrocytes and the value of positive Ex for the volume of blood platelets were shown to be reliably higher in adults. The investigated blood parameters in children were proven to depend in children on their age and sex. It was concluded that the mentioned peculiarities should be considered in the practice of clinical laboratory examinations.

  16. Influence of age and hypertension treatment-time on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Crespo, Juan J; Mojón, Artemio; Chayán, Luisa; Fontao, María J; Fernández, José R

    2013-03-01

    Some studies based on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) have reported a reduction in sleep-time relative BP decline towards a more non-dipping pattern in the elderly, but rarely have past studies included a proper comparison with younger subjects, and no previous report has evaluated the potential role of hypertension treatment time on nighttime BP regulation in the elderly. Accordingly, we evaluated the influence of age and time-of-day of hypertension treatment on the circadian BP pattern assessed by 48-h ABPM. This cross-sectional study involved 6147 hypertensive patients (3108 men/3039 women), 54.0 ± 13.7 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, with 2137 (978 men/1159 women) being ≥60 yrs of age. At the time of study, 1809 patients were newly diagnosed and untreated, and 4338 were treated with hypertension medications. Among the later, 2641 ingested all their prescribed BP-lowering medications upon awakening, whereas 1697 ingested the full daily dose of ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime. Diagnosis of hypertension in untreated patients was based on ABPM criteria, specifically an awake systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) BP mean ≥135/85 mm Hg and/or an asleep SBP/DBP mean ≥120/70 mm Hg. Collectively, older in comparison with younger patients were more likely to have diagnoses of microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, anemia, and/or obesity. In addition, the group of older vs. younger patients had higher glucose, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, and fibrinogen, but lower cholesterol, hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In older compared with younger patients, ambulatory SBP was significantly higher and DBP significantly lower (p < .001), mainly during the hours of nighttime sleep and initial hours after morning awakening. The prevalence of non-dipping was significantly higher in older than younger patients (63.1% vs. 41.1%; p < .001). The largest difference between

  17. Hemoglobin Variant Analysis via Direct Surface Sampling of Dried Blood Spots Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited disorders. Newborn blood screening for clinically significant hemoglobin variants, including sickle (HbS), HbC, and HbD, has been adopted in many countries as it is widely acknowledged that early detection improves the outcome. We present a method for determination of Hb variants by direct surface sampling of dried blood spots by use of an Advion Triversa Nanomate automated electrospray system coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The method involves no sample preparation. It is possible to unambiguously identify homozygous and heterozygous HbS, HbC, and HbD variants in <10 min without the need for additional confirmation. The method allows for repeated analysis of a single blood spot over a prolonged time period and is tolerant of blood spot storage conditions. PMID:21341716

  18. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health.

  19. Sex, ageing and resting blood pressure: gaining insights from the integrated balance of neural and haemodynamic factors.

    PubMed

    Hart, Emma C; Joyner, Michael J; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2012-05-01

    Young women tend to have lower blood pressure, and less risk of hypertension, compared to young men. As people age, both blood pressure and the risk of hypertension increase in both sexes; this occurs most strikingly in women after menopause. However, the mechanisms for these influences of sex and age remain incompletely understood. In this review we are specifically interested in the interaction between neural (sympathetic nerve activity; SNA) and haemodynamic factors (cardiac output, blood pressure and vascular resistance) and how these change with sex and age. While peripheral vascular SNA can vary 7- to 10-fold among normotensive young men and women, it is reproducible in a given individual. Surprisingly, higher levels of SNA are not associated with higher blood pressures in these groups. In young men, high SNA is associated with higher total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR), and appears to be balanced by lower cardiac output and less peripheral vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. Young women do not exhibit the SNA-TPR relationship. Recent evidence suggests that β-adrenergic vasodilatation offsets the vasoconstrictor effects of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, which may contribute to the generally lower blood pressures in this group. Sympathetic nerve activity increases with age, and in groups over 40, levels of SNA are more tightly linked to levels of blood pressure. The potentially protective β-adrenergic effect seen in young women appears to be lost after menopause and probably contributes to the increased blood pressure and increased risk of hypertension seen in older women.

  20. The Effects of Oxidative Damage on In Vivo Aging, Density, and Survival of Baboon Red Blood Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the plate. The biotin-treated and avidin-isolated red blood cells were washed three times in glucose phosphate buffered saline and labeled with 51Cr...OF BABOON RED BLOOD CELLS BY J.B. McKENNEY, C.R. VALERI, A. GIORGIO, G. RAGNO, J. TRAINOR, N. FORTIER, B. WODA, AND L.M. SNYDER NAVAL BLOOD ...TITLE (and Subtitle) THE EFFECTS OF OX I DATIVE DAMAGE ON IN VIVO AGING, DENSITY, AND SURVIVAL OF BABOON RED BLOOD CELLS 7. AUTHORf«; J.B

  1. A dried blood spots technique based LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of posaconazole in human whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Todime M; Tama, Cristina I; Hayes, Roger N

    2011-11-15

    A rugged and robust liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method utilizing dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated for the analysis of posaconazole in human whole blood. Posaconazole fortified blood samples were spotted (15 μL) onto Ahlstrom Alh-226 DBS cards and dried for at least 2h. Punched spots were then extracted by using a mixture of acetonitrile and water containing stable labeled internal standard (IS). Posaconazole and its IS were separated from endogenous matrix components on a Kinetex™ C18 column under gradient conditions with a mobile phase A consisting of 0.1% formic acid and a mobile phase B consisting of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile/methanol (70/30, v/v). The analyte and IS were detected using a Sciex API 4000 triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS system equipped with a TurboIonSpray™ source operated in the positive ion mode. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5-5000 ng/mL. The inter-run accuracy and precision of the assay were -1.8% to 0.8% and 4.0% to 10.4%, respectively. Additional assessments unique to DBS were investigated including sample spot homogeneity, spot volume, and hematocrit. Blood spot homogeneity was maintained and accurate and precise quantitation results were obtained when using a blood spot volume of between 15 and 35 μL. Human blood samples with hematocrit values ranging between 25% and 41% gave acceptable quantitation results. The validation results indicate that the method is accurate, precise, sensitive, selective and reproducible.

  2. Validation of a minimally invasive blood-sampling technique for the analysis of hormones in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha).

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Fassbender, Mirja; Dehnhard, Martin; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Jewgenow, Katarina; Hofer, Heribert; Schaub, Günter A

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in small mammals showed that blood-sucking bugs (Reduviidae, Heteroptera) can be used to obtain blood from veins difficult to access by human experimenters. In the present study, we validated the use of reduviid bugs for endocrinological studies in endotherms using domestic rabbits as a model organism. Two processes could alter the hormone concentrations in the blood ingested by the bug: (1) Mixing of ingested blood with saliva, gut fluid, or hemolymph and (2) digestive processes. We compared concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, and hydrocortisone in blood samples that were acquired from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) by bugs (Dipetalogaster maxima) with hormone concentrations in blood obtained from the same individual rabbits with a conventional method, i.e., syringe. We found no significant differences in hormone concentrations between the two methods. Thus, the mixing effect is negligible immediately after the blood meal. In addition, we also could not find significant changes in concentrations of progesterone and hydrocortisone for up to 8h after the blood meal. Whereas levels of hydrocortisone remained unchanged for even 24h, progesterone levels significantly increased between eight and 24h. Thus, the bugs' excretory apparatus did not fractionate between water and hormones. Thirdly, we hypothesized that reduviid bugs impose less stress on the rabbits than the conventional method. We showed that deviations in hydrocortisone concentrations between the two blood sampling routines were lower when the bug method was used first and higher when the conventional method was used first. Thus, bugs imposed less stress on the study animals than the conventional method. Overall, we conclude that reduviid bugs present a minimally invasive method for obtaining blood from endotherm animals for endocrinological studies.

  3. Validation of a fully automated robotic setup for preparation of whole blood samples for LC-MS toxicology analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, David; Rasmussen, Brian; Linnet, Kristian

    2012-05-01

    A fully automated setup was developed for preparing whole blood samples using a Tecan Evo workstation. By integrating several add-ons to the robotic platform, the flexible setup was able to prepare samples from sample tubes to a 96-well sample plate ready for injection on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using several preparation techniques, including protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction and centrifugation, without any manual intervention. Pipetting of a known aliquot of whole blood was achieved by integrating a balance and performing gravimetric measurements. The system was able to handle 1,073 of 1,092 (98.3%) samples of whole blood from forensic material, including postmortem samples, without any need for repeating sample preparation. Only three samples required special treatment such as dilution. The addition of internal and calibration standards were validated by pipetting a solution of Orange G and measuring the weight and absorbance. Internal standard (20 µL) was added in a multi-pipetting sequence with an accuracy of 99.9% and imprecision (coefficient of variation) of 1.6%. Calibration standards were added with high accuracy at volumes as low as 6.00 µL (±0.21 µL). The general setup of the offline sample preparation and key validation parameters of a quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol is presented.

  4. Detection of sodium and potassium in single human red blood cells by 193-nm laser ablative sampling: a feasibility demonstration.

    PubMed

    Ng, C W; Cheung, N H

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of quantifying sodium and potassium in single human erythrocytes was demonstrated by spectrochemical analysis of emissions from plasmas produced by 193-nm laser ablation of blood cells confined in a sheath flow. In one scheme, single blood cells that happened to be in the ablation volume were sampled. In another scheme, individual blood cells were first sighted and then synchronously ablated downstream. Plasma emission spectra of single ablated cells were captured, and the ratios of the analyte line intensity to the root-mean-square fluctuation of the continuum background were measured to be about 18 for sodium and 30 for potassium.

  5. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  6. Blood values of the canvasback duck by age, sex and season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Pitts, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from canvasback ducklings from Manitoba and Saskatchewan and from immature and adult canvasbacks on the Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin and the Chesapeake Bay. These samples were used to determine baseline data on red cell counts, hematocrit, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, hemoglobin and distribution of plasma proteins. Calculations were also made to determine mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The major differences noted were between ducklings and adults. The former having higher total protein and lower hematocrit, glucose and cholesterol values. These hematologic values were collected in order to provide baseline information on apparently healthy canvasbacks, thereby providing disease investigators with a standard of comparison

  7. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  8. Adaptive sampling of CT data for myocardial blood flow estimation from dose-reduced dynamic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modgil, Dimple; Bindschadler, Michael D.; Alessio, Adam M.; La Rivière, Patrick J.

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there are no widely accepted clinical methods for estimating MBF. Dynamic CT holds the promise of providing a quick and easy method to measure MBF quantitatively, however the need for repeated scans has raised concerns about the potential for high radiation dose. In our previous work, we explored techniques to reduce the patient dose by either uniformly reducing the tube current or by uniformly reducing the number of temporal frames in the dynamic CT sequence. These dose reduction techniques result in very noisy data, which can give rise to large errors in MBF estimation. In this work, we seek to investigate whether nonuniformly varying the tube current or sampling intervals can yield more accurate MBF estimates. Specifically, we try to minimize the dose and obtain the most accurate MBF estimate through addressing the following questions: when in the time attenuation curve (TAC) should the CT data be collected and at what tube current(s). We hypothesize that increasing the sampling rate and/or tube current during the time frames when the myocardial CT number is most sensitive to the flow rate, while reducing them elsewhere, can achieve better estimation accuracy for the same dose. We perform simulations of contrast agent kinetics and CT acquisitions to evaluate the relative MBF estimation performance of several clinically viable adaptive acquisition methods. We found that adaptive temporal and tube current sequences can be performed that impart an effective dose of about 5 mSv and allow for reductions in MBF estimation RMSE on the order of 11% compared to uniform acquisition sequences with comparable or higher radiation doses.

  9. Selective nonenzymatic bilirubin detection in blood samples using a Nafion/Mn-Cu sensor.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hui-Bog; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2014-11-15

    The specific detection of biological organics without the use of an enzyme is challenging, and it is crucial for analytical and clinical chemistry. We report specific nonenzymatic bilirubin detection through the catalytic oxidation of bilirubin molecule on the Nafion/Mn-Cu surface. The catalytic ability, true surface area, morphology, crystallinity, composition, and oxidation state of the sensor surface were assessed using voltammetry, coulometry, XPS, XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), SEM, EDXS, and TOF-SIMS experiments. The results showed that the surface was composed of microporous Mn-Cu bimetallic crystal in flake shape with a large BET surface area (3.635 m(2)g(-1)), where the surface area and crystallinity mainly affected the sensor performance. Product analysis of the catalytic reaction on the sensor probe revealed a specific two-electron oxidation of dipyrromethane moiety to dipyrromethene in the bilirubin molecule. Experimental variables affecting the analysis of bilirubin were optimized in terms of probe composition, temperature, pH, and potential. At the optimized condition, the dynamic range was between 1.2 μM and 0.42 mM, which yielded the equation of ΔI (μA)=(1.03 ± 0.72)+(457.0 ± 4.03) [C] (mM) with 0.999 of correlation coefficient, and the detection limit was 25.0 ± 1.8 nM (n=5, k=3). The stability test, interference effects, and analysis of real clinical samples, human whole blood and certified serum samples were demonstrated to confirm the reliability of the proposed bilirubin sensor.

  10. Trace samples of human blood in mosquitoes as a forensic investigation tool.

    PubMed

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S

    2015-11-23

    Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects.

  11. Using Modified Sample Entropy to Characterize Aging-Associated Microvascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous microvascular function can be assessed by skin blood flow (SBF) response to thermal stimuli. Usually, the activities of the regulatory mechanisms are quantified by means of spectral analysis of the response. However, spectral measures are unable to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of SBF signal. Sample entropy (SampEn) is a commonly used nonlinear measure of the degree of regularity of time series. However, SampEn value depends on the relationship between the frequency of the studied dynamics and sampling rate. Hence, when time series data are oversampled, SampEn may give misleading results. We modified the definition of SampEn by including a lag between successive data points of the vectors to be compared to address the oversampled issue. The lag could be chosen as the first minimum of the auto mutual information function of the time series. We tested the performance of modified SampEn using simulated signals and SBF data in the young and old groups. The results indicated that modified SampEn yields consistent results for different sampling rates in simulated data, but SampEn cannot. Blood flow data showed a higher degree of regularity during the maximal vasodilation period as compared to the baseline in both groups and a higher degree of regularity in the older group as compared to the young group. Furthermore, our results showed that during the second peak the more regular behavior of blood flow oscillations (BFO) is mainly attributed to enhanced cardiac oscillations. This study suggests that the modified SampEn approach may be useful for assessing microvascular function. PMID:27148065

  12. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  13. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Han, Min-Young; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies. PMID:26915613

  14. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan Jeoung; Lee, Bo Ra; Kim, Mi Jeong; Han, Min Young; Cho, Young Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-05-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies.

  15. The identification of menstrual blood in forensic samples by logistic regression modeling of miRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Erin K; Mirza, Mohid; Rekab, Kamel; Ballantyne, Jack

    2014-11-01

    We report the identification of sensitive and specific miRNA biomarkers for menstrual blood, a tissue that might provide probative information in certain specialized instances. We incorporated these biomarkers into qPCR assays and developed a quantitative statistical model using logistic regression that permits the prediction of menstrual blood in a forensic sample with a high, and measurable, degree of accuracy. Using the developed model, we achieved 100% accuracy in determining the body fluid of interest for a set of test samples (i.e. samples not used in model development). The development, and details, of the logistic regression model are described. Testing and evaluation of the finalized logistic regression modeled assay using a small number of samples was carried out to preliminarily estimate the limit of detection (LOD), specificity in admixed samples and expression of the menstrual blood miRNA biomarkers throughout the menstrual cycle (25-28 days). The LOD was <1 ng of total RNA, the assay performed as expected with admixed samples and menstrual blood was identified only during the menses phase of the female reproductive cycle in two donors.

  16. Evaluation of current derivative spectrophotometric methodology for the determination of percent carboxyhemoglobin saturation in postmortem blood samples.

    PubMed

    Perrigo, B J; Joynt, B P

    1989-01-01

    Carbon monoxide intoxication continues to be a commonly encountered cause of death in most areas of Canada. The forensic nature of the samples in these cases presents special problems that are not normally encountered in clinical determinations. A study was undertaken to assess various methods of determining the percent carboxyhemoglobin saturation in blood, more specifically, those using derivative spectrophotometric measurements in the Soret region of the UV spectrum. At the same time, other studies were carried out: the effects of storage time on the carboxyhemoglobin levels; evaluation of sample containers; comparison of percent carboxyhemoglobin saturation in blood samples taken ante-mortem and post-mortem. Blood for the study was obtained from laboratory animals that were exposed to carbon monoxide before death.

  17. Detection of canine distemper virus in blood samples by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cho, H S; Park, N Y

    2005-11-01

    Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) genomic RNA. A set of four primers, two outer and two inner, were designed from CDV genomic RNA targeting the nucleocapsid protein gene. The optimal reaction time and temperature for LAMP were determined to be 60 min at 65 degrees C. The relative sensitivity and specificity of RT-LAMP was found to be 100% and 93.3%, respectively, based on 50 canine blood samples and using RT-PCR as the gold standard. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP method was 100 times lower than with RT-PCR (10-1TCID50 ml(-1) versus 10TCID50 ml(-1)). In addition to the advantage resulting from the visual detection of the end-product, the LAMP method is fast, requiring only 1 h to complete the assay. The LAMP method is a viable alternative to RT-PCR for diagnosing CDV infection in dogs. The LAMP method might be useful as an on site diagnostic assay for detecting CDV.

  18. Assessment of the levels of DDT and DDE in soil and blood samples from Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Martinez-Salinas, Rebeca Isabel; Hernandez-Benavides, Diego; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar; Perez-Maldonado, Ivan Nelinho

    2012-12-01

    In Mexico, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was used until the year 2000, principally in agriculture and anti-paludal program health campaigns. The southeastern region of Mexico was an important area of malaria, and from 1957 DDT was applied indoors every 6 months, with a coverage of 2 g/m(2). The current study was performed in Tabasco, a Mexican state located in the southeastern region of Mexico. DDT and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (DDE) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, low levels were found in household outdoor samples; the levels of DDT ranged from not detectable to 0.048 mg/kg, and of DDE from 0.001 to 0.068 mg/kg. An important finding was that, in all communities where DDT in blood was analyzed, exposure to DDT was found, indicating both past and present exposure. Although the levels found in this study were lower than other studies in Mexico, there is a need to evaluate whether the people living in the study area are at risk.

  19. Human Erythrocyte PIG-A Assay: An Easily Monitored Index of Gene Mutation Requiring Low Volume Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Stephen D.; Avlasevich, Svetlana L.; Bemis, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Yuhchyau; MacGregor, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory has previously described a method for scoring the incidence of rodent blood Pig-a mutant phenotype erythrocytes using immunomag-netic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). The current work extends this approach to human blood. The frequencies of CD59- and CD55-negative reticulo-cytes (RETCD59−/CD55−) and erythrocytes (RBCCD59−/CD55−) seve as phenotypic reporters of PIG-A gene mutation. Immunomagnetic separation was found to provide an effective means of increasing the number of reticulocytes and erythro-cytes evaluated. Technical replicates were utilized to provide a sufficient number of cells for precise scoring while at the same time controlling for procedural accuracy by allowing comparison of replicate values. Cold whole blood samples could be held for at least one week without affecting reticulo-cyte, RETCD59−/CD55− or RBCCD59−/CD55− frequencies. Specimens from a total of 52 nonsmoking, self-reported healthy adult subjects were evaluated. The mean frequency of RETCD59−/CD55− and RBCCD592−/CD55− were 6.0 × 10−6 and 2.9 × 10−6, respectively. The difference is consistent with a modest selective pressure against mutant phenotype erythrocytes in the circulation, and suggests advantages of studying both populations of erythrocytes. Whereas intra-subject variability was low, inter-subject variability was relatively high, with RETCD59−/CD55− frequencies differing by more than 30-fold. There was an apparent correlation between age and mutant cell frequencies. Taken together, the results indicate that the frequency of human PIG-A mutant phenotype cells can be efficiently and reliably estimated using a labeling and analysis protocol that is well established for rodent-based studies. The applicability of the assay across species, its simplicity and statistical power, and the relatively non-invasive nature of the assay should benefit myriad research areas involving DNA damage

  20. High Sodium and Low Potassium Intake among Italian Children: Relationship with Age, Body Mass and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Avallone, Sonia; Barbato, Antonio; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; D’Angelo, Giuseppina; Pensabene, Licia; Malamisura, Basilio; Cecere, Gaetano; Micillo, Maria; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Tetro, Anna; Lombardi, Giuliano; Tonelli, Lisa; Castellucci, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Luigi; Di Biase, Rita; Lezo, Antonella; Salvatore, Silvia; Paoletti, Silvia; Siani, Alfonso; Galeone, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure. Objective To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health. Population and Methods The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures. Results The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population. Conclusions The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25853242

  1. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  2. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  3. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands, the heart, brain, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs were compared. Catheterized mice had higher levels of IL-6 than did control mice, but other cytokine levels did not differ between the groups. No significant difference in body weight was found. The histology revealed inflammatory and regenerative (healing) changes at surgical sites of all catheterized mice, with mild inflammatory changes extending into the salivary glands. Several catheterized mice had multifocal degenerative to necrotic changes with inflammation in the heart, kidneys and livers, suggesting that thrombi had detached from the catheter tip and embolized to distant sites. Thus, catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling may have physiological impact. Possible confounding effects of visceral damage should be assessed and considered, when using catheterized mouse models. PMID:27832170

  4. Loneliness Predicts Increased Blood Pressure: Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analyses in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Masi, Christopher M.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Loneliness is a prevalent social problem with serious physiological and health implications. However, much of the research to date is based on cross-sectional data, including our own earlier finding that loneliness was associated with elevated blood pressure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of loneliness accumulates to produce greater increases in SBP over a four-year period than are observed in less lonely individuals. A population-based sample of 229 50–68 year-old White, Black, and Hispanic men and women in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study was tested annually for each of five consecutive years. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed that loneliness at study onset predicted increases in SBP 2, 3, and 4 years later (B = 0.152, SE = 0.091, p < .05, one-tailed). These increases were cumulative such that higher initial levels of loneliness were associated with greater increases in SBP over a 4-year period. The effect of loneliness on SBP was independent of age, gender, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, health conditions, and the effects of depressive symptoms, social support, perceived stress, and hostility. PMID:20230134

  5. Hippocampal blood flow in normal aging measured with arterial spin labeling at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Rusinek, Henry; Brys, Miroslaw; Glodzik, Lidia; Switalski, Remigiusz; Tsui, Wai-Hon; Haas, Francois; Mcgorty, Kellyanne; Chen, Qun; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to methodological difficulties related to the small size, variable distribution of hippocampal arteries, and the location of the hippocampus in the proximity of middle cranial fossa, little is known about hippocampal blood flow (HBF). We have tested the utility of a pulsed ASL sequence based on multi-shot TrueFISP to measure HBF in 34 normal volunteers (17 women, 17 men, 26-92 years old). Flow sensitivity to a mild hypercapnic challenge was also examined. Coregistered 3D MPRAGE sequence was used to eliminate from hippocampal and cortical regions of interest all voxel with <75% of gray matter. Large blood vessels were also excluded. HBF in normal volunteers averaged 61.2±9.0 ml/(100g min). There was no statistically significant age or gender effect. Under a mild hypercapnia challenge (end tidal CO2 pressure increase of 6.8±1.9 mg Hg over the baseline), HBF response was 14.1±10.8 ml/(100g min), whereas cortical gray matter flow increased by 18.0±12.2 ml/(100g min). Flow response among women was significantly larger than in the men. The average absolute difference between two successive HBF measures was 3.6 ml/(100g min), or 5.4%. The 3T TrueFISP ASL method offers a HBF measurement strategy that combines good spatial resolution, sensitivity, and minimal image distortions. PMID:20939094

  6. Estrogenic Compounds, Estrogen Receptors and Vascular Cell Signaling in the Aging Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Dia A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    estrogen in the aging blood vessels and thereby enhancing the efficacy and safety of MHT in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:19442151

  7. Changes in Angiotensin Receptor Distribution and in Aortic Morphology Are Associated with Blood Pressure Control in Aged Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Torrico-Lavayen, Rocío; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; Carvajal-Aguilera, Karla G.; Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in blood pressure regulation in MS during aging is unknown. It participates in metabolic syndrome (MS) and aging regulating vascular tone and remodeling. RAS might participate in a compensatory mechanism decreasing blood pressure and allowing MS rats to reach 18 months of age and it might form part of therapeutical procedures to ameliorate MS. We studied histological changes and distribution of RAS receptors in aortas of MS aged rats. Electron microscopy images showed premature aging in MS since the increased fibrosis, enlarged endothelium, and invasion of this layer by muscle cells that was present in control 18-month-old aortas were also found in 6-month-old aortas from MS rats. AT1, AT2, and Mas receptors mediate the effects of Ang II and Ang 1-7, respectively. Fluorescence from AT2 decreased with age in control and MS aortas, while fluorescence of AT1 increased in aortas from MS rats at 6 months and diminished during aging. Mas expression increased in MS rats and remained unchanged in control rats. In conclusion, there is premature aging in the aortas from MS rats and the elevated expression of Mas receptor might contribute to decrease blood pressure during aging in MS. PMID:27293881

  8. Sampling blood from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in the field with and without anesthesia: Impacts on survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wimsatt, J.; Pearce, R.D.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Blood was collected from wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with and without anesthesia in Fort Collins, Colorado in 2004 to assess the impacts of these procedures on short-term survival and 1-yr return rates. Short-term survival and 1-yr return rates after release were passively monitored using PIT tag detection hoops placed at selected buildings. Comparison of 14-day maximum likelihood survival estimates from bats not bled (142 adult females, 62 volant juveniles), and bats sampled for blood with anesthesia (96 adult females, 23 volant juveniles) and without anesthesia (112 adult females, 22 volant juveniles) indicated no adverse effects of either treatment (juveniles: X2=53.38, df=41, P=0.09; adults: X2=39.09, df=44, P=0.68). Return rates of bats one year after sampling were similar among adult female controls (75.4%, n=142, 95% CI=67.4-82.2%), females sampled for blood with anesthesia (83.0%, n=112, 95% CI=74.8-89.5%), and females sampled without anesthesia (87.5%, n=96, 95% CI=79.2-93.4%). Lack of an effect was also noted in 1-yr return rates of juvenile females. These data suggest that the use of anesthesia during sampling of blood has no advantages in terms of enhancement of survival in big brown bats. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  9. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  10. Gas chromatographic method using electron-capture detection for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples. Biological monitoring of the general population.

    PubMed

    Angerer, J; Käfferlein, H U

    1997-05-23

    Musk xylene (2,4,6-trinitro-1,3-dimethyl-5-tert.-butylbenzene, MX), a synthetic musk often used in different fragrances and soaps to substitute the natural musk, is a potential contaminant of humans. In this publication, a specific and sensitive detection method for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples is described. The clean-up of the blood samples includes an extraction step followed by a solid-phase adsorption to separate MX from other plasma components. Separation and detection was carried out by capillary gas chromatography and an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results were verified using qualitative capillary gas chromatography and a mass selective detector with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). epsilon-Hexachlorocyclohexane (epsilon-HCH) is used as internal standard. The reliability of the GC-ECD method has been proved. The relative standard deviations of the within-series imprecision were 12.7% for samples with a concentration of 0.5 microg/l and 2.1% for samples with a concentration of 5.0 microg/l, whereas the relative standard deviations for the between-day imprecision were 14.9% (0.5 microg/l samples) and 3.4% (5.0 microg/l samples). The losses during sample treatment were between 10.1% and 17.8%. No interfering peaks were observed. The absolute detection limit was 0.1 microg/l plasma. A total of 72 human blood samples were analysed to determine the MX concentrations within the general population. In 66 of the 72 human blood samples, the MX concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 1.12 microg/l plasma for the described method. In six samples no MX was detected. The median concentration was 0.24+/-0.23 microg MX/l plasma. The 95 percentile was 0.79 microg/l. No correlation could be found between MX concentrations and smoking habit, broca index, age, sex as well as fish consumption habits. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate the exposure of the general population to MX.

  11. Implications of the Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure for Aging Adults: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Michael D; Lopez, Faye L; Blaha, Michael J; Virani, Salim S; Coresh, Josef; Ballantyne, Christie M; Folsom, Aaron R

    2015-09-01

    The recent 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Eight Joint National Committee Panel may significantly affect the aging US population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of black and white participants in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities who participated in the fifth study visit (2011-2013). Sitting blood pressure was calculated from the average of 3 successive readings taken after a 5-minute rest. Currently, prescribed antihypertensive medications were recorded by reviewing medication containers brought to the visit. Blood pressure control was defined using both the Seventh and Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds. Of 6088 participants (mean age, 75.6 [range, 66-90] years, 58.4% women; 23.2% black), 54.9% had either diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of hypertension according to Seventh Joint National Committee thresholds was 81.9%, and 62.8% of the entire sample were at blood pressure goal. Using the Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds, 79.4% were at blood pressure goal (16.6% were reclassified as at-goal). Reclassification was higher for individuals with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (20.6%) when compared with individuals without either condition (11.6%). The use of antihypertensive medications in our cohort was high, with 75.0% prescribed at least 1 antihypertensive medication and 46.7% on ≥2 antihypertensive agents. In conclusion, in a US cohort of aging white and black individuals, ≈1 in 6 individuals were reclassified as having blood pressure at goal by Eighth Joint National Committee guidelines. Despite these less aggressive goals, >20% remain uncontrolled by the new criteria.

  12. Dried Blood Spot Proteomics: Surface Extraction of Endogenous Proteins Coupled with Automated Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  13. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Rühle, Paul F.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB) that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384), pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553), and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955) and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome. PMID:27529227

  14. Comparison of two real-time PCR assays for the detection of malaria parasites from hemolytic blood samples - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Tannich, Egbert; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-06-01

    We compared the performance of an in-house and a commercial malaria polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using freeze-thawed hemolytic blood samples. A total of 116 freeze-thawed ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood samples of patients with suspicion of malaria were analyzed by an in-house as well as by a commercially available real-time PCR. Concordant malaria negative PCR results were reported for 39 samples and malaria-positive PCR results for 67 samples. The in-house assay further detected one case of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which was negative in the commercial assay as well as five cases of P. falciparum malaria and three cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria, which showed sample inhibition in the commercial assay. The commercial malaria assay was positive in spite of a negative in-house PCR result in one case. In all concordant results, cycle threshold values of P. falciparum-positive samples were lower in the commercial PCR than in the in-house assay. Although Ct values of the commercial PCR kit suggest higher sensitivity in case of concordant results, it is prone to inhibition if it is applied to hemolytic freeze-thawed blood samples. The number of misidentifications was, however, identical for both real-time PCR assays.

  15. Possible cause of lack of positive samples on homologous blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Krotov, Grigory; Nikitina, Maria; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2014-01-01

    Homologous blood transfusion is a prohibited method of blood manipulation that can be used to increase the number of erythrocytes circulating in the blood stream resulting in an increased oxygen transport capacity. In doping controls, homologous blood transfusions are determined by means of a procedure based on the detection of red blood cell phenotypes by flow cytometry. In the past six years, no adverse analytical findings concerning homologous blood transfusions were reported. One explanation for that phenomenon, assuming that athletes have not completely given up this kind of manipulation, would be a more careful selection of potential donors. If such a donor has the same set of minor erythrocyte antigens as the recipient, the established methodology to detect homologous transfusion would fail. We have hypothesized that any athlete can be a potential donor for teammates with the same RhD factor and AB0 blood group. Having analyzed the phenotype of erythrocytes of 535 Russian athletes in various endurance sports, several pairs of athletes with the same phenotype were observed. Based on the frequency of occurrence of red blood cell antigens, the theoretical probability of finding a donor within a team with exactly the same phenotype was calculated, and the existing number of occurrences where two individuals share the same phenotype in the same sport was in fact five times higher than the theoretical probability.

  16. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  17. Validation of self diagnosis of high blood pressure in a sample of the Spanish EPIC cohort: overall agreement and predictive values

    PubMed Central

    Tormo, M; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M; Barber, X; the, E

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—High blood pressure is a variable related to several chronic conditions whose repeated measurement in large cohort studies is often not feasible having to rely on the self reporting of the subjects. The aim of the study is to validate such self diagnosis in a sample of members from the Spanish EPIC cohort study.
DESIGN—Comparison of high blood pressure self diagnosis with the information provided by the personal medical record drawn from the primary health centre of reference for such population.
SETTING—A small town near the EPIC-Murcia centre, one of five Spanish EPIC centres located in the south east, where inclusion in the cohort was offered to the general population.
PARTICIPANTS—The agreement between self reported high blood pressure status and data from medical records was measured in a representative sample of men and women (n= 248) aged 30-69 years. Medical records were studied for a diagnosis of high blood pressure, an anti-hypertensive pharmacological treatment or subject's inclusion in a hypertension control programme run in the medical centre only for hypertensive people (definite high blood pressure cases). As well, in the absence of such a diagnosis, medical annotations of systolic or diastolic high blood pressure⩾ 140/90 mm Hg (possible high blood pressure cases) were considered. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and κ scores were calculated for all, definite and possible high blood pressure cases. Variables associated with the probability of having a true positive or negative self report of high blood pressure were also tested.
MAIN RESULTS—As expected, sensitivity was higher among definite cases (72.7%) than among possible cases (31.6%). Accordingly, the agreement between self report and medical record was higher for definite cases (κ = 0.65) than for possible (κ = 0.29) cases leading to a moderate overall agreement for all cases (κ = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.69). Having

  18. IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Ware, James H; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2005-05-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20-44 microg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed.

  19. Stability of human α-salivary amylase in aged forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Ilaria; Rapi, Stefano; Ricci, Ugo

    2014-07-01

    The unequivocal tissue identification in forensic casework samples is a key step for crime scene reconstruction. Just knowing the origin of a fluid can sometimes be enough to either prove or disprove a fact in court. Despite the importance of this test, very few data are available in literature concerning human saliva identification in old forensic caseworks. In this work the stability of human α-amylase activity in aged samples is described by using three different methods integrated with DNA profiling techniques. This analytical protocol was successfully applied on 26-years old samples coming from anonymous threat letters sent to prosecutors who were working on "the Monster of Florence", a case of serial murders happened around Florence (Italy) between 1968 and 1985.

  20. Influence of Age and Dose of African Swine Fever Virus Infections on Clinical Outcome and Blood Parameters in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Post, Jacob; Weesendorp, Eefke; Montoya, Maria; Loeffen, Willie L

    African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose. By varying in age and/or ASFV inoculation dose, we monitor blood parameters during different degrees of disease. Thirty percent of the pigs survived the infection with a moderately virulent strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV). Animals that did survive infection were generally older, independent from the inoculation dose used. A firm reduction in many different cell types at 3-5 days postinfection (DPI) was accompanied by an increase in body temperature, followed by clinical signs and mortality from day 6 PI. While blood parameters generally normalized in survivors, γδ T cells and IL-10 levels could be related to mortality. These conclusions should be considered in new approaches for protection against ASF.

  1. Archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for accurate whole genome and exome-targeted next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grauholm, Jonas; Nielsen, Ronni; Grove, Jakob; Mandrup, Susanne; Hougaard, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) have been collected and stored for decades as part of newborn screening programmes worldwide. Representing almost an entire population under a certain age and collected with virtually no bias, the Newborn Screening Biobanks are of immense value in medical studies, for example, to examine the genetics of various disorders. We have previously demonstrated that DNA extracted from a fraction (2×3.2mm discs) of an archived DBSS can be whole genome amplified (wgaDNA) and used for accurate array genotyping. However, until now, it has been uncertain whether wgaDNA from DBSS can be used for accurate whole genome sequencing (WGS) and exome sequencing (WES). This study examined two individuals represented by three different types of samples each: whole-blood (reference samples), 3-year-old DBSS spotted with reference material (refDBSS), and 27- to 29-year-old archived neonatal DBSS (neoDBSS) stored at -20°C in the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank. The reference samples were genotyped using an Illumina Omni2.5M array, and all samples were sequenced on a HighSeq2000 Paired-End flow cell. First, we compared the array single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data to the single nucleotide variation (SNV) calls from the WGS and WES SNV calls. We also compared the WGS and WES reference sample SNV calls to the DBSS SNV calls. The overall performance of the archived DBSS was similar to the whole blood reference sample. Plotting the error rates relative to coverage revealed that the error rates of DBSS were similar to that of their reference samples. SNVs called with a coverage<×8 had error rates between 1.5 and 35%, whereas the error rates of SNVs called with a coverage≥8 were <1.5%. In conclusion, the wgaDNA amplified from both new and old neonatal DBSS perform as well as their whole-blood reference samples with regards to error rates, strongly indicating that neonatal DBSS collected shortly after birth and stored for decades comprise an

  2. Epigenome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in paired samples of adipose tissue and blood

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Chu, Su; Loucks, Eric B.; Lin, Chien-Ling; Eaton, Charles B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many epigenetic association studies have attempted to identify DNA methylation markers in blood that are able to mirror those in target tissues. Although some have suggested potential utility of surrogate epigenetic markers in blood, few studies have collected data to directly compare DNA methylation across tissues from the same individuals. Here, epigenomic data were collected from adipose tissue and blood in 143 subjects using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. The top axis of epigenome-wide variation differentiates adipose tissue from blood, which is confirmed internally using cross-validation and externally with independent data from the two tissues. We identified 1,285 discordant genes and 1,961 concordant genes between blood and adipose tissue. RNA expression data of the two classes of genes show consistent patterns with those observed in DNA methylation. The discordant genes are enriched in biological functions related to immune response, leukocyte activation or differentiation, and blood coagulation. We distinguish the CpG-specific correlation from the within-subject correlation and emphasize that the magnitude of within-subject correlation does not guarantee the utility of surrogate epigenetic markers. The study reinforces the critical role of DNA methylation in regulating gene expression and cellular phenotypes across tissues, and highlights the caveats of using methylation markers in blood to mirror the corresponding profile in the target tissue. PMID:26891033

  3. Epigenome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in paired samples of adipose tissue and blood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Chu, Su; Loucks, Eric B; Lin, Chien-Ling; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Kelsey, Karl T

    2016-03-03

    Many epigenetic association studies have attempted to identify DNA methylation markers in blood that are able to mirror those in target tissues. Although some have suggested potential utility of surrogate epigenetic markers in blood, few studies have collected data to directly compare DNA methylation across tissues from the same individuals. Here, epigenomic data were collected from adipose tissue and blood in 143 subjects using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. The top axis of epigenome-wide variation differentiates adipose tissue from blood, which is confirmed internally using cross-validation and externally with independent data from the two tissues. We identified 1,285 discordant genes and 1,961 concordant genes between blood and adipose tissue. RNA expression data of the two classes of genes show consistent patterns with those observed in DNA methylation. The discordant genes are enriched in biological functions related to immune response, leukocyte activation or differentiation, and blood coagulation. We distinguish the CpG-specific correlation from the within-subject correlation and emphasize that the magnitude of within-subject correlation does not guarantee the utility of surrogate epigenetic markers. The study reinforces the critical role of DNA methylation in regulating gene expression and cellular phenotypes across tissues, and highlights the caveats of using methylation markers in blood to mirror the corresponding profile in the target tissue.

  4. Bone turnover markers in peripheral blood and marrow plasma reflect trabecular bone loss but not endocortical expansion in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Dwyer, Denise; Chu, Vivian; Asuncion, Frank; Stolina, Marina; Ominsky, Michael; Kostenuik, Paul; Halloran, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    We examined age-related changes in biochemical markers and regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activity in C57BL/6 mice to assess their utility in explaining age-related changes in bone. Several recently discovered regulators of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were also measured to assess concordance between their systemic levels versus their levels in marrow plasma, to which bone cells are directly exposed. MicroCT of 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated an early age-related loss of trabecular bone volume and surface, followed by endocortical bone loss and periosteal expansion. Trabecular bone loss temporally correlated with reductions in biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in both peripheral blood and bone marrow. Endocortical bone loss and periosteal bone gain were not reflected in these protein biomarkers, but were well correlated with increased expression of osteocalcin, rank, tracp5b, and cathepsinK in RNA extracted from cortical bone. While age-related changes in bone turnover markers remained concordant in blood versus marrow, aging led to divergent changes in blood versus marrow for the bone cell regulators RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK1, and serotonin. Bone expression of runx2 and osterix increased progressively with aging and was associated with an increase in the number of osteoprogenitors and osteoclast precursors. In summary, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in blood and bone marrow plasma were predictive of an age-related loss of trabecular surfaces in adult C57BL/6 mice, but did not predict gains in cortical surfaces resulting from cortical expansion. Unlike these turnover markers, a panel of bone cell regulatory proteins exhibited divergent age-related changes in marrow versus peripheral blood, suggesting that their circulating levels may not reflect local levels to which osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly exposed.

  5. A method for the determination of environmental contaminants in living marine mammals using microscale samples of blubber and blood.

    PubMed

    Newman, J W; Vedder, J M; Jarman, W M; Chang, R R

    1994-08-01

    As part of a study examining the possible effects of organochlorine compounds on juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), blubber and blood samples were taken from animals present on the Año Nuevo (California) rookery, and from animals admitted for rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center (Sausalito CA). Blubber samples were collected from immobilized seals. A pre-cleaned 6 mm K-medic biopsy punch was used to extract the blubber from a 1 cm incision near the hip, near the dorsal mid point. Blood samples were taken from the extradural vein; two mL of serum was analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Blubber samples (approximately 0.1g) were ground with Na2SO4 and extracted with 20 mL hexane:methylene chloride (1:1). Sera samples were extracted using commercially available disposable C18 columns. The extracts were separated on a micro-Florisil column, and analyzed by HRGC-ECD. Lipid determination in the serum was obtained by colorimetric analysis with 20 microliters samples. Results from the analysis of replicates and standard reference materials showed good recoveries, precision, and accuracy for both the blubber and blood methods.

  6. Nonlinear relations of blood pressure to cognitive function: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Waldstein, Shari R; Giggey, Paul P; Thayer, Julian F; Zonderman, Alan B

    2005-03-01

    This investigation examined cross-sectional and longitudinal relations, both linear and nonlinear, of blood pressure (BP) and its interaction with demographic and lifestyle variables to a broad spectrum of cognitive functions. Eight hundred forty-seven participants (503 men and 344 women) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging completed tests of verbal and nonverbal memory, attention, perceptuo-motor speed, executive functions, and confrontation naming, and clinical assessment of BP on 1 to 7 occasions over 11 years. Mixed-effects regression models, adjusted for age, education, gender, alcohol consumption, smoking status, depression scores, and use of antihypertensive medications, revealed nonlinear relations of systolic BP with longitudinal change on tests of nonverbal memory and confrontation naming; cognitive decline was apparent among older (80 years) individuals with higher systolic BP. Cross-sectional findings, across testing sessions, indicated moderated U- and J-shaped relations between BP and cognitive function. Both high and low diastolic BP were associated with poorer performance on tests of executive function and confrontation naming among less-educated persons; with tests of perceptuo-motor speed and confrontation naming among nonmedicated (antihypertensives) individuals; and with executive function among older individuals. Cross-sectional linear relations included higher systolic BP and poorer nonverbal memory in nondrinkers, and higher diastolic BP and poorer working memory among less-educated individuals. Results indicate that cross-sectional and longitudinal relations of BP to cognitive function are predominantly nonlinear and moderated by age, education, and antihypertensive medications. Careful monitoring and treatment of both high and low BP levels may be critical to the preservation of cognitive function.

  7. Blood oxygen content in microliter samples using an easy-to-build galvanic oxygen cell.

    PubMed

    Grubb, B R; Mills, C D

    1981-02-01

    We have designed a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-build and operate apparatus for measuring blood oxygen content. The galvanic oxygen cell (fuel cell) requires as little as 1 microliter of blood and has a measuring time of 1-3 min. It is well suited for measuring oxygen content in fluids low in oxygen inasmuch as the sensitivity of the instrument is variable. Either air or water (at a known temperature and oxygen tension) can be used for calibration. No significant differences in blood oxygen content measured with our cell or the Van Slyke manometric method were found.

  8. An effective method to purify Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from clinical blood samples for whole genome high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Sarah; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Zongo, Issaka; Pinches, Robert; Manske, Magnus; Mangano, Valentina; Alcock, Daniel; Anastasi, Elisa; Maslen, Gareth; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Rockett, Kirk; Modiano, David; Newbold, Christopher I; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2011-01-01

    Highly parallel sequencing technologies permit cost-effective whole genome sequencing of hundreds of Plasmodium parasites. The ability to sequence clinical Plasmodium samples, extracted directly from patient blood without a culture step, presents a unique opportunity to sample the diversity of "natural" parasite populations in high resolution clinical and epidemiological studies. A major challenge to sequencing clinical Plasmodium samples is the abundance of human DNA, which may substantially reduce the yield of Plasmodium sequence. We tested a range of human white blood cell (WBC) depletion methods on P. falciparum-infected patient samples in search of a method displaying an optimal balance of WBC-removal efficacy, cost, simplicity, and applicability to low resource settings. In the first of a two-part study, combinations of three different WBC depletion methods were tested on 43 patient blood samples in Mali. A two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur best fitted our requirements, although moderate variability was observed in human DNA quantity. This approach was further assessed in a larger sample of 76 patients from Burkina Faso. WBC-removal efficacy remained high (<30% human DNA in >70% samples) and lower variation was observed in human DNA quantities. In order to assess the Plasmodium sequence yield at different human DNA proportions, 59 samples with up to 60% human DNA contamination were sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. An average ~40-fold coverage of the genome was observed per lane for samples with ≤ 30% human DNA. Even in low resource settings, using a simple two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur, over 70% of clinical sample preparations should exhibit sufficiently low human DNA quantities to enable ~40-fold sequence coverage of the P. falciparum genome using a single lane on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. This approach should greatly facilitate large-scale clinical and epidemiologic studies of P

  9. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus): impact of gender and season

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus). Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years), middle-aged (4–5 years) and old (6–10 years). Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction), the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur. PMID:23131178

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in blood samples of Southern Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Huncik, Kevin M; Taniguchi, Satie; Petry, Maria V; Kucklick, John R; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2016-09-01

    Seabirds play an important role as top consumers in the food web and can be used as biomonitors of exposure to pollutants. Contamination studies involving non-destructive sampling methods are of considerable importance, allowing better evaluation of the levels of pollutants and their toxic effects. In the present study, organohalogen contaminants were analyzed in 113 blood samples from Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) adults and chicks collected in the austral summer of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 from colonies on Elephant and Livingston Islands, South Shetland, Antarctica. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetane and derivatives (DDTs) and chlordanes were detected in all birds, whereas polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were not detected in any blood samples. No significant differences were found in organochlorine levels between sampling events. Adults exhibited significantly higher levels than chicks, except for PeCB. PCBs, HCB, mirex and DDTs were statistically similar in males and females from Elephant Island. Females on Livingston Island exhibited higher HCB values than males, but no sex differences were found regarding other organochlorines. The similarity in organochlorine levels between sexes in birds with very marked sexual segregation in feeding habits during the breeding season may indicate that significant amounts of contaminants are acquired during migration to lower latitudes, when the diets of males and females are similar. Birds sampled on Livingston Island exhibited significantly lower levels of PCBs, HCB, DDTs, mirex and chlordanes in comparison to those on Elephant Island, which could be the result of distinct foraging patterns between the two colonies. Organochlorine levels were similar between years in birds captured in two consecutive breeding seasons. Blood samples from Southern Giant Petrels adults and chicks proved to be useful for the comparison

  11. Measurement of vasoactive intestinal peptide using a competitive fluorescent microsphere immunoassay or ELISA in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Young; VanDunk, Cassandra; Kuddo, Thea; Nelson, Phillip G

    2005-05-01

    The concentration of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) as measured by recycling immunoaffinity chromatography (RIC) has been reported to be elevated in the blood of patients with autism as compared with normal subjects. In this study, we have developed a "Competitive Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay" (cFMI) in which VIP competes with biotinylated VIP in binding to polyclonal antibodies on microspheres. The results were obtained using the Luminex100 system. We measured VIP in serum, plasma, and material eluted from dried blood spots on filter paper with both the cFMI and an ELISA procedure. We found that a purification procedure was necessary for obtaining useful results from plasma and serum, however, a preincubation step was required with the blood eluates. This newly developed cFMI was more sensitive (2.5 vs. 20.0 pg/ml), and more reproducible than the ELISA. To get accurate measurements of VIP in eluted material high sensitivity is especially important. Thus, the cFMI using the Luminex system has definite advantages over a conventional ELISA including the possibility that samples can be assayed at higher dilutions. We have determined that the VIP concentrations of serum, plasma, and dried blood spot eluate specimens as measured with the cFMI assay system were similar to those measured with ELISA. Thus, the new cFMI using Luminex system may be useful for detection of VIP in human blood samples.

  12. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  13. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  14. DNA extraction from aged skeletal samples for STR typing by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huel, René; Amory, Sylvain; Bilić, Ana; Vidović, Stojko; Jasaragić, Edin; Parsons, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    STR analysis of DNA extracted from skeletal samples can play an important role in the identification of missing persons. Here we present a method for the extraction of DNA from skeletal samples involving complete demineralization and digestion of the sample, followed by purification by silica binding. This method, together with the multiplex STR typing approach also presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles from degraded, aged skeletal remains from a wide range of environmental contexts. The methodological steps presented include bone decontamination and grinding, DNA extraction, repurification in the case of highly inhibited samples, quantification, STR multiplex amplification, and profile reporting guidelines. However, the conditions applied for amplification and the criteria for allele calling and profile submission must be based on the results of each laboratory's internal validation experiments involving the type of samples relevant to the project at hand. The methods presented here have permitted large-scale DNA-based identification of persons missing from mass disasters and armed conflict.

  15. Age at menarche as a fitness trait: nonadditive genetic variance detected in a large twin sample.

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, S A; Martin, N G

    1990-01-01

    The etiological role of genotype and environment in recalled age at menarche was examined using an unselected sample of 1,177 MZ and 711 DZ twin pairs aged 18 years and older. The correlation for onset of menarche between MZ twins was .65 +/- .03, and that for DZ pairs was .18 +/- .04, although these differed somewhat between four birth cohorts. Environmental factors were more important in the older cohorts (perhaps because of less reliable recall). Total genotypic variance (additive plus nonadditive) ranged from 61% in the oldest cohort to 68% in the youngest cohort. In the oldest birth cohort (born before 1939), there was evidence of greater influence of environmental factors on age at menarche in the second-born twin, although there was no other evidence in the data that birth trauma affected timing. The greater part of the genetic variance was nonadditive (dominance or epistasis), and this is typical of a fitness trait. It appears that genetic nonadditivity is in the decreasing direction, and this is consistent with selection for early menarche during human evolution. Breakdown of inbreeding depression as a possible explanation for the secular decline in age at menarche is discussed. PMID:2349942

  16. Predicting successful aging in a population-based sample of georgia centenarians.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jonathan; Dai, Jianliang; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Arte, Ankit; Johnson, Mary Ann; Hausman, Dorothy; Rodgers, Willard L; Hensley, Robert; Martin, Peter; Macdonald, Maurice; Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C; Jazwinski, S Michal; Poon, Leonard W

    2010-01-01

    Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0-80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80-98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%), delayers (39%), or escapers (32%). Approximately half (43%) of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life.

  17. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  18. Enhanced Stability of Blood Matrices Using a Dried Sample Spot Assay to Measure Human Butyrylcholinesterase Activity and Nerve Agent Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jonas W.; Pantazides, Brooke G.; Watson, Caroline M.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2015-01-01

    Dried matrix spots are safer to handle and easier to store than wet blood products, but factors such as intra-spot variability and unknown sample volumes have limited their appeal as a sampling format for quantitative analyses. In this work, we introduce a dried spot activity assay for quantifying butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) specific activity which is BChE activity normalized to the total protein content in a sample spot. The method was demonstrated with blood, serum, and plasma spotted on specimen collection devices (cards) which were extracted to measure total protein and BChE activity using a modified Ellman assay. Activity recovered from dried spots was ∼80% of the initial spotted activity for blood and >90% for plasma and serum. Measuring total protein in the sample and calculating specific activity substantially improved quantification and reduced intra-spot variability. Analyte stability of nerve agent adducts was also evaluated, and the results obtained via BChE-specific activity measurements were confirmed by quantification of BChE adducts using a previously established LC-MS/MS method. The spotted samples were up to 10-times more resistant to degradation compared to unspotted control samples when measuring BChE inhibition by the nerve agents sarin and VX. Using this method, both BChE activity and adducts can be accurately measured from a dried sample spot. This use of a dried sample spot with normalization to total protein is robust, demonstrates decreased intra-spot variability without the need to control for initial sample volume, and enhances analyte stability. PMID:25955132

  19. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  20. Detection of JCPyV microRNA in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Irene; Martelli, Francesco; Repice, Anna; Massacesi, Luca; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a health concern in multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy. Here, the JCPyV microRNA-J1-3p and microRNA-J1-5p expressions and genomic variability were investigated in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients before and under natalizumab therapy and in healthy controls. The two JCPyV microRNAs were detected in the JCPyV-DNA-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples and in the exosomes derived from plasma and urine obtained from JCPyV-DNA-positive and JCPyV-DNA-negative patients. In particular, the increased JCPyV microRNA expression in samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy was consistent with the high JCPyV-DNA positivity observed in these samples. Moreover, JCPyV microRNA genomic region showed few nucleotide differences in samples obtained from blood and urine of multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Overall, these data suggest a potential role of the JCPyV microRNA expression in counteracting the viral reactivation to maintain JCPyV asymptomatic persistence in the host.

  1. A flow cytometric method for enumeration of lymphocyte sub-populations in sample containing lysis-resistant red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2003-05-01

    Determination of lymphocyte sub-populations is usually carried out by flow cytometry using two-color immunophenotyping reagent. By this technique, however, the combination of FSC and SSC with CD45-FITC/CD14-PE is unable to identify the lymphocyte population in a sample containing lysis-resistant red blood cells (RBC). The actual values of lymphocyte sub-populations, therefore, cannot be determined in these RBC contaminated samples. To overcome this problem, we describe here the use of 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) to exclude lysis-resistant RBC from white blood cells (WBC). By adding 7-AAD, lymphocytes of samples containing RBC could be identified by using FL3/SSC, therefore, the actual number of lymphocyte sub-populations of the stained cells was obtained. We have proved that 7-AAD can be used to exclude contaminated RBC and has no effect on the measurement of lymphocyte sub-populations by using two-color immunophenotyping reagent. In routine blood samples that contain lysis-resistant RBC, 7-AAD markedly increased the purity of lymphocytes in the lymphocyte gate to >95% and the lymphocyte sub-populations therefore could be correctly determined. The described method is inexpensive, simple and gives successful analysis of lymphocyte sub-populations in a sample containing lysis-resistant RBC.

  2. Vascular Access Port Implantation and Serial Blood Sampling in a Gottingen Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Acute Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

  3. Reduced sampling efficiency causes degraded Vernier hyperacuity with normal aging: Vernier acuity in position noise.

    PubMed

    Li, Roger W; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H; Ngo, Charlie V; Chat, Sandy W; Levi, Dennis M

    2012-01-01

    Vernier acuity, a form of visual hyperacuity, is amongst the most precise forms of spatial vision. Under optimal conditions Vernier thresholds are much finer than the inter-photoreceptor distance. Achievement of such high precision is based substantially on cortical computations, most likely in the primary visual cortex. Using stimuli with added positional noise, we show that Vernier processing is reduced with advancing age across a wide range of noise levels. Using an ideal observer model, we are able to characterize the mechanisms underlying age-related loss, and show that the reduction in Vernier acuity can be mainly attributed to the reduction in efficiency of sampling, with no significant change in the level of internal position noise, or spatial distortion, in the visual system.

  4. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Avishek; Mohan, Jag; Sastry, Kochigant Venkata Hanumant

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN), Aseel peela (AP), and White leghorn (WLH)) day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates). WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP) activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk) than WLH. PMID:21234314

  5. Capillary gas chromatography with cryogenic oven temperature for headspace samples: analysis of chloroform or methylene chloride in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Seno, H; Ishii, A; Suzuki, O; Kumazawa, T

    1997-12-15

    A new and sensitive gas chromatography (GC) method for measurement of chloroform or methylene chloride in whole blood is presented. Trace levels of these analytes present in the headspace of samples were cryogenically trapped prior to on-line GC analysis. After heating of a blood sample containing chloroform and methylene chloride (internal standard, and vice versa) in a 7.0-mL vial at 55 degrees C for 20 min, 5 mL of the headspace vapor was drawn into a glass syringe. All vapor was introduced into an Rtx-Volatiles middle-bore capillary column in the splitless mode at -30 degrees C oven temperature to trap the entire analytes, and the oven temperature was programmed up to 280 degrees C for detection of the compounds and for cleaning of the column. The present conditions gave sharp peaks for both chloroform and methylene chloride and very low background noises for whole blood samples. As much as 11.5 and 20.0% of chloroform and methylene chloride, respectively, which had been added to whole blood in a vial, could be introduced into the GC column. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.05-5.0 micrograms/0.5 mL of whole blood. The detection limit was estimated to be about 2 ng/0.5 mL. The coefficients of intraday and interday variations were 1.31 and 8.90% for chloroform and 1.37 and 9.03% for methylene chloride, respectively. The data on chloroform or methylene chloride in rat blood after inhalation of each compound were also presented.

  6. Using GC × GC-FID profiles to estimate the age of weathered gasoline samples.

    PubMed

    Zorzetti, Brianne M; Harynuk, James J

    2011-11-01

    Predicting the amount of time that a petroleum mixture has been exposed to weathering effects has applications in areas of environmental and other forensic investigations, such as aiding in determining the cause and intent of a fire. Historically, research on the evaporation rates of hydrocarbon mixtures has focused on forensic oil spill identification and predicting if a fresh sample could be weathered to give an observed composition in an aged sample. Relatively little attention has focused on approaching the problem from the other direction: estimating exposure time based on the observed composition of a weathered sample at a given time and assuming a prior composition. Here, we build upon our previous research into the weathering of model mixtures by extending our work to gasoline. Samples of gasoline with varying octane ratings and from several vendors were weathered under controlled conditions and their composition monitored over time by two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). A variety of chemometric models were explored, including partial least squares (PLS), nonlinear PLS (PolyPLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR). A hierarchical application of multivariate techniques was able to predict the time for which a sample had been exposed to evaporative weathering. Partial least squares discriminant analysis could predict whether a sample was relatively fresh (<12 h exposure time) or highly weathered (>20 h exposure time). Subsequent regression models for these classes were evaluated for accuracy using the root mean square error of prediction. LWR was the most successful, whereby fresh and highly weathered samples were predicted to within 30 min and 5 h of exposure, respectively.

  7. On-line sample preparation for the automated sequential determination of HG in blood, urine and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Schlemmer, G.; Erler, W.

    1995-12-31

    The accurate determination of mercury in environmental and clinical samples such as waste water, urine or blood with the cold vapour technique requires a complete oxidation and stabilization of mercury in the liquid phase prior to its reduction. It has been shown that the oxidation of all relevant organo-mercury compounds in this type of matrix can be achieved on-line by an appropriate oxidizing agent used in an open microwave system coupled to a flow injection cold vapour system. The various matrices, however, are handled individually. Blood samples, for example are diluted and injected into a neutral carrier. The acid to start the reaction is added on-line only shortly before the sample enters the heating zone of the microwave oven. Urine and waste water on the other hand are acidified already in the autosampler vessel and the microwave digestion is used for completion of the oxidation only. In this application, blood, urine and waste water, three most commonly encountered matrices, were analyzed using the same FIAS and microwave parameters in an automated run. The time for one individual measurement including the on-line deposition is about 90s. The detection limits obtained with a mercury specific detector is about 20 nm/L for urine and waste water and 100 ng/L for blood.

  8. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  9. EtG and EtS in Autopsy Blood Samples With and Without Putrefaction Using UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Solfrid; Kristoffersen, Lena; Liane, Veronica H; Spigset, Olav

    2017-03-01

    Analytical challenges related to postmortem specimens are well known. The degree of putrefaction of the corpse will influence the quality of the blood samples, and both the efficiency of sample preparation and the subsequent chromatographic performance can be affected. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in postmortem whole blood. Sample preparation prior to UPLC-MS-MS analysis consisted of protein precipitation and filtration through a phospholipid removal plate. Chromatography was achieved using an HSS T3 column and gradient elution with formic acid in water in combination with methanol. The injection volume was 0.5 µL. Negative electrospray ionization was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two transitions were monitored for the analytes and one for the internal standards. The between-assay relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.7-7.0% and the limits of quantification were 0.025 and 0.009 mg/L for EtG and EtS, respectively. Recovery was 51-55% and matrix effects ranged from 98% to 106% (corrected with internal standard). Blood samples from nine autopsy cases with various extents of putrefaction were analyzed. The sample preparation efficiently removed the phospholipids from the blood specimens. The samples were clean and the analytical quality of the chromatographic performance was satisfactory for both analytes irrespective of the degree of putrefaction.

  10. Spectroscopic age and metallicity for a sample of Globular Clusters from Stellar Population Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M. J.; Calderón, P.

    2009-05-01

    We present spectroscopic age and metallicity predictions for a sample of 20 Globular Clusters in the massive E0 galaxy NGC 1407 (data from Cenarro et al. 2007, AJ, 134, 391) and for the Galacic Globular Clusters data from the Library of Integrated Spectra of Galactic Globular Clusters (GGC's) from Schiavon et al. (2005, ApJS, 160, 163) including the widely studied 47 Tuc cluster. Using index-index plots we compared model Single Stellar Populations (SSP's) spectra to the integrated spectra of both samples of Globular Clusters using high resolution line strength indices (Stock, in prep.) and the syntethic SSP's models from P. Coelho (2007, private comm.) as well as the CB07 solar models. For the GC's in NGC1407, the predictions from the syntethic models's with [α /Fe]=0.4 are in good agreement with the results from Cenarro et al. (2007, AJ, 134, 391), taking into account that the dispersion is partially due to the fact that the mean [α/Fe] ratio of the sample is ≈ 0.3 dex, resulting in younger ages and lower metallicities (Thomas et al. 2003, A&A, 401, 429). We observe a bimodal distribution of the Fe4383+ index which is in turn an indicator of metallicity, also seen in Cenarro et al. (2005). The CB07 models predict ages that are widely spread over the plot yielding ages greater than 14 Gyrs. The metallicity derived from these models are very low for almost all the objects (Z < 0.008). The distribution of the GGC's on the syntethic model grid shows a trend in the sense that metal poor clusters are younger than metal rich ones, but this effect might not be real (de Angeli et al. 2005, AJ, 130, 116). For 47 Tuc we estimate an age of ≈ 10 Gyr, and metallicity Z < 0.011 (<[Fe/H]= -0.5) which are both comparable with the values reported in the literature (Carretta et al. 2000; Liu & Chaboyer 2000, ApJ, 544, 818; Schiavon et al. 2002, ApJ, 580, 873; Gratton et al. 2003, A&A, 408, 529).

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  12. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  13. Rapid Diagnosis of Staphylococcal Catheter-Related Bacteraemia in Direct Blood Samples by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Soriano, Alex; Alvarez-Martínez, Míriam José; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Arjona, Ruth; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; Mensa, José; Martínez, José Antonio; Mira, Aurea

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter. Paired blood cultures were processed by standard culture methods and 4 ml blood samples were processed by GeneXpert-MRSA assay for the detection of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). Sixteen CRB caused by staphylococci were diagnosed among 92 suspected patients. GeneXpert detected 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%), including 4 MSSA and 10 MR-CoNS in approximately 1 hour after specimen receipt. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert were 87.5% (CI 95%: 60.4–97.8) and 92.1% (CI 95%: 83–96.7), respectively, compared with standard culture methods. The sensitivity of GeneXpert for S. aureus was 100%. Regarding a cost-effectiveness analysis, the incremental cost of using GeneXpert was of 31.1€ per patient while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GeneXpert compared with blood culture alones was about 180€ per life year gained. In conclusion, GeneXpert can be used directly with blood samples obtained through infected catheters to detect S. aureus and MR-CoNS in approximately 1h after sampling. In addition, it is cost-effective especially in areas with high prevalence of staphylococcal CRB. PMID:27571200

  14. External Quality Control for Dried Blood Spot Based C-reactive Protein Assay: Experience from the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peifeng; Herningtyas, Elizabeth H.; Kale, Varsha; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Risbud, Arun R.; McCreath, Heather; Lee, Jinkook; Strauss, John; O’Brien, Jennifer C.; Bloom, David E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, in dried blood spots has been increasingly incorporated in community-based social surveys internationally. Although the dried blood spot based CRP assay protocol has been validated in the United States, it remains unclear whether laboratories in other less developed countries can generate C-reactive protein results of similar quality. We therefore conducted external quality monitoring for dried blood spot based C-reactive protein measurement for the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India. Our results show that dried blood spot based C-reactive protein results in these two countries have excellent and consistent correlations with serum-based values and dried blood spot based results from the reference laboratory in the United States. Even though the results from duplicate samples may have fluctuations in absolute values over time, the relative order of C-reactive protein levels remains similar and the estimates are reasonably precise for population-based studies that investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and health. PMID:25879265

  15. Relations between Executive Function and Academic Achievement from Ages 5 to 17 in a Large, Representative National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in complex executive function (EF) in a large, representative sample (N=2036) aged 5 to 17 using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a). Relations between complex EF and academic achievement were examined on a sub-sample (N = 1395) given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of…

  16. Determination of K-Ar ages in milligram samples using an infrared laser for argon extraction.

    PubMed

    Solé, Jesús

    2009-11-01

    The K-Ar dating method has been used for decades to decipher the ages of terrestrial and extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. The natural radioactive decay of a metal to a rare gas is an advantage that allows the determination of very small amounts of argon by mass spectrometry. Although the Ar-Ar method has superseded K-Ar, the latter is still used and it has room for improvement. One of these is the reduction of the analyzed sample mass, a desideratum of any current analytical technique. I report here our experience in K-Ar geochronology of milligram-sized samples using laser heating and melting for gas extraction. This modification of the classical K-Ar technique has not been, to my knowledge, used in any other laboratory in the world and deserves a detailed description of its advantages and limitations.

  17. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dri