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Sample records for age blood samples

  1. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamalandua, Aubeline

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0–91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19–70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals PMID:26280308

  2. Absorption Peaks: α, β, γ and Their Covariance with Age and Hemoglobin in Human Blood Samples Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Domínguez, J. L.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, F. A.; Martínez-Ortiz, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Sánchez-Sinencio, F.

    2012-11-01

    This study reports the absorption peaks α, β, γ in the Soret band of photoacoustic (PA) signals and their covariance with age and hemoglobin in human blood samples through PA spectroscopy. Samples were taken randomly from a masculine population grouped in three categories according to age: infants, young adults, and senior adults. Samples were prepared with two drops of blood from a 0.5 mL insulin syringe with a needle gauge 31G over 5 mm circles of filter paper. It was observed that the PA signal, the amplitude as a function of the wavelength, has a behavior as that reported for human blood for the three absorption peaks α, β, γ. In particular, the ratio γ/ β is due to electronic transitions associated with charge-transfer interactions of iron orbitals with the ligand states. Through an evaluation of optical absorption peaks in blood samples and their covariance with age and hemoglobin concentration, a relationship was found for the ratio peaks γ/ β and γ/ α with such parameters. Specifically, a negative covariance in the Soret band of the ratio peaks γ/ β and γ/ α with respect to both age and hemoglobin was found. This showed a tendency in their behavior. Further experiments of different populations may corroborate these conclusions.

  3. Prevalence, disclosure and interpretations of sexual activities in a sample of Canadian college-aged blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mair, M; Barrett, S P; Campbell, T; Ditto, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, level of disclosure, and interpretations of sexual activities in a sample of 123 college-aged blood donors in Montreal, Quebec. Within six months of their donation, participants completed an anonymous questionnaire designed to assess sexual definitions, levels of disclosure to sexual partners, as well as prevalence of various blood safety behavioural risks. Responses indicated that (1) there was a lack of consensus regarding what constitutes 'sex', (2) levels of sexual disclosure varied widely, and (3) participants engaged in numerous blood safety behavioural risk activities. These results are discussed with respect to their implications for how people think about sex, particularly in the blood donation context. Suggestions to improve specific blood donor screening questions are also presented. PMID:12816668

  4. Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or blood disorder, your doctor may recommend percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS), which is performed at ... sample of the fetus' blood directly from the umbilical cord. The sample is then analyzed for genetic ...

  5. Automated blood sampling systems for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Holte, S.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.; Hovander, B.

    1988-02-01

    An automated blood sampling system has been constructed and evaluated. Two different detector units in the blood sampling system are compared. Results from studies of blood-brain barrier transfer of a C-11 labelled receptor antagonist will be discussed.

  6. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process. PMID:27545843

  7. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase: an enzymatic marker of human red blood cell aging.

    PubMed

    Prall, Y G; Gambhir, K K; Ampy, F R

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether acetylcholinesterase (AChE) can be used as a marker of cell aging in human red blood cells (RBCs). This study used consented subjects; both males and females in an age range of 21-42 years. The blood samples (8-9 mL) were drawn in tubes containing sodium heparin or EDTA as anticoagulants. To avoid contamination with other cells, (lymphocytes, monocytes and reticulocytes), RBCs were purified (PRBC) by Hypaque-Ficoll gradient technique. The PRBCs were subfractionated into young (y) (1.08-1.09), mid (m) (1.09-1.11) and old (o) (1.11-1.12) percoll density (g/mL) fractions using a discontinuous percoll gradient. The mean +/- 1 SD AChE per gram hemoglobin (U/g Hgb) activities in whole blood (WB) purified human red blood cells (PRBCs), young human red blood cells (y-RBCs), mid age human red blood cells (m-RBCs) and old human red blood cells (o-RBCs) were 27.4 +/- 2.98, 26.0 +/- 2.33, 25.5 +/- 1.64, 20.3 +/- 3.84, 14.6 +/- 3.42 in males and 26.3 +/- 4.44, 24.8 /- 4.83, 26.4 +/- 4.59, 24.0 +/- 5.50 and 12.4 +/- 7.09 in females respectively. Although there was variation in the data, the results indicated that old human red blood cells showed significantly (p<.05) lower AChE activity compared to young human red blood cells of both sexes. These preliminary but novel observations suggest that AChE can be an excellent enzymatic marker for RBC aging in man. PMID:9698047

  9. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood...

  14. Manual versus automated blood sampling: impact of repeated blood sampling on stress parameters and behavior in male NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling by automated blood sampling and from the tail vein is less stressful than cheek blood sampling. The choice between automated blood sampling and tail blood sampling should be based on the study requirements, the resources of the laboratory and skills of the staff. PMID:24958546

  15. Determinants of exercise peak arterial blood pressure, circulatory power, and exercise cardiac power in a population based sample of Finnish male and female aged 30 to 47 years: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel parameters derived from peak maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise arterial blood pressure, such as peak circulatory power (CP) and exercise cardiac power (ECP), can be used in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the determinants of these factors are poorly characterized in the general population. Methods We assessed peak arterial blood pressure, CP and ECP with standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on 281 female and 257 male participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects were aged 30–47 years. Peak VO2 as well as systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures were measured to calculate peak mean arterial pressure, CP and ECP. These parameters were assessed for correlation with sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, physical activity index (PAI), fasting insulin and glucose levels as well as the use of antihypertensive treatment. Results Sex, age and weight explained 36% of the variation in peak systolic blood pressure, and these factors in combination with height and the use of antihypertensive treatment explained 13% of the variation in peak diastolic blood pressure. Sex, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI and smoking explained 49% − 52% of the variation in peak CP. Sex, age, height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, PAI, smoking and insulin levels explained 21% − 49% of variation in ECP. Conclusions Subject demographics and lifestyle-related factors should be taken into account when exercise blood pressure response, CP and ECP are used to evaluate patients’ cardiac function in CPET. PMID:24621399

  16. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  17. Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the spot where the umbilical cord meets the placenta. He then inserts a needle through your abdomen ... retrieving fetal blood: Placing the needle through the placenta or through the amniotic sac. The placenta's position ...

  18. Blood donation behaviour and beliefs among a sample of high school students in Mmabatho.

    PubMed

    Mwaba, K; Keikelame, M J

    1995-08-01

    This study was aimed at establishing the extent of blood donation and beliefs about donating blood among high school students in Mmabatho. A random sample of 40 Standard 10 students (20 males, 20 females; mean age = 20.8 years) was selected to participate in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to determined blood donation behaviour and accompanying beliefs. The results showed that although 80 percent of the participants believed that donating blood was important only 17.5 percent had actually ever donated blood. The data also showed that donating blood was a health risk or were uncertain if donating blood was safe. It is recommended that public appeals for blood donors should include information to dispel myths about dangers of donating blood. PMID:8697521

  19. Blood oxygen saturation determined by transmission spectrophotometry of hemolyzed blood samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Use of the Lambert-Beer Transmission Law determines blood oxygen saturation of hemolyzed blood samples. This simplified method is based on the difference in optical absorption properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

  20. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  1. Relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow during supine cycling: influence of aging.

    PubMed

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Keegan; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Hansen, Alex; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-03-01

    The cerebral pressure-flow relationship can be quantified as a high-pass filter, where slow oscillations are buffered (<0.20 Hz) and faster oscillations are passed through relatively unimpeded. During moderate intensity exercise, previous studies have reported paradoxical transfer function analysis (TFA) findings (altered phase or intact gain). This study aimed to determine whether these previous findings accurately represent this relationship. Both younger (20-30 yr; n = 10) and older (62-72 yr; n = 9) adults were examined. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, large oscillations in blood pressure (via oscillatory lower body negative pressure; OLBNP) were induced during steady-state moderate intensity supine exercise (∼45-50% of heart rate reserve). Beat-to-beat blood pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) range spontaneous data were quantified. Driven OLBNP point estimates were sampled at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. The OLBNP maneuvers augmented coherence to >0.97 at 0.05 Hz and >0.98 at 0.10 Hz in both age groups. The OLBNP protocol conclusively revealed the cerebrovascular system functions as a high-pass filter during exercise throughout aging. It was also discovered that the older adults had elevations (+71%) in normalized gain (+0.46 ± 0.36%/%: 0.05 Hz) and reductions (-34%) in phase (-0.24 ± 0.22 radian: 0.10 Hz). There were also age-related phase differences between resting and exercise conditions. It is speculated that these age-related changes in the TFA metrics are mediated by alterations in vasoactive factors, sympathetic tone, or the mechanical buffering of the compliance vessels. PMID:26586907

  2. Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

  3. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  4. Factors affecting contamination of blood samples for ethanol determinations.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Eastly, T

    1977-01-01

    Contamination of blood samples collected for alcohol analysis from swabbing with an ethanolic antiseptic is minimal (less than 0.6 mg/100 ml or 0.0006 percent ethanol) when routine clinical technique is followed. When technicians were told to be deliberately sloppy, considerable contamination (89 mg/100 ml or 0.09 percent ethanol) occurred. The incidence and extent of contamination from banked blood intended for transfusions are minimal. Two percent of the 1,450 samples analyzed contained alcohol. The average blood alcohol concentration was 26 mg/100 ml or 0.03 percent ethanol. One microliter of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, or one-tenth of a drop of rubbing alcohol per milliliter of whole blood, increases the BAC 56.5 mg/100 ml (0.06 percent ethanol) and 67.5 mg/100 ml (0.07 percent ethanol), respectively. PMID:865218

  5. [Blood sampling using "dried blood spot": a clinical biology revolution underway?].

    PubMed

    Hirtz, Christophe; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Blood testing using the dried blood spot (DBS) is used since the 1960s in clinical analysis, mainly within the framework of the neonatal screening (Guthrie test). Since then numerous analytes such as nucleic acids, small molecules or lipids, were successfully measured on the DBS. While this pre-analytical method represents an interesting alternative to classic blood sampling, its use in routine is still limited. We review here the different clinical applications of the blood sampling on DBS and estimate its future place, supported by the new methods of analysis as the LC-MS mass spectrometry. PMID:25582720

  6. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  7. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples.

    PubMed

    Skogstrand, Kristin; Ekelund, Charlotte K; Thorsen, Poul; Vogel, Ida; Jacobsson, Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Hougaard, David M

    2008-07-20

    The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, and 30 days at the same temperatures. 27 inflammatory markers in serum and plasma and 25 markers in DBSS were measured by a previously validated multiplex sandwich immunoassay using Luminex xMAP technology. The measurable concentrations of several cytokines in serum and plasma were significantly increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable concentrations of inflammatory markers also changed in DBSS stored under various conditions compared to controls frozen immediately after preparation, but to a much lesser degree than in plasma or serum. The study demonstrates that trustworthy measurement of several inflammatory markers relies on handling of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood. PMID:18495149

  8. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter; Storskov, Anders; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure. Blood samples were collected 5 times during a 6-month period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, the players were tested for body composition, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance submax test (IE2). Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin were stable, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max decreased toward the end of the season, whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test. The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes that may be related to changes in training pattern, match exposure, or length of the match season. Especially the end of the preparation season and at the end of the competitive season seem to be time points were the blood-derived values indicate that the players are under excessive physical strain and might be more subjected to a possible overreaching-overtraining conditions. We suggest that regular analyses of blood samples could be an important initiative to optimize training adaptation, training load, and game participation, but sampling has to be regular, and a database has to be built for each individual player. PMID:22744299

  9. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Gibbs, Raphael J.; Hardy, John; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Dillman, Allissa; Traynor, Bryan; Smith, Colin; Longo, Dan L.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Weale, Michael E.; O'Brien, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Walker, Robert; Zielke, Ronald H.; Arepalli, Sampath; Ryten, Mina; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ramos, Yolande F.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the ‘transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  10. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Peters, Marjolein J; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F; Göring, Harald H H; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M; Munson, Peter J; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Smith, Alicia K; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Montgomery, Grant W; Turner, Stephen T; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M; Neely, G Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Johnson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the 'transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  11. [Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents].

    PubMed

    Yuvs, G G; Ignatova, T N; Anuchin, A M; Lebedeva, V L; Shilov, V V; Khapalyuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0-100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0-20 years (66-69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26-85 years was significantly lower (59-62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85-100 years (57-59 mg/kg). Thisreductionin the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10-100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0-25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25-55 years (0,13-0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person's age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person's age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25-65 years. Perhaps a

  12. Determination of gamma glutamyltransferase in completely haemolysed blood samples.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, H; Mørland, J

    1985-11-01

    A simple method for the determination of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in completely haemolysed blood samples is described. Haemolysed blood was incubated in the presence of gamma glutamyl-p-nitroanilide and glycylglycine at 37 degrees C for 15 min, and the enzyme reaction was terminated by adding trichloroacetic acid. The pH in the supernatant was adjusted to 7.5 by using a buffer, and the amount of p-nitroaniline formed was measured spectrophotometrically. The correlation between this method and the GGT activity in serum as determined by the standard kinetic method was good, r = 0.982. The blood GGT activity (y) was related to the serum activity (x) as follows: y = 0.415x + 3.8. The effect of storage of blood at room temperature on the GGT activity was studied. The enzyme activity did not change during the first 12 days of storage. PMID:2866579

  13. Blood-borne revitalization of the aged brain

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Joseph M.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In the modern medical era, more diverse and effective treatment options have translated into increased life expectancy. With this increased lifespan comes increased age-associated disease and the dire need to understand the underlying causes so that therapies can be designed to mitigate the burden to health and the economy. Aging exacts a seemingly inevitable, multi-system deterioration of function that acts as a risk factor for a variety of age-related disorders, including those that devastate organs of limited regenerative potential such as the brain. Rather than studying the brain and mechanisms that govern its aging in isolation from other organ systems, an emerging approach is to understand the relatively unappreciated communication existing between the brain and the systemic environment. Revisiting classical methods of experimental physiology in animal models has uncovered surprising regenerative activity within young blood with translational implications for aging liver, muscle, brain and other organs. Surprisingly, soluble factors present in young or aged blood are sufficient to improve or impair cognitive function, respectively, suggesting an aging continuum of brain-relevant systemic factors. The age-associated plasma chemokine CCL11 has been shown to impair young brain function while GDF11 has been reported to increase the generation of neurons in aged mice. However, the identities of specific factors mediating memory-enhancing effects of young blood and their mechanisms of action remain enigmatic. Here we review recent brain rejuvenation studies in the broader context of systemic rejuvenation research. We discuss putative mechanisms for blood-borne brain rejuvenation while suggesting promising avenues for future research and development of therapies. PMID:26237737

  14. Blood-Borne Revitalization of the Aged Brain.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Joseph M; Kirby, Elizabeth D; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2015-10-01

    In the modern medical era, more diverse and effective treatment options have translated to increased life expectancy. With this increased life span comes increased age-associated disease and the dire need to understand underlying causes so that therapies can be designed to mitigate the burden to health and the economy. Aging exacts a seemingly inevitable multisystem deterioration of function that acts as a risk factor for a variety of age-related disorders, including those that devastate organs of limited regenerative potential, such as the brain. Rather than studying the brain and mechanisms that govern its aging in isolation from other organ systems, an emerging approach is to understand the relatively unappreciated communication that exists between the brain and systemic environment. Revisiting classical methods of experimental physiology in animal models has uncovered surprising regenerative activity in young blood with translational implications for the aging liver, muscle, brain, and other organs. Soluble factors present in young or aged blood are sufficient to improve or impair cognitive function, respectively, suggesting an aging continuum of brain-relevant systemic factors. The age-associated plasma chemokine CCL11 has been shown to impair young brain function while GDF11 has been reported to increase the generation of neurons in aged mice. However, the identities of specific factors mediating memory-enhancing effects of young blood and their mechanisms of action are enigmatic. Here we review brain rejuvenation studies in the broader context of systemic rejuvenation research. We discuss putative mechanisms for blood-borne brain rejuvenation and suggest promising avenues for future research and development of therapies. PMID:26237737

  15. Design of Er:YAG laser blood-sampling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-chao; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Ling, Ming; Liang, Zhu

    2009-07-01

    Laser blood-sampling device is one of the foremost tasks in medicine domain. It has a lot of merits such as un-touching, avoiding infection, indolence, and fast healing etc. The Er:YAG laser with wavelength of 2.94μm which is just close to the absorbency peak of water can be strongly absorbed by water molecular, so it has very wide application value in clinical medicine. In the paper, based on the mutual action characters of the laser with 2.94μm wave length on biological tissues, such as high absorption, acting on surface, the design of a new type of laser blood-sampling device is introduced. According to the needs of practice, the main component of the blood-sampling device is the laser, which includes optical resonator, optical collector, pumping source, optical guidance and focusing system. All of them are designed in the paper, and the reflection index of output coupling mirror of laser is optimized, the laser threshold is reduced, and pumping efficiency is improved. Moreover, thermal effect of Er:YAG solid-state laser is analyzed and a reasonable cooling method is designed. As a result, an excellent laser blood- sampling is obtained, the maximum output power is about 1J, the optical to optical conversion efficiency is 1.2%. For the better production-grade, the cuprum-based conduction is adopt to eliminate heat, the precision modulation and fixing of the optical resonance is achieved by the special adjusting structure that not only improve the stability and reliability, but also reduce the size of laser bloodsampling device. The size is 110×190×320mm, the weight is about 5.8kg, and the laser blood- sampling efficiency is 100%.

  16. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  17. Vesicle-associated microRNAs are released from blood cells on incubation of blood samples.

    PubMed

    Köberle, Verena; Kakoschky, Bianca; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Schmithals, Christian; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulating extracellularly in the blood are currently intensively studied as novel disease markers. However, the preanalytical factors influencing the levels of the extracellular miRNAs are still incompletely explored. In particular, it is unknown, whether the incubation of blood samples as occurring in clinical routine can lead to a release of miRNAs from blood cells and thus alter the extracellular miRNA levels before the preparation of serum or plasma from the blood cells. Using a set of marker miRNAs and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the levels of extracellular miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 were increased in EDTA and serum collection tubes incubated for 1-3 hours at room temperature and declined thereafter; the levels of the liver-specific miRNA-122 declined monophasically. These events occurred in the absence of significant hemolysis. When the blood was supplemented with Ribonuclease A inhibitor, the levels of miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 increased substantially during the initial 3 hours of incubation and those of miRNA-122 remained unchanged, indicating that the release of blood cell-derived miRNAs occurred during the initial 3 hours of incubation of the blood tubes, but not at later time points. Separation of 5-hour preincubated blood into vesicle and nonvesicle fractions revealed a selective increase in the portion of vesicle-associated miRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the release of vesicle-associated miRNAs from blood cells can occur in blood samples within the time elapsing in normal clinical practice until their processing without significant hemolysis. This becomes particularly visible on the inhibition of miRNA degradation by Ribonuclease A inhibitor. PMID:26608461

  18. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  19. Benzonidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulffer, Romina Fernanda; Castro, José Alberto; Fanelli, Silvia Laura

    2011-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals. PMID:21655830

  20. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  1. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  2. Carbon monoxide stability in stored postmortem blood samples.

    PubMed

    Kunsman, G W; Presses, C L; Rodriguez, P

    2000-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of both suicidal and accidental deaths in the United States. As a consequence, determination of the percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb) level in postmortem blood is a common analysis performed in toxicology laboratories. The blood specimens analyzed are generally preserved with either EDTA or sodium fluoride. Potentially problematic scenarios that may arise in conjunction with CO analysis are a first analysis or a reanalysis requested months or years after the initial toxicology testing is completed; both raise the issue of the stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored postmortem blood specimens. A study was conducted at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office to evaluate the stability of CO in blood samples collected in red-, gray-, and purple-top tubes by comparing results obtained at the time of the autopsy and after two years of storage at 3 degrees C using either an IL 282 or 682 CO-Oximeter. The results from this study suggest that carboxyhemoglobin is stable in blood specimens collected in vacutainer tubes, with or without preservative, and stored refrigerated for up to two years. PMID:11043662

  3. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  4. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  5. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Phan-Tang, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  6. Amplifier design considerations for blood cell counter sampling probes.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C D; Veal, B L

    1986-01-01

    Blood cell counters that operate on the Coulter principle of an electrical resistance change when a cell passes through a small sampling orifice are especially sensitive to electrical noise. The sampling probe is immersed in an electrolyte (isotonic diluent for blood cells), which in itself presents an electrochemically noisy environment. The probe, owing to its large size, acts as an antenna for environmental electrical noise up to 60 Hz. Additionally, the basic Coulter method for cell counting requires a dc potential across the sampling orifice electrodes contained within the probe. This potential produces electrolysis of the diluent and generation of gas bubbles at the electrode surfaces. Sampling (counting) time must be short (less than 30 seconds) to avoid sample heating and an intolerably high noise level as a consequence of ionic motion and gas bubble generation. The resistance change that takes place when a cell passes through the sampling orifice is only a small fraction of a percent, thus noise is a serious problem. Electric noise produces false counts and general degradation of counting function. This paper presents a discussion of a currently used method for signal acquisition and some of the problems encountered in the clinical laboratory. A novel alternative design has been implemented using integrated circuit components, which eliminates many of the problems associated with the use of small bench-type counters. Design philosophy is discussed in detail including presentation of the final circuitry developed. Performance characteristics of the signal acquisition circuitry are presented.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3943959

  7. Long-Term Blood Alcohol Stability in Forensic Antemortem Whole Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Vacha, Ruth E; Alford, Ilene; Yeatman, Dustin Tate; Shan, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term room temperature storage on the stability of ethanol in whole blood specimens was investigated. One hundred and seventeen preserved whole blood case samples (110 of 117 with two tubes of blood in each case) were used for this study. One tube from each case was initially tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for criminal driving under the influence proceedings. Cases positive for ethanol ranged in BAC from 0.023 to 0.281 g/dL. The second tube, if present, remained sealed. All blood samples were then stored at room temperature. After 5.4-10.3 years, the opened tubes were reanalyzed for BAC by the same laboratory that performed the initial testing using the same method and same instrumentation. After the same storage period, the unopened tubes were sent to a different laboratory, using a different method and different instrumentation, and reanalyzed for BAC after a total of 5.6-10.5 years of room temperature storage. Seven samples initially negative for alcohol remained negative. All samples initially positive for ethanol demonstrated a decrease in BAC over time with a statistically significant difference in loss observed based on blood sample volume and whether or not the tube had been previously opened. The decrease in BAC ranged from 0.005 to 0.234 g/dL. Tubes that were not previously opened and were more than half full demonstrated better BAC stability with 89% of these tubes demonstrating a loss of BAC between 0.01 and 0.05 g/dL. PMID:25886770

  8. [Selenium determination in blood plasma samples of high performance athletes].

    PubMed

    Logemann, E; Krützfeldt, B; Rokitzki, L

    1989-01-01

    Cooperating with the department "Sport- und Leistungsmedizin" of the university hospital of Freiburg/Brsg. we investigated the problem whether endurance stress leads to a significant change in the selenium blood concentration of athletes. We took blood samples of 13 test persons (11 men, 2 women) before, immediately after and 2 hours following a marathon course. The analyses of the concentration of selenium in plasma were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry AAS (molybdenum-coated graphite tube technique with L'vov platform as well as matrix modification with nickel nitrate in order to thermally stabilize the selenium). The selenium level of the plasma samples ranged between 41 and 153 micrograms/L. Our experiments have shown that running a marathon course does not lead to significant changes in the standard selenium plasma concentrations of the athletes. PMID:2818554

  9. Evaluation of pesticide residues in human blood samples from Punjab (India)

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Jasbir Singh; Gill, J. P. S.; Kaur, P.; Sharma, A.; Aulakh, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to estimate the current status of residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphates (OPs) and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) pesticides in human blood. Materials and Methods: Human blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of human blood samples collected from Punjab revealed the presence of p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), p,p’ dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), o,p’ DDE and β-endosulfan at mean levels of 15.26, 2.71, 5.62 and 4.02 ng/ml, respectively. p,p’ DDE residue was observed in 18.0% blood samples, and it contributes 55% of the total pesticide burden in human blood. The difference of total dichlorordiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) between different age groups of humans was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The difference of DDT and endosulfan between dietary habits, gender and spraying of pesticides was found statistically non-significant, however endosulfan residues were observed only in pesticide sprayer’s population. Conclusion: Occurrence of p,p’ DDE, p,p’ DDD, o,p’ DDE in human blood indicated restricted use of DDT. However, presence of endosulfan residues in occupationally exposed population is a matter of public health concern. PMID:27046999

  10. Rare genetic variant analysis on blood pressure in related samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variants associated with blood pressure identified so far explain only a small proportion of the total heritability of this trait. With recent advances in sequencing technology and statistical methodology, it becomes feasible to study the association between blood pressure and rare genetic variants. Using real baseline phenotype data and imputed dosage data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 18, we performed a candidate gene association analysis. We focused on 8 genes shown to be associated with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure to identify the association with both common and rare genetic variants, and then did a genome-wide rare-variant analysis on blood pressure. We performed association analysis for rare coding and splicing variants within each gene region and all rare variants in each sliding window, using either burden tests or sequence kernel association tests accounting for familial correlation. With a sample size of only 747, we failed to find any novel associated genetic loci. Consequently, we performed analyses on simulated data, with knowledge of the underlying simulating model, to evaluate the type I error rate and power for the methods used in real data analysis. PMID:25519320

  11. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Marco; Somigliana, Edgardo; Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  12. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  13. Effect of age and storage conditions on the volatile organic compound profile of blood.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Rust, LaTara; Trebilcock, Kate; Perrault, Katelynn A; McGrath, Laura T

    2014-12-01

    Cadaver-detection dogs are used by the police to locate missing persons, victims of homicide, and human remains following mass disasters. Training is conducted using a variety of training aids including blood which can be hours, weeks or months old and stored under variable conditions. The aim of this study was to chemically profile human blood using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine how the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile changed over time and under variable storage conditions. The VOC profiles of fresh and degraded blood were analyzed as well as blood stored at room temperature, refrigerated, and frozen. Fresh and degraded blood samples produced distinctive VOC patterns with VOC profiles becoming more complex over time. Freezing the blood produced a complex VOC profile that was clearly discriminated from the VOC profile for blood stored at room temperature or in a refrigerator. This study highlights the importance of standardizing the age and storage conditions when using blood as a training aid to ensure cadaver-detection dogs are exposed to an accurate representation of the blood VOCs they may encounter at a scene. PMID:25351882

  14. Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Filipovský, J; Ducimetière, P; Safar, M E

    1992-09-01

    Systolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at rest and during a standardized exercise test were analyzed in the cohort of middle-aged male employees followed-up an average of 17 years in the Paris Prospective Study I. The population sample selected for the analysis included 4,907 men who completed at least 5 minutes of bicycle ergometry, who had no heart disease at entry, and whose resting blood pressure was less than or equal to 180/105 mm Hg. Exercise-induced increase in systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with resting systolic blood pressure (r = 0.104, p less than 0.0001), whereas the correlation of exercise-induced heart rate increase with resting heart rate was negative (r = -0.169, p less than 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis with the inclusion of resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate; exercise-induced elevations of systolic blood pressure and heart rate; and controlling for age, smoking, total cholesterol, body mass index, electrical left ventricular hypertrophy, and sports activities, cardiovascular mortality was found to be associated with the systolic blood pressure increase (p less than 0.05), whereas no association with resting systolic blood pressure was found. Total mortality was predicted by resting systolic blood pressure and its elevation (p less than 0.01 for both) and by resting heart rate (p less than 0.0001). The heart rate increase did not contribute to death prediction. In conclusion, the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of systolic blood pressure, but not of heart rate, may represent a risk factor for death from cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular causes, independently of resting blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:1387630

  15. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population. PMID:18547458

  16. Determination of optimal sampling times for a two blood sample clearance method using (51)Cr-EDTA in cats.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Eva; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; Vermeire, Simon T; Van Hoek, Ingrid M; Daminet, Sylvie; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y

    2010-08-01

    Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a useful tool in the evaluation of kidney function in feline medicine. GFR can be determined by measuring the rate of tracer disappearance from the blood, and although these measurements are generally performed by multi-sampling techniques, simplified methods are more convenient in clinical practice. The optimal times for a simplified sampling strategy with two blood samples (2BS) for GFR measurement in cats using plasma (51)chromium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) clearance were investigated. After intravenous administration of (51)Cr-EDTA, seven blood samples were obtained in 46 cats (19 euthyroid and 27 hyperthyroid cats, none with previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD)). The plasma clearance was then calculated from the seven point blood kinetics (7BS) and used for comparison to define the optimal sampling strategy by correlating different pairs of time points to the reference method. Mean GFR estimation for the reference method was 3.7+/-2.5 ml/min/kg (mean+/-standard deviation (SD)). Several pairs of sampling times were highly correlated with this reference method (r(2) > or = 0.980), with the best results when the first sample was taken 30 min after tracer injection and the second sample between 198 and 222 min after injection; or with the first sample at 36 min and the second at 234 or 240 min (r(2) for both combinations=0.984). Because of the similarity of GFR values obtained with the 2BS method in comparison to the values obtained with the 7BS reference method, the simplified method may offer an alternative for GFR estimation. Although a wide range of GFR values was found in the included group of cats, the applicability should be confirmed in cats suspected of renal disease and with confirmed CKD. Furthermore, although no indications of age-related effect were found in this study, a possible influence of age should be included in future studies. PMID:20452793

  17. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  18. Tritium concentrations of blood samples collected throughout Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hisamatsu, Shun`ichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Inoue, Yoshikazu

    1995-04-01

    Tritium concentrations were measured for blood samples collected from 20 cities throughout Japan during 1989-1990. The mean {sup 3}H concentration was found to be 1.4 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 {plus_minus} 0.4 Bq L{sup -1} (combustion water) for free water {sup 3}H and organically-bound {sup 3}H, respectively, excluding the abnormally high data of one city. The organically-bound {sup 3}H contents clearly depended on the latitudes of sampling locations, although the free water {sup 3}H concentrations showed no correlation with the latitudes. Organically-bound {sup 3}H is considered to be more suitable than free water {sup 3}H as an indicator of long time {sup 3}H exposure to human.

  19. Age-related methylation profiles of equine blood leukocytes in the RNASEL locus.

    PubMed

    Ząbek, T; Semik, E; Szmatoła, T; Oklejewicz, B; Fornal, A; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    Methylation profiles across three CpG islands of the RNASEL gene were determined in blood leukocyte samples of Anglo-Arabian and Hucul horses. Bisulfite sequencing revealed hypomethylated state of the RNASEL promoter coinciding with methylated CpG island placed inside the gene. Several CpG sites were identified for which the methylation state was influenced by DNA polymorphism. Two of them showed monoallelic methylation. One of the CpG sites revealed functional polymorphism. A number of partially methylated CpG sites have been observed in the promoter area of RNASEL, which were used for the comparison of breed- and age-related effects. Clone bisulfite sequencing of blood leukocyte samples collected at different ages from particular individuals of AA and HC breeds and, also, BSPCR sequencing of 50 samples of juvenile and old AA and HC horses revealed increased methylation in particular CpG sites during aging. The age-related heterogeneity of white blood cells was hypothesized as being one of the potential causes of observed variability of methylation profiles in the RNASEL promoter. PMID:26553552

  20. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  1. The Conundrum of Arterial Stiffness, Elevated blood pressure, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is a major health burden that is expanding with the aging of our population. There is evidence that central arterial stiffness contributes to the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP); at the same time central arterial stiffening is accelerated in patients with increased (SBP). This bidirectional relationship created a controversy in the field on whether arterial stiffness leads to hypertension or vice versa. Given the profound interdependency of arterial stiffness and blood pressure, this question seems intrinsically challenging, or probably naïve. The aorta’s function of dampening the pulsatile flow generated by the heart is optimal a range of distending pressure that secures the required distal flow, keeps the aorta in an optimal mechanical conformation, and minimizes cardiac work. This homeostasis is disturbed by age-associated, minute alterations in aortic hemodynamic and mechanical properties that induce short- and long-term alterations in each other. Hence, it is impossible to detect an “initial insult” at an epidemiological level. Earlier manifestations of these alterations are observed in young adulthood with a sharp decline in aortic strain and distensibility accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Subsequently aortic mechanical reserve is exhausted, and aortic remodeling with wall stiffening and dilatation ensue. These two phenomena affect pulse pressure in opposite directions and different magnitudes. With early remodeling there is an increase in pulse pressure, due to the dominance of arterial wall stiffness, which in turn accelerates aortic wall stiffness and dilation. With advanced remodeling, which appears to be greater in men, the effect of diameter becomes more pronounced and partially offsets the effect of wall stiffness leading to plateauing in pulse pressure in men, and slower increase in PP than that of wall stiffness in women. The complex nature of hemodynamic changes with aging makes the

  2. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  3. Analyzing Illumina Gene Expression Microarray Data Obtained From Human Whole Blood Cell and Blood Monocyte Samples.

    PubMed

    Teumer, Alexander; Schurmann, Claudia; Schillert, Arne; Schramm, Katharina; Ziegler, Andreas; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Microarray profiling of gene expression is widely applied to studies in molecular biology and functional genomics. Experimental and technical variations make not only the statistical analysis of single studies but also meta-analyses of different studies very challenging. Here, we describe the analytical steps required to substantially reduce the variations of gene expression data without affecting true effect sizes. A software pipeline has been established using gene expression data from a total of 3358 whole blood cell and blood monocyte samples, all from three German population-based cohorts, measured on the Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 BeadChip array. In summary, adjustment for a few selected technical factors greatly improved reliability of gene expression analyses. Such adjustments are particularly required for meta-analyses of different studies. PMID:26614070

  4. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.

  5. Screening for lead poisoning in urban school children of southern India using capillary and venous blood samples.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Herman S; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2002-01-01

    Our study aimed at comparing lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in capillary and venous blood samples in a small population and to employ an easier method of sample collection for a major screening program in school children in major Indian cities. An awareness program on lead and its effects was conducted in two different schools. A total of thirty urban school children from South India, with an age group between 4-12 years consented for dual blood sampling and reported for the study. Venous and capillary blood samples were obtained simultaneously. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were estimated using ESA Lead Analyzer and Haematofluorometer respectively. A significant correlation between capillary and venous ZPP (r=0.98) and lead (r=0.99) was observed. Rank sum test showed that there is no statistically significant difference between capillary and venous ZPP (P=0.891) and lead (P=0.672) values. This pilot study recommends that screening for lead may be done using capillary blood samples since significant correlation is observed between capillary and venous blood measurements. Obtaining samples using this mode is a non-invasive, less expensive, quick and easy method in children. Appropriately performed capillary sampling may be considered as an acceptable alternative to venipuncture for screening of blood for lead poisoning both in children and adults. PMID:23105327

  6. The aging of the red blood cell. A multifactor process.

    PubMed

    Danon, D; Marikovsky, Y

    1988-01-01

    Red blood cell (rbc) senescence is associated with loss of surface sialic acid, which is the principal carrier of surface negative charge and determines the electrokinetic behavior of old rbcs. Loss of sialic acid in an old rbc is demonstrated in its decreased electric mobility and lower negative charge density, determined topographically with cationic particle labeling. Surface sialic acid determines also the mutual attraction--repulsion forces, as demonstrated in enhanced aggluinability with cationic molecules, lectins, and blood group antibodies. Loss of sialic acid accompanies ATP-depletion in vitro; thus, a T-antigen site is unmasked. Macrophages have specific receptors to the site as to newly exposed galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine sugars. Furthermore, the involvement of complement molecules in the recognition of old RBCs by macrophages has been shown. This is possibly due to loss of sialic acid or at least a regrouping--relocation of surface anionic sites due to cell shape changes from discocytes to crenated forms, which accompany both in vivo and in vitro rbc aging. In turn, shape changes are apparently controlled by the cytoskeletal network underlying the rbc membrane, which undergoes structural alteration with physiologic aging in changing the dimensions of oligomeric spectrin and the thickness of the spectrin-actin cytoskeletal assembly. PMID:3052636

  7. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  8. The paper punched disc technique for lead in blood samples with abnormal haemoglobin values.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, G F

    1978-01-01

    A series of 15 blood samples with haemoglobin levels ranging from 4-6--16-1 g/dl were spotted on to Whatman No. 4 filter paper. Blood samples with low haemoglobin concentrations spread over a greater area of the filter paper than did those with high haemoglobin concentrations. This was further investigated by studying the performance of laboratory-prepared samples, and any effect on the estimation of blood lead value. Blood lead values assayed by the punched disc method on blood samples with low haemoglobin values were unreliable unless the estimated value was adjusted with respect to the area over which the blood had spread. Images PMID:698139

  9. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary; Silva, Anelise Damiani; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. Objectives To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5th and 8th grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Methods Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5th to the 8th grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. Results The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). Conclusion We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition. PMID:24676224

  10. Haematology and blood chemistry of Cebus apella in relation to sex and age.

    PubMed

    Riviello, M C; Wirz, A

    2001-12-01

    An effective health care program entails the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical problems. A knowledge of baseline values in clinically normal individuals is essential for determining the limits between good health and disease and for understanding the changes produced by pathogenic agents. However, very little information is currently available concerning the blood chemistry and haematological values of different species of monkeys, particularly new-world primates. The values of some haematological and chemical parameters in Cebus apella were determined. The aim of the present work was to verify the effect of age and sex on normal blood values. Blood samples were collected once a year for two successive years from 36 monkeys living in large captive social groups. Significant differences between males and females were found for AST, GGT, urea nitrogen and creatinine, erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Significant differences between juveniles and adults were found for calcium, AST, alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, neutrophils, lymphocytes and serum protein parameters. PMID:11990530

  11. Age-Related Impairment in Choroidal Blood Flow Compensation for Arterial Blood Pressure Fluctuation in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Del Mar, Nobel; Zagvazdin, Yuri; Li, Chunyan; Fitzgerald, Malinda E. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Choroidal vessels compensate for changes in systemic blood pressure (BP) so that choroidal blood flow (ChBF) remains stable over a BP range of approximately 40 mm Hg above and below basal. Because of the presumed importance of ChBF regulation for maintenance of retinal health, we investigated if ChBF compensation for BP fluctuation in pigeons fails with age. Methods. Transcleral laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure ChBF during spontaneous BP fluctuation in anesthetized pigeons ranging in age from 0.5 to 17 years (pigeons can live approximately 20 years in captivity). Results. ChBF in <8-year-old pigeons remained near 100% of basal ChBF at BPs ranging 40 mm Hg above and below basal BP (95 mm Hg). Baroregulation failed below approximately 50 mm Hg BP. In ≥8-year-old pigeons, ChBF compensation was absent at >90 mm Hg BP, with ChBF linearly following BP. Over the 60 to 90 mm Hg range, ChBF in ≥8-year-old pigeons was maintained at 60–70% of young basal ChBF. Below approximately 55 mm Hg, baroregulation again followed BP linearly. Conclusions. Age-related ChBF baroregulatory impairment occurs in pigeons, with ChBF linear with above-basal BP, and ChBF failing to adequately maintain ChBF during below-basal BP. Defective autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurogenic control, or defective myogenic control, may cause these baroregulatory defects. In either case, overperfusion during high BP may cause oxidative injury to the outer retina, whereas underperfusion during low BP may result in deficient nutrient supply and waste removal, with both abnormalities contributing to age-related retinal pathology and vision loss. PMID:21828151

  12. Development of blood vessel searching system using near-infrared light stereo method for clinical blood sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-10-01

    We developed an accurate three-dimensional blood vessel search (3D BVS) system using NIR light for the clinical blood sampling. In the previous study, the 3D BVS system, which used near-infrared (NIR) light imaging and the stereo method to locate blood vessel accurately in three dimensions has been developed(1). However, as NIR lights could not transmit the human arm, this system could not be used for the subcutaneous blood vessel detection. In this study, we developed a BVS by using the reflecting NIR light for blood sampling assist. The light scattering in human tissue will cause blur of blood vessel edge in image, that makes the diameter of blood vessel became uncertain. In this study, a light propagation simulation and a multilayer phantom were adopted to estimate the measurement error of blood vessel diameter in our BSV system. In the simulation, the optical properties of scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, and refractive index were set similar with human skin. Next, we fabricated a multilayer phantom, which has the similar structure and optical properties with the human skin to confirm availability of the simulation. Also, the optical properties of our phantom are adjustable in our phantom to imitate the different color of skin. We established the estimation algorithm to detect the blood vessel accurately. Finally, we confirm the availability of our BVS for the blood sampling assist system.

  13. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    PubMed

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J; del Valle, Luis J; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease. PMID:24651298

  14. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion’s disease. PMID:24651298

  15. Thresholds of Central Systolic Blood Pressure in a Normotensive Chinese Middle-Aged Population.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang; Wang, Zengwu; Zhang, Linfeng; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Guo, Min; Tian, Ye; Shao, Lan; Zhu, Manlu

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of evidence has emerged showing that the central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) is more relevant to the risk of cardiovascular (CV) diseases than brachial blood pressure. However, there are no agreed CSBP threshold values above which the risk of CV disease is increased. The aim of our study was to define the threshold values of the CSBP in a normotensive Chinese population; 10 012 adults 35 to 65 years of age were eligible for analysis. We excluded 3765 participants with hypertension, and the final normotensive reference sample consisted of 6247 participants. We defined abnormally high CSBP as exceeding the 90th percentile age- and sex-specific values in the normotensive population. The 90th percentile cutoff value for CSBP in the reference sample was 125 mm Hg in men and 126 mm Hg in women. The CSBP was significantly higher in participants with diabetes, history of CV disease, and hyperlipidemia (P < .001). The CSBP values increased with age (P < .001). We established that the 90th percentile of the CSBP threshold value in normotensive Chinese middle-aged population is 125 mm Hg for men and 126 mm Hg for women. PMID:25934007

  16. Active tracking of rejected dried blood samples in a large program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inalegwu, Auchi; Phillips, Sunny; Datir, Rawlings; Chime, Christopher; Ozumba, Petronilla; Peters, Samuel; Ogbanufe, Obinna; Mensah, Charles; Abimiku, Alash’Le; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the impact of rejection at different levels of health care by retrospectively reviewing records of dried blood spot samples received at the molecular laboratory for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) early infant diagnosis (EID) between January 2008 and December 2012. METHODS: The specimen rejection rate, reasons for rejection and the impact of rejection at different levels of health care was examined. The extracted data were cleaned and checked for consistency and then de-duplicated using the unique patient and clinic identifiers. The cleaned data were ciphered and exported to SPSS version 19 (SPSS 2010 IBM Corp, New York, United States) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Sample rejection rate of 2.4% (n = 786/32552) and repeat rate of 8.8% (n = 69/786) were established. The mean age of infants presenting for first HIV molecular test among accepted valid samples was 17.83 wk (95%CI: 17.65-18.01) vs 20.30 wk (95%CI: 16.53-24.06) for repeated samples. HIV infection rate was 9.8% vs 15.9% for accepted and repeated samples. Compared to tertiary healthcare clinics, secondary and primary clinics had two-fold and three-fold higher likelihood of sample rejection, respectively (P < 0.05). We observed a significant increase in sample rejection rate with increasing number of EID clinics (r = 0.893, P = 0.041). The major reasons for rejection were improper sample collection (26.3%), improper labeling (16.4%) and insufficient blood (14.8%). CONCLUSION: Programs should monitor pre-analytical variables and incorporate continuous quality improvement interventions to reduce errors associated with sample rejection and improve patient retention. PMID:27175352

  17. Accuracy and sampling error of two age estimation techniques using rib histomorphometry on a modern sample.

    PubMed

    García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-02-01

    Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results. PMID:26698389

  18. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed. PMID:26100734

  19. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels in newborn screening blood samples.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, A F; Holton, J B; Burman, D; Colley, J R

    1983-01-01

    A previously described difference in newborn blood phenylalanine concentrations between those living in urban and non-urban areas in the south west of England has been confirmed and shown to be independent of the type of feed. Several factors including the place of abode, type of feed, birthweight, and the accuracy of the test have been found to affect the measured, phenylalanine concentration in the newborn screening blood spot, and the importance of these results to screening practice is considered. Blood tyrosine also varied with the above factors, but severe, neonatal tyrosinaemia was shown to be a rare problem. PMID:6847230

  20. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePlus

    ... control over include high blood pressure, cholesterol levels, diabetes, obesity, and smoking. Eat a heart-healthy diet with ... aorta. Get more exercise: Exercise may help prevent obesity, and ... with diabetes control their blood sugar. Exercise may help you ...

  1. Comparison of diagnostic tools for the detection of aspergillosis in blood samples of experimentally infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Van Waeyenberghe, L; Cray, C; Gross, M; Usleber, E; Pasmans, F; Martel, A; Lierz, M

    2014-12-01

    Antemortem diagnosis of avian aspergillosis is very challenging. Diagnostic assays using blood samples would aid in an early and more definitive diagnosis. In the current study, detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies, Aspergillus antigen, and Aspergillus toxin (fumigaclavine A), protein electrophoresis and measurement of acute-phase protein concentrations were performed on serum of 18 adult and plasma of 21 juvenile gyr-saker hybrid falcons (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug). Adult (n = 15) and juvenile (n = 18) falcons were experimentally inoculated with different dosages of the same strain of Aspergillus fumigatus and an additional three falcons from each age group were used as uninfected control animals. Blood samples were collected prior to inoculation and at 28 days postinoculation. Of the 33 inoculated falcons, 16 demonstrated clinical signs (vomiting, greenish urates, dyspnea, ruffled feathers) commonly associated with aspergillosis and in 14 falcons necropsy revealed aspergillosis granulomas confirmed by mycology and histopathology. Positive galactomannan results were rare, with only 3/15 positive samples from adult falcons and none in the juvenile birds. Most of the inoculated falcons showed an increase of serum amyloid A (66.7%) and haptoglobin (70.4%), but fumigaclavine A was not detected in the blood from any of the experimental animals. Elevated antibody indices were detected in 96.7% of the inoculated birds, but also in 66.7% of the controls. Significant decreases in albumin:globulin ratio were obvious in 81.5% of the inoculated birds, including 100% of the birds with granulomas. Blood from falcons with granulomas demonstrated significantly increased concentration values of alpha 2 and β globulins, decreased percentages of prealbumin and albumin, and increased percentages of alpha 2 and β globulins compared to inoculated falcons without granulomas. In conclusion, acute-phase proteins and the electrophoretic profile of birds challenged with A

  2. Allogenic Blood Transfusion Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Anas; Small, Travis; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Klika, Alison K.; Barsoum, Wael K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The large-scale utilization of allogenic blood transfusion and its associated outcomes have been described in critically ill patients and those undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery but not in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to determine the trends in utilization and outcomes of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Methods: An observational cohort of 2,087,423 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty from 2000 to 2009 was identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes 99.03 and 99.04 were used to identify patients who received allogenic blood products during their hospital stay. Risk factors for allogenic transfusions were identified with use of multivariable logistic regression models. We used propensity score matching to estimate the adjusted association between transfusion and surgical outcomes. Results: The rate of allogenic blood transfusion increased from 11.8% in 2000 to 19.0% in 2009. Patient-related risk factors for receiving an allogenic blood transfusion include an older age, female sex, black race, and Medicaid insurance. Hospital-related risk factors include rural location, smaller size, and non-academic status. After adjusting for confounders, allogenic blood transfusion was associated with a longer hospital stay (0.58 ± 0.02 day; p < 0.001), increased costs ($1731 ± $49 [in 2009 U.S. dollars]; p < 0.001), increased rate of discharge to an inpatient facility (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.31), and worse surgical and medical outcomes. In-hospital mortality was not affected by allogenic blood transfusion (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.21). Conclusions: The increase in allogenic blood transfusion among total hip arthroplasty patients is concerning

  3. Sampling and aging effects on beef longissimus color stability measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to determine the repeatability of color stability measurements and to evaluate relationships among color stability data collected under differing sampling and aging protocols. Beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected at grading in a commercial facility, after which a L...

  4. Non-invasive blood sampling from primates using laboratory-bred blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus; Reduviidae, Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Ruth; Voigt, Christian C

    2006-10-01

    Primates are easily stressed by the conventional veterinary blood sampling routine and consequently, measured blood parameters may be biased. In this study, we tested blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus) on one lemur and two ape species (Microcebus murinus, Pongo abelii, Pan paniscus) as an alternative, non-invasive technique for bleeding primates. Within time periods of between 6 and 62 min we obtained blood volumes of 0.01-2.4 ml in 11 out of 12 trials from all three species. Therefore, we conclude that these bugs represent a new, gentle and effective tool for bleeding captive primates without stress. PMID:16741605

  5. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  6. A simple and efficient method for DNA purification from samples of highly clotted blood.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruyi; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Dong, Jin; Deng, Xinxin

    2010-11-01

    Rapid purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood is a challenging problem due to the difficulty in recovering and dispersing blood clots. We developed a new method for discarding the serum-separator gel and rapidly dispersing the blood clots. A special disposable tip was inserted into the serum-separator gel so that the serum-separator gel could be discarded. The blood clot obtained was dispersed into small pieces through a copper mesh (pore size, 250 μm) in a special dispersing instrument by centrifugation. After lysis of red blood cells and white blood cells, genomic DNA was concentrated and desalted by isopropanol precipitation. The mean yield of DNA purified from a 0.3-ml blood clot was 22.70 μg in 173 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for 1 month, and 19.02 μg in 1,372 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for >6 months. DNA samples were successfully performed through polymerase chain reaction, real time polymerase chain reaction, and melt curve analysis. Their quality was comparable with that purified directly from EDTA-anticoagulated blood. The new method overcomes the difficulties in recovering and dispersing blood clots, allowing efficient purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood. PMID:20549389

  7. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of native cattle by PCR and smear method in Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Khalili, Mohammad; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2015-06-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle is causes tropical theileriosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the presence and the frequency of T. annulata infection in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle in Kerman, Southeast of Iran. Blood samples were collected in citrate solution from 150 native cattle with mean age of 1 year which selected randomly. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa dye. Blood smears were examined for the presence of parasites, and blood samples were analyzed by PCR. Piroplasmic forms of T. annulata were seen in 16 of 150 (10.66 %) by examination the blood smears with light microscope, whereas 68 of 150 (45.33 %) cattle were positive by PCR method. All animals that were positive by blood smears were also positive by PCR. Difference between these methods was significant (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that this PCR assay in diagnosing T. annulata parasites in carrier cattle is more sensitive than method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies. PMID:26064010

  8. Popliteal Vein Blood Sampling and the Postmortem Redistribution of Diazepam, Methadone, and Morphine.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Eric; Schmidt, Carl; Denooz, Raphael; Charlier, Corinne; Boxho, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Postmortem redistribution (PMR) refers to the site- and time-related blood drug concentration variations after death. We compared central blood (cardiac and subclavian) with peripheral blood (femoral and popliteal) concentrations of diazepam, methadone, and morphine. To our knowledge, popliteal blood has never been compared with other sites. Intracardiac blood (ICB), subclavian blood (SB), femoral blood (FB), and popliteal blood (PB) were sampled in 30 cases. To assess PMR, mean concentrations and ratios were compared. Influence of postmortem interval on mean ratios was also assessed. Results show that popliteal mean concentrations were lower than those for other sites for all three drugs, even lower than femoral blood; mean ratios suggested that the popliteal site was less subject to PMR, and estimated postmortem interval did not influence ratios except for diazepam and methadone FB/PB. In conclusion, our study is the first to explore the popliteal site and suggests that popliteal blood is less prone to postmortem redistribution. PMID:27364283

  9. Calculation of Blood Dose in Patients Treated With 131I Using MIRD, Imaging, and Blood Sampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Piruzan, Elham; Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Faghihi, Reza; Entezarmahdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Radioiodine therapy is known as the most effective treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) to ablate remnant thyroid tissue after surgery. In patients with DTC treated with radioiodine, internal radiation dosimetry of radioiodine is useful for radiation risk assessment. The aim of this study is to describe a method to estimate the absorbed dose to the blood using medical internal radiation dosimetry methods. In this study, 23 patients with DTC with different administrated activities, 3.7, 4.62, and 5.55 GBq after thyroidectomy, were randomly selected. Blood dosimetry of treated patients was performed with external whole body counting using a dual-head gamma camera imaging device and also with blood sample activity measurements using a dose calibrator. Absorbed dose to the blood was measured at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after the administration of radioiodine with the 2 methods. Based on the results of whole body counting and blood sample activity dose rate measurements, 96 hours after administration of 3.7, 4.62, and 5.55 GBq of radioiodine, absorbed doses to patients’ blood were 0.65 ± 0.20, 0.67 ± 0.18, 0.79 ± 0.51 Gy, respectively. Increasing radioiodine activity from 3.7 to 5.55 GBq increased blood dose significantly, while there was no significant difference in blood dose between radioiodine dosages of 3.7 and 4.62 GBq. Our results revealed a significant correlation between the blood absorbed dose and blood sample activity and between the blood absorbed dose and whole body counts 24 to 48 hours after the administration of radioiodine. PMID:26986171

  10. Assessing Skin Blood Flow Dynamics in Older Adults Using a Modified Sample Entropy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    The aging process may result in attenuated microvascular reactivity in response to environmental stimuli, which can be evaluated by analyzing skin blood flow (SBF) signals. Among various methods for analyzing physiological signals, sample entropy (SE) is commonly used to quantify the degree of regularity of time series. However, we found that for temporally correlated data, SE value depends on the sampling rate. When data are oversampled, SE may give misleading results. To address this problem, we propose to modify the definition of SE by using time-lagged vectors in the calculation of the conditional probability that any two vectors of successive data points are within a tolerance r for m points remain within the tolerance at the next point. The lag could be chosen as the first minimum of the auto mutual information function. We tested the performance of modified SE using simulated signals and SBF data. The results showed that modified SE is able to quantify the degree of regularity of the signals regardless of sampling rate. Using this approach, we observed a more regular behavior of blood flow oscillations (BFO) during local heating-induced maximal vasodilation period compared to the baseline in young and older adults and a more regular behavior of BFO in older adults compared to young adults. These results suggest that modified SE may be useful in the study of SBF dynamics. PMID:25570060

  11. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels

    PubMed Central

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects. PMID:22273184

  12. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

    PubMed

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects. PMID:22273184

  13. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  14. Quantitative photoacoustic blood oxygenation measurement of whole porcine blood samples using a multi-wavelength semiconductor laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Mienkina, Martin P.; Brenner, Carsten; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Jörger, Manfred; Strauß, Andreas; Beckmann, Martin F.; Schmitz, Georg; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2011-07-01

    We present a photoacoustic measurement system based on semiconductor lasers for blood oxygenation measurements. It permits to use four different optical wavelengths (650nm, 808nm, 850nm, 905nm) to generate photoacoustic signals. As the optical extinction coefficient of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin is different at specific wavelengths, a blood oxygenation measurement by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic laser system is feasible. Especially at 650nm, the clear difference between the extinction coefficients of the two hemoglobin derivates permits to determine the blood oxygenation in combination with other near infrared wavelengths. A linear model based on tabulated values of extinction coefficients for fully oxygenated and fully deoxygenated hemoglobin is presented. We used heparin stabilized whole porcine blood samples to model the optical behavior of human blood, as the optical absorption behavior of porcine hemoglobin does not differ significantly from human hemoglobin. To determine the real oxygen saturation values of the blood samples, we measured the partial oxygen pressure with an IRMA Trupoint Blood Analysis System. The oxygen saturation values were calculated from a dissociation curve for porcine blood. The results of the photoacoustic measurement are in qualitatively good agreement with the predicted linear model. Further, we analyze the abilities and the limitations of quantitative oxygenation measurements.

  15. Is uterine blood flow influenced by hCG and mare age?

    PubMed

    Turna Yilmaz, Ozge; Gunduz, Mehmet Can; Evkuran Dal, Gamze; Kurban, Ibrahim; Erzengin, Omer Mehmet; Ucmak, Melih

    2014-12-30

    Doppler ultrasonography is a noninvasive technique which enables us to follow the physiologic and physiopathologic changes in blood flow in tissues. It is becoming an essential tool in veterinary medicine, especially in theriogenology. Twenty-seven Arabian mares were grouped by age ('young', 3-10 y, n=15; 'old', 19-23 y, n=12). The uterine arteries of the mares were examined using Doppler ultrasonography when an ovarian follicle ≥35mm was visible (Day -1). After these measurements, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 2500IU) was administered to 14 mares selected randomly. One day later (Day 0) Doppler ultrasonography was repeated and then the dominant follicles were aspirated to collect follicular fluid in all groups. On the next day (Day +1), Doppler indices of the uterine artery blood flow were measured again. Blood samples were also collected just prior to ultrasonography, for measuring serum estradiol and progesterone levels. We found that preovulatory hCG administration had no significant effects on uterine artery blood flow indices, or serum or follicular fluid estradiol concentrations. The uterine artery resistance index might decrease in young mares after ovulation, possibly because of increased uterine perfusion. PMID:25465361

  16. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  17. Comparing the Push-Pull Versus Discard Blood Sample Method From Adult Central Vascular Access Devices.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dia

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the discard blood sampling method for central vascular access devices with the push-pull method. A comparative, within-subject design was used to evaluate 61 unique, paired blood samples from 1 adult outpatient oncology clinic. A 21-measure laboratory panel was conducted on each of the paired samples. Interpretation showed a small mean bias and excellent agreement between the methods. Blood samples obtained using the push-pull method were within clinically acceptable ranges. No hemolysis was noted by laboratory evaluation of 59 samples. PMID:27074989

  18. Human Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Are Present in Normal Peripheral Blood of Young, Middle-Aged, and Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sovalat, Hanna; Scrofani, Maurice; Eidenschenk, Antoinette; Hénon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether the number of human very small embryonic-like stem cells (huVSELs) would vary depending on the age of humans. HuVSELs frequency was evaluated into the steady-state (SS) peripheral blood (PB) of healthy volunteers using flow cytometry analysis. Their numbers were compared with volunteers' age. Blood samples were withdrawn from 28 volunteers (age ranging from 20 to 70 years), who were distributed among three groups of age: “young” (mean age, 27.8 years), “middle” (mean age, 49 years), and “older” (mean age, 64.2 years). Comparing the three groups, we did not observe any statistically significant difference in huVSELs numbers between them. The difference in mRNA expression for PSC markers as SSEA-4, Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 between the three groups of age was not statistically significant. A similar frequency of huVSELs into the SS-PB of young, middle-aged, and aged subjects may indicate that the VSELs pool persists all along the life as a reserve for tissue repair in case of minor injury and that there is a continuous efflux of these cells from the BM into the PB. PMID:26633977

  19. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips†

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips. PMID:24089195

  20. The influence of ageing and surface type on the odour profile of blood-detection dog training aids.

    PubMed

    Rust, LaTara; Nizio, Katie D; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Cadaver-detection dogs are a preferred search tool utilised by law enforcement agencies for the purposes of locating victim remains due to their efficiency and minimal disturbance to the crime scene. In Australia, a specific group of these canines are blood-detection dogs, which are trained to detect and locate blood evidence and search potential crime scenes in cases where a cadaver may not be present. Their role sometimes requires searches to be carried out after considerable time has passed since the crime occurred, and this is important for developing effective training protocols. This study aimed to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced from fresh and aged human blood on various surfaces. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract VOCs from the headspace of dried blood samples aged and sampled periodically over 12 months from a non-porous (i.e. aluminium) and porous (i.e. cotton) surface. Samples were analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Fresh blood produced distinctively different VOC patterns compared to blood aged longer than 1 week with the overall profile differing between the two surface types, and a large subset of the VOC profile found to be responsible for these differences. When analysing the various functional groups present in the samples, a common pattern between ages and surface types was observed with no specific chemical class dominating the overall profile. The results highlight the importance of evaluating training aids for scent-detection canines to ensure the greatest efficacy during training and subsequently at crime scene searches. PMID:27382970

  1. Identification of a suitable internal control for fluorescence analysis on canine peripheral blood samples.

    PubMed

    Riondato, F; Martini, V; Poggi, A; Rota, A; Comazzi, S; Sulce, M; Bruno, B; Borrelli, A; Miniscalco, B

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of fluorescence intensity (FI) by flow cytometry (FC) is fundamental. FI depends on instrument settings and sample processing procedures: thus, measurements should be done using internal controls with known FI. Commercially available beads-based standards are expensive, thus reducing their usability in the veterinary practice. Cell subsets with stable mean FI (MFI) within the population have been proposed as acceptable surrogates in human medicine. In veterinary medicine, no data exist about stability of antigen expression among different subjects or upon sample storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MFI variability of main lymphocytes antigens among the lymphoid cells within each subject, among different subjects, and upon 24-h storage, in order to identify the antigen most suitable as stable internal control in MFI analyses. Peripheral blood samples from 18 healthy dogs were analysed by FC within 3h from sampling to assess the expression of CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8, CD21 and cyCD79b using conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Analyses were restricted to the lymphoid population. Fluorescent microbeads were added to each tube, and antigen MFI was calculated as Relative Fluorescence Intensity RFI (CD/beads). Fluorescence histogram CV (fhCV) for each CD was regarded as an index of the variability of expression among lymphocytes within each subject (cell-to-cell variability); whereas the CV of RFI was regarded as an index of inter-subjects variability (dog-to-dog variability). In 11 cases, FC analyses were repeated after 24h storage at 4°C and RFI and CVs of fresh and stored samples were compared to assess variability linked to storage. CD4 was identified as the best antigen to be used as an internal control for MFI analyses in canine peripheral blood samples because of low cell-to-cell and dog-to-dog variability, and optimal stability upon 24-h storage. Blood samples from a second group of 21 healthy dogs were labelled only with CD4, in order

  2. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. PMID:25421024

  3. Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:25421022

  4. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  5. Potential of Dried Blood Self-Sampling for Cyclosporine C2 Monitoring in Transplant Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Ceglarek, Uta; Witzigmann, Helmut; Gäbel, Gábor; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background. Close therapeutic drug monitoring of Cyclosporine (CsA) in transplant outpatients is a favourable procedure to maintain the long-term blood drug levels within their respective narrow therapeutic ranges. Compared to basal levels (C0), CsA peak levels (C2) are more predictive for transplant rejection. However, the application of C2 levels is hampered by the precise time of blood sampling and the need of qualified personnel. Therefore, we evaluated a new C2 self-obtained blood sampling in transplant outpatients using dried capillary and venous blood samples and compared the CsA levels, stability, and clinical practicability of the different procedures. Methods. 55 solid organ transplant recipients were instructed to use single-handed sampling of each 50 μL capillary blood and dried blood spots by finger prick using standard finger prick devices. We used standardized EDTA-coated capillary blood collection systems and standardized filter paper WS 903. CsA was determined by LC-MS/MS. The patients and technicians also answered a questionnaire on the procedure and sample quality. Results. The C0 and C2 levels from capillary blood collection systems (C0 [ng/mL]: 114.5 ± 44.5; C2: 578.2 ± 222.2) and capillary dried blood (C0 [ng/mL]: 175.4 ± 137.7; C2: 743.1 ± 368.1) significantly (P < .01) correlated with the drug levels of the venous blood samples (C0 [ng/mL]: 97.8 ± 37.4; C2: 511.2 ± 201.5). The correlation at C0 was ρcap.-ven. = 0.749, and ρdried blood-ven = 0.432; at C2: ρcap.-ven. = 0.861 and ρdried blood-ven = 0.711. The patients preferred the dried blood sampling because of the more simple and less painful procedure. Additionally, the sample quality of self-obtained dried blood spots for LC-MS/MS analytics was superior to the respective capillary blood samples. Conclusions. C2 self-obtained dried blood sampling can easily be performed by transplant outpatients and is therefore suitable and cost-effective for close therapeutic drug monitoring

  6. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs to receive oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. The left side pumps oxygen-rich blood to ... oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and receives carbon dioxide and wastes back from the tissues. Then, the ...

  7. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. PMID:26297409

  8. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. PMID:25421023

  9. Device for Carrying Blood Samples at 37°C for Cryoglobulin Test

    PubMed Central

    Chatham, W. Winn; Benjamin, William H.

    2012-01-01

    To reliably transport blood samples for cryoglobulin analysis, we have created a sample transport device containing a mixture of two waxes that solidifies at 38°C and maintains sample temperature at 38°C. Samples arriving at the laboratory at 37 to 38°C increased to 95% from 34% with the use of the device. PMID:22815150

  10. Effects of established blood pressure loci on blood pressure values and hypertension risk in an Algerian population sample.

    PubMed

    Lardjam-Hetraf, S A; Mediene-Benchekor, S; Ouhaibi-Djellouli, H; Meroufel, D N; Boulenouar, H; Hermant, X; Hamani-Medjaoui, I; Saidi-Mehtar, N; Amouyel, P; Houti, L; Goumidi, L; Meirhaeghe, A

    2015-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies and subsequent replication studies have pinpointed 29 genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP). None of these studies included North African populations. We therefore looked at whether or not these genetic variants modulated BP and hypertension (HTN) risk in an Algerian population sample. Twenty-nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a representative sample of 787 subjects from the InSulino-résistance à ORan (ISOR) study (378 men and 409 women aged between 30 and 64 years and recruited from within the city of Oran, Algeria). Genetic variants were considered both individually and when combined as genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and HTN risk. The SNPs in CYP1A1-ULK3, HFE and SH2B3 were significantly associated with BP and/or HTN. The SBP-GPS, DBP-GPS and HTN-GPS were associated with higher levels of DBP (+0.24 mm Hg P=0.05, +0.23 mm Hg P = 0.05 and +0.26 mm Hg P = 0.03, respectively). Moreover, the three GPSs tended to be associated with a 6% higher risk of HTN. Our study is the first to show that some of the BP loci validated in subjects of European descent were associated (either individually or when combined as GPSs) with BP traits and/or the HTN risk in an Algerian population, but to a lesser extent than in European populations. Although larger studies and meta-analyses of North African populations are needed to confirm the present results, our data contribute to a better understanding of genetic susceptibility to HTN. PMID:25231511

  11. Experimental validation of plutonium ageing by Monte Carlo correlated sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Litaize, O.; Bernard, D.; Santamarina, A.

    2006-07-01

    Integral measurements of Plutonium Ageing were performed in two homogeneous MOX cores (MISTRAL2 and MISTRALS) of the French MISTRAL Programme between 1996 and year 2000. The analysis of the MISTRAL2 experiment with JEF-2.2 nuclear data library high-lightened an underestimation of {sup 241}Am capture cross section. The next experiment (MISTRALS) did not conclude in the same way. This paper present a new analysis performed with the recent JEFF-3.1 library and a Monte Carlo perturbation method (correlated sampling) available in the French TRIPOLI4 code. (authors)

  12. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-01

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies. PMID:26916508

  13. The efficacy of field techniques for obtaining and storing blood samples from fishes.

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Donaldson, M R; Drenner, S M; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A; Hills, J; Ives, V; Carter, J J; Cooke, S J; Farrell, A P

    2011-11-01

    Prompted by the dramatic increase in the use of blood analyses in fisheries research and monitoring, this study investigated the efficacy of common field techniques for sampling and storing blood from fishes. Three questions were addressed: (1) Do blood samples taken via rapid caudal puncture (the 'grab-and-stab' technique) yield similar results for live v. sacrificed groups of fishes? (2) Do rapidly obtained caudal blood samples accurately represent blood properties of fishes prior to capture? (3) Does storage of whole blood in an ice slurry for a working day (8·5 h) modify the properties of the plasma? It was shown that haematocrit, plasma ions, metabolites, stress hormones and sex hormones of caudal blood samples were statistically similar when taken from live v. recently sacrificed groups of adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Moreover, this study confirmed by using paired blood samples from cannulated O. kisutch that blood acquired through the caudal puncture technique (mean ±s.e. 142 ± 26 s after capture) was representative of fish prior to capture. Long-term (8·5 h) cold storage of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka whole blood caused significant decreases in plasma potassium and chloride, and a significant increase in plasma glucose. Previous research has suggested that these changes largely result from net movements of ions and molecules between the plasma and erythrocytes, movements that can occur within minutes of storage. Thus, blood samples from fishes should be centrifuged as quickly as practicable in the field for separation of plasma and erythrocytes to prevent potentially misleading data. PMID:22026608

  14. Detection of drugs in 275 alcohol-positive blood samples of Korean drivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunmi; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Juseon; Jang, Moonhee; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS. For the detection of DUID related drugs in blood samples, a total of 49 drugs were selected and were examined by GC-MS. For a rapid detection of these drugs, an automated identification software called "DrugMan" was used. Concentrations of alcohol in 275 blood samples ranged from 0.011 to 0.249% (average 0.119%). Six specimens showed positive results by immunoassay: one methamphetamine and five benzodiazepines I. By GC-MS confirmation, only benzodiazepines in four cases were identified, while methamphetamine and benzodiazepine in two cases were not detected from the presumptive positive blood samples. Using DrugMan, four drugs were detected; chlorpheniramine (5)*, diazepam (4), dextromethorphan (1) and doxylamine (1). In addition, ibuprofen (1), lidocaine (1) and topiramate (1) were also detected as general drugs in blood samples ('*' indicates frequency). The frequency of drug abuse by Korean drivers was relatively low and a total 14 cases were positive in 275 blood samples with a ratio of 5%. However it is necessary to analyze more samples including alcohol negative blood, and to expand the range of drug lists to get the detailed information. PMID:27015372

  15. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  16. Comparison of three methods of sampling trout blood for measurements of hematocrit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steucke, Erwin W., Jr.; Schoettger, Richard A.

    1967-01-01

    Trout blood is frequently collected for hematocrit measurements by excising the caudal fin (Snieszko, 1960), but this technique is impractical if valuable fish are to be sampled or if repeated observations are desired. Schiffman (1959) and Snieszko (1960) collected blood from the dorsal aorta and the heart, but these methods are relatively slow and require the preparation of needles and syringes. The use of pointed capillary tubes for cardiac punctures increases the speed of sampling, but body fluids may dilute the blood (Perkins, 1957; Larsen and Snieszko, 1961; and Normandau, 1962). There is need for methods of sampling which are rapid and which neither influence hematological determinations nor harm the fish.

  17. Long-term preservation of blood samples for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A C; Cura, E; Subías, E; Lansetti, J C; Segura, E L

    1990-03-01

    Feasability and suitability for field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 1209 samples under different conditions. Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preserved capillary blood (CBP) and sera from venous blood (VBS) were studied by specific techniques. Over 96% concordance was found on indoor studies carried out with samples without storage or after 15 or 30 days preservation of CBP at 37 degrees C and VBS at -20 degrees C. Outdoor studies performed at field conditions, achieved a 92.1% concordance. PMID:2111039

  18. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples

    PubMed Central

    Podestà, Marina; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cossu, Claudia; Sabatini, Federica; Dagnino, Monica; Romantsik, Olga; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Frassoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups. Methods and Results Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15–4.8) vs 0.3% (0.032–2.23) p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA) compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18–4.8) and 0.36% (0.15–3.2) respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term) and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP) did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL) resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004) and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017). The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168). Conclusions We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144)The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies

  19. Age-Associated Induction of Cell Membrane CD47 Limits Basal and Temperature-Induced Changes in Cutaneous Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Natasha M.; Roberts, David D.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We tested the hypothesis that the matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), through binding to and activation of the cell receptor CD47, inhibits basal and thermal-mediated cutaneous blood flow. Background Data Abnormal and decreased cutaneous blood flow in response to temperature changes or vasoactive agents is a feature of cardiovascular disease and aging. The reasons for decreased cutaneous blood flow remain incompletely understood. Further, a role for matricellular proteins in the regulation skin blood flow has never been proposed. Methods C57BL/6 wild type, TSP1- and CD47-null 12 and 72 week old male mice underwent analysis of skin blood flow (SkBF) via laser Doppler in response to thermal stress and vasoactive challenge. Results Young and aged TSP1- and CD47-null mice displayed enhanced basal and thermal sensitive SkFB changes compared to age matched wild type controls. Nitric oxide-mediated increases in SkBF were also greater in null mice. TSP1 and CD47 were expressed in skin from young wild type mice, and both were significantly upregulated in aged animals. Tissue 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, was greater in skin samples from null mice compared to wild type regardless of age. Finally, treating wild type animals with a CD47 monoclonal antibody, that inhibits TSP1 activation of CD47, enhanced SkBF in both young and aged animals. Conclusions The above results suggest that secreted TSP1, via its cognate receptor CD47, acutely modulates SkBF. These data further support therapeutically targeting CD47 to mitigate age-associated loss of SkBF and maximize wound healing. PMID:23275312

  20. Spectral evaluation of aging effects on blood pressure and heart rate variations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Vinod, K; Saxena, S C; Deepak, K K

    2006-01-01

    The background to heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), and their determinants and physiological correlates, remain obscure. The impact of age must be taken into account if HRV and BPV are used for predictive purposes in clinical settings. Healthy subjects show wide inter-individual variation in their heart rate behaviour and the factors affecting heart rate dynamics are not well known. This paper has undertaken to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in a random sample of subjects without evidence of heart disease, and to estimate the relation of HRV and BPV behaviour to age. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of ageing on HRV and BPV for simultaneous recordings of electrocardiograph (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) signals at rest in healthy subjects. We studied eight young (21-34 years old) and eight elderly (68-85 years old) rigorously screened subjects from the Fantasia Database to make the reproducibility and comparability of the results more extensive. Time- and frequency-domain analysis of HRV and BPV was performed on 5-minute ectopic-free recordings. BRS on the heart was estimated by frequency-domain analysis of spontaneous variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and RR interval. It has been observed that compared to young the elderly subjects have (i) diminished HRV; (ii) a shift in the power spectral density and median frequency to low frequency side for HRV and to higher frequency side for BPV; and (iii) increased low-frequency alpha index and decreased high-frequency alpha index of BRS with overall alpha index augmented. The results convey that normal ageing in the absence of disease is associated with lesser parasympathetic regulation of heart rate. Thus it is concluded that the age is an important factor to be considered for prognosis and diagnosis by HRV and BPV. For reliable clinical applications, more research needs to be done on a broad spectrum of subjects. In

  1. Ultrasound-guided sampling of umbilical cord and placental blood to assess fetal wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, K H; Soothill, P W; Rodeck, C H; Campbell, S

    1986-05-10

    Fetal and maternal placental (intervillous) blood samples were obtained by means of an outpatient ultrasound-guided technique from a 33-week pregnancy with symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. The baby was delivered by emergency caesarean section because blood gas, pH, and lactate measurements showed severe hypoxic acidosis, due to inadequate placental transfer. PMID:2871339

  2. The age associations of blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose: analysis of health examination surveys from international populations

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzari, Pamela M; Lin, John K; Cowan, Melanie J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Khang, Young-Ho; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M; Lim, Stephen S; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The age-association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be partially because its metabolic risk factors tend to rise with age. Few studies have analyzed age-associations of multiple metabolic risks in the same population, especially in nationally representative samples. We examined worldwide variations in the age associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Methods and Results We used individual records from 83 nationally or sub-nationally representative health examination surveys in 52 countries to fit a linear model to risk factor data between ages 30-64 years for SBP and FPG, and between 30-54 years for TC. We report the cross-country variation of the slope and intercept of this relationship. We also assessed non-linear associations in older ages. Between 30 and 64 years of age, SBP increased by 1.7-11.6 mmHg per ten years of age and FPG increased by 0.8-20.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different countries and in the two sexes. Between 30 and 54 years of age, TC increased by 0.2-22.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different surveys and in the two sexes. For all risk factors and in most countries, risk factor levels rose more steeply among women than among men, especially for TC. On average, there was a flattening of age-SBP relationship in older ages; TC and FPG age associations reversed in older ages, leading to lower levels in older ages than in middle ages. Conclusions The rise with age of major metabolic CVD risk factors varies substantially across populations, especially for FPG and TC. TC rises more steeply in high-income countries and FPG in the Oceania countries, the Middle East, and the US. The SBP age association had no specific income or geographical pattern. PMID:22492580

  3. Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice.

    PubMed

    Villeda, Saul A; Plambeck, Kristopher E; Middeldorp, Jinte; Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Luo, Jian; Smith, Lucas K; Bieri, Gregor; Lin, Karin; Berdnik, Daniela; Wabl, Rafael; Udeochu, Joe; Wheatley, Elizabeth G; Zou, Bende; Simmons, Danielle A; Xie, Xinmin S; Longo, Frank M; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-06-01

    As human lifespan increases, a greater fraction of the population is suffering from age-related cognitive impairments, making it important to elucidate a means to combat the effects of aging. Here we report that exposure of an aged animal to young blood can counteract and reverse pre-existing effects of brain aging at the molecular, structural, functional and cognitive level. Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts--in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected--identified synaptic plasticity-related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. At the cognitive level, systemic administration of young blood plasma into aged mice improved age-related cognitive impairments in both contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. Structural and cognitive enhancements elicited by exposure to young blood are mediated, in part, by activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (Creb) in the aged hippocampus. Our data indicate that exposure of aged mice to young blood late in life is capable of rejuvenating synaptic plasticity and improving cognitive function. PMID:24793238

  4. Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Villeda, Saul A; Plambeck, Kristopher E; Middeldorp, Jinte; Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Luo, Jian; Smith, Lucas K; Bieri, Gregor; Lin, Karin; Berdnik, Daniela; Wabl, Rafael; Udeochu, Joe; Wheatley, Elizabeth G; Zou, Bende; Simmons, Danielle A; Xie, Xinmin S; Longo, Frank M; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    As human lifespan increases, a greater fraction of the population is suffering from age-related cognitive impairments, making it important to elucidate a means to combat the effects of aging1,2. Here we report that exposure of an aged animal to young blood can counteract and reverse pre-existing effects of brain aging at the molecular, structural, functional and cognitive level. Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts—in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected—identified synaptic plasticity–related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. At the cognitive level, systemic administration of young blood plasma into aged mice improved age-related cognitive impairments in both contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. Structural and cognitive enhancements elicited by exposure to young blood are mediated, in part, by activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (Creb) in the aged hippocampus. Our data indicate that exposure of aged mice to young blood late in life is capable of rejuvenating synaptic plasticity and improving cognitive function. PMID:24793238

  5. Age composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in blood of Black Sea teleosts.

    PubMed

    Rudneva, Irina I; Skuratovskaya, Ekaterina N; Kuzminova, Natalya S; Kovyrshina, Tatyana B

    2010-03-01

    Age composition and age-related trends of antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PER), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the blood of seven Black Sea teleosts (Carangidae, Centracanthidae, Gadidae, Mullidae, Gobiidae and Scorpaenidae) collected in marine coastal area of Sevastopol (Ukraine) were studied. In the catches the animals of 1-2 years of age dominated while in the Scorpaena porcus population the number of relatively elder individuals belonging to classes of 3-4 years was the highest. The trends of antioxidant enzyme activities in blood were not uniform. Three types of age-dependent responses were indicated in fish blood: 1. enzymatic activity did not change with age; 2. enzymatic activity decreased with age and 3. enzyme activity increased with age or varied unclearly. The interspecies differences of age-related enzymatic activities associated with the specificity of fish biology and ecology were indicated. Despite no clear evidence of age-related differences between fish species belonging to different ecological groups both benthic forms exhibited similar age-dependent trends of SOD and PER. The correlations between blood antioxidant enzyme activities in fish belonging to suprabenthic and benthic/pelagic groups demonstrated the intermediate values as compared to the benthic and pelagic forms. The results suggest the importance of age trends for biomarkers in fish monitoring studies. PMID:19897051

  6. SEM analysis of red blood cells in aged human bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Hortolà, P

    1992-08-01

    Mammal red blood cells (RBC) in bloodstains have been previously detected by light microscopy on stone tools from as early as 100,000 +/- 25,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the degree of morphological preservation of erythrocytes in bloodstains, an accidental human blood smear on white chert and several experimental bloodstains on hard substrates (the same stone-white chert; another type of stone-graywacke; a non-stone support-stainless steel), were stored in a room, in non-sterile and fluctuating conditions, for lengths of time ranging from 3 to 18 months. Afterwards, the specimens were coated with gold and examined by a Cambridge Stereoscan 120 scanning electron microscope. Results revealed a high preservation of RBC integrity, with the maintenance of several discocytary shapes, a low tendency to echinocytosis and a frequent appearance of a moon-like erythrocytary shape in the thinner areas of the bloodstains. PMID:1398371

  7. Changes in En(a-) human red blood cell membranes during in vivo ageing.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, T; Miyata, Y; Takei, S; Yoshida, R; Ogamo, A; Nakagawa, Y; Kuroda, N; Yanagida, J

    1996-01-01

    The human red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) were characterized by the lack of MN antigens. The red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) which were found in a Japanese family were tested to clarify the changes in membrane surfaces of the red blood cells during in vivo ageing. The contents of sialic acid, glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine of the red blood cell membranes obtained from the old red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) were significantly lower than those of the young red blood cell membranes. Neither the young nor the old red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) showed the agglutination with Arachis hypogaea (PNA) which was capable of binding to T agglutinogen. It is presumed that En(a-) red blood cells are not exposed to sialidase in vivo. In comparison with the young En(a-) red blood cell membranes, the number and the distribution density of lectin receptor sites on the old ones for Limulus polyphemus (LPA), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA) were significantly lower. It is thought that En(a-) red blood cell ageing is accompanied by elimination of some sialoglycoconjugates which have affinity for LPA, Con A, WGA and BPA, whereas En(a-) red blood cells lack glycophorin A. PMID:8866734

  8. Quality standards in Biobanking: authentication by genetic profiling of blood spots from donor's original sample.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sergio; Valverde, Laura; Odriozola, Adrian; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2010-07-01

    The field of Biobanking requires extensive work to maintain traceability of samples. However, sometimes the necessity to authenticate a sample may arise. To address these circumstances, we herein present a method for authenticating derivatives by using a blood spot from each donor, attached to a sample authentication form, by means of genetic profiling. Blood spots are collected at the time a blood sample is donated at a health centre and before processing the blood sample at the biobank. To test the validity of our approach over time, we analyzed 26 blood spots stored at room temperature in our facilities for more than 15 years. DNA was successfully extracted from the three storage materials tested in this study and 15 STR markers plus amelogenin were subsequently analyzed. The storage of a small blood spot attached to a sample authentication form proved to be efficient for genetic profiling and, therefore, may constitute a long-lasting (at least 15 years), cost-effective and effortless approach for genetic authentication of samples in biobanks. PMID:20234395

  9. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  10. Regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in ageing humans.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Christopher M; Dinenno, Frank A

    2016-04-15

    The regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery to contracting skeletal muscle is complex and involves the mechanical effects of muscle contraction; local metabolic, red blood cell and endothelium-derived substances; and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). With advancing age in humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is typically reduced during dynamic exercise and this is due to a lower vascular conductance, which could ultimately contribute to age-associated reductions in aerobic exercise capacity, a primary predictor of mortality in both healthy and diseased ageing populations. Recent findings have highlighted the contribution of endothelium-derived substances to blood flow control in contracting muscle of older adults. With advancing age, impaired nitric oxide availability due to scavenging by reactive oxygen species, in conjunction with elevated vasoconstrictor signalling via endothelin-1, reduces the local vasodilatory response to muscle contraction. Additionally, ageing impairs the ability of contracting skeletal muscle to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction (i.e. 'functional sympatholysis'), which is critical for the proper regulation of tissue blood flow distribution and oxygen delivery, and could further reduce skeletal muscle perfusion during high intensity and/or large muscle mass exercise in older adults. We propose that initiation of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization is the underlying signalling event necessary to properly modulate sympathetic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle, and that age-associated impairments in red blood cell adenosine triphosphate release and stimulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may explain impairments in both local vasodilatation and functional sympatholysis with advancing age in humans. PMID:26332887

  11. Blood pressure and mortality in elderly people aged 85 and older: community based study

    PubMed Central

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Izaks, Gerbrand J; van Buuren, Stef; Ligthart, Gerard J

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the inverse relation between blood pressure and all cause mortality in elderly people over 85 years of age can be explained by adjusting for health status, and to determine whether high blood pressure is a risk factor for mortality when the effects of poor health are accounted for. Design: 5 to 7 year follow up of community residents aged 85 years and older. Setting: Leiden, the Netherlands. Subjects: 835 subjects whose blood pressure was recorded between 1987 and 1989. Main outcome measure: All cause mortality. Results: An inverse relation between blood pressure and all cause mortality was observed. For diastolic blood pressure crude 5 year all cause mortality decreased from 88% (52/59) (95% confidence interval 79% to 95%) in those with diastolic blood pressures <65 mm Hg to 59% (27/46) (44% to 72%) in those with diastolic pressures >100 mm Hg. For systolic blood pressure crude 5 year all cause mortality decreased from 85% (95/112) (78% to 91%) in those with systolic pressures <125 mm Hg to 59% (13/22) (38% to 78%) in those with systolic pressures >200 mm Hg. This decrease was no longer significant after adjustment for indicators of poor health. No relation existed between blood pressure and mortality from cardiovascular causes or stroke after adjustment for age and sex, but after adjustment for age, sex, and indicators of poor health there was a positive relation between diastolic blood pressure and mortality from both cardiovascular causes and stroke. Conclusion: The inverse relation between blood pressure and all cause mortality in elderly people over 85 is associated with health status. Key messages Among community residents aged 85 and older there was a paradoxical inverse relation between blood pressure and all cause mortality: higher blood pressure was associated with lower mortality This inverse relation seems mainly to be due to higher mortality in those with low blood pressure; low blood pressure seems to be

  12. Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.

    1989-01-01

    A device and a method for automated processing and separation of an unmeasured sample of whole blood into multiple aliquots of plasma. Capillaries are radially oriented on a rotor, with the rotor defining a sample chamber, transfer channels, overflow chamber, overflow channel, vent channel, cell chambers, and processing chambers. A sample of whole blood is placed in the sample chamber, and when the rotor is rotated, the blood moves outward through the transfer channels to the processing chambers where the blood is centrifugally separated into a solid cellular component and a liquid plasma component. When the rotor speed is decreased, the plasma component backfills the capillaries resulting in uniform aliquots of plasma which may be used for subsequent analytical procedures.

  13. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razzak, Rima; Elmteri, Asma; Elkanderi, Taiba; Ishaq, Fareedah; Eljasem, Munera; AlDuraie, Saja; Al-Boloushi, Jenan; Elbanay, Fatma; Eldabos, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    A relationship between blood pressure (BP) and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years) participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3%) with mean age of 15.61 ± 2.40 years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75%) with mean age of 15.02 ± 2.82 years. The mean BMI was 21.7 ± 2.23 kg/m2 for the nonobese group and 34.47 ± 4.70 kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; P < 0.0001). In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; P = 0.66). For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5%) and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%). Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman r = 0.18; P < 0.05), with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman r = 0.22; P < 0.05) and mean BP (Spearman r = 0.21; P < 0.05) in females. PMID:24349766

  14. Effect of Age on the Digit Blood Flow Response to Sedative Concentrations of Nitrous Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gerald I.; Matheny, James L.; Falace, Donald A.; O'Reilly, James E.; Norton, James C.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty healthy male subjects [11 young, x̄ = 25.4 ± 0.8 (SEM) years old; 9 elderly, x̄ = 64.5 ± 0.7 years] volunteered for a study designed to investigate the effect of age on several cardiovascular parameters to inhaled N2O-O2. The protocol was designed to mimic the administration of N2O-O2 for sedation in the dental office, although no dental treatment was performed. Clinical criteria were used to judge the appropriate sedative level for each subject; no attempt was made to establish doseresponse relationships. Digit blood flow was measured by strain-gauge plethysmography, and heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, and skin temperature were monitored and recorded. N2O and CO2 levels were monitored in end-tidal gas samples by gas chromatography; machine gauge readings were calibrated against known gas mixtures by the same technique. Under the conditions of this experiment both healthy young and healthy elderly subjects experienced a marked (200-300%) increase in digit blood flow during N2O inhalation, compared to that during air and 100% O2 inhalation. There was no significant difference in the degree of flow increase between young and elderly subjects. Also, there were no significant differences in the response of these healthy young and healthy elderly subjects to sedative concentrations of N2O with regard to heart rate, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, skin temperature, or mean end-tidal CO2 levels. The data indicate that N2O, in the concentrations routinely administered in the dental office for sedation, does not have a differential effect on the measured parameters in healthy elderly and healthy young males. PMID:6587798

  15. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p < 0.005) while for samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  16. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p < 0.005) while for samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  17. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method. PMID:26832383

  18. Raised interleukin-13 levels in cord blood increases the risk of allergic sensitization at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Nevin; Babayigit Hocaoglu, Arzu; Olmez Erge, Duygu; Asilsoy, Suna; Karaman, Ozkan; Altun, Zekiye; Kumral, Abdullah; Tufekci, Ozlem; Islekel, Huray

    2013-06-01

    The identification of early markers of atopy in cord blood of newborns at delivery may offer prediction of future allergic sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cord blood interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and development of allergic diseases during the first five years of life. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery from 62 newborns. The families of these newborns were asked to complete a questionnaire about age and education of parents, number of siblings, allergic diseases in family members, cigarette exposure during pregnancy and presence of pets in their house. The same subjects were evaluated when they were five years old. Venous blood samples were drawn and epidermal skin prick tests were performed. IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels were studied from the blood samples which were taken during birth and five years later. There was no significant relationship between gender, type of delivery, educational levels of parents, exposure to cigarette smoke, atopy in parents, presence of pets in the house and IL-13 and IFN-γ levels in cord blood and at five years. Higher levels of IL-13 in newborns and five years olds, were found significantly related to skin prick test positivity (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively) and presence of allergic diseases (p= 0.008 and p= 0.001, respectively). Levels of IFN-γ, both in cord blood and five years after, were not related with the future of allergic status of children. Higher levels of IL-13 in cord blood may be a predictor of future development of allergic sensitization. PMID:23754348

  19. Heat stabilization of blood spot samples for determination of metabolically unstable drug compounds

    PubMed Central

    Blessborn, Daniel; Sköld, Karl; Zeeberg, David; Kaewkhao, Karnrawee; Sköld, Olof; Ahnoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Sample stability is critical for accurate analysis of drug compounds in biosamples. The use of additives to eradicate the enzymatic activity causing loss of these analytes has its limitations. Results A novel technique for sample stabilization by rapid, high-temperature heating was used. The stability of six commercial drugs in blood and blood spots was investigated under various conditions with or without heat stabilization at 95°C. Oseltamivir, cefotaxime and ribavirin were successfully stabilized by heating whereas significant losses were seen in unheated samples. Amodiaquine was stable with and without heating. Artemether and dihydroartemisinin were found to be very heat sensitive and began to decompose even at 60°C. Conclusion Heat stabilization is a viable technique to maintain analytes in blood spot samples, without the use of chemical additives, by stopping the enzymatic activity that causes sample degradation. PMID:23256470

  20. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    Background In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Methods Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. Results For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Conclusions Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans. PMID:26356420

  1. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. PMID:24814508

  2. Personality, Self-Rated Health and Subjective Age in a Life-Span Sample: The Moderating Role of Chronological Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling lifespan sample (N=1,016; age-range: 18–91). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. PMID:22582885

  3. Comparison of drug concentrations in blood and oral fluid collected with the Intercept sampling device.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Mordal, Jon; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Bramness, Jørgen G; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine drug concentration ratios between oral fluid collected with the Intercept device and whole blood. Samples of blood and oral fluid were obtained from patients admitted to acute psychiatric treatment and drivers suspected of drugged driving. Samples were analyzed for illegal drugs, benzodiazepines, opioids, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. Drugs were detected in samples of both blood and oral fluid from 59 subjects; altogether, 17 different drugs were found. Concentration ratios between oral fluid and blood were determined for all cases. The distributions of drug concentration ratios were wide for most drugs and do not allow reliable estimations of drug concentrations in blood using concentrations in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood drug concentration ratios for the most prevalent drugs were 0.036 diazepam, 0.027 nordiazepam, 7.1 amphetamine, 2.9 methamphetamine, 5.4 codeine, 1.9 morphine, and 4.7 tetrahydrocannabinol. The correlation coefficients between drug concentrations in oral fluid and blood ranged from 0.15 to 0.96 for the six most prevalent drugs. PMID:20465866

  4. Determination of Total Glutathione in Dried Blood Spot Samples Using a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kanďár, Roman; Štramová, Xenie; Drábková, Petra; Brandtnerová, Martina

    2015-07-01

    A method is described for the determination of total glutathione (TGSH) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Whole blood and DBS samples were obtained from a group of blood donors. After GSH reduction with dithiothreitol and protein precipitation with ethanol, the samples were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde to form a very stable, highly fluorescent derivative. For the separation, a reversed phase HPLC method was used. The mixture of ethanol and deionized water (8 : 92, v/v) was used as a mobile phase. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory: the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Quantitative recoveries from spiked DBS samples were between 98.3 and 103.6%. The presented method is inexpensive and suitable for clinical testing purposes. PMID:25344838

  5. Peripheral mechanisms of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    Human skin blood flow is controlled via dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are both impaired with primary aging, rendering the aged more vulnerable to hypothermia and cardiovascular complications from heat-related illness. Age-related alterations in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow occur at multiple points along the efferent arm of the reflex, including 1) diminished sympathetic outflow, 2) altered presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis, 3) reduced vascular responsiveness, and 4) impairments in downstream (endothelial and vascular smooth muscle) second-messenger signaling. This mechanistic review highlights some of the recent findings in the area of aging and the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. PMID:20413421

  6. Enhanced Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus using Molecular Assays on Whole Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Grolla, Allen; Mehedi, Masfique; Lindsay, Robbin; Bosio, Catharine; Duse, Adriano; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses of global agricultural and public health importance. In December 2006, an RVF outbreak was recognized in Kenya which led to the deployment of international response laboratory teams to the area. Objectives A field laboratory was operated in Malindi, Kenya to provide safe sample handling and molecular testing for RVF virus (RVFV) as well as selected other pathogens for differential diagnosis. Study Design Safe sample handling was carried out using a negative pressure flexible film isolator (glovebox) and commercial reagents to inactivate clinical specimens and purify nucleic acid. Whole blood was routinely used for diagnostic testing although paired plasma samples were also tested in select cases. Subsequently, human macrophages were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to RVFV. Results The field laboratory received samples from 33 individuals and a definite laboratory diagnosis was provided in 16 of these cases. Using molecular diagnostic techniques, RVFV was more consistently detected in whole blood than in plasma samples most likely due to association of RVFV with blood cells. Subsequent in vitro studies identified macrophages as a target cell for RVFV replication. Conclusions RVFV appears to replicate in blood cells such as macrophages. Thus, the sensitivity of molecular diagnostic testing is improved if whole blood is used as the clinical specimen rather than plasma or serum. PMID:22632901

  7. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking. PMID:26665936

  8. Age-related alterations in blood and colonic dendritic cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Lydia; Reddi, Durga; Hart, Ailsa L.; Fell, John M. E.; Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Knight, Stella C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) determine initiation, type and location of immune responses and, in adults, show decreased Toll-like receptors and some increased cytokine levels on ageing. Few studies in children have characterised DC or explored DC-related mechanisms producing age-related immune changes. Results The pDC marker BDCA2 (but not CD123) was absent in pre-pubertal children and numbers of pDC decreased with age. Blood and colonic DC were more mature and activated in adults. Decrease in pDC numbers correlated with reduced GM-CSF levels with aging, but increasing IL-4 and IL-8 levels correlated with a more activated DC profile in blood. CXCL16 levels decreased with age. Methods Blood and colonic DC phenotypes were determined in healthy adults and children by flow cytometry and correlated with aging. Blood DC were divided into plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) while only mDC were identified in colon. Serum cytokine levels were determined by multiplex cytokine assays and correlated with DC properties. Conclusions In children, lack of BDCA2, a receptor mediating antigen capture and inhibiting interferon induction, may be immunologically beneficial during immune development. Conversely, reduced pDC numbers, probably secondary to decreasing GM-CSF and increasing cytokine-induced maturation of DC are likely to determine deteriorating immunity with ageing. PMID:26942871

  9. Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meili; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xinchun

    2014-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) changes with age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Chinese adults to investigate: (1) what is the relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and BP in Chinese men and women; and (2) to what degree can the age-BP relationship be explained by arterial stiffness, controlling for other covariables. These analyses included a total of 1688 subjects (males/females: 623/1065), aged 40 to 88 years. Among them, 353 (20.9%) had hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV appeared to be more strongly correlated with BP (including SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure [PP]) than age (P < 0.001 for comparisons between Spearman correlation coefficients). Furthermore, baPWV was associated with BP (including SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) and risk of hypertension in a dose-response fashion, independent of age; in contrast, the age-BP associations were either attenuated or became negative after adjusting for baPWV. Arterial stiffness appears to be an independent contributor to hypertension, even after adjusting for age and other covariables. In contrast, age-BP associations became attenuated or negative after adjusting for baPWV. The utility of baPWV as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic indicator for hypertension warrants further investigation. PMID:25546666

  10. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; P<0.001), with a similar association shown for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for baseline resting blood pressure and clinical parameters, each 5‐mm Hg increments in exercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (P<0.001) and 30% (P<0.001) increased risk for the development of hypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  11. Elevated formic acid concentrations in putrefied post-mortem blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-05-20

    Formic acid (FA) concentration was measured in post-mortem blood and urine samples as methyl formate using a headspace in-tube extraction gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry method. A total of 113 cases were analyzed, each including a blood and urine sample fortified with 1% sodium fluoride. The cases were divided into three groups: regular (n=59), putrefied (n=30), and methanol-positive (n=22) cases. There was no evidence of ante-mortem methanol consumption in the regular and putrefied cases. In regular cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.04 g/l (0.04 g/l) and 0.06 g/l (0.04 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In putrefied cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were substantially higher, 0.24 g/l (0.22 g/l) and 0.25 g/l (0.15 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In three putrefied cases, FA concentration in blood exceeded 0.5 g/l, a level associated with fatal methanol poisoning. Ten putrefied cases were reanalyzed after 3-4 months storage, and no significant changes in FA concentrations were seen. These observations suggest that FA was formed by putrefaction during the post-mortem period, not during sample storage when sodium fluoride was added as a preservative. In methanol-positive cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.80 g/l (0.88 g/l) and 3.4 g/l (3.3 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 1.0 g/l in blood and from 1.7 to 5.6 g/l in urine. The mean (and median) methanol concentrations in methanol-positive cases were 3.0 g/l (3.0 g/l) and 4.4 g/l (4.7 g/l) in blood and in urine, respectively. The highest methanol concentrations were 6.0 g/l and 8.7 g/l in blood and urine, respectively. No ethyl alcohol was found in the methanol-positive blood samples. Poor correlation was shown between blood and urine concentrations of FA. Poor correlations were also shown, in both blood and urine, between methanol and FA concentrations. PMID:21112705

  12. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals. PMID:26186236

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  14. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  15. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-arginine, N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD+, and NADP+. Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson’s coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4–2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  16. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Chaleckis, Romanas; Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-04-19

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine,N-acetyl-arginine,N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD(+), and NADP(+) Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson's coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4-2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  17. Microfluidic, marker-free isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Nezihi Murat; Spuhler, Philipp S; Fachin, Fabio; Lim, Eugene J; Pai, Vincent; Ozkumur, Emre; Martel, Joseph M; Kojic, Nikola; Smith, Kyle; Chen, Pin-i; Yang, Jennifer; Hwang, Henry; Morgan, Bailey; Trautwein, Julie; Barber, Thomas A; Stott, Shannon L; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Kapur, Ravi; Haber, Daniel A; Toner, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The ability to isolate and analyze rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has the potential to further our understanding of cancer metastasis and enhance the care of cancer patients. In this protocol, we describe the procedure for isolating rare CTCs from blood samples by using tumor antigen–independent microfluidic CTC-iChip technology. The CTC-iChip uses deterministic lateral displacement, inertial focusing and magnetophoresis to sort up to 107 cells/s. By using two-stage magnetophoresis and depletion antibodies against leukocytes, we achieve 3.8-log depletion of white blood cells and a 97% yield of rare cells with a sample processing rate of 8 ml of whole blood/h. The CTC-iChip is compatible with standard cytopathological and RNA-based characterization methods. This protocol describes device production, assembly, blood sample preparation, system setup and the CTC isolation process. Sorting 8 ml of blood sample requires 2 h including setup time, and chip production requires 2–5 d. PMID:24577360

  18. Rapid Microbial Sample Preparation from Blood Using a Novel Concentration Device

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Anna K.; Campbell, Jennifer; Wirz, Holger; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate care for bacteremic patients is dictated by the amount of time needed for an accurate diagnosis. However, the concentration of microbes in the blood is extremely low in these patients (1–100 CFU/mL), traditionally requiring growth (blood culture) or amplification (e.g., PCR) for detection. Current culture-based methods can take a minimum of two days, while faster methods like PCR require a sample free of inhibitors (i.e., blood components). Though commercial kits exist for the removal of blood from these samples, they typically capture only DNA, thereby necessitating the use of blood culture for antimicrobial testing. Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The process can efficiently lyse 10 mL of bacteremic blood while maintaining the microorganisms’ viability, giving a 30‑μL final output volume. A suite of six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans) at a range of clinically relevant concentrations was tested. All of the microorganisms had recoveries greater than 55% at the highest tested concentration of 100 CFU/mL, with three of them having over 70% recovery. At the lowest tested concentration of 3 CFU/mL, two microorganisms had recoveries of ca. 40–50% while the other four gave recoveries greater than 70%. Using a Taqman assay for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA)to prove the feasibility of downstream analysis, we show that our microbial pellets are clean enough for PCR amplification. PCR testing of 56 spiked-positive and negative samples gave a specificity of 0.97 and a sensitivity of 0.96, showing that our sample preparation protocol holds great promise for the rapid diagnosis of bacteremia directly from a primary sample. PMID:25675242

  19. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises (1) a whole blood sample disc, (2) a serum sample disc, (3) a sample preparation rotor, and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc in capillary tubes filled by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analytical rotor for analysis by conventional methods.

  20. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1985-08-05

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises: (1) a whole blood sample disc; (2) a serum sample disc; (3) a sample preparation rotor; and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analyticaly rotor for conventional methods. 5 figs.

  1. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  2. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 ± 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 ± 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 ± 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 ± 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 ± 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 × age (years) + 0.55 × workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 × age (years) + 0.48 × workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not. PMID:26683975

  3. [Research of Outlier Samples Elimination Methods for Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Blood Glucose].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yongzhong; Li, Lina; Lin, Tianliang

    2015-12-01

    For the near-infrared (NIR) spectral analysis of the concentration of blood glucose, the calibration accuracy can be affected because of the existing of outlier samples. In this research, a Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV) method is constructed for eliminating outlier samples. The human blood plasma experiment in vitro and the human body experiment in vivo were introduced to evaluate the MCCV method for its application effect in NIR spectral analysis of blood glucose. And the uninformative sample elimination method based on modified uninformative variable elimination (MUVE-USE) was employed in this study for the comparison with MCCV. The results indicated that, like the MUVE-USE method, the outlier samples elimination method based on MCCV could be used to eliminate the outlier samples which came from gross errors (such as bad sample) or system errors (such as baseline drift). In addition, the outlier samples from the random errors of uncertain causes which affect model accuracy can be eliminated simultaneously by MCCV. The elimination of multiple outlier samples is beneficial to the improvement of prediction accuracy of calibration model. PMID:27079108

  4. Application of gelatin zymography for evaluating low levels of contaminating neutrophils in red blood cell samples.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Cesare; Ciana, Annarita; Balduini, Cesare; Risso, Angela; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2011-02-15

    Supposedly "homogeneous" red blood cell (RBC) samples are commonly obtained by "washing" whole blood free of plasma, platelets, and white cells with physiological solutions, a procedure that does not result, however, in sufficient removal of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), leading to possible artifactual results. Pure RBC samples can be obtained only by leukodepletion procedures. Proposed here is a version of gelatin zymography adapted to detect matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), selectively expressed by PMNs, in heterogeneous mixtures of RBCs and PMNs that can reveal contamination at levels as low as 1 PMN/10⁶ RBCs. PMID:20971053

  5. Application of automated serial blood sampling and dried blood spot technique with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Philip; Pham, Roger; Whitely, Carl; Soto, Marcus; Salyers, Kevin; James, Christopher; Bruenner, Bernd A

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this work was to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice with the use of an automated blood sampling system and dried blood spot (DBS) technique. AMG 517, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1) antagonist, was dosed to mice (n=3) intravenously and blood samples were collected using the automated blood sampling system with the "no blood waste" method. The collected blood samples were a mixture of 25 μL blood and 50 μL of heparinized saline solution. Two 15 μL aliquots were manually spotted onto a DBS card and dried at room temperature for at least 2h before being stored in zip bags with desiccant. The remaining samples (45 μL) were stored at -70°C until analysis. Both the DBS and the whole blood samples (diluted with saline (1:2, v/v)) were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The overall extraction recovery of the analyte from the dried blood spots was determined to be about 90%. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the whole blood or the DBS concentration data were comparable, and were obtained from only 3 mice, whereas conventional sampling and analysis would have required up to 27 mice to achieve the same result. The analyte was shown to be stable in the diluted whole blood (blood:saline 1:2) at room temperature for at least 4h and in the DBS for at least 34 days when stored at room temperature. These results indicated that the automated blood sampling system and DBS collection are promising techniques to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice and reduce the use of animals. PMID:21784595

  6. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  7. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Shear-induced hemolysis: effects of blood chemistry (including aging in storage) and shearing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Offeman, R D; Williams, M C

    1976-01-01

    Rotating disks were used to hemolyze blood under low-stress laminar flow conditions. In the first sequence of tests, kinetic hemolysis curves (KHC) were obtained with polyethylene disks for three well-characterized bloods and repeated over a period of four weeks. Each blood had a KHC with different shape, which maintained its characteristics while aging. Correlations were sought between D6000 (percent of complete hemolysis, after 6000 sec of shear) and D0 (measured before shear) by two means of data analysis, in terms of blood chemistry. It was found that uric acid and very-low-density lipoprotein levels were most useful in predicting the characteristic D6000 vs. D0 relation for each blood, and that glucose levels correlated the rate of aging as measured by hemolysis. Other chemical factors are also displayed in terms of their influence on D0. The second series of tests consisted of comparing the KHC for four disk materials using a fourth blood, then repeating with a fifth blood. Hemolytic rankings of the materials were the same with these two blood, although the KHC shapes differed. The rankings were: polyvinyl chloride greater than Silastic approximately equal to polyethylene greater than polyether urethane, with PVC most hemolytic. In another sequence for examining materials effects, five different bloods were used to compare the hemolytic properties of Teflon, nylon, and polyethylene disks. Although the KHC for the three disks bore different relationships to each other with each different blood, extrapolation of data beyond 6000 sec suggests a ranking of Teflon greater than nylon greater than polyethylene. PMID:1276331

  9. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and leukemia patients were exposed to 1 μM pancratistatin for up to 48 h. Irrespective of leukemia type, pancratistatin induced apoptosis in the leukemic samples, with minimal effects on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear control cells. Conclusion Our results show that pancratistatin is an effective and selective anti-cancer agent with potential for advancement to clinical trials. PMID:20205924

  10. 1-Hydroxypyrene Levels in Blood Samples of Rats After Exposure to Generator Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Ifegwu, Clinton; Igwo-Ezikpe, Miriam N.; Anyakora, Chimezie; Osuntoki, Akinniyi; Oseni, Kafayat A.; Alao, Eragbae O.

    2013-01-01

    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major component of fuel generator fumes. Carcinogenicity of these compounds has long been established. In this study, 37 Swiss albino rats were exposed to generator fumes at varied distances for 8 hours per day for a period of 42 days and the level of 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood was evaluated. This study also tried to correlate the level of blood 1-hyroxypyrene with the distance from the source of pollution. Plasma was collected by centrifuging the whole blood sample followed by complete hydrolysis of the conjugated 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide to yield the analyte of interest, 1-hydroxypyrene, which was achieved using beta glucuronidase. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector was used to determine the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the blood samples. The mobile phase was water:methanol (12:88 v/v) isocratic run at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/min with CI8 stationary phase at 250 nm. After 42 days of exposure, blood concentration level of 1-hydroxypyrene ranged from 34 μg/mL to 26.29 μg/mL depending on the distance from source of exposure. The control group had no 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood. After the period of exposure, percentage of death correlated with the distance from the source of exposure. Percentage of death ranged from 56% to zero depending on the proximity to source of pollution. PMID:24179393

  11. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in <0.15 s by a combination of the capillary effect and blood pressure. The system may also be used to sample interstitial fluid, but the absence of blood pressure makes it necessary to enhance the capillary effect of the needle. This is accomplished by either electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed. PMID:20024028

  12. Large-Scale Prospective T Cell Function Assays in Shipped, Unfrozen Blood Samples: Experiences from the Multicenter TRIGR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Roy K.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Girgis, Rose; Palmer, Jerry P.; Cuthbertson, David; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Broad consensus assigns T lymphocytes fundamental roles in inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. However, clinical investigations have lacked fully characterized and validated procedures, equivalent to those of widely practiced biochemical tests with established clinical roles, for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to tetanus toxin around the timing of infant vaccinations. This assay platform and shipping protocol satisfy the criteria for robust and reproducible long-term measurements of human T cell function, comparable to those of established blood biochemical tests. We present a stable technology for prospective disease-relevant T cell analysis in immunological diseases, vaccination medicine, and measurement of herd immunity. PMID:24334687

  13. In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples.

    PubMed

    Trümpler, Stefan; Meermann, Björn; Nowak, Sascha; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe; Sperling, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, thimerosal is used as a preservative in drugs and vaccines and is thus deliberately injected into the human body. In aqueous environment, it decomposes into thiosalicylic acid and the ethylmercury cation. This organomercury fragment is a potent neurotoxin and is suspected to have similar toxicity and bioavailability like the methylmercury cation. In this work, human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions were incubated with thimerosal to investigate its behaviour and binding partners in the blood stream. Inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for total mercury determination in different blood fractions, while liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on the individual mercury species in plasma surrogate samples. Analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified. PMID:24613139

  14. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for

  15. Characterizing healthy samples for studies of human cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Geldmacher, David S.; Levin, Bonnie E.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the cognitive declines associated with aging, and differentiating them from the effects of disease in older adults, are important goals for human neuroscience researchers. This is also an issue of public health urgency in countries with rapidly aging populations. Progress toward understanding cognitive aging is complicated by numerous factors. Researchers interested in cognitive changes in healthy older adults need to consider these complexities when they design and interpret studies. This paper addresses important factors in study design, patient demographics, co-morbid and incipient medical conditions, and assessment instruments that will allow researchers to optimize the characterization of healthy participants and produce meaningful and generalizable research outcomes from studies of cognitive aging. Application of knowledge from well-designed studies should be useful in clinical settings to facilitate the earliest possible recognition of disease and guide appropriate interventions to best meet the needs of the affected individual and public health priorities. PMID:22988440

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R

    2012-04-01

    To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (γ-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 μg/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size. PMID:22323047

  17. Prevalence and predictors of habitual snoring in a sample of Saudi middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring among a sample of middle-aged Saudi adults, and its potential predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 until June 2013 in randomly selected Saudi Schools in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The enrolled subjects were 2682 school employees (aged 30-60 years, 52.1% females) who were randomly selected and interviewed. The questionnaire used for the interview included: the Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire to assess for snoring, medical history, and socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure readings were recorded using standard methods. Results: Forty percent of the 2682 enrolled subjects were snorers: 23.5% were habitual snorers, 16.6% were moderate snorers, and 59.9%, were non-snorers. A multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of snoring were ageing, male gender, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, family history of both snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, water-pipe smoking, and consanguinity. Conclusion: This study shows that snoring is a common condition among the Saudi population. Previously reported risk factors were reemphasized but consanguinity was identified as a new independent predictive risk factor of snoring. Exploring snoring history should be part of the clinical evaluation. PMID:26219441

  18. An effective strategy to reduce blood pressure after forest walking in middle-aged and aged people.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Akatsuka, Shin; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Eriko; Uno, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Sachiko

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] Forest walking may be effective for human health, but little information is available about effects of energy expenditure on blood pressure responses after forest walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity energy expenditure and changes in blood pressure in individuals after forest walking. [Subjects] The subjects were 54 middle-aged and elderly people. [Methods] All subjects walked in the forest for approximately 90 min. Blood pressure, salivary amylase, and the Profile of Mood States were evaluated before and after forest walking, and activity energy expenditure was monitored throughout forest walking. Subjects were divided into two groups according to mean arterial pressure changes: a responder group (>5% decreases) and a nonresponder group (<5%). [Results] Forest walking significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and improved the Profile of Mood States in both groups. Activity energy expenditure was related to changes in mean arterial pressure in the responder group, while this relation was not observed in the nonresponder group. Differential activity energy expenditure did not strongly affect improvement of the Profile of Mood States. [Conclusion] Greater walking-related greater activity energy expenditure might be required to accentuate physiological beneficial effects on in middle-aged and aged people. Furthermore, the forest environment per se can attenuate psychological stress. PMID:26834337

  19. An effective strategy to reduce blood pressure after forest walking in middle-aged and aged people

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Akatsuka, Shin; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Eriko; Uno, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Forest walking may be effective for human health, but little information is available about effects of energy expenditure on blood pressure responses after forest walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity energy expenditure and changes in blood pressure in individuals after forest walking. [Subjects] The subjects were 54 middle-aged and elderly people. [Methods] All subjects walked in the forest for approximately 90 min. Blood pressure, salivary amylase, and the Profile of Mood States were evaluated before and after forest walking, and activity energy expenditure was monitored throughout forest walking. Subjects were divided into two groups according to mean arterial pressure changes: a responder group (>5% decreases) and a nonresponder group (<5%). [Results] Forest walking significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and improved the Profile of Mood States in both groups. Activity energy expenditure was related to changes in mean arterial pressure in the responder group, while this relation was not observed in the nonresponder group. Differential activity energy expenditure did not strongly affect improvement of the Profile of Mood States. [Conclusion] Greater walking-related greater activity energy expenditure might be required to accentuate physiological beneficial effects on in middle-aged and aged people. Furthermore, the forest environment per se can attenuate psychological stress. PMID:26834337

  20. A simple method to calculate P50 from a single blood sample.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D J

    1997-01-01

    Hill's equation relating oxygen tension, saturation and P50 is used as the basis for a simple method to calculate P50 from a single blood sample. The effects of errors of measurement in oxygen tension and saturation are considered using the technique of sensitivity analysis. The method is illustrated using data published by Severinghaus. PMID:9336736

  1. Effects of pre-analytical processes on blood samples used in metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peiyuan; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang

    2015-07-01

    Every day, analytical and bio-analytical chemists make sustained efforts to improve the sensitivity, specificity, robustness, and reproducibility of their methods. Especially in targeted and non-targeted profiling approaches, including metabolomics analysis, these objectives are not easy to achieve; however, robust and reproducible measurements and low coefficients of variation (CV) are crucial for successful metabolomics approaches. Nevertheless, all efforts from the analysts are in vain if the sample quality is poor, i.e. if preanalytical errors are made by the partner during sample collection. Preanalytical risks and errors are more common than expected, even when standard operating procedures (SOP) are used. This risk is particularly high in clinical studies, and poor sample quality may heavily bias the CV of the final analytical results, leading to disappointing outcomes of the study and consequently, although unjustified, to critical questions about the analytical performance of the approach from the partner who provided the samples. This review focuses on the preanalytical phase of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-driven metabolomics analysis of body fluids. Several important preanalytical factors that may seriously affect the profile of the investigated metabolome in body fluids, including factors before sample collection, blood drawing, subsequent handling of the whole blood (transportation), processing of plasma and serum, and inadequate conditions for sample storage, will be discussed. In addition, a detailed description of latent effects on the stability of the blood metabolome and a suggestion for a practical procedure to circumvent risks in the preanalytical phase will be given. PMID:25736245

  2. Decreases in bone blood flow and bone material properties in aging Fischer-344 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Susan A.; Hogan, Harry A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify precisely aging-induced changes in skeletal perfusion and bone mechanical properties in a small rodent model. Blood flow was measured in conscious juvenile (2 months old), adult (6 months old), and aged (24 months old) male Fischer-344 rats using radiolabeled microspheres. There were no significant differences in bone perfusion rate or vascular resistance between juvenile and adult rats. However, blood flow was lower in aged versus adult rats in the forelimb bones, scapulas, and femurs. To test for functional effects of this decline in blood flow, bone mineral density and mechanical properties were measured in rats from these two age groups. Bone mineral density and cross-sectional moment of inertia in femoral and tibial shafts and the femoral neck were significantly larger in the aged versus adult rats, resulting in increased (+14%-53%) breaking strength and stiffness. However, intrinsic material properties at midshaft of the long bones were 12% to 25% lower in the aged rats. Although these data are consistent with a potential link between decreased perfusion and focal alterations in bone remodeling activity related to clinically relevant bone loss, additional studies are required to establish the mechanisms for this putative relationship.

  3. Red blood cell complement receptor one level varies with Knops blood group, α+thalassaemia and age among Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    Opi, D H; Uyoga, S; Orori, E N; Williams, T N; Rowe, J A

    2016-01-01

    Both the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the sequestration of parasite-infected RBCs in the microvasculature are mediated in part by complement receptor one (CR1). RBC surface CR1 level can vary between individuals by more than 20-fold and may be associated with the risk of severe malaria. The factors that influence RBC CR1 level variation are poorly understood, particularly in African populations. We studied 3535 child residents of a malaria-endemic region of coastal Kenya and report, for the first time, that the CR1 Knops blood group alleles Sl2 and McCb, and homozygous HbSS are positively associated with RBC CR1 level. Sickle cell trait and ABO blood group did not influence RBC CR1 level. We also confirm the previous observation that α+thalassaemia is associated with reduced RBC CR1 level, possibly due to small RBC volume, and that age-related changes in RBC CR1 expression occur throughout childhood. RBC CR1 level in malaria-endemic African populations is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple factors that should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future studies on CR1 and malaria susceptibility. PMID:26844958

  4. Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study

    PubMed Central

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological aging; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation age (DNAm-age), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological age. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-age with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC exposure levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-age was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-age using linear mixed effects models adjusted for age, lifestyle/environmental factors, and aging-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-age. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-age in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-age were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-age and suggest that DNAm-age is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791

  5. The Gilded Age: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Gilded Age and directions for obtaining the full text of these materials; topics include, but are not limited to, immigration, the 1896 presidential election, the Populist movement, the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and the development of…

  6. Using improved serial blood sampling method of mice to study pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Watari, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Keiko; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yukari; Takai, Nozomi; Nezasa, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    In pharmacokinetic evaluation of mice, using serial sampling methods rather than a terminal blood sampling method could reduce the number of animals needed and lead to more reliable data by excluding individual differences. In addition, using serial sampling methods can be valuable for evaluation of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of drug candidates. In this study, we established an improved method for serially sampling the blood from one mouse by only one incision of the lateral tail vein, and investigated whether our method could be adapted to pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. After intravenous and oral administration of ibuprofen and fexofenadine (BCS class II and III), the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by our method and a terminal blood sampling method, with the result that both methods gave comparable results (ibuprofen: 63.8 ± 4.0% and 64.4%, fexofenadine: 6.5 ± 0.7% and 7.9%, respectively, in bioavailability). In addition, our method could be adapted to DDI study for cytochrome P450 and organic anion transporting polypeptide inhibition. These results demonstrate that our method can be useful for pharmacokinetic evaluation from the perspective of reliable data acquisition as well as easy handling and low stress to mice and improve the quality of pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. PMID:25452230

  7. Analysis of whole blood samples with low gas flow inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Sascha; Künnemeyer, Jens; Terborg, Lydia; Trümpler, Stefan; Günsel, Andreas; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Karst, Uwe; Buscher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Low gas flow ICP-OES with a total argon consumption below 0.7 L/min is introduced for the analysis of trace elements in blood samples to investigate the influence of samples containing an organic solvent in a demanding matrix on the performance of this plasma for the first time. Therefore, gadolinium was determined in human plasma samples and mercury in red blood cells, human plasma, and precipitated plasma protein fraction. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined to be in the low microgram per liter range for the analytes and the accuracy of the method was assessed by comparison with a conventional Fassel-type torch-based ICP-OES. It was proven that the low gas flow ICP-OES leads to comparable results with the instrument based on the Fassel-type torch. PMID:25240935

  8. Raman Spectroscopy: A New Proposal for the Detection of Leukemia Using Blood Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Espinosa, J. C.; Gonzalez-Solis, J. L.; Miranda-Beltran, M. L.; Soria-Fregoso, C.; Medina-Valtierra, J.; Sanchez-Gomez, R.

    2008-08-11

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze blood biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal blood was investigated. The blood samples were obtained from 6 patients who were clinically diagnosed with leukemia and 6 healthy volunteer. The imprint was put under the microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (Renishaw) with NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the serum samples from patients with leukemia and from the control group can be discriminated when the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminated analysis (LDA) is applied to their Raman spectra. The ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and some band ratios were significant and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. In addition, currently the degree of damage to the bone marrow is estimated through biopsies and therefore it is a very procedure painful. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a new technique to study the bone marrow using just blood samples.

  9. Evaluation of PCR Approaches for Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martinez-Puchol, Sandra; Pons, Maria J.; Bazán, Jorge; Tinco, Carmen; del Valle, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Background The lack of an effective diagnostic tool for Carrion’s disease leads to misdiagnosis, wrong treatments and perpetuation of asymptomatic carriers living in endemic areas. Conventional PCR approaches have been reported as a diagnostic technique. However, the detection limit of these techniques is not clear as well as if its usefulness in low bacteriemia cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection limit of 3 PCR approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the detection limit of 3 different PCR approaches: Bartonella-specific 16S rRNA, fla and its genes. We also evaluated the viability of dry blood spots to be used as a sample transport system. Our results show that 16S rRNA PCR is the approach with a lowest detection limit, 5 CFU/μL, and thus, the best diagnostic PCR tool studied. Dry blood spots diminish the sensitivity of the assay. Conclusions/Significance From the tested PCRs, the 16S rRNA PCR-approach is the best to be used in the direct blood detection of acute cases of Carrion’s disease. However its use in samples from dry blood spots results in easier management of transport samples in rural areas, a slight decrease in the sensitivity was observed. The usefulness to detect by PCR the presence of low-bacteriemic or asymptomatic carriers is doubtful, showing the need to search for new more sensible techniques. PMID:26959642

  10. Genetic Characterization of Atypical Mansonella (Mansonella) ozzardi Microfilariae in Human Blood Samples from Northeastern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Luis A.; Arrospide, Nancy; Recuenco, Sergio; Cabezas, Cesar; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequence comparisons are useful for characterizing proposed new parasite species or strains. Microfilariae with an atypical arrangement of nuclei behind the cephalic space have been recently described in human blood samples from the Amazon region of Peru. Three blood specimens containing atypical microfilariae were genetically characterized using three DNA markers (5S ribosomal DNA, 12S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase I). All atypical microfilariae were clustered into the Mansonella group and indistinguishable from M. ozzardi based on these DNA markers. PMID:22826497

  11. Age-Related Changes following In Vitro Stimulation with Rhodococcus equi of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes from Neonatal Foals

    PubMed Central

    Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Seabury, Ashley G.; Liu, Mei; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular bacterium primarily known as an equine pathogen that infects young foals causing a pyogranulomatuous pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms mediating the immune response of foals to R. equi are not fully elucidated. Hence, global genomic high-throughput tools like gene expression microarrays might identify age-related gene expression signatures and molecular pathways that contribute to the immune mechanisms underlying the inherent susceptibility of foals to disease caused by R. equi. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to compare the expression profiles at specific ages of blood leukocytes from foals stimulated with virulent R. equi with those of unstimulated leukocytes; and, 2) to characterize the age-related changes in the gene expression profile associated with blood leukocytes in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from 6 foals within 24 hours (h) of birth (day 1) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after birth. The samples were split, such that half were stimulated with live virulent R. equi, and the other half served as unstimulated control. RNA was extracted and the generated cDNA was labeled with fluorescent dyes for microarray hybridizations using an equine microarray. Our findings suggest that there is age-related differential expression of genes involved in host immune response and immunity. We found induction of genes critical for host immunity against pathogens (MHC class II) only at the later time-points (compared to birth). While it appears that foals up to 8-weeks of age are able to initiate a protective inflammatory response against the bacteria, relatively decreased expression of various other immune-related genes points toward inherent diminished immune responses closer to birth. These genes and pathways may contribute to disease susceptibility in foals if infected early in life, and might thus be targeted for developing preventative or therapeutic strategies. PMID

  12. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children. PMID:27215601

  13. Age Differences in Personality: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional age differences in the Big Five personality traits were examined in a nationally representative sample of Australians (N = 12,618; age range = 15-84). Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age. Effect sizes comparing…

  14. Is intrapartum fetal blood sampling a gold standard diagnostic tool for fetal distress?

    PubMed

    Mahendru, Amita A; Lees, Christoph C

    2011-06-01

    Developed in 1960s, cardiotocography is a screening test and fetal blood sampling (FBS) is an adjunctive, diagnostic technique to detect fetal hypoxia. A fetal blood sample pH value of less than 7.20 has a higher specificity than a pathological CTG to predict low Apgar score at 1 min. Though with a pathological CTG and despite a normal FBS pH value the risk of delivering a hypoxic infant is 30-50%, FBS has assumed considerable importance in purportedly reducing unnecessary obstetric intervention. The evidence for this is weak: the use of FBS with CTG has been shown to reduce operative vaginal deliveries though not Caesarean sections due to fetal distress. There is no difference in the umbilical artery pH at delivery with the use of intermittent FBS with CTG compared to CTG alone. FBS is an invasive procedure: obtaining an adequate blood sample is often difficult and the pH results are affected by handling of the sample, aerobic contamination and processing. Validation of intrapartum FBS requires that the pH and other values obtained are compared to a 'gold standard' technique. Although FBS has been compared to other tests such as scalp lactate, pulse oximetry, fetal ECG waveform analysis, and central haemodynamics in labouring rhesus monkeys, none of these can be considered as 'gold standard'. In the light of the existing evidence, the role of intrapartum FBS as a gold standard diagnostic technique is unproven. PMID:21300427

  15. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  16. Transcutaneous monitoring of blood gases: is it comparable with arterialized earlobe sampling?

    PubMed

    Dawson, S; Cave, C; Pavord, I; Potter, J F

    1998-03-01

    Researchers are increasingly looking for reliable non-invasive methods of assessing blood gas concentrations, and several new techniques have recently become available. Values derived using arterialized earlobe samples have been found to be comparable with conventional arterial samples, and recent studies have compared transcutaneous blood gas analysis with the traditional arterial samples and found a reasonable level of agreement in particular for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. There are no data comparing oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures (pO2, pCO2) derived from arterialized samples with one of the newer transcutaneous techniques. We therefore simultaneously studied arterialized earlobe blood gas samples and values for pO2 and pCO2 obtained by a transcutaneous monitor (TINA, Radiometer, Copenhagen) in 26 subjects with varying blood gas values. There was a close agreement between the two methods for assessment of pCO2 [mean difference (95% C.I.) between transcutaneous and earlobe values 0.25 kPa (-0.004, 0.5 kPa)], but not for pO2 [1.71 kPa (0.35, 3.07 kPa)]. Similarly, the limits of agreement were narrow for pCO2 compared to those for pO2 (-0.98, 1.47 kPa and -6.44, 3.02 kPa respectively). We conclude that transcutaneous measurement of pCO2 using the TINA is acceptable in the research setting, whereas assessment of pO2 cannot reliably be made using this technique. PMID:9692127

  17. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  18. Microchip Module for Blood Sample Preparation and Nucleic Acid Amplification Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Po Ki; Kricka, Larry J.; Fortina, Paolo; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Sakazume, Taku; Wilding, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A computer numerical control-machined plexiglas-based microchip module was designed and constructed for the integration of blood sample preparation and nucleic acid amplification reactions. The microchip module is comprised of a custom-made heater-cooler for thermal cycling, a series of 254 μm × 254 μm microchannels for transporting human whole blood and reagents in and out of an 8–9 μL dual-purpose (cell isolation and PCR) glass-silicon microchip. White blood cells were first isolated from a small volume of human whole blood (<3 μL) in an integrated cell isolation–PCR microchip containing a series of 3.5-μm feature-sized “weir-type” filters, formed by an etched silicon dam spanning the flow chamber. A genomic target, a region in the human coagulation Factor V gene (226-bp), was subsequently directly amplified by microchip-based PCR on DNA released from white blood cells isolated on the filter section of the microchip mounted onto the microchip module. The microchip module provides a convenient means to simplify nucleic acid analyses by integrating two key steps in genetic testing procedures, cell isolation and PCR and promises to be adaptable for additional types of integrated assays. PMID:11230164

  19. Age gene expression and coexpression progressive signatures in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Haritz; Goñi, Joaquín; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Otaegui, David

    2015-12-01

    Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93 years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexpression network. A modularity analysis has been performed on this network and biological-term and pathway enrichment analyses have been used for biological interpretation of each module. In summary, the results of the present work reveal the existence of a transcriptomic component that shows progressive expression changes associated to age in peripheral blood leukocytes, highlighting both the dynamic nature of the process and the need to complement young vs. elder studies with longitudinal studies that include middle aged individuals. From the transcriptional point of view, immunosenescence seems to be occurring from a relatively early age, at least from the late 20s/early 30s, and the 49-56 year old age-range appears to be critical. In general, the genes that, according to our results, show progressive expression changes with aging are involved in pathogenic/cellular processes that have classically been linked to aging in humans: cancer, immune processes and cellular growth vs. maintenance. PMID:26362218

  20. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  1. Toxicokinetic Modeling of Persistent Organic Pollutant Levels in Blood from Birth to 45 Months of Age in Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sonneborn, Dean; Lancz, Kinga; Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Kocan, Anton; Palkovicová, Lubica; Trnovec, Tomas; Haddad, Sami; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Eggesbø, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite experimental evidence that lactational exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can impact health, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive. Inconsistency across studies may reflect the inability of current methods to estimate children’s blood levels during specific periods of susceptibility. Objectives: We developed a toxicokinetic model to simulate blood POP levels in children from two longitudinal birth cohorts and aimed to validate it against blood levels measured at 6, 16, and 45 months of age. Methods: The model consisted of a maternal and a child lipid compartment connected through placental diffusion and breastfeeding. Simulations were carried out based on individual physiologic parameters; duration of breastfeeding; and levels of POPs measured in maternal blood at delivery, cord blood, or breast milk. Model validity was assessed through regression analyses of simulated against measured blood levels. Results: Simulated levels explained between 10% and 83% of measured blood levels depending on the cohort, the compound, the sample used to simulate children’s blood levels, and child’s age when blood levels were measured. Model accuracy was highest for estimated blood POP levels at 6 months based on maternal or cord blood levels. However, loss in model precision between the 6th and the 45th month was small for most compounds. Conclusions: Our validated toxicokinetic model can be used to estimate children’s blood POP levels in early to mid-childhood. Estimates can be used in epidemiologic studies to evaluate the impact of exposure during hypothesized postnatal periods of susceptibility on health. PMID:23086694

  2. Elevated systolic blood pressure in male GH transgenic mice is age dependent.

    PubMed

    Jara, Adam; Benner, Chance M; Sim, Don; Liu, Xingbo; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kopchick, John J

    2014-03-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mice expressing bovine GH (bGH) gene have previously been used to examine the effects of chronic GH stimulation on cardiovascular function. Results concerning systolic blood pressure (SBP) in bGH mice are conflicting. We hypothesized that these discrepancies may be the result of the various ages of the mice used in previous studies. In the current study, SBP was assessed monthly in male bGH mice from 3-12 months of age. Factors known to alter blood pressure were assessed during this time and included: levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and glucose homeostasis markers, and renal levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Beginning at 6 months of age bGH had increased SBP compared with wild-type controls, which remained elevated through 12 months of age. Despite having increased blood pressure and cardiac BNP mRNA, bGH mice had decreased circulating levels of BNP. Additionally, bGH mice had an age-dependent decline in insulin levels. For example, they were hyperinsulinemic at 3 months, but by 11 months of age were hypoinsulinemic relative to wild-type controls. This decrease in insulin was accompanied by improved glucose tolerance at 11 months. Finally, both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were severely depressed in kidneys of 11-month-old bGH mice. These results indicate that elevated SBP in bGH mice is dependent on age, independent of insulin resistance, and related to alterations in both the natriuretic peptide and renin-angiotensin systems. PMID:24424040

  3. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness mediates the effects of aging on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Benjamin; Sutton, Bradley P.; Low, Kathy A.; Fletcher, Mark A.; Tan, Chin Hong; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Li, Yanfen; Ouyang, Cheng; Maclin, Edward L.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The brain's vasculature is likely to be subjected to the same age-related physiological and anatomical changes affecting the rest of the cardiovascular system. Since aerobic fitness is known to alleviate both cognitive and volumetric losses in the brain, it is important to investigate some of the possible mechanisms underlying these beneficial changes. Here we investigated the role that estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) plays in determining the relationship between aging and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a group of older adults (ages 55–85). Using arterial spin labeling to quantify CBF, we found that blood flow in the gray matter was positively correlated with eCRF and negatively correlated with age. Subsequent analyses revealed that eCRF fully mediated the effects of age on CBF in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. Additionally, regional measures of CBF were related to regional measures of brain volume. These findings provide evidence that age-related effects on cerebrovascular health and perfusion in older adults are largely influenced by their eCRF levels. PMID:24778617

  5. Should national guidelines continue to recommend fetal scalp blood sampling during labor?

    PubMed

    Chandraharan, Edwin

    2016-11-01

    Intrapartum fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) (pH or lactate) has not been shown to reduce emergency cesarean sections or operative vaginal births or improve long-term perinatal outcomes. In contrast, it is associated with rare but potentially very serious complications such as leakage of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and perinatal hemorrhagic shock. Therefore, it does not fulfill the "First Do No Harm" principle and its use during labor should be critically re-evaluated. PMID:26762827

  6. New reference values for routine blood samples and human neutrophilic lipocalin during third-trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Edelstam, G; Löwbeer, C; Kral, G; Gustafsson, S A; Venge, P

    2001-01-01

    Reference values are usually based on blood samples from healthy men or non-pregnant women. Blood samples from pregnant women may be compared with these reference values. Correct references for pregnancy can be extremely important for clinical decisions such as ablatio placentae, appendicitis, premature rupture of membranes and preeclampsia. Previous studies of normal variations during third-trimester pregnancy are incomplete. Blood samples during pregnancy weeks 33, 36 and 39 as well as 1-3 h postpartum were collected from pregnant women with dietary iron supplement and at least one previous pregancy without a history of hypertension or preeclampsia. When the sampled values were compared with the present reference values from men and non-pregnant women, the following differences were found during normal pregnancy: Haemoglobin and ferritin were reduced, CRP was slightly elevated, WBC (white blood cell count) and HNL (human neutrophilic lipocalin) were elevated during pregnancy and significantly increased postpartum. Albumin was reduced. ALT and AST were slightly elevated and GGT was unchanged during pregnancy. ALP, D-dimer and fibrinogen were elevated. Uric acid increased during the third trimester and thrombocyte count decreased. Separate reference values for pregnant women are essential for correct diagnostic decisions during third-trimester pregnancy. Elevated levels of D-dimer do not necessarily indicate ablatio placentae. A diagnosis of progressive preeclampsia cannot be based on increasing uric acid levels and reduced platelet count in a stable clinical condition. HNL signals activation of neutrophilic granulocytes and can thereby offer a helpful tool for diagnosing infection during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:11768317

  7. Fast and Specific Assessment of the Halogenating Peroxidase Activity in Leukocyte-enriched Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a protocol for the quick and standardized enrichment of leukocytes from small whole blood samples is described. This procedure is based on the hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes and can be applied to human samples as well as to blood of non-human origin. The small initial sample volume of about 50 to 100 µl makes this method applicable to recurrent blood sampling from small laboratory animals. Moreover, leukocyte enrichment is achieved within minutes and with low material efforts regarding chemicals and instrumentation, making this method applicable in multiple laboratory environments. Standardized purification of leukocytes is combined with a highly selective staining method to evaluate halogenating peroxidase activity of the heme peroxidases, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), i.e., the formation of hypochlorous and hypobromous acid (HOCl and HOBr). While MPO is strongly expressed in neutrophils, the most abundant immune cell type in human blood as well as in monocytes, the related enzyme EPO is exclusively expressed in eosinophils. The halogenating activity of these enzymes is addressed by using the almost HOCl- and HOBr-specific dye aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and the primary peroxidase substrate hydrogen peroxide. Upon subsequent flow cytometry analysis all peroxidase-positive cells (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils) are distinguishable and their halogenating peroxidase activity can be quantified. Since APF staining may be combined with the application of cell surface markers, this protocol can be extended to specifically address leukocyte sub-fractions. The method is applicable to detect HOCl and HOBr production both in human and in rodent leukocytes. Given the widely and diversely discussed immunological role of these enzymatic products in chronic inflammatory diseases, this protocol may contribute to a better understanding of the immunological relevance of leukocyte-derived heme peroxidases. PMID:27501318

  8. Common DNA methylation alterations of Alzheimer's disease and aging in peripheral whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongdong; Guo, Zheng; Guo, You; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Chenguang; Hong, Guini

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common aging-related neurodegenerative illness. Recently, many studies have tried to identify AD- or aging-related DNA methylation (DNAm) biomarkers from peripheral whole blood (PWB). However, the origin of PWB biomarkers is still controversial. In this study, by analyzing 2565 DNAm profiles for PWB and brain tissue, we showed that aging-related DNAm CpGs (Age-CpGs) and AD-related DNAm CpGs (AD-CpGs) observable in PWB both mainly reflected DNAm alterations intrinsic in leukocyte subtypes rather than methylation differences introduced by the increased ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells during aging or AD progression. The PWB Age-CpGs and AD-CpGs significantly overlapped 107 sites (P-value = 2.61×10−12) and 97 had significantly concordant methylation alterations in AD and aging (P-value < 2.2×10−16), which were significantly enriched in nervous system development, neuron differentiation and neurogenesis. More than 60.8% of these 97 concordant sites were found to be significantly correlated with age in normal peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes as well as in four brain regions, and 44 sites were also significantly differentially methylated in different regions of AD brain tissue. Taken together, the PWB DNAm alterations related to both aging and AD could be exploited for identification of AD biomarkers. PMID:26943045

  9. Nutraceutical intervention reverses the negative effects of blood from aged rats on stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bickford, Paula C; Kaneko, Yuji; Grimmig, Bethany; Pappas, Colleen; Small, Brent; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sanberg, Paul R; Tan, Jun; Douglas Shytle, R

    2015-10-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in function in many of the stem cell niches of the body. An emerging body of literature suggests that one of the reasons for this decline in function is due to cell non-autonomous influences on the niche from the body. For example, studies using the technique of parabiosis have demonstrated a negative influence of blood from aged mice on muscle satellite cells and neurogenesis in young mice. We examined if we could reverse this effect of aged serum on stem cell proliferation by treating aged rats with NT-020, a dietary supplement containing blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3, and carnosine that has been shown to increase neurogenesis in aged rats. Young and aged rats were administered either control NIH-31 diet or one supplemented with NT-020 for 28 days, and serum was collected upon euthanasia. The serum was used in cultures of both rat hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Serum from aged rats significantly reduced cell proliferation as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays in both NPCs and MSCs. Serum from aged rats treated with NT-020 was not different from serum from young rats. Therefore, NT-020 rescued the effect of serum from aged rats to reduce stem cell proliferation. PMID:26410618

  10. Stability of morphine, codeine, and 6-acetylmorphine in blood at different sampling and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Papoutsis, Ioannis; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pistos, Constantinos; Dona, Artemisia; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotirios

    2014-03-01

    The stability of drugs in biological specimens is a major concern during the evaluation of the toxicological results. The stability of morphine, codeine, and 6-acetyl-morphine in blood was studied after different sampling conditions: (i) in glass, polypropylene or polystyrene tubes, (ii) with addition of dipotassium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) or sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), and (iii) with or without the addition of sodium fluoride (NaF). Spiked blood samples were stored at two different temperatures (4 and -20°C), analyzed after different storage times and after three freeze–thaw cycles. Opiate concentrations were decreased in all conditions, but the most unstable was 6-acetyl-morphine. The addition of NaF as preservative improved the stability of opiates at all conditions studied, whereas the type of anticoagulant did not affect the stability of opiates. It was concluded that blood samples should be stored at -20°C in glass tubes containing oxalate and NaF for maximum stability. PMID:24745085

  11. Optical detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples for diagnosis purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Elvio; Romero, Graciela; Alvarez, Liliana; Martinez, Carlos C.; Basombrio, Miguel A.

    2004-10-01

    An optical method for detection of Trypanosoma Cruzi (T. cruzi) parasites in blood samples of mice infected with Chagas disease is presented. The method is intended for use in human blood, for diagnosis purposes. A thin layer of blood infected by T. cruzi parasites, in small concentrations, is examined in an interferometric microscope in which the images of the vision field are taken by a CCD camera and temporarily stored in the memory of a host computer. The whole sample is scanned displacing the microscope plate by means of step motors driven by the computer. Several consecutive images of the same field are taken and digitally processed by means of image temporal differentiation in order to detect if a parasite is eventually present in the field. Each field of view is processed in the same fashion, until the full area of the sample is covered or until a parasite is detected, in which case an acoustical warning is activated and the corresponding image is displayed permitting the technician to corroborate the result visually. A discussion of the reliability of the method as well as a comparison with other well established techniques are presented.

  12. Age of red blood cells and outcome in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) and, in particular, older RBCs has been associated with increased short-term mortality in critically ill patients. We evaluated the association between age of transfused RBCs and acute kidney injury (AKI), hospital, and 90-day mortality in critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational, predefined sub-study within the FINNish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study. This study included all elective ICU admissions with expected ICU stay of more than 24 hours and all emergency admissions from September to November 2011. To study the age of RBCs, we classified transfused patients into quartiles according to the age of oldest transfused RBC unit in the ICU. AKI was defined according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. Results Out of 1798 patients, 652 received at least one RBC unit. The median [interquartile range] age of the oldest RBC unit transfused was 12 [11-13] days in the freshest quartile and 21 [17-27] days in the quartiles 2 to 4. On logistic regression, RBC age was not associated with the development of KDIGO stage 3 AKI. Patients in the quartile of freshest RBCs had lower crude hospital and 90-day mortality rates compared to those in the quartiles of older blood. After adjustments, older RBC age was associated with significantly increased risk for hospital mortality. Age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II)-score without age points, maximum Sequental Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the total number of transfused RBC units were independently associated with 90-day mortality. Conclusions The age of transfused RBC units was independently associated with hospital mortality but not with 90-day mortality or KDIGO stage 3 AKI. The number of transfused RBC units was an independent risk factor for 90-day mortality. PMID:24093554

  13. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. PMID:24287424

  14. Effects of Aging and Blood Contamination on the Urinary Protein–Creatinine Ratio in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-01-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  15. Effects of aging and exercise training on skeletal muscle blood flow and resistance artery morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michael W.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    With old age, blood flow to the high-oxidative red skeletal muscle is reduced and blood flow to the low-oxidative white muscle is elevated during exercise. Changes in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle are thought to contribute to this altered hyperemic response during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would ameliorate age-related differences in blood flow during exercise and feed artery structure in skeletal muscle. Young (6–7 mo old, n = 36) and old (24 mo old, n = 25) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (Sed), old Sed, young exercise-trained (ET), and old ET groups, where training consisted of 10–12 wk of treadmill exercise. In Sed and ET rats, blood flow to the red and white portions of the gastrocnemius muscle (GastRed and GastWhite) and the number and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of all feed arteries perforating the muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. In the old ET group, blood flow was greater to GastRed (264 ± 13 and 195 ± 9 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) and lower to GastWhite (78 ± 5 and 120 ± 6 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) than in the old Sed group. There was no difference in the number of feed arteries between the old ET and old Sed group, although the CSA of feed arteries from old ET rats was larger. In young ET rats, there was an increase in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle. Exercise training mitigated old age-associated differences in blood flow during exercise within gastrocnemius muscle. However, training-induced adaptations in resistance artery morphology differed between young (increase in feed artery number) and old (increase in artery CSA) animals. The altered blood flow pattern induced by exercise training with old age would improve the local matching of O2 delivery to consumption within the skeletal muscle. PMID:23042906

  16. Blood pressure change and antihypertensive treatment in old and very old people: evidence of age, sex and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Molander, L; Lövheim, H

    2013-03-01

    The epidemiology of blood pressure in very old age has not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to study blood pressure changes throughout old age and changes in blood pressure and antihypertensive drug use from 1981 to 2005. The study includes 1133 blood pressure measurements from two studies carried out in Umeå, Sweden. The U70 study (1981-1990) included individuals aged 70-88 and the Umeå 85+/GERDA study (2000-2005) covered people aged 85, 90 or ≥95 years. The impact of age, sex and year of investigation on blood pressure was investigated using linear regression. Mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased by 0.35 mm Hg (P<0.001) for each year of age. An inverted U-shaped relation was found between age and systolic blood pressure (SBP), with SBP reaching its maximum at 74.5 years. Mean SBP and DBP also decreased over time (SBP by 0.44 mm Hg per year, P<0.001 and DBP by 0.34 mm Hg per year, P<0.001). The proportion of participants on antihypertensive drugs increased from 39.0% in 1981 to 69.4% in 2005. In this study of people aged ≥70 years, mean SBP and DBP decreased with higher age and later investigation year. Antihypertensive drug use increased with time, which might partly explain the observed cohort effect. PMID:22513755

  17. Necessity and risks of arterial blood sampling in healthy volunteer studies.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Bruno Georg; Vermehren, Johannes; Zimmermann, Michael; Huynh, Thomas Tao; Doehring, Alexandra; Ferreiros, Nerea; Senzel, Stephan; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Erbe, Matthias; Geisslinger, Gerd; Harder, Sebastian; Angst, Martin S; Lötsch, Jörn

    2012-10-01

    Arterial blood sampling is necessary when drugs such as the fast-acting opioid analgesic remifentanil exhibit relevant differences between arterial and venous blood concentrations. Arterial cannulation is generally considered to be clinically safe and has thus become a standard procedure in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessments. However, rare cases of arterial occlusions have to be considered in risk-benefit assessments of arterial sampling in pharmacokinetic studies, especially when including healthy volunteers. In an actual case, arterial occlusion requiring surgical repair was caused by a factor V Leiden thrombophilia associated genetic variant F5 1691G>A (rs6025) and aggravated by a hypoplastic radial artery. Neither risk factor had been identified prior to enrolment by routine laboratory tests such as the prothrombin time (international normalized ratio), partial thromboplastin time and the clinical Allen's test of arterial function. Re-assessment of the necessity of arterial sampling showed that none of the potential alternatives, target concentrations of computerized infusions or venous concentrations during non-steady-state and steady-state conditions could provide the arterial concentrations. Relying on venous concentrations may result in erroneous pharmacodynamic parameters. Accurate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies relying on precisely measured blood concentrations require serial sampling techniques during both steady-state and non-steady-state conditions. However, as illustrated by the presented case, incidents involving the generally safe procedure of arterial sampling are possible, although rare. To further minimize the risks, screening of subjects for prothrombotic risks and careful assessment of the suitability of the artery should be considered in pharmacokinetic studies requiring arterial cannulation. PMID:23018527

  18. Array CGH Analysis of Paired Blood and Tumor Samples from Patients with Sporadic Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Crespo, María; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares-Bralo, María; Martin-Arenas, Rubén; Rueda-Arenas, Inmaculada; Silvestre de Faria, Paulo Antonio; García-Miguel, Purificación; Lapunzina, Pablo; Regla Vargas, Fernando; Seuanez, Hector N.; Martínez-Glez, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT), the most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children, has a complex etiology that is still poorly understood. Identification of genomic copy number variants (CNV) in tumor genomes provides a better understanding of cancer development which may be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. In paired blood and tumor DNA samples from 14 patients with sporadic WT, analyzed by aCGH, 22% of chromosome abnormalities were novel. All constitutional alterations identified in blood were segmental (in 28.6% of patients) and were also present in the paired tumor samples. Two segmental gains (2p21 and 20q13.3) and one loss (19q13.31) present in blood had not been previously described in WT. We also describe, for the first time, a small, constitutive partial gain of 3p22.1 comprising 2 exons of CTNNB1, a gene associated to WT. Among somatic alterations, novel structural chromosomal abnormalities were found, like gain of 19p13.3 and 20p12.3, and losses of 2p16.1-p15, 4q32.5-q35.1, 4q35.2-q28.1 and 19p13.3. Candidate genes included in these regions might be constitutively (SIX3, SALL4) or somatically (NEK1, PIAS4, BMP2) operational in the development and progression of WT. To our knowledge this is the first report of CNV in paired blood and tumor samples in sporadic WT. PMID:26317783

  19. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  20. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON ANTIBODY DETECTION IN BLOOD SAMPLES COLLECTED ON FILTER PAPER.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Schmit, Brandon; Kohler, Dennis; Baeten, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Using filter paper to collect blood from wildlife for antibody analysis can be a powerful technique to simplify the collection, transport, and storage of blood samples. Despite these advantages, there are limited data that detail how long these samples can be stored and how storage conditions affect antibody longevity. We used blood samples collected on filter paper from coyotes experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis to determine optimum sample storage conditions over time. Blood samples collected on filter paper were stored for 454 d or more in four groups: 1) at ambient temperature and at ambient relative humidity, 2) at ambient temperature with desiccant, 3) at 4 C with desiccant, and 4) at -20 C with desiccant. Samples stored at 4 C or -20 C with desiccant had detectable antibody for a longer period of time than the samples stored at room temperature. PMID:27187032

  1. Anopheles sinensis mosquito insecticide resistance: comparison of three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods and mosquito age in resistance measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria mosquitoes is essential for guiding the rational use of insecticides in vector control programs. Resistance bioassay is the first step for insecticide monitoring and it lays an important foundation for molecular examination of resistance mechanisms. In the literature, various mosquito sample collection and preparation methods have been used, but how mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affect insecticide susceptibility bioassay results is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affected bioassay results, which may cause incorrect classification of mosquito resistance status. Methods The study was conducted in Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes in two study sites in central China. Three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods were compared for insecticide susceptibility, kdr frequencies and metabolic enzyme activities: 1) adult mosquitoes collected from the field; 2) F1 adults from field collected, blood-fed mosquitoes; and 3) adult mosquitoes reared from field collected larvae. Results Mosquito sample collection and preparation methods significantly affected mortality rates in the standard WHO tube resistance bioassay. Mortality rate of field-collected female adults was 10-15% higher than in mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and F1 adults from field collected blood-fed females. This pattern was consistent in mosquitoes from the two study sites. High kdr mutation frequency (85-95%) with L1014F allele as the predominant mutation was found in our study populations. Field-collected female adults consistently exhibited the highest monooxygenase and GST activities. The higher mortality rate observed in the field-collected female mosquitoes may have been caused by a mixture of mosquitoes of different ages, as older mosquitoes were more susceptible to deltamethrin than younger mosquitoes. Conclusions

  2. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  3. Assessment of selenium and mercury in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups (3-7) and (8-12) years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam Shazadi; Ali, Jamshed

    2015-03-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological sample composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged (3-7) and (8-12) years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment for the determination of Se and Hg in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of male and female night blindness children while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. The Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of night blindness in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protecting element for night blindness. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children. PMID:25655123

  4. Blood pressure regulation during the aging process: the end of the 'hypertension era'?

    PubMed

    Benetos, Athanase; Salvi, Paolo; Lacolley, Patrick

    2011-04-01

    The elderly blood pressure paradigm reflects all of the demographic, technological and therapeutic changes over the past 20-30 years that make it now possible to propose a more integrative approach of 'hypertension'. The aim of the present review was to address what does measured blood pressure really mean and what are its determinants during the aging process. We show that standard blood pressure measurements are not adequate or even misleading for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk especially in the elderly patients and that there is a necessity of a transition to a new approach in determining the arterial risk. Direct arterial measurements including analysis of central and peripheral arterial waveforms and assessment of pulse wave velocity can be reliable and easily performed measurements as an alternative to blood pressure-Korotkoff approach. For these measurements, there are currently sufficient clinical data showing their association with cardiovascular risk. There is also the emergence of reference values and beneficial elements of regression by treatment. This new approach as well as recent knowledge on vascular hemodynamics and biology, represent the swan song for the hypertension concept as defined by blood pressure values. PMID:21157369

  5. Age at Puberty and Father Absence in a National Probability Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between intactness of the parental unit (e.g., father absent at age 14) and pubertal timing in both men and women were examined in a US national probability sample. In both men and women, an absent father at age 14 predicted an earlier age of puberty (e.g., early menarche or voice change). There was little evidence that an absent…

  6. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults. PMID:21731912

  7. Behavior of optical properties of coagulated blood sample at 633 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Cruzado, Beatriz; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio; Delgado Atencio, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Determination of tissue optical parameters is fundamental for application of light in either diagnostics or therapeutical procedures. However, in samples of biological tissue in vitro, the optical properties are modified by cellular death or cellular agglomeration that can not be avoided. This phenomena change the propagation of light within the biological sample. Optical properties of human blood tissue were investigated in vitro at 633 nm using an optical setup that includes a double integrating sphere system. We measure the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the blood sample and compare these physical properties with those obtained by Monte Carlo Multi-Layered (MCML). The extraction of the optical parameters: absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropic factor g from the measurements were carried out using a Genetic Algorithm, in which the search procedure is based in the evolution of a population due to selection of the best individual, evaluated by a function that compares the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of those individuals with the experimental ones. The algorithm converges rapidly to the best individual, extracting the optical parameters of the sample. We compare our results with those obtained by using other retrieve procedures. We found that the scattering coefficient and the anisotropic factor change dramatically due to the formation of clusters.

  8. An improved, PCR-based strategy for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-dos-Santos, G; Nishiya, A S; Sabino, E C; Chamone, D F; Saez-Alquézar, A

    1999-10-01

    Attempts were made to improve the PCR-based detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples, primarily for screening blood donors. Samples were obtained from candidate donors who were reactive in one or two of three serological tests for Chagas disease (and therefore considered 'indeterminate') or in all three tests (3+). Each sample was then examined using three different, PCR-based techniques: 'PCR-I' (in which the target DNA is a nuclear repetitive sequence); 'PCR-II' [amplifying a conserved region of the T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA (kDNA)]; and 'PCR-III' (a new strategy in which the target kDNA is amplified by 'nested' PCR). Among the samples from 3+ individuals, PCR-I, PCR-II and PCR-III amplified two (3.8%) out of 52, four (4.5%) out of 88, and 27 (25.7%) out of 105 samples tested, respectively. Seven, 69 and 70 samples from 'indeterminate' subjects were tested by PCR-I, PCR-II and PCR-III, respectively; there was not a single positive result by PCR-I or PCR-II, but three (4.3%) of the samples tested by PCR-III were positive. In a reconstruction experiment, in conditions in which PCR-I and PCR-II could not detect 10,000 parasites/ml, PCR-III was able to detect one parasite/ml. Although all three PCR-based strategies examined had rather poor sensitivities, PCR-III was far more sensitive than PCR-I or PCR-II. PMID:10715696

  9. Asymmetry of light backscattering from Couette flow of RBC suspensions: application for biomonitoring of blood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Khatsevich, Stanislav G.; Lopatin, Vladimir V.

    1999-02-01

    Asymmetry of light backscattering from a shear flow of 1 mm thick layer of whole blood was measured. The blood samples from different health and diseased individuals were placed in a gap of a cylindrical Couette cell with inner cylinder rotating with variable rates. Probing was performed with a CW He-Ne laser (633 nm). The difference in intensities of backscattered light detected through a transpatent wall of the stationary outer cylinder with a photodetector located at variable distances from the illuminating beam along and opposite to the flow directions depends on the distance between the illuminating and detecting probes, on shear rate, on hematocrit, and on the type of disease. The experiments conducted with blood samples from patients suffering from heart disease, bronchial asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis showed stable and reproducible difference in the amount of asymmetry. This makes the technique potentially applicable for optical biomonitoring and, also, for the study of rheology of concentrated suspensions of large deformable particles, like erythrocytes.

  10. How You Can Help Medical Research: Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples

    MedlinePlus

    ... racial or ethnic group – Your age – Your family history – Your medical history “I donated my samples because I wanted to ... people in your life the following questions: • Is donation right for me? • Do ... No. 12-7933 Printed August 2012 NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health

  11. Simplified Assay for Epigenetic Age Estimation in Whole Blood of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Lopez-Golan, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Biological age is not always concordant with chronological age and the departures are of interest for understanding how diseases and environmental insults affect tissue function, organismal health, and life expectancy. The best-known biological age biomarker is telomere length, but there are more accurate biomarkers as the recently developed based in epigenetic, transcriptomic, or biochemical changes. The most accurate are the epigenetic biomarkers based on specific changes in DNA methylation referred as DNA methylation age measures (DmAM). Here, we have developed and validated a new DmAM that addresses some limitations of the previously available. The new DmAM includes the study in whole blood (WB) of 8 CpG sites selected as the most informative on a training set of 390 healthy subjects. The 8 CpG DmAM showed better accuracy than other DmAM based in few CpG in an independent validation set of 335 subjects. Results were not significantly influenced by sex, smoking, or variation in blood cell subpopulations. In addition, the new 8 CpG DmAM was amenable to study in a single multiplex reaction done with methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension (MS-SNuPE), a methodology based on commercially available reagents and run in capillary electrophoresis sequencers. In this way, the high cost of DNA methylation microarrays or of a pyrosequencer, which are needed for alternative DmAM, was avoided. Performance of the DmAM with MS-SNuPE was assessed in a set of 557 donors, showing high call rate (>97%), low CV (<3.3%) and high accuracy (Mean Absolute Deviation = 6.07 years). Therefore, the 8 CpG DmAM is a feasible and accurate tool for assessing the epigenetic component of biological age in blood of adults. PMID:27471517

  12. Two variants of nephrosclerosis separately related to age and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tracy, R E; Velez-Duran, M; Heigle, T; Oalmann, M C

    1988-05-01

    Two variants of nephrosclerosis, roughly corresponding to the arterial and the arteriolar forms, have been examined in a series of autopsy kidneys by five observers using quantitative morphometry. These two variants are both marked by fibroplastic intimal thickening and medial wastage in the arteries, but one of these affects vessels of sizes that are closer to the heart, whereas the other affects sizes that are more remote from the source of arterial pressure. Both types of nephrosclerosis were found to increase with aging in subjects without hypertension. Each year of aging added 0.15 units of intimal thickening to the close vessels and 0.11 to the remote vessels. Each millimeter of mercury of elevated blood pressure was equivalent to 1 year of aging in the close and 2 years in the remote levels of the arterial tree. The four variables, age, blood pressure, remote level intimal thickness, and close level intimal thickness, were found to hold complex curvilinear interrelationships when examined by regression analysis. A dynamic model was suggested by the following findings: The earliest changes shown by young normotensives are in the close vessels, possibly because of the aging effect of the normal pulse wave. Later, the changes extend into the remote level, perhaps because the thickened intima is rigid and propagates the pulse wave abnormally far into the smallest arteries. Hypertension could then be viewed either as a cause for an exaggeration of this normal process or as a consequence of its extension into the remote level vessels where resistance to blood flow is greater or both. The objective morphometric method showed good agreement in the findings by independent observers and is considered to be suitable for epidemiologic studies of nephrosclerosis. PMID:3358455

  13. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Payal C.; Deal, Allison M.; Pfaff, Emily R.; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M.; Park, Yara A.; Ataga, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14–27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71–7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66–35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding. PMID:25963831

  14. Sex-specific influence of aging on exercising leg blood flow.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Pelberg, Justin A; Mishkin, Aaron D; Proctor, David N

    2008-03-01

    Our previous work suggests that healthy human aging is associated with sex-specific differences in leg vascular responses during large muscle mass exercise (2-legged cycling) (Proctor DN, Parker BA. Microcirculation 13: 315-327, 2006). The present study determined whether age x sex interactions in exercising leg hemodynamics persist during small muscle mass exercise that is not limited by cardiac output. Thirty-one young (20-30 yr; 15 men/16 women) and 31 older (60-79 yr; 13 men/18 women) healthy, normally active adults performed graded single-leg knee extensions to maximal exertion. Femoral artery blood velocity and diameter (Doppler ultrasound), heart rate (ECG), and beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure, radial artery tonometry) were measured during each 3-min work rate (4.8 and 8 W/stage for women and men, respectively). The results (means +/- SE) were as follows. Despite reduced resting leg blood flow and vascular conductance, older men exhibited relatively preserved exercising leg hemodynamic responses. Older women, by contrast, exhibited attenuated hyperemic (young: 52 +/- 3 ml.min(-1).W(-1); vs. older: 40 +/- 4 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P = 0.02) and vasodilatory responses (young: 0.56 +/- 0.06 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1).W(-1) vs. older: 0.37 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) W(-1); P < 0.01) to exercise compared with young women. Relative (percentage of maximal) work rate comparisons of all groups combined also revealed attenuated vasodilator responses in older women (P < 0.01 for age x sex x work rate interaction). These sex-specific age differences were not abolished by consideration of hemoglobin, quadriceps muscle, muscle recruitment, and mechanical influences on muscle perfusion. Collectively, these findings suggest that local factors contribute to the sex-specific effects of aging on exercising leg hemodynamics in healthy adults. PMID:18162481

  15. Quality Control Methods for Optimal BCR-ABL1 Clinical Testing in Human Whole Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Stanoszek, Lauren M.; Crawford, Erin L.; Blomquist, Thomas M.; Warns, Jessica A.; Willey, Paige F.S.; Willey, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable breakpoint cluster region (BCR)–Abelson (ABL) 1 measurement is essential for optimal management of chronic myelogenous leukemia. There is a need to optimize quality control, sensitivity, and reliability of methods used to measure a major molecular response and/or treatment failure. The effects of room temperature storage time, different primers, and RNA input in the reverse transcription (RT) reaction on BCR-ABL1 and β-glucuronidase (GUSB) cDNA yield were assessed in whole blood samples mixed with K562 cells. BCR-ABL1 was measured relative to GUSB to control for sample loading, and each gene was measured relative to known numbers of respective internal standard molecules to control for variation in quality and quantity of reagents, thermal cycler conditions, and presence of PCR inhibitors. Clinical sample and reference material measurements with this test were concordant with results reported by other laboratories. BCR-ABL1 per 103 GUSB values were significantly reduced (P = 0.004) after 48-hour storage. Gene-specific primers yielded more BCR-ABL1 cDNA than random hexamers at each RNA input. In addition, increasing RNA inhibited the RT reaction with random hexamers but not with gene-specific primers. Consequently, the yield of BCR-ABL1 was higher with gene-specific RT primers at all RNA inputs tested, increasing to as much as 158-fold. We conclude that optimal measurement of BCR-ABL1 per 103 GUSB in whole blood is obtained when gene-specific primers are used in RT and samples are analyzed within 24 hours after blood collection. PMID:23541592

  16. Leakage of Oxygen from Blood and Water Samples Stored in Plastic and Glass Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Peter V.; Horton, J. N.; Mapleson, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    Theory and experiment showed that samples of blood and water stored in 2-ml and 5-ml syringes made of polypropylene, polystyrene, or S.A.N. co-polymer exchanged oxygen with their surroundings. In the first hour the exchange was due mainly to equilibration with the plastic of the syringe and only in small degree to permeation through the plastic. With high initial tension or with blood of low haemoglobin concentration the exchange can result in errors in Po2 of up to 6% in two minutes and 16% in 30 to 60 minutes. With all-glass syringes the exchange was much slower but, even so, after 24 hours was important in all but a few of 18 interchangeable glass syringes. Therefore unless analysis can be started immediately all-glass syringes are to be preferred, and for prolonged storage even these should be selected. PMID:5565518

  17. Isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida from Human Blood Sample: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rachna; Dudeja, Mridu; Nandy, Shyamasree; Das, Ayan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida belonging to the genus Aeromonas, is a common pathogen that causes furunculosis and septicaemia in variety of fishes. It infects cold blooded vertebrates living at low temperatures mainly salmonid fish hence named salmonicida. Untill recently Aeromanas salmonicida is considered to be a fish pathogen. A. salmonicida is considered to be non-pathogenic for humans as it cannot grow at 37ºC. "However, In our laboratory culture plates and broths were incubated twice at 37ºC and each time same type of colonies were isolated which were identified as A. samonicida by Vitek 2 compact system bioMerieux, Inc. (Durham, N.C.)". By far no report has been received regarding its isolation from humans biological sample. Here we present the first report of A. salmonicida isolated from the human blood. PMID:24701507

  18. The trajectory of the blood DNA methylome ageing rate is largely set before adulthood: evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kananen, L; Marttila, S; Nevalainen, T; Kummola, L; Junttila, I; Mononen, N; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T; Hervonen, A; Jylhä, M; Lehtimäki, T; Hurme, M; Jylhävä, J

    2016-06-01

    The epigenetic clock, defined as the DNA methylome age (DNAmAge), is a candidate biomarker of ageing. In this study, we aimed to characterize the behaviour of this marker during the human lifespan in more detail using two follow-up cohorts (the Young Finns study, calendar age i.e. cAge range at baseline 15-24 years, 25-year-follow-up, N = 183; The Vitality 90+ study, cAge range at baseline 19-90 years, 4-year-follow-up, N = 48). We also aimed to assess the relationship between DNAmAge estimate and the blood cell distributions, as both of these measures are known to change as a function of age. The subjects' DNAmAges were determined using Horvath's calculator of epigenetic cAge. The estimate of the DNA methylome age acceleration (Δ-cAge-DNAmAge) demonstrated remarkable stability in both cohorts: the individual rank orders of the DNAmAges remained largely unchanged during the follow-ups. The blood cell distributions also demonstrated significant intra-individual correlation between the baseline and follow-up time points. Interestingly, the immunosenescence-associated features (CD8+CD28- and CD4+CD28- cell proportions and the CD4/CD8 cell ratio) were tightly associated with the estimate of the DNA methylome age. In summary, our data demonstrate that the general level of Δ-cAge-DNAmAge is fixed before adulthood and appears to be quite stationary thereafter, even in the oldest-old ages. Moreover, the blood DNAmAge estimate seems to be tightly associated with ageing-associated shifts in blood cell composition, especially with those that are the hallmarks of immunosenescence. Overall, these observations contribute to the understanding of the longitudinal aspects of the DNAmAge estimate. PMID:27300324

  19. Capillary blood sampling: national recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana; Maradin, Miljenka

    2015-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure aimed at assisting in patient diagnosis, management and treatment, and is increasingly used worldwide, in part because of the increasing availability of point-of-care testing. It is also frequently used to obtain small blood volumes for laboratory testing because it minimizes pain. The capillary blood sampling procedure can influence the quality of the sample as well as the accuracy of test results, highlighting the need for immediate, widespread standardization. A recent nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia has shown that capillary sampling procedures are not standardized and that only a small proportion of Croatian laboratories comply with guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this document is to provide recommendations for capillary blood sampling. This document has been produced by the Working Group for Capillary Blood Sampling within the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Our recommendations are based on existing available standards and recommendations (WHO Best Practices in Phlebotomy, CLSI GP42-A6 and CLSI C46-A2), which have been modified based on local logistical, cultural, legal and regulatory requirements. We hope that these recommendations will be a useful contribution to the standardization of capillary blood sampling in Croatia. PMID:26524965

  20. Sources of Pre-Analytical Variations in Yield of DNA Extracted from Blood Samples: Analysis of 50,000 DNA Samples in EPIC

    PubMed Central

    Caboux, Elodie; Lallemand, Christophe; Ferro, Gilles; Hémon, Bertrand; Mendy, Maimuna; Biessy, Carine; Sims, Matt; Wareham, Nick; Britten, Abigail; Boland, Anne; Hutchinson, Amy; Siddiq, Afshan; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Gunter, Marc J.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Travis, Ruth; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Canzian, Federico; Sánchez, Maria-José; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Lund, Eiliv; Bilbao, Roberto; Sala, Núria; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palli, Domenico; Navarro, Carmen; Panico, Salvatore; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Polidoro, Silvia; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Hainaut, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88%) performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies. PMID:22808065

  1. [Study of molecular mechanism for a blood sample with A3 phenotype].

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei; Yang, Liang; Mei, Chuanliang; Xu, Deyi; Deng, Gang; He, Yunlei; Liu, Yiyu; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the molecular mechanism for a blood sample with mixed-field hemagglutination upon determination of ABO blood group. METHODS Serological techniques were employed to identify the erythrocyte phenotype. The A and B antigens were detected by flow cytometry. The preliminary genotype of ABO gene was assayed with sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP). Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were amplified with PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing. Haplotypes of the ABO gene were analyzed by cloning sequencing as well. RESULTS The serological reaction pattern has supported an O phenotype when all the tubes were centrifuged for the first time. However, a mixed-field hemagglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) with anti-A antibodies was present after the tube was centrifuged five times later. A antigens were detected on the surface of partial red blood cells of the sample by flow cytometry. PCR- SSP results have shown that the preliminary ABO genotype was A/O. Analysis of the fragments of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene has indicated that heterozygosis lied as follows: 261G/A, 425T/T, 467C/T, 646A/T, 681A/G, 745C/T, 771C/T, 829A/G, conjecturing the genotype to be A307/O02, which was confirmed by haplotype sequence analysis. Compared with A101 allele, A307 allele has two missense mutations, 467C> T and 745C> T, which have resulted in substitutions Pro156Leu and Arg249Trp in the A glycosyltransferase polypeptide chain. CONCLUSION A variant allele (A307) has been identified for the first time in mainland China, which is responsible for the formation of A3 phenotype. PMID:26418996

  2. Screening for genetic haemochromatosis in blood samples with raised alanine aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Bhavnani, M; Lloyd, D; Bhattacharyya, A; Marples, J; Elton, P; Worwood, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the UK approximately 1 in 140 people are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and are at risk from iron overload caused by genetic haemochromatosis (GH). Early detection can prevent organ damage secondary to iron deposition and increase life expectancy.
AIM—To screen for GH in all blood samples sent to the laboratory for routine liver function tests in which raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was detected.
METHODS—ALT was measured in sera sent to the laboratory for routine liver function tests. In those samples found to have raised activity, transferrin saturation and ferritin were measured followed by genetic testing when transferrin saturation was increased.
RESULTS—Of the 35 069 serum samples assayed for routine liver function tests, 1490 (4.2%) had raised ALT levels (>50 u/l). Transferrin saturation and serum ferritin concentrations were measured in these patient samples, and in 56 transferrin saturation was >60%. Further blood samples were requested from these patients for genetic testing: 33 samples were obtained. There were nine patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and three compound heterozygotes (heterozygous for both C282Y and H63D mutations).
CONCLUSIONS—The association of raised ALT activity and transferrin saturation of >60% could provide a simple, cost effective method for detecting individuals with clinical haemochromatosis. Although many patients with GH may have been missed, this study suggests that the clinical penetrance of the disorder may be much lower than is generally supposed and that genetic screening will identify many people who may never develop clinical haemochromatosis.


Keywords: haemochromatosis; alanine aminotransferase PMID:10764716

  3. Does volumetric absorptive microsampling eliminate the hematocrit bias for caffeine and paraxanthine in dried blood samples? A comparative study.

    PubMed

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-06-30

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel sampling technique that allows the straightforward collection of an accurate volume of blood (approximately 10μL) from a drop or pool of blood by dipping an absorbent polymeric tip into it. The resulting blood microsample is dried and analyzed as a whole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of VAMS to overcome the hematocrit bias, an important issue in the analysis of dried blood microsamples. An LC-MS/MS method for analysis of the model compounds caffeine and paraxanthine in VAMS samples was fully validated and fulfilled all pre-established criteria. In conjunction with previously validated procedures for dried blood spots (DBS) and blood, this allowed us to set up a meticulous comparative study in which both compounds were determined in over 80 corresponding VAMS, DBS and liquid whole blood samples. These originated from authentic human patient samples, covering a wide hematocrit range (0.21-0.50). By calculating the differences with reference whole blood concentrations, we found that analyte concentrations in VAMS samples were not affected by a bias that changed over the evaluated hematocrit range, in contrast to DBS results. However, VAMS concentrations tend to overestimate whole blood concentrations, as a consistent positive bias was observed. A different behavior of VAMS samples prepared from incurred and spiked blood, combined with a somewhat reduced recovery of caffeine and paraxanthine from VAMS tips at high hematocrit values, an effect that was not observed for DBS using a very similar extraction procedure, was found to be at the basis of the observed VAMS-whole blood deviations. Based on this study, being the first in which the validity and robustness of VAMS is evaluated by analyzing incurred human samples, it can be concluded that VAMS effectively assists in eliminating the effect of hematocrit. PMID:26041521

  4. [Isoelectric spectra of liver tissue and blood serum albumin for rabbits of different age].

    PubMed

    Sopkina, D A; Ostolovskiĭ, E M; Ivlev, V N

    1978-01-01

    The isoelectric spectrum of albumin isolated from the liver and blood serum of 30-, 45- and 90-day rabbits was studied. By the method of isoelectric focusing in the boron-borate buffer--mannitol system. It is shown that the liver albumin displays heterogeneity ans is separated into four-five fractions, with pJ 4.8-6.0. Age peculiarities are found for the isoelectric spectrum of this protein. The serum albumin spectrum for rabbits of the studied age groups is characterized by the presence of a homogeneous peak with pJ 5.59, 5.57 and 5.47 corresponding to 30, 45 and 90-day age, respectively. Identity of serum albumin and protein of some liver albumin spectrum components is established by analyzing the pattern of the isoelectric spectrum for a mixture of preparations of 90-day rabbit proteins under comparison. PMID:34911

  5. State Laws Regarding the Retention and Use of Residual Newborn Screening Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Aaron; Anderson, Rebecca; Rothwell, Erin; Botkin, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After newborn screening has been completed, many states retain residual newborn screening dried blood samples for various purposes, including program evaluation, quality assurance, and biomedical research. The extent to which states possess legal authority to retain residual dried blood samples (DBS) and use them for purposes unrelated to newborn screening is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate state laws regarding the retention and use of DBS. METHODS: State statutes and regulations related to newborn screening of all 50 states plus the District of Columbia were accessed online between November 2008 and December 2009 and reviewed by 2 independent reviewers to determine the extent to which the retention and use of DBS were addressed. RESULTS: The retention or use of DBS has not been addressed in 18 states. In 4 states, DBS becomes state property. Eight states require that parents be provided information regarding the retention of DBS. Parents in 5 states may request the destruction of their child's residual sample. Parental consent is required under certain circumstances to release DBS for research in 6 states. One state prohibits DBS from being used for research purposes. CONCLUSIONS: States have wide variability in their policies regarding the retention and use of DBS. Many states have not addressed key issues, and some states that retain DBS may be acting outside the scope of their legal authority. The lack of transparency on the part of states in retaining DBS may undermine public trust in state newborn screening programs and the research enterprise. PMID:21444595

  6. The Brain Response to Peripheral Insulin Declines with Age: A Contribution of the Blood-Brain Barrier?

    PubMed Central

    Heni, Martin; Maetzler, Walter; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hennige, Anita M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is a matter of debate whether impaired insulin action originates from a defect at the neural level or impaired transport of the hormone into the brain. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of aging on insulin concentrations in the periphery and the central nervous system as well as its impact on insulin-dependent brain activity. Methods Insulin, glucose and albumin concentrations were determined in 160 paired human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Additionally, insulin was applied in young and aged mice by subcutaneous injection or intracerebroventricularly to circumvent the blood-brain barrier. Insulin action and cortical activity were assessed by Western blotting and electrocorticography radiotelemetric measurements. Results In humans, CSF glucose and insulin concentrations were tightly correlated with the respective serum/plasma concentrations. The CSF/serum ratio for insulin was reduced in older subjects while the CSF/serum ratio for albumin increased with age like for most other proteins. Western blot analysis in murine whole brain lysates revealed impaired phosphorylation of AKT (P-AKT) in aged mice following peripheral insulin stimulation whereas P-AKT was comparable to levels in young mice after intracerebroventricular insulin application. As readout for insulin action in the brain, insulin-mediated cortical brain activity instantly increased in young mice subcutaneously injected with insulin but was significantly reduced and delayed in aged mice during the treatment period. When insulin was applied intracerebroventricularly into aged animals, brain activity was readily improved. Conclusions This study discloses age-dependent changes in insulin CSF/serum ratios in humans. In the elderly, cerebral insulin resistance might be partially attributed to an impaired transport of insulin into the central nervous system. PMID:25965336

  7. Colorimetric assay of noramidopyrine methanesulfonate sodium in formulations and in blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Diab, A H

    1977-04-01

    A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive colorimetric method is proposed for the quantitative estimation of noramido-pyrine methanesulfonate sodium in different dosage forms as well as in blood and urine samples. The method is based on the reaction of 3-sulfonic-5-amino-alpha-naphthol with formaldehyde liberated from noramidopyrine methanesulfonate sodium after treatment with conc. sulfuric acid where a yellow colour appeared immediately which turned to blue on dilution with water. The blue colour obeyed Beer's law (10--400 microgram) and remained stable for more than 1 h. The effect of other drugs, tablet excipients, parentral vehicles and suppository bases was studied. PMID:896911

  8. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted. PMID:24169095

  9. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  10. Alpha-Synuclein Levels in Blood Plasma Decline with Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Niklas K. U.; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens. PMID:25844871

  11. Does Pneumatic Tube System Transport Contribute to Hemolysis in ED Blood Samples?

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Michael P.; Reineks, Edmunds Z.; Hustey, Fredric M.; Berriochoa, Jacob P.; Podolsky, Seth R.; Meldon, Stephen; Schold, Jesse D.; Chamberlin, Janelle; Procop, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to determine if the hemolysis among blood samples obtained in an emergency department and then sent to the laboratory in a pneumatic tube system was different from those in samples that were hand-carried. Methods The hemolysis index is measured on all samples submitted for potassium analysis. We queried our hospital laboratory database system (SunQuest®) for potassium results for specimens obtained between January 2014 and July 2014. From facility maintenance records, we identified periods of system downtime, during which specimens were hand-carried to the laboratory. Results During the study period, 15,851 blood specimens were transported via our pneumatic tube system and 92 samples were hand delivered. The proportions of hemolyzed specimens in the two groups were not significantly different (13.6% vs. 13.1% [p=0.90]). Results were consistent when the criterion was limited to gross (3.3% vs 3.3% [p=0.99]) or mild (10.3% vs 9.8% [p=0.88]) hemolysis. The hemolysis rate showed minimal variation during the study period (12.6%–14.6%). Conclusion We found no statistical difference in the percentages of hemolyzed specimens transported by a pneumatic tube system or hand delivered to the laboratory. Certain features of pneumatic tube systems might contribute to hemolysis (e.g., speed, distance, packing material). Since each system is unique in design, we encourage medical facilities to consider whether their method of transport might contribute to hemolysis in samples obtained in the emergency department. PMID:27625719

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels. PMID:26896114

  13. Effects on Animal Wellbeing and Sample Quality of 2 Techniques for Collecting Blood from the Facial Vein of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Cassie C; Howarth, Gordon S; Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2015-01-01

    When sampling blood from mice, several different techniques can be used, with retroorbital sinus sampling traditionally being the most common. Given the severe tissue trauma caused by retroorbital sampling, alternative methods such as the facial vein route have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 techniques for facial vein bleeding in conscious mice to ascertain whether differences in clinical outcomes, practicability of sample collection, and hematologic parameters were apparent. Blood samples were obtained from the facial vein of 40 BALB/c mice by using either a 21-gauge needle or a lancet. Subsequently, the protocol was repeated with isoflurane-anesthetized mice sampled by using the lancet method (n = 20). Behavior immediately after sampling was observed, and sample quantity, sampling time, and time until bleeding ceased were measured. Clinical pathology data and hematoma diameter at necropsy were analyzed also. The mean sample quantity collected (approximately 0.2 mL) was comparable among methods, but sampling was much more rapid when mice were anesthetized by using isoflurane. The only other noteworthy finding was a significantly reduced number of platelets in samples from anesthetized mice. Adverse, ongoing clinical signs were rare regardless of the method used. The results revealed no significant differences in welfare implications or blood sample quality among the methods or between conscious and anesthetized mice. Therefore, any of the methods we evaluated for obtaining blood samples from the facial vein are appropriate for use in research studies. PMID:25651095

  14. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples. PMID:26830594

  15. Development of a simple device for processing whole blood samples into measured aliquots of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    A capillary processor and aliquoter (CPA) has been designed and fabricated that is capable of accepting aliquots of whole blood and automatically processing them into discrete aliquots of plasma. The device consists of two disks, each of which contains 16 individual capillaries and a processing rotor. One of the disks accepts larger capillaries, each of which will hold approx. 100 ..mu..L of whole blood. The second disk, which accepts 2.54-cm-long precision capillaries of varying internal diameter, provides for exact sample volumes ranging from 1 to 10 ..mu..L. The processing rotor consists of 16 individual compartments and chambers to accept both disks. Gravimetric and photometric evaluation of the CPA indicates that it is capable of entraining and delivering microliter volumes of liquids with a degree of precision and accuracy (1 to 2%) approaching that of a state-of-the-art mechanical pipette. In addition, we have demonstrated that aliquots of whole blood can be transferred into the chambers of the processing unit and separated into their cellular and plasma fractions, which can then be analyzed with an acceptable degree of precision (i.e., C.V.s of approx. +-3% for serum enzyme measurements). 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tbls.

  16. A round robin approach to the analysis of bisphenol a (BPA) in human blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous, yet there are concerns about whether BPA can be measured in human blood. This Round Robin was designed to address this concern through three goals: 1) to identify collection materials, reagents and detection apparatuses that do not contribute BPA to serum; 2) to identify sensitive and precise methods to accurately measure unconjugated BPA (uBPA) and BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), a metabolite, in serum; and 3) to evaluate whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA-G occurs during sample handling and processing. Methods Four laboratories participated in this Round Robin. Laboratories screened materials to identify BPA contamination in collection and analysis materials. Serum was spiked with concentrations of uBPA and/or BPA-G ranging from 0.09-19.5 (uBPA) and 0.5-32 (BPA-G) ng/mL. Additional samples were preserved unspiked as ‘environmental’ samples. Blinded samples were provided to laboratories that used LC/MSMS to simultaneously quantify uBPA and BPA-G. To determine whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA metabolites occurred, samples spiked with only BPA-G were analyzed for the presence of uBPA. Finally, three laboratories compared direct and indirect methods of quantifying BPA-G. Results We identified collection materials and reagents that did not introduce BPA contamination. In the blinded spiked sample analysis, all laboratories were able to distinguish low from high values of uBPA and BPA-G, for the whole spiked sample range and for those samples spiked with the three lowest concentrations (0.5-3.1 ng/ml). By completion of the Round Robin, three laboratories had verified methods for the analysis of uBPA and two verified for the analysis of BPA-G (verification determined by: 4 of 5 samples within 20% of spiked concentrations). In the analysis of BPA-G only spiked samples, all laboratories reported BPA-G was the majority of BPA detected (92.2 – 100%). Finally, laboratories were more likely to be verified

  17. Determination of the lactate threshold and maximal blood lactate steady state intensity in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rafael Rodrigues; Cunha, Verusca Najara de Carvalho; Segundo, Paulo Russo; Moreira, Sérgio Rodrigues; Kokubun, Eduardo; Campbell, Carmen Sílvia Grubert; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    The reliability of the lactate threshold (LT) determined in aged rats and its validity to identify an exercise intensity corresponding to the maximal blood lactate steady state (MLSS) were analyzed. Eighteen male aged Wistar rats (approximately 365 days) were submitted to two incremental swimming tests until exhaustion, consisting of an initial load corresponding to 1% of body mass (BM) and increments of 1% BM at each 3-min with blood lactate ([lac]) measurements. The LT was determined by visual inspection (LT(V)) as well by applying a polynomial function on the [lac]/workload ratio (LT(P)) by considering the vertices of the curve. For the MLSS, twelve animals were submitted, on different days, to 3-4 exercise sessions of 30-min with workload corresponding to 4, 5 or 6% BM. The MLSS was considered the highest exercise intensity at which the [lac] variation was not higher than 0.07 mM.min(-1) during the last 20-min. No differences were observed for the test-retest results (4.9 +/- 0.7 and 5.0 +/- 0.8 %BM for LTv; and 6.0 +/- 0.6 and 5.8 +/- 0.6 %BM for LTp) that did not differ from the MLSS (5.4 +/- 0.5 %BM). The LT identified for aged rats in swimming, both by visual inspection and polynomial function, was reliable and did not differ from the MLSS. PMID:19585487

  18. Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Teresa L; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R; Dorman, Susan E; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  19. Quantification of Rifapentine, a Potent Antituberculosis Drug, from Dried Blood Spot Samples Using Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Teresa L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  20. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in babies of different gestational ages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Methods: Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2α in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. Results: UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2α were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2α levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). Conclusions: We established blood and urine iso-PGF2α levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:25664058

  1. Low-intensity voluntary running lowers blood pressure with simultaneous improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and insulin sensitivity in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng-Wei; Qian, Feng-Lei; Wang, Jian; Tao, Tao; Guo, Jing; Wang, Lie; Lu, Ai-Yun; Chen, Hong

    2008-03-01

    Our objective is to examine the effects of voluntary running at different intensity levels on blood pressure, endothelium-dependent vessel dysfunction and insulin resistance in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with severe hypertension. Ten-month-old male and female SHR with severe hypertension were assigned to voluntary running at either low intensity (30% of maximal aerobic velocity) or moderate intensity (60% of maximal aerobic velocity) on a motor-driven treadmill for 6 weeks, 20 min per day and 7 days per week. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHR were kept under sedentary conditions as controls. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured by the tail-cuff method. At the end of the exercise training, blood samples were collected for glucose, insulin and lipids assay, and aortae were isolated to examine their function in vitro. Low-intensity but not moderate-intensity running significantly lowered blood pressure in both male and female SHR (p<0.01). There was significant impairment in acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in SHR (p<0.01), which was improved by low-intensity training (p<0.05). Nitric oxide synthase blockade abrogated the improvement in endothelium-dependent relaxation. Hypertensive rats had elevated blood glucose and insulin levels with lowered insulin sensitivity that was ameliorated by low-intensity running. A significant increase in blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and a significant decrease in triglycerides were found in exercised SHR. In conclusion, low-intensity voluntary exercise lowers hypertension in aged SHR with severe hypertension. Exercise-induced simultaneous improvement in endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation and insulin sensitivity may act concomitantly in attenuating cardiovascular risk factors in aged hypertensive rats with significantly high blood pressure. PMID:18497475

  2. Soluble histocompatibility class I antigens and beta 2-microglobulin in pregnant females and cord blood samples.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, J; Ferrada, J; Navarrete, C; Sorensen, R U

    1997-04-15

    Pregnancy can be considered a successful transplantation of allogeneic paternal tissue to the mother. Soluble HLA class I serum levels have been found to increase during solid organ rejection episodes and during graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation. We wished to determine whether significant changes in sHLA class I and beta 2-microglobulin light chain levels occurred during pregnancy, because these may reflect adaptive changes permitting the acceptance of the fetal graft. Serum samples were obtained from women at different stages of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Cord blood samples and serum samples from nonpregnant female and male controls living in the same geographic area in Southern Chile were also studied. The levels of sHLA class I heterodimers were determined by an ELISA sandwich technique; beta 2-microglobulin levels were measured by MEIA IMX-Abbott. There was a significant elevation of sHLA class I levels in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy, followed by a significant drop below normal levels at the end of pregnancy, with normalization in the post-partum period. beta 2-microglobulin levels did not change significantly during pregnancy and did not correlate with sHLA class I levels. In cord blood samples, sHLA class I levels were lower and beta 2-microglobulin levels higher than those of adult controls and of mothers at the time of delivery. The variations in sHLA class I levels during pregnancy may reflect or contribute to immunoregulatory events related to the acceptance of the fetal graft. PMID:9154459

  3. Gene expression profiling in human whole blood samples after controlled testosterone application and exercise.

    PubMed

    Schönfelder, Martin; Hofmann, Hande; Anielski, Patricia; Thieme, Detlef; Oberhoffer, Renate; Michna, Horst

    2011-10-01

    Doping with anabolic agents is regulated within a number of sports. Testosterone and its functional analogs are popular compounds for increasing muscle mass, physical performance, recovery, and reducing body fat. While routine tests for anabolic drugs exist (e.g. hair, urine, and blood analysis), the aim of the present study is to determine specific gene expression profiles (induced by testosterone and exercise) which may be used as effective biomarkers to determine the use of anabolic drugs. In this study, whole blood samples of 19 male volunteers were analyzed by semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for gene expression profiles in the context of exercise and transdermal testosterone application (1.5 mg/kg body weight). The hormone application was monitored by urine and saliva analysis for testosterone. Both urinary and saliva levels indicate that transdermal testosterone application leads to an increase of testosterone, especially after exercise. RT-PCR results showed a clear variation in the expression of target genes as well as established housekeeping genes. Only one of the nine common housekeeping genes, cyclophilin b (PPIB), appears to be independent of both exercise and testosterone. Out of 14 candidate genes, five are unregulated; all others were more or less influenced by the mentioned variables. Only interleukin-6 appeared to be exclusively dependent on long-term testosterone application. This study indicates that many genes are not influenced by testosterone alone while exercise modulates gene expression in whole blood samples. As such, exercise must be considered when validating gene expression techniques for doping analysis. PMID:22031502

  4. Pattern recognition of neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen in whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Stanciu-Gavan, Camelia

    2015-02-01

    New tools and methods for pattern recognition of neuron specific enolase (NSE) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were proposed for the screening of whole blood samples. The new tools were based on stochastic sensors designed using nanoporous gold microspheres, graphite, graphene, diamond paste as well as α-CDs, and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin. The best sensor for the assay of CEA was the one based on P/graphite (the limit of determination was 16 fg/ml and sensitivity was 2.32 × 10(7)  s mg(-1)  ml), while for the assay of NSE the, best sensor was the one based on P/graphene (the limit of determination was 7.45 pg/ml and sensitivity was 2.49 × 10(8)  s mg(-1)  ml). The sensor of choice for simultaneous detection of NSE and CEA is the one based on P/graphene because we need high sensitivity and low limit of determination for NSE. To our knowledge, this is the only one screening test for early detection of lung cancer, by identification of NSE and CEA in whole blood samples. PMID:25604868

  5. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  6. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  7. Fungal DNA Detected in Blood Samples of Patients Who Received Contaminated Methylprednisolone Injections Reveals Increased Complexity of Causative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanan; Armeanu, Emilian; DiVerniero, Richard; Lewis, Terri A.; Dobson, Richard C.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Using Exserohilum rostratum-specific and panfungal real-time PCR, we studied 24 blood samples and 2 synovial fluid specimens from 20 patients with persistent or worsening pain following injections of contaminated methylprednisolone. Seven blood specimens from 6 patients were significantly positive for fungal DNA by panfungal PCR, with multiple fungal species identified. PMID:24719442

  8. Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

  9. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  10. Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated thermoregulatory function that varies regionally over the body. Decrements in vasodilation and sweating are well documented with age, yet limited data are available concerning the regional relation between these responses. We aimed to examine age-related alterations in the relation between regional sweating (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) to thermal and pharmacological stimuli. Four microdialysis fibers were inserted in the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back of eight healthy aged subjects (64 ± 7 yr) and nine young (23 ± 3 yr) during 1) ACh dose response (1 × 10−7 to 0.1 M, mean skin temperature 34°C) and 2) passive whole body heating to Δ1°C rise in oral temperature (Tor). RSR and SkBF were measured over each microdialysis membrane using ventilated capsules and laser-Doppler flowmetry. Maximal SkBF was measured at the end of both protocols (50 mM SNP). Regional sweating thresholds and RSR were attenuated in aged vs. young at all sites (P < 0.0001) during whole body heating. Vasodilation thresholds were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Attenuated SkBF were observed at the arm and back in the aged, representing 56 and 82% of those in the young at these sites, respectively (0.5 ΔTor). During ACh perfusion, SkBF (P = 0.137) and RSR were similar between groups (P = 0.326). Together these findings suggest regional age-related decrements in heat-activated sweat gland function but not cholinergic sensitivity. Functional consequences of such thermoregulatory impairment include the compromised ability of older individuals to defend core temperature during heat exposure and a subsequently greater susceptibility to heat-related illness and injury. PMID:23926135

  11. Cohesive Adequacy in the Narrative Samples of School-Age Children Who Use African American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the type and adequacy of cohesive devices that are produced by school-age children who use African American English (AAE). Method: The language samples of 33 African American children, ages 7, 9, and 11 years, were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE use and cohesive adequacy (e.g., personal reference,…

  12. Age of red blood cells and mortality in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In critically ill patients, it is uncertain whether exposure to older red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to mortality. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between the age of RBCs and outcome in a large unselected cohort of critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. We hypothesized that exposure to even a single unit of older RBCs may be associated with an increased risk of death. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study in 47 ICUs during a 5-week period between August 2008 and September 2008. We included 757 critically ill adult patients receiving at least one unit of RBCs. To test our hypothesis we compared hospital mortality according to quartiles of exposure to maximum age of RBCs without and with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Results Compared with other quartiles (mean maximum red cell age 22.7 days; mortality 121/568 (21.3%)), patients treated with exposure to the lowest quartile of oldest RBCs (mean maximum red cell age 7.7 days; hospital mortality 25/189 (13.2%)) had an unadjusted absolute risk reduction in hospital mortality of 8.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.2 to 14.0%). After adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, other blood component transfusions, number of RBC transfusions, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac surgery, the odds ratio for hospital mortality for patients exposed to the older three quartiles compared with the lowest quartile was 2.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 3.77). Conclusions In critically ill patients, in Australia and New Zealand, exposure to older RBCs is independently associated with an increased risk of death. PMID:21496231

  13. Diagnostic Application of IS900 PCR Using Blood as a Source Sample for the Detection of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis in Early and Subclinical Cases of Caprine Paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, P. K.; Singh, S. V.; Kumar, H.; Sohal, J. S.; Singh, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    Efficacy of IS900 blood PCR was evaluated for the presence of MAP infection. Serum, fecal, and blood samples of kids, young, and adult goats from farm and farmer's herds in Mathura district were also screened by ELISA, microscopy and culture. Of 111 goats (kids: 40, young: 14, adults: 57) screened, 77.5% were positive by blood PCR. Of 76 goats, 90.8% (kids: 87.5% and adults: 94.4%) were positive by PCR. From 21 kids and 14 young goats, 42.8 and 57.1% were positive. gDNA from goats was genotyped as MAP “Indian Bison type”. Of 21 fecal samples of kids examined by microscopy, 66.7% were positive. In ELISA, 9.5 and 57.1% kids were positives as “type I” and “type II” reactors, respectively. Screening 14 young goats by culture of blood clots, 28.6% were positive. Agreement was substantial between PCR and microscopy. It was fair and moderate when PCR and microscopy were compared with type I and type II reactors, respectively. Presence of MAP in non-clinical kids and young goats indicate early or subclinical infection. Blood PCR was rapid, sensitive, and specific assay for detection of MAP in any stage (early, subclinical, and clinical) and age (kids, young, and adult) of goats. PMID:20445791

  14. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  15. DNA Damage Focus Analysis in Blood Samples of Minipigs Reveals Acute Partial Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A.; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (±6%) Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1–8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after

  16. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lamkowski, Andreas; Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Ahmed, Emad A; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (± 6%) Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after IR

  17. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra of some undisturbed terrestrial samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brent, Dalrymple G.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age spectra and 40Ar/36Ar vs 39Ar/36Ar isochrons were determined by incremental heating for 11 terrestrial rocks and minerals whose geology indicates that they represent essentially undisturbed systems. The samples include muscovite, biotite, hornblende, sanidine, plagioclase, dacite, diabase and basalt and range in age from 40 to 1700 m.y. For each sample, the 40Ar/39Ar ratios, corrected for atmospheric and neutron-generated argon isotopes, are the same for most of the gas fractions released and the age spectra, which show pronounced plateaus, thus are consistent with models previously proposed for undisturbed samples. Plateau ages and isochron ages calculated using plateau age fractions are concordant and appear to be meaningful estimates of the crystallization and cooling ages of these samples. Seemingly anomalous age spectrum points can be attributed entirely to small amounts of previously unrecognized argon loss and to gas fractions that contain too small (less than 2 per cent) a proportion of the 39Ar released to be geologically significant. The use of a quantitative abscissa for age spectrum diagrams is recommended so that the size of each gas fraction is readily apparent. Increments containing less than about 4-5 per cent of the total 39Ar released should be interpreted cautiously. Both the age spectrum and isochron methods of data reduction for incremental heating experiments are worthwhile, as each gives slightly different but complementary information about the sample from the same basic data. Use of a least-squares fit that allows for correlated errors is recommended for 40Ar/36Ar vs 39Ar/36Ar isochrons. The results indicate that the 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating technique can be used to distinguish disturbed from undisturbed rock and mineral systems and will be a valuable geochronological tool in geologically complex terranes. ?? 1994.

  18. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liqing; Jones, Claire; Gibani, Malick M.; Dobinson, Hazel; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Shrestha, Sonu; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Darton, Thomas C.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. Methods Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Results An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1–6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. Conclusions The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCADIAN BLOOD PRESSURE VARIATION AND AGE ANALYSED FROM 7-DAY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    SIEGELOVÁ, J.; DUŠEK, J.; FIŠER, B.; HOMOLKA, P.; VANK, P.; MAŠEK, M.; HAVELKOVÁ, A.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALBERG, F.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between age and circadian blood pressure (BP) variation was the aim of the present study. One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (130 males, 57 females), 20-77 years old, were recruited for seven-day BP monitoring. Colin medical instruments (Komaki, Japan) were used for ambulatory BP monitoring (oscillation method, 30-minute interval between measurements). A sinusoidal curve was fitted (minimum square method) and the mean value and amplitude of the curve (double amplitude corresponds to the night-day difference) were evaluated on every day of monitoring. The average 7-day values of the mean (M) and of double amplitude (2A) for systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were determined in each subject. The mean values of M (±SD) for the whole group were: SBP- 127±8, DBP - 79±6 mmHg, HR - 70±6 bpm; of 2A: SBP - 21±7, DBP - 15±5 mmHg, HR - 15±6 bpm. A linear relationship between M of SBP and age (r=0.341, p< 0.001) and DBP and age (r=0.384, p<0.001) was found (difference between 20 and 77 years: SBP - 16, DBP - 12 mmHg). 2A of SBP and DBP was increasing with age up to 35 years, then the curve remained relatively flat up to 55 years (maximum at 45 years), and then it decreased again (difference between 45 and 77 years: SBP - 13mmHg, DBP - 12 mmHg). Heart rate M and 2A were age-independent. The mean values of SBP and DBP were increasing with age up to 75 years, but the night-day difference of SBP and DBP reached its maximum value at 45 years and then decreased. PMID:19436777

  1. Blood Telomere Length Attrition and Cancer Development in the Normative Aging Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Joyce, Brian Thomas; Gao, Tao; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Yinan; Penedo, Frank J.; Liu, Siran; Zhang, Wei; Bergan, Raymond; Dai, Qi; Vokonas, Pantel; Hoxha, Mirjam; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated telomere shortening may cause cancer via chromosomal instability, making it a potentially useful biomarker. However, publications on blood telomere length (BTL) and cancer are inconsistent. We prospectively examined BTL measures over time and cancer incidence. Methods We included 792 Normative Aging Study participants with 1–4 BTL measurements from 1999 to 2012. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine BTL attrition by cancer status (relative to increasing age and decreasing years pre-diagnosis), Cox models for time-dependent associations, and logistic regression for cancer incidence stratified by years between BTL measurement and diagnosis. Findings Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases pre-diagnosis than in cancer-free participants (pdifference = 0.017); all participants had similar age-adjusted BTL 8–14 years pre-diagnosis, followed by decelerated attrition in cancer cases resulting in longer BTL three (p = 0.003) and four (p = 0.012) years pre-diagnosis. Longer time-dependent BTL was associated with prostate cancer (HR = 1.79, p = 0.03), and longer BTL measured ≤ 4 years pre-diagnosis with any (OR = 3.27, p < 0.001) and prostate cancers (OR = 6.87, p < 0.001). Interpretation Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases but their age-adjusted BTL attrition began decelerating as diagnosis approached. This may explain prior inconsistencies and help develop BTL as a cancer detection biomarker. PMID:26288820

  2. Preferential phagocytosis of in vivo aged murine red blood cells by a macrophage-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S; Singer, J A; Morrison, M; Jackson, C W

    1984-10-01

    The ability of an established line of mouse macrophages (IC-21) to ingest red blood cells (RBC) aged in vivo was assessed. RBC populations of increasing age were prepared in mice by serial hypertransfusion, a procedure that inhibits erythropoiesis. Mouse RBC with a mean age of about 58 d (normal RBC life span, 60 d) had a circulating half-life of less than 1 d when transfused into normal mice. IC-21 macrophages ingested the in vivo aged RBC in preference to RBC from normal mice (mean RBC age, 30 d). RBC isolated from mice 10 d after being released from one red blood cell lifespan (60 d) of inhibited erythropoiesis (mean RBC age 5 d) were ingested significantly less than RBC from normal mice. The IC-21 macrophage line used with in vivo aged RBC affords a highly defined model system for identifying the mechanism(s) of macrophage-mediated homeostasis. PMID:6477835

  3. Increase in Red Blood Cell-Nitric Oxide Synthase Dependent Nitric Oxide Production during Red Blood Cell Aging in Health and Disease: A Study on Age Dependent Changes of Rheologic and Enzymatic Properties in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Brinkmann, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate RBC-NOS dependent NO signaling during in vivo RBC aging in health and disease. Method RBC from fifteen healthy volunteers (HC) and four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were separated in seven subpopulations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Results The proportion of old RBC was significantly higher in DM compared to HC. In both groups, in vivo aging was marked by changes in RBC shape and decreased cell volume. RBC nitrite, as marker for NO, was higher in DM and increased in both HC and DM during aging. RBC deformability was lower in DM and significantly decreased in old compared to young RBC in both HC and DM. RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation, indicating enzyme activation, increased during aging in both HC and DM. Arginase I activity remained unchanged during aging in HC. In DM, arginase I activity was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC but decreased during aging. In HC, concentration of L-arginine, the substrate of RBC-NOS and arginase I, significantly dropped from young to old RBC. In DM, L-arginine concentration was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC and significantly decreased during aging. In blood from healthy subjects, RBC-NOS activation was additionally inhibited by N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine dihydrochloride which decreased RBC nitrite, and impaired RBC deformability of all but the oldest RBC subpopulation. Conclusion This study first-time showed highest RBC-NOS activation and NO production in old RBC, possibly to counteract the negative impact of cell shrinkage on RBC deformability. This was even more pronounced in DM. It is further suggested that highly produced NO only insufficiently affects cell function of old RBC maybe because of isolated RBC-NOS in old RBC thus decreasing NO bioavailability. Thus, increasing NO availability may improve RBC function and may extend cell life span in old RBC. PMID:25902315

  4. Putative Epimutagens in Maternal Peripheral and Cord Blood Samples Identified Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yoshikazu; Hayakawa, Koji; Arai, Daisuke; Ito, Rie; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Saito, Koichi; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Takatori, Satoshi; Ishii, Rie; Hayashi, Rumiko; Izumi, Shun-Ichiro; Sugino, Norihiro; Kondo, Fumio; Horie, Masakazu; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tsunehisa; Hirosawa, Mitsuko; Shiota, Kunio; Ohgane, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of transcription and genome stability by epigenetic systems are crucial for the proper development of mammalian embryos. Chemicals that disturb epigenetic systems are termed epimutagens. We previously performed chemical screening that focused on heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation status in mouse embryonic stem cells and identified five epimutagens: diethyl phosphate (DEP), mercury (Hg), cotinine, selenium (Se), and octachlorodipropyl ether (S-421). Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to confirm the effects of 20 chemicals, including the five epimutagens, detected at low concentrations in maternal peripheral and cord blood samples. Of note, these individual chemicals did not exhibit epimutagenic activity in hiPSCs. However, because the fetal environment contains various chemicals, we evaluated the effects of combined exposure to chemicals (DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421) on hiPSCs. The combined exposure caused a decrease in the number of heterochromatin signals and aberrant DNA methylation status at multiple gene loci in hiPSCs. The combined exposure also affected embryoid body formation and neural differentiation from hiPSCs. Therefore, DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 were defined as an “epimutagen combination” that is effective at low concentrations as detected in maternal peripheral and cord blood. PMID:26339649

  5. Antidepressants detection and quantification in whole blood samples by GC-MS/MS, for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Truta, Liliana; Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Costa, Pedro; Sales, M Goreti F; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-09-01

    Depression is among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of our society, leading to an increase in antidepressant drug consumption that needs to be accurately determined in whole blood samples in Forensic Toxicology Laboratories. For this purpose, this work presents a new gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method targeting the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 common Antidepressants in whole blood: 13 Antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, dothiepin, fluoxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nortryptiline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine and venlafaxine) and 1 Metabolite (N-desmethylclomipramine). Solid-phase extraction was used prior to chromatographic separation. Chromatographic and MS/MS parameters were selected to improve sensitivity, peak resolution and unequivocal identification of the eluted analyte. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in tandem, using electronic impact ionization. Clomipramine-D3 and trimipramine-D3 were used as deutered internal standards. The validation parameters included linearity, limits of detection, lower limit of quantification, selectivity/specificity, extraction efficiency, carry-over, precision and robustness, and followed internationally accepted guidelines. Limits of quantification and detection were lower than therapeutic and sub-therapeutic concentration ranges. Overall, the method offered good selectivity, robustness and quick response (<16min) for typical concentration ranges, both for therapeutic and lethal levels. PMID:27376459

  6. Identification of malaria infected red blood samples by digital holographic quantitative phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nimit R.; Chhaniwal, Vani K.; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Development of devices for automatic identification of diseases is desired especially in developing countries. In the case of malaria, even today the gold standard is the inspection of chemically treated blood smears through a microscope. This requires a trained technician/microscopist to identify the cells in the field of view, with which the labeling chemicals gets attached. Bright field microscopes provide only low contrast 2D images of red blood cells and cell thickness distribution cannot be obtained. Quantitative phase contrast microscopes can provide both intensity and phase profiles of the cells under study. The phase information can be used to determine thickness profile of the cell. Since cell morphology is available, many parameters pertaining to the 3D shape of the cell can be computed. These parameters in turn could be used to decide about the state of health of the cell leading to disease diagnosis. Here the investigations done on digital holographic microscope, which provides quantitative phase images, for comparison of parameters obtained from the 3D shape profile of objects leading to identification of diseased samples is described.

  7. Artificially-aged cachaça samples characterised by direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Patterson P; Resende, Ana M M; Augusti, Daniella V; Badotti, Fernanda; Gomes, Fátima de Cássia O; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Augusti, Rodinei

    2014-01-15

    Direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode [ESI(-)-MS] was employed to evaluate the authenticity of aged cachaças, a traditional and valuable Brazilian alcoholic beverage prepared from the distillation of brewed sugarcane juice and aged in barrels made of common woods. Counterfeit samples were prepared by adding dyes, sawdust or essences to a freshly-distiled, much less valuable sample (white cachaça) to simulate the 1-2years long natural ageing in wooden barrels. A simple visual inspection revealed remarkable differences between the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples (aged in oak or amburana casks) and the artificially-aged counterfeit samples. A set of diagnostic ions were detectable in the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples aged in oak (m/z 197, 241, 301 and 307) and amburana (m/z 271 and 377/379). This fast and direct methodology seems useful as a routine procedure to monitor this highly profitable and common counterfeit practice. PMID:24054215

  8. Age of the moon: An isotopic study of uranium-thorium-lead systematics of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Rosholt, J.N.

    1970-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, and Pb in Apollo 11 samples studied are low (U. 0.16 to 0.87; Th, 0.53 to 3.4; Pb, 0.29 to 1.7, in ppm) but the extremely radiogenic lead in samples allows radiometric dating. The fine dust and the breccia have a concordant age of 4.66 billion years on the basis of 207Pb/206Pb, 206Pb/238U, 207Pb/235U, and 208Pb/232Th ratios. This age is comparable with the age of meteorites and with the age generally accepted for the earth. Six crystalline and vesicular samples are distinctly younger than the dust and breccia. The 238U/235U ratio is the same as that in earth rocks, and 234U is in radioactive equilibrium with parent 238U.

  9. Using dried blood spot sampling to improve data quality and reduce animal use in mouse pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Perkins, Everett J

    2015-03-01

    Traditional pharmacokinetic analysis in nonclinical studies is based on the concentration of a test compound in plasma and requires approximately 100 to 200 μL blood collected per time point. However, the total blood volume of mice limits the number of samples that can be collected from an individual animal-often to a single collection per mouse-thus necessitating dosing multiple mice to generate a pharmacokinetic profile in a sparse-sampling design. Compared with traditional methods, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis requires smaller volumes of blood (15 to 20 μL), thus supporting serial blood sampling and the generation of a complete pharmacokinetic profile from a single mouse. Here we compare plasma-derived data with DBS-derived data, explain how to adopt DBS sampling to support discovery mouse studies, and describe how to generate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from a single mouse. Executing novel study designs that use DBS enhances the ability to identify and streamline better drug candidates during drug discovery. Implementing DBS sampling can reduce the number of mice needed in a drug discovery program. In addition, the simplicity of DBS sampling and the smaller numbers of mice needed translate to decreased study costs. Overall, DBS sampling is consistent with 3Rs principles by achieving reductions in the number of animals used, decreased restraint-associated stress, improved data quality, direct comparison of interanimal variability, and the generation of multiple endpoints from a single study. PMID:25836959

  10. Using Dried Blood Spot Sampling to Improve Data Quality and Reduce Animal Use in Mouse Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Perkins, Everett J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pharmacokinetic analysis in nonclinical studies is based on the concentration of a test compound in plasma and requires approximately 100 to 200 µL blood collected per time point. However, the total blood volume of mice limits the number of samples that can be collected from an individual animal—often to a single collection per mouse—thus necessitating dosing multiple mice to generate a pharmacokinetic profile in a sparse-sampling design. Compared with traditional methods, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis requires smaller volumes of blood (15 to 20 µL), thus supporting serial blood sampling and the generation of a complete pharmacokinetic profile from a single mouse. Here we compare plasma-derived data with DBS-derived data, explain how to adopt DBS sampling to support discovery mouse studies, and describe how to generate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from a single mouse. Executing novel study designs that use DBS enhances the ability to identify and streamline better drug candidates during drug discovery. Implementing DBS sampling can reduce the number of mice needed in a drug discovery program. In addition, the simplicity of DBS sampling and the smaller numbers of mice needed translate to decreased study costs. Overall, DBS sampling is consistent with 3Rs principles by achieving reductions in the number of animals used, decreased restraint-associated stress, improved data quality, direct comparison of interanimal variability, and the generation of multiple endpoints from a single study. PMID:25836959

  11. Age of Lunar Meteorite LAP02205 and Implications for Impact-Sampling of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Bogard, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the age of lunar meteorite LAP02205 by the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar methods. Sm-Nd analyses are in progress. The Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicate a crystallization age of approx. 3 Ga. Comparing the ages of LAP02205 and other lunar mare basaltic meteorites to mare surface ages based on the density of impact craters shows no significant bias in impact- sampling of lunar mare surfaces. Comparing the isotopic and geochemical data for LAP02205 to those for other lunar mare basalts suggests that it is a younger variant of the type of volcanism that produced the Apollo 12 basalts. Representative impact-sampling of the lunar surface

  12. Applicability of Greulich and Pyle and Demirijan aging methods to a sample of Italian population.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Valeria; Roca, Roberta; De Donno, Antonio; Fiandaca, Chiara; Pinto, Giorgia; Tafuri, Silvio; Introna, Francesco

    2012-09-10

    Age estimation in forensics is essential in cases involving both living and dead subjects. For living subjects, age estimation may be used to establish an individual's status as a minor in cases involving adoption, criminal responsibility, child pornography, and those seeking asylum. Criteria for age estimation in the living have recently been put forth by The Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. The group has proposed guidelines with a three-step procedure: a physical examination and anthropometrical analysis; dental analysis by orthopantomogram (OPG); and X-ray study of the left hand and wrist. The board of FASE highlighted advantages and limits of each method, and suggested practical solutions concerning the age estimation process for adults and subadults. The aim of this study was to verify the applicability of the Greulich and Pyle, and Demirjian techniques on a sample group of Italians, whose ages were known, in determining the skeletal and dental age, in addition to evaluating the reliability of these techniques. 535 subjects between the ages of 7 and 15years were examined, each one undergoing both an orthopantomography (OPG) and radiography of the left wrist and hand. The data obtained underwent statistical analysis. The analyses have shown that a correlation exists between skeletal and dental age, and real age. Age estimation carried out using the Greulich and Pyle method has shown itself to be especially accurate on the Italian sample, particularly in the age ranges of 7-9years and 10.4-11.5years. The Greulich and Pyle method has shown itself to be reliable for the sample analyzed notwithstanding the ethnic differences between the original sample of reference and those analyzed in this study. Application of the Demirjian technique resulted in an overestimation of dental age. This difference is shown to be more highly significant in the higher age ranges. The combination of the Greulich and Pyle, and Demirjian methods have revealed a difference

  13. Sulfatide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy in Dried Blood and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spacil, Zdenek; Kumar, Arun Babu; Liao, Hsuan-Chieh; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Stark, Samantha; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. PMID:26585924

  14. Relationship between office and home blood pressure with increasing age: The International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO).

    PubMed

    Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Hozawa, Atsushi; Imai, Yutaka; Johansson, Jouni K; Jula, Antti M; Kollias, Anastasios; Luzardo, Leonella; Niiranen, Teemu J; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tzourio, Christophe; Wei, Fang-Fei; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    Home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are known to be lower than conventional office blood pressure (OBP) measurements. However, this difference might not be consistent across the entire age range and has not been adequately investigated. We assessed the relationship between OBP and HBP with increasing age using the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). OBP, HBP and their difference were assessed across different decades of age. A total of 5689 untreated subjects aged 18-97 years, who had at least two OBP and HBP measurements, were included. Systolic OBP and HBP increased across older age categories (from 112 to 142 mm Hg and from 109 to 136 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being higher than HBP by ∼7 mm Hg in subjects aged >30 years and lesser in younger subjects (P=0.001). Both diastolic OBP and HBP increased until the age of ∼50 years (from 71 to 79 mm Hg and from 66 to 76 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being consistently higher than HBP and a trend toward a decreased OBP-HBP difference with aging (P<0.001). Determinants of a larger OBP-HBP difference were younger age, sustained hypertension, nonsmoking and negative cardiovascular disease history. These data suggest that in the general adult population, HBP is consistently lower than OBP across all the decades, but their difference might vary between age groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in younger and older subjects and in hypertensive individuals. PMID:27053011

  15. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans: is it all an effect of sand through the hourglass?

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-04-15

    The ability to sustain a given absolute submaximal workload declines with advancing age, likely to be due to a lower level of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles. Given that physical inactivity mimics many of the physiological changes associated with ageing, separating the physiological consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle during exercise where systemic blood flow is not limited by cardiac output, thereby improving O2 delivery and allowing for an enhanced energy production from oxidative metabolism. The mechanisms underlying the increase in blood flow with regular physical activity include improved endothelial function and the ability for functional sympatholysis - an attenuation of the vasoconstrictor effect of sympathetic nervous activity. These vascular adaptations with physical activity are likely to be an effect of improved nitric oxide and ATP signalling. Collectively, precise matching of blood flow and O2 delivery to meet the O2 demand of the active skeletal muscle of aged individuals during conditions where systemic blood flow is not limited by cardiac output seems to a large extent to be related to the level of physical activity. PMID:26095873

  16. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    PubMed

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. PMID:23806567

  17. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. PMID:27282078

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of blood-brain barrier breakdown in the peri-infarct zone in young adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Nahirney, Patrick C; Reeson, Patrick; Brown, Craig E

    2016-02-01

    Following ischemia, the blood-brain barrier is compromised in the peri-infarct zone leading to secondary injury and dysfunction that can limit recovery. Currently, it is uncertain what structural changes could account for blood-brain barrier permeability, particularly with aging. Here we examined the ultrastructure of early and delayed changes (3 versus 72 h) to the blood-brain barrier in young adult and aged mice (3-4 versus 18 months) subjected to photothrombotic stroke. At both time points and ages, permeability was associated with a striking increase in endothelial caveolae and vacuoles. Tight junctions were generally intact although small spaces were detected in a few cases. In young mice, ischemia led to a significant increase in pericyte process area and vessel coverage whereas these changes were attenuated with aging. Stroke led to an expansion of the basement membrane region that peaked at 3 h and partially recovered by 72 h in both age groups. Astrocyte endfeet and their mitochondria were severely swollen at both times points and ages. Our results suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability in young and aged animals is mediated by transcellular pathways (caveolae/vacuoles), rather than tight junction loss. Further, our data indicate that the effects of ischemia on pericytes and basement membrane are affected by aging. PMID:26661190

  19. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  20. Age and hypertension strongly induce aortic stiffening in rats at basal and matched blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Ragonnet, Christophe; Chimenti, Stefano; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Age and hypertension are major causes of large artery remodeling and stiffening, a cardiovascular risk factor for heart and kidney damage. The aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model is recognized for human cardiovascular pathology, but discrepancies appeared in studies of arterial stiffness. We performed experiments using a robust analysis via echo tracking in 20-week adult (n = 8) and 80-week-old SHR (n = 7), with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 6;6) at basal and matched levels of blood pressure (BP). After anesthesia with pentobarbital, abdominal aortic diameter and pressure were recorded and BP was decreased by clonidine i.v. At basal BP, aortic pulse distension, compliance, and distensibility (AD) were reduced and stiffness index increased with age and hypertension and further altered with age + hypertension. When BP was adjusted in SHR to that of normotensive rats (130 mmHg), there was no difference between 20-week-old SHR and WKY Importantly, the age effect was maintained in both WKY and SHR and accentuated by hypertension in old rats. At 130 mmHg, with similar pulse pressure in the four groups, AD (kPa(-3)) = 24.2 ± 1 in 20 weeks WKY, 19.7 ± 1.4 in 20 weeks SHR, 12.4 ± 1.3 in 80 weeks WKY and 6.6 ± 0.6 in 80 weeks SHR; distension = 7.6 ± 0.4%, 6.7 ± 0.6%, 3.7 ± 0.3%, and 1.8 ± 0.2% in the same groups. In conclusion, reduced distensibility, that is, stiffening due to age is clearly shown here in both WKY and SHR as well as a synergistic effect of age and hypertension. This technique will allow new studies on the mechanisms responsible and drug intervention. PMID:27233301

  1. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, Rocio; Morrison, Katherine; Teo, Koon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Kubwabo, Cariton; Stewart, Brian; Foster, Warren G.

    2008-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean{+-}S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1{+-}10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2{+-}10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3{+-}5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05{+-}12.3 and 5.05{+-}12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

  2. Microarray and proteomic analysis of the cardioprotective effects of cold blood cardioplegia in the mature and aged male and female

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kendra M.; Barnett, Reanne J.; Bhasin, Monoj K.; Daly, Christian; Dillon, Simon T.; Libermann, Towia A.; Levitsky, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have shown that the cardioprotection afforded by cardioplegia is modulated by age and gender and is significantly decreased in the aged female. In this report we use microarray and proteomic analyses to identify transcriptomic and proteomic alterations affecting cardioprotection using cold blood cardioplegia in the mature and aged male and female heart. Mature and aged male and female New Zealand White rabbits were used for in situ blood perfused cardiopulmonary bypass. Control hearts received 30 min sham ischemia and 120 min sham reperfusion. Global ischemia (GI) hearts received 30 min of GI achieved by cross-clamping of the aorta. Cardioplegia (CP) hearts received cold blood cardioplegia prior to GI. Following 30 min of GI the hearts were reperfused for 120 min and then used for RNA and protein isolation. Microarray and proteomic analyses were performed. Functional enrichment analysis showed that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation and calcium signaling pathways were significantly enriched in all experimental groups. Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway were significantly changed in the aged male only (P < 0.05), while glyoxylate/dicarboxylate metabolism was significant in the aged female only (P < 0.05). Our data show that specific pathways associated with the mitochondrion modulate cardioprotection with CP in the aged and specifically in the aged female. The alteration of these pathways significantly contributes to decreased myocardial functional recovery and myonecrosis following ischemia and may be modulated to allow for enhanced cardioprotection in the aged and specifically in the aged female. PMID:22968637

  3. Blood values of the canvasback duck by age, sex and season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Pitts, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from canvasback ducklings from Manitoba and Saskatchewan and from immature and adult canvasbacks on the Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin and the Chesapeake Bay. These samples were used to determine baseline data on red cell counts, hematocrit, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, hemoglobin and distribution of plasma proteins. Calculations were also made to determine mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The major differences noted were between ducklings and adults. The former having higher total protein and lower hematocrit, glucose and cholesterol values. These hematologic values were collected in order to provide baseline information on apparently healthy canvasbacks, thereby providing disease investigators with a standard of comparison

  4. Longitudinal changes in blood lead level in children and their relationship to season, age, and exposure to paint or plaster.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J

    1979-01-01

    Children screened for lead poisoning in the Brownsville district of New York City in either summer or winter were followed with blood lead tests for approximately six months to one year from screening to measure longitudinal changes in blood lead level and to identify some determinants of the changes. Only minimal evidence was found of the hypothesized summer rise in blood lead level, while the predominant trend seemed to be for blood lead levels to display statistical regression to the mean. In children found to have low to intermediate blood lead levels (less than 55 microgram/100ml) at screening, variables which were found to predict a rise in blood lead level of 10 microgram/100ml or greater from winter to summer were under age three and/or exposure to paint or plaster. PMID:426160

  5. Blood-brain barrier transport of choline is reduced in the aged rat.

    PubMed

    Mooradian, A D

    1988-02-01

    An age-related impairment in choline transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to the cholinergic mechanisms of geriatric memory dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, the brain choline uptake in male Fisher 344 rats at 2, 18 and 24 months of age was studied using the Oldendorf technique. The Vmax of choline transport in the 24-month-old rats (0.05 +/- 0.04 nmol/min/g) was significantly lower than that in the 2-month-old rat (2.5 +/- 1.0 nmol/min/g) (P less than 0.05). The Km of transport in old rats (13 +/- 35 microM) was also significantly smaller than the value in 24-month-old rats (450 +/- 195 microM), while the constant of the non-saturable component of the transport, Kd, was not significantly different in older rats (1.2 +/- 0.3 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1 microliter/min/g). These results indicate that the carrier in old rats has reduced capacity and increased affinity to choline. The reduced choline carrier capacity explains the significant decrease in BBB choline transport in aged rats. PMID:3359216

  6. Establishment of Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Ranges for 36 Routine and 57 Cell Population Data Items in a New Automated Blood Cell Analyzer, Sysmex XN-2000

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Han, Min-Young; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    We established age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the 36 routine complete blood cell (CBC) and 57 cell population data (CPD) items in the Sysmex XN-2000 (Sysmex, Japan). In total, 280 peripheral blood samples were obtained from an equal number of healthy adults. Values for 36 routine items and 57 CPD items were obtained for each sample, and the results were categorized into six subgroups (N>39 in each subgroup) according to patient age (20-40, 41-60, and >60 yr) and gender (male and female), and compared with respect to age and gender differences. The majority of data items (22 of 36 routine CBC items and 44 of 57 CPD items) exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) in their results with respect to age or gender, and several red cell-, lymphocyte-, and platelet-related data tended to decrease in women or older adults. These results provide a basis for establishing age- and gender-specific reference ranges for routine and CPD items in Sysmex XN-2000. Furthermore, these reference ranges could be used to determine clinical significance for new items of Sysmex XN-2000 in further studies. PMID:26915613

  7. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  8. Permanent teeth development in a Spanish sample. Application to dental age estimation.

    PubMed

    Feijóo, Gonzalo; Barbería, Elena; De Nova, Joaquín; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2012-01-10

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the chronology of different stages of dental development, according to Demirjian, in a sample of Spanish children, which will enable us to build a database that will be used as a reference in regard to the dental development of individuals of our socio-geographic environment. In the same studied sample, a calculation of the dental age according to Demirjian was carried out. This study was conducted in a final sample consisting of 1010 orthopantograms, corresponding to Spanish children (485 boys and 525 girls) ages 2-16. Comparing the age of onset of the different stages among the children, evidence was found that girls had an earlier general development than boys. These differences were only statistically significant in teeth and concrete stages. The canine teeth revealed greater gender dimorphism, with significant differences in all stages compared with the upper canines. The method proposed by Demirjian for dental age calculation resulted in a significant overestimation of dental age in relation to the chronological age in boys (average of 0.87 years) and girls (average of 0.55 years). Data from this study may be used as reference for dental maturity, as well as a standard for estimating age in Spanish children. PMID:21940122

  9. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100 μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1 μm) to be collected over a 30 min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFU mL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFU mL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  10. Efficient IDUA Gene Mutation Detection with Combined Use of dHPLC and Dried Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ana Joana; Vieira, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Development of a simple mutation directed method in order to allow lowering the cost of mutation testing using an easily obtainable biological material. Assessment of the feasibility of such method was tested using a GC-rich amplicon. Design and Methods. A method of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) was improved and implemented as a technique for the detection of variants in exon 9 of the IDUA gene. The optimized method was tested in 500 genomic DNA samples obtained from dried blood spots (DBS). Results. With this dHPLC approach it was possible to detect different variants, including the common p.Trp402Ter mutation in the IDUA gene. The high GC content did not interfere with the resolution and reliability of this technique, and discrimination of G-C transversions was also achieved. Conclusion. This PCR-based dHPLC method is proved to be a rapid, a sensitive, and an excellent option for screening numerous samples obtained from DBS. Furthermore, it resulted in the consistent detection of clearly distinguishable profiles of the common p.Trp402Ter IDUA mutation with an advantageous balance of cost and technical requirements. PMID:27335677

  11. Isotopic composition analysis and age dating of uranium samples by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, A. I.; Pantelica, A.; Sima, O.; Fugaru, V.

    2016-09-01

    Non-destructive methods were applied to determine the isotopic composition and the time elapsed since last chemical purification of nine uranium samples. The applied methods are based on measuring gamma and X radiations of uranium samples by high resolution low energy gamma spectrometric system with planar high purity germanium detector and low background gamma spectrometric system with coaxial high purity germanium detector. The "Multigroup γ-ray Analysis Method for Uranium" (MGAU) code was used for the precise determination of samples' isotopic composition. The age of the samples was determined from the isotopic ratio 214Bi/234U. This ratio was calculated from the analyzed spectra of each uranium sample, using relative detection efficiency. Special attention is paid to the coincidence summing corrections that have to be taken into account when performing this type of analysis. In addition, an alternative approach for the age determination using full energy peak efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulations with the GESPECOR code is described.

  12. Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in EDTA Whole-Blood Samples: Evaluation of the Quantitative artus CMV LightCycler PCR Kit in Conjunction with Automated Sample Preparation▿

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, Birgit D. A.; Hadžisejdić, Ita; Bozic, Michael; Grahovac, Maja; Hess, Markus; Grahovac, Blaženka; Marth, Egon; Kessler, Harald H.

    2008-01-01

    Whole blood has been found to be a reliable matrix for the detection and quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. In this study, the performance of the artus CMV LightCycler (LC) PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on a BioRobot EZ1 workstation was evaluated. The accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, and inter- and intra-assay variations were determined. A total of 102 clinical EDTA whole-blood samples were investigated, and results were compared with those obtained with the in vitro diagnostics (IVD)/Conformité Européene (CE)-labeled CMV HHV6,7,8 R-gene quantification kit. When the accuracy of the new kit was tested, seven of eight results were found to be within ±0.5 log10 unit of the expected panel results. Determination of linearity resulted in a quasilinear curve over more than 5 log units. The lower limit of detection of the assay was determined to be 139 copies/ml in EDTA whole blood. The interassay variation ranged from 15 to 58%, and the intra-assay variation ranged from 7 to 35%. When clinical samples were tested and the results were compared with those of the routinely used IVD/CE-labeled assay, 53 samples tested positive and 13 samples tested negative by both of the assays. One sample was found to be positive with the artus CMV LC PCR kit only, and 35 samples tested positive with the routinely used assay only. The majority of discrepant results were found with low-titer samples. In conclusion, use of the artus CMV LC PCR kit in conjunction with automated sample preparation on the BioRobot EZ1 workstation may be suitable for the detection and quantitation of CMV DNA in EDTA whole blood in the routine low-throughput laboratory; however, low-positive results may be missed by this assay. PMID:18272703

  13. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  14. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  15. Antenatal blood pressure for prediction of pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and small for gestational age babies: development and validation in two general population cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J; de Stavola, Bianca L; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M; Crozier, Sarah; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Study question Can routine antenatal blood pressure measurements between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation contribute to the prediction of pre-eclampsia and its associated adverse outcomes? Methods This study used repeated antenatal measurements of blood pressure from 12 996 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to develop prediction models and validated these in 3005 women from the Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS). A model based on maternal early pregnancy characteristics only (BMI, height, age, parity, smoking, existing and previous gestational hypertension and diabetes, and ethnicity) plus initial mean arterial pressure was compared with a model additionally including current mean arterial pressure, a model including the deviation of current mean arterial pressure from a stratified normogram, and a model including both at different gestational ages from 20-36 weeks. Study answer and limitations The addition of blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improved prediction models compared with use of early pregnancy risk factors alone, but they contributed little to the prediction of preterm birth or small for gestational age. Though multiple imputation of missing data was used to increase the sample size and minimise selection bias, the validation sample might have been slightly underpowered as the number of cases of pre-eclampsia was just below the recommended 100. Several risk factors were self reported, potentially introducing measurement error, but this reflects how information would be obtained in clinical practice. What this study adds The addition of routinely collected blood pressure measurements from 28 weeks onwards improves predictive models for pre-eclampsia based on blood pressure in early pregnancy and other characteristics, facilitating a reduction in scheduled antenatal care. Funding, competing interests, data sharing UK Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health, and UK Medical Research Council. Other

  16. Changes in Angiotensin Receptor Distribution and in Aortic Morphology Are Associated with Blood Pressure Control in Aged Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Torrico-Lavayen, Rocío; Patrón-Soberano, Araceli; Carvajal-Aguilera, Karla G.; Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in blood pressure regulation in MS during aging is unknown. It participates in metabolic syndrome (MS) and aging regulating vascular tone and remodeling. RAS might participate in a compensatory mechanism decreasing blood pressure and allowing MS rats to reach 18 months of age and it might form part of therapeutical procedures to ameliorate MS. We studied histological changes and distribution of RAS receptors in aortas of MS aged rats. Electron microscopy images showed premature aging in MS since the increased fibrosis, enlarged endothelium, and invasion of this layer by muscle cells that was present in control 18-month-old aortas were also found in 6-month-old aortas from MS rats. AT1, AT2, and Mas receptors mediate the effects of Ang II and Ang 1-7, respectively. Fluorescence from AT2 decreased with age in control and MS aortas, while fluorescence of AT1 increased in aortas from MS rats at 6 months and diminished during aging. Mas expression increased in MS rats and remained unchanged in control rats. In conclusion, there is premature aging in the aortas from MS rats and the elevated expression of Mas receptor might contribute to decrease blood pressure during aging in MS. PMID:27293881

  17. Hippocampal blood flow in normal aging measured with arterial spin labeling at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Rusinek, Henry; Brys, Miroslaw; Glodzik, Lidia; Switalski, Remigiusz; Tsui, Wai-Hon; Haas, Francois; Mcgorty, Kellyanne; Chen, Qun; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to methodological difficulties related to the small size, variable distribution of hippocampal arteries, and the location of the hippocampus in the proximity of middle cranial fossa, little is known about hippocampal blood flow (HBF). We have tested the utility of a pulsed ASL sequence based on multi-shot TrueFISP to measure HBF in 34 normal volunteers (17 women, 17 men, 26-92 years old). Flow sensitivity to a mild hypercapnic challenge was also examined. Coregistered 3D MPRAGE sequence was used to eliminate from hippocampal and cortical regions of interest all voxel with <75% of gray matter. Large blood vessels were also excluded. HBF in normal volunteers averaged 61.2±9.0 ml/(100g min). There was no statistically significant age or gender effect. Under a mild hypercapnia challenge (end tidal CO2 pressure increase of 6.8±1.9 mg Hg over the baseline), HBF response was 14.1±10.8 ml/(100g min), whereas cortical gray matter flow increased by 18.0±12.2 ml/(100g min). Flow response among women was significantly larger than in the men. The average absolute difference between two successive HBF measures was 3.6 ml/(100g min), or 5.4%. The 3T TrueFISP ASL method offers a HBF measurement strategy that combines good spatial resolution, sensitivity, and minimal image distortions. PMID:20939094

  18. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  19. Rapid Detection of Candida albicans by Polymerase Spiral Reaction Assay in Clinical Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoqun; Dong, Derong; Bian, Lihong; Zou, Dayang; He, Xiaoming; Ao, Da; Yang, Zhan; Huang, Simo; Liu, Ningwei; Liu, Wei; Huang, Liuyu

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen which causes mucosal infections and invasive fungal diseases. Early detection of this pathogen is needed to guide preventative and therapeutic treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) assay that rapidly and accurately detects C. albicans and to assess the clinical applicability of PSR-based diagnostic testing. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), a region between 5.8S and 28S fungal ribosomal DNA, was used as the target sequence. Four primers were designed for amplification of ITS2 with the PSR method, which was evaluated using real time turbidity monitoring and visual detection using a pH indicator. Fourteen non-C. albicans yeast strains were negative for detection, which indicated the specificity of PSR assay was 100%. A 10-fold serial dilution of C. albicans genomic DNA was subjected to PSR and conventional polimerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare their sensitivities. The detection limit of PSR was 6.9 pg/μl within 1 h, 10-fold higher than that of PCR (69.0 pg/μl). Blood samples (n = 122) were collected from intensive care unit and hematological patients with proven or suspected C. albicans infection at two hospitals in Beijing, China. Both PSR assay and the culture method were used to analyze the samples. Of the 122 clinical samples, 34 were identified as positive by PSR. The result was consistent with those obtained by the culture method. In conclusion, a novel and effective C. albicans detection assay was developed that has a great potential for clinical screening and point-of-care testing. PMID:27379048

  20. Rapid Detection of Candida albicans by Polymerase Spiral Reaction Assay in Clinical Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoqun; Dong, Derong; Bian, Lihong; Zou, Dayang; He, Xiaoming; Ao, Da; Yang, Zhan; Huang, Simo; Liu, Ningwei; Liu, Wei; Huang, Liuyu

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen which causes mucosal infections and invasive fungal diseases. Early detection of this pathogen is needed to guide preventative and therapeutic treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) assay that rapidly and accurately detects C. albicans and to assess the clinical applicability of PSR-based diagnostic testing. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), a region between 5.8S and 28S fungal ribosomal DNA, was used as the target sequence. Four primers were designed for amplification of ITS2 with the PSR method, which was evaluated using real time turbidity monitoring and visual detection using a pH indicator. Fourteen non-C. albicans yeast strains were negative for detection, which indicated the specificity of PSR assay was 100%. A 10-fold serial dilution of C. albicans genomic DNA was subjected to PSR and conventional polimerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare their sensitivities. The detection limit of PSR was 6.9 pg/μl within 1 h, 10-fold higher than that of PCR (69.0 pg/μl). Blood samples (n = 122) were collected from intensive care unit and hematological patients with proven or suspected C. albicans infection at two hospitals in Beijing, China. Both PSR assay and the culture method were used to analyze the samples. Of the 122 clinical samples, 34 were identified as positive by PSR. The result was consistent with those obtained by the culture method. In conclusion, a novel and effective C. albicans detection assay was developed that has a great potential for clinical screening and point-of-care testing. PMID:27379048

  1. Estrogenic Compounds, Estrogen Receptors and Vascular Cell Signaling in the Aging Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Dia A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    estrogen in the aging blood vessels and thereby enhancing the efficacy and safety of MHT in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:19442151

  2. Characterization of the non-coding control region of polyomavirus KI isolated from nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and from blood from healthy blood donors in Norway.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobo; Van Ghelue, Marijke; Ludvigsen, Maria; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Ehlers, Bernhard; Moens, Ugo

    2016-07-01

    Seroepidemiological studies showed that the human polyomavirus KI (KIPyV) is common in the human population, with age-specific seroprevalence ranging from 40-90 %. Genome epidemiological analyses demonstrated that KIPyV DNA is predominantly found in respiratory tract samples of immunocompromised individuals and children suffering from respiratory diseases, but viral sequences have also been detected in brain, tonsil, lymphoid tissue studies, plasma, blood and faeces. Little is known about the sequence variation in the non-coding control region of KIPyV variants residing in different sites of the human body and whether specific strains dominate in certain parts of the world. In this study, we sequenced the non-coding control region (NCCR) of naturally occurring KIPyV variants in nasopharyngeal samples from patients with respiratory symptoms or infection and in blood from healthy donors in Norway. In total 86 sequences were obtained, 44 of which were identical to the original isolated Stockholm 60 variant. The remaining NCCRs contained one or several mutations, none of them previously reported. The same mutations were detected in NCCRs amplified from blood and nasopharyngeal samples. Some patients had different variants in their specimens. Transient transfection studies in HEK293 cells with a luciferase reporter plasmid demonstrated that some single mutations had a significant effect on the relative early and late promoter strength compared with the Stockholm 60 promoter. The effect of the NCCR mutations on viral replication and possible virulence properties remains to be established. PMID:27031170

  3. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  4. Variation in blood sample collection for determination of hemodialysis adequacy. Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed

    Beto, J A; Bansal, V K; Ing, T S; Daugirdas, J T

    1998-01-01

    Inadequate dialysis has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. The accurate estimation of dialysis adequacy, measured either as a calculated urea kinetics (Kt/V) or a simple urea reduction ratio (URR) is dependent on the proper collection of blood samples for predialysis and postdialysis blood urea nitrogen (BUN) determination. Because no established protocol exists for blood sampling, we surveyed the study cohort of dialysis centers participating in the National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study to determine the comparability of BUN data that were collected to calculate URR to determine adequacy of dialysis. Surveys were completed by 100% of the 202 units participating: 195 in the United States (from 43 states) and seven from Canada, treating approximately 15,000 hemodialysis patients in total. The distribution of the sample by the type of facility mirrored that of 1996 United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Report facilities data. Results showed a 5.0% error in predialysis blood draw and an 8.4% to 41.6% error in the postdialysis counterpart. There was a large variability in the observed postdialysis methods in general. Dilution of predialysis sample with either heparin or saline will falsely underestimate Kt/V and URR. The presence of access-derived, recirculated blood in the postdialysis sample will falsely overestimate Kt/V and URR. Excessive delay in drawing postdialysis sample will reduce Kt/V and URR because of urea rebound. Adoption by all dialysis providers of a uniform blood sample draw procedure will result in a consistency necessary to allow reliable and valid comparison of adequacy of dialysis parameters within and between ESRD patients, units, and clinical trials. PMID:9428465

  5. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS) cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively). In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively), 58% (n = 34), 53% (n = 31) and 29% (n = 17) of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure. Reliance on single blood

  6. Effect of age and endometrial degenerative changes on uterine blood flow during early gestation in mares.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J C; Canesin, H S; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-10-15

    The present experiment was divided into three studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares. In study 1, the influence of semen infusion and conception was evaluated using noninseminated (non-AI), inseminated nonpregnant (AI-NP), and inseminated pregnant (AI-P) mares (n = 7 mares/group). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤6 years), adult (from 8 to 12 years), and old (≥15 years) pregnant mares (n = 7 mares/group). In study 3, uterine blood flow was also characterized in pregnant mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate, or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII, and GIII, respectively). Uterine vascular perfusion and pulsatility index from mesometrium attachment arteries were recorded daily from Day 0 (day of ovulation) to Day 12 and between Days 0 and 20 in nonpregnant and pregnant mares. Analysis according to the position of the embryo (uterine horn with embryo vs. opposite horn) was performed from Day 12 until Day 20. In study 1, increased uterine vascular perfusion and decreased pulsatility index were detected (P < 0.001) between Days 3 and 5 in non-AI and AI-P mares, whereas the uterine vascular perfusion of AI-NP mares did not change (P > 0.05) throughout the experiment. In study 2, the vascular perfusion of the uterine horn with embryo was higher (P < 0.001) than in the opposite uterine horn from Day 12 until Day 20 in both young and adult mares. With exception of Day 15, both uterine horns of old mares showed similar (P > 0.1) vascular perfusion from Day 12. In study 3, vascular perfusion of both uterine horns was lower (P < 0.001) in GIII mares than in GI and GII mares. After Day 15, the scores for uterine vascular perfusion were consistently greater (P < 0.001) in the uterine horn with embryo than in the opposite horn in GI mares. Results showed, for the first time, the reduced blood flow of the gravid uterus during early gestation in older mares and in

  7. Sensitivity of nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled whole blood samples and its usefulness to blood donor screening in endemic areas.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Fontes, Cor Jesus F; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Pang, Lorrin W; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Transfusion-transmitted malaria is a severe disease with high fatality rate. Most Brazilian blood banks in the Amazon region perform malaria screening using microscopic examination (thick smears). Since low parasite concentrations are expected in asymptomatic blood donors a high sensitivity test should be used for donor screening. This study determined the sensitivity of a nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled samples. We performed a one-stage criterion validation study with 21 positive samples pooled with samples from ten negative volunteer until three different concentrations were reached (0.33; 0.25; 0.20 parasites/μL - p/μL). Nested PCR was performed as described by Snounou et al. (1993). Sensitivities (and confidence intervals) were determined by stratum of final parasite concentration on the pooled samples. All samples with parasitemia values of 0.33 and 0.25 p/μL had 100% sensitivity (95%CI=86.3-100). One negative result was obtained from a sample with 0.20 p/μL sensitivity=95.2% (95%CI=76.2-99.9). Compared to parasitemia detectable under ideal conditions of thick smear, this nested-PCR in pooled sample was able to detect 40 times more parasites per microliter. Nested-PCR in pooled samples should be considered as a high sensitive alternative to thick smear for donor screening in blood banks at endemic regions. Local authorities need to assess cost:benefit advantages of this method compared to alternatives. PMID:24508148

  8. Age-related changes in red blood cell complement regulatory proteins and susceptibility to severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Waitumbi, John N; Donvito, Béatrice; Kisserli, Aymric; Cohen, Jacques H M; Stoute, José A

    2004-09-15

    Severe malaria-associated anemia and cerebral malaria are life-threatening complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Red blood cell (RBC) complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both. We sought to determine whether there are age-related changes in the expression of CRPs that could explain the susceptibility to severe malaria-associated anemia in young children and the susceptibility to cerebral malaria in older children and adults. In cross-sectional surveys in malaria-endemic and -nonendemic areas of Kenya and in Reims, France, the level of RBC CRPs was lowest in young children and increased into adulthood. In case-control studies, patients with cerebral malaria and matched control subjects had higher levels of RBC CRPs than did patients with severe anemia and matched control subjects, especially during convalescence. We conclude that RBC CRP levels vary with age and that the lower levels of these proteins in young children in areas of high transmission, such as western Kenya, may place these children at greater risk of severe malaria-associated anemia than cerebral malaria. PMID:15319870

  9. The association between neovascular age-related macular degeneration and regulatory T cells in peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Madelung, Christopher Fugl; Falk, Mads Krüger; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate regulatory T cells (Tregs) and subsets of the Treg population in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Patients and methods Twenty-one neovascular AMD cases and 12 age-matched controls without retinal pathology were selected. Patients were recruited from our outpatient retinal clinic. Control individuals were typically spouses. The diagnosis of neovascular AMD was confirmed using fluorescein and indocyaningreen angiography. Fresh venous blood was analyzed by flow cytometry using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies to the Treg surface antigens CD4, CD25, CD127, CD45RA, and CD31. Main outcome measures were the percentage of CD25highCD127low Tregs, the percentage of CD45RA+ naïve Tregs, and the percentage of CD31+ recent thymic emigrant Tregs. Results Comparing patients with neovascular AMD to controls, no significant differences were found in the percentages of CD4+ lymphocytes, CD25highCD127low Tregs, CD45RA+ naïve Tregs, or CD31+ recent thymic emigrant Tregs. Conclusion Our data does not indicate an altered state of systemic Treg cells in neovascular AMD. PMID:26170606

  10. Common Aging Signature in the Peripheral Blood of Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongbo; Han, Guangchun; Wang, Jiajia; Zeng, Fan; Li, Yuanming; Shao, Shaoju; Song, Fuhai; Bai, Zhouxian; Peng, Xing; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Shi, Xiangqun; Lei, Hongxing

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the two most dominant forms of dementia in elderly people. Due to the large overlap between AD and VaD in clinical observations, great controversies exist regarding the distinction and connection between these two types of senile dementia. Here for the first time, we resort to the gene expression pattern of the peripheral blood to compare AD and VaD objectively. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD is unique among the examined diseases including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. In this study, we found that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD and VaD is quite similar to each other at both functional and gene levels. Interestingly, the dysregulation started at the early stages of the diseases, namely mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). We have also shown that this signature is distinctive from that of peripheral vascular diseases. Comparison with aging studies revealed that the most profound change in AD and VaD, namely ribosome, is consistent with the accelerated aging scenario. This study may have implications to the common mechanism between AD and VaD. PMID:26099307

  11. Comparative determination of methyl mercury in whole blood samples using GC-ICP-MS and GC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Hippler, J; Hoppe, H W; Mosel, F; Rettenmeier, A W; Hirner, A V

    2009-08-15

    Two methods for the determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in whole blood samples based on different mass spectrometric detection techniques are compared. The methods were employed in two studies in which the internal exposure of a group of mercury-exposed workers to total mercury and MeHg was investigated. Blood samples of these workers were analysed for MeHg independently from each other in two laboratories using similar extraction procedures but different detection techniques, viz. coupled GC-EI-MS/ICP-MS and GC-MS using D(3)-MeHg as internal standard. MeHg was detected in all blood samples in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 9.0 microg/L. Though different detection techniques were employed, the results obtained by the two laboratories were in relatively good agreement. PMID:19560985

  12. Human Erythrocyte PIG-A Assay: An Easily Monitored Index of Gene Mutation Requiring Low Volume Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Stephen D.; Avlasevich, Svetlana L.; Bemis, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Yuhchyau; MacGregor, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory has previously described a method for scoring the incidence of rodent blood Pig-a mutant phenotype erythrocytes using immunomag-netic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). The current work extends this approach to human blood. The frequencies of CD59- and CD55-negative reticulo-cytes (RETCD59−/CD55−) and erythrocytes (RBCCD59−/CD55−) seve as phenotypic reporters of PIG-A gene mutation. Immunomagnetic separation was found to provide an effective means of increasing the number of reticulocytes and erythro-cytes evaluated. Technical replicates were utilized to provide a sufficient number of cells for precise scoring while at the same time controlling for procedural accuracy by allowing comparison of replicate values. Cold whole blood samples could be held for at least one week without affecting reticulo-cyte, RETCD59−/CD55− or RBCCD59−/CD55− frequencies. Specimens from a total of 52 nonsmoking, self-reported healthy adult subjects were evaluated. The mean frequency of RETCD59−/CD55− and RBCCD592−/CD55− were 6.0 × 10−6 and 2.9 × 10−6, respectively. The difference is consistent with a modest selective pressure against mutant phenotype erythrocytes in the circulation, and suggests advantages of studying both populations of erythrocytes. Whereas intra-subject variability was low, inter-subject variability was relatively high, with RETCD59−/CD55− frequencies differing by more than 30-fold. There was an apparent correlation between age and mutant cell frequencies. Taken together, the results indicate that the frequency of human PIG-A mutant phenotype cells can be efficiently and reliably estimated using a labeling and analysis protocol that is well established for rodent-based studies. The applicability of the assay across species, its simplicity and statistical power, and the relatively non-invasive nature of the assay should benefit myriad research areas involving DNA damage

  13. Selective nonenzymatic bilirubin detection in blood samples using a Nafion/Mn-Cu sensor.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hui-Bog; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2014-11-15

    The specific detection of biological organics without the use of an enzyme is challenging, and it is crucial for analytical and clinical chemistry. We report specific nonenzymatic bilirubin detection through the catalytic oxidation of bilirubin molecule on the Nafion/Mn-Cu surface. The catalytic ability, true surface area, morphology, crystallinity, composition, and oxidation state of the sensor surface were assessed using voltammetry, coulometry, XPS, XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), SEM, EDXS, and TOF-SIMS experiments. The results showed that the surface was composed of microporous Mn-Cu bimetallic crystal in flake shape with a large BET surface area (3.635 m(2)g(-1)), where the surface area and crystallinity mainly affected the sensor performance. Product analysis of the catalytic reaction on the sensor probe revealed a specific two-electron oxidation of dipyrromethane moiety to dipyrromethene in the bilirubin molecule. Experimental variables affecting the analysis of bilirubin were optimized in terms of probe composition, temperature, pH, and potential. At the optimized condition, the dynamic range was between 1.2 μM and 0.42 mM, which yielded the equation of ΔI (μA)=(1.03 ± 0.72)+(457.0 ± 4.03) [C] (mM) with 0.999 of correlation coefficient, and the detection limit was 25.0 ± 1.8 nM (n=5, k=3). The stability test, interference effects, and analysis of real clinical samples, human whole blood and certified serum samples were demonstrated to confirm the reliability of the proposed bilirubin sensor. PMID:24953842

  14. Correction of an input function for errors introduced with automated blood sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer, D.J.; Dewey, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate kinetic modeling of PET data requires an precise arterial plasma input function. The use of automated blood sampling machines has greatly improved the accuracy but errors can be introduced by the dispersion of the radiotracer in the sampling tubing. This dispersion results from three effects. The first is the spreading of the radiotracer in the tube due to mass transfer. The second is due to the mechanical action of the peristaltic pump and can be determined experimentally from the width of a step function. The third is the adsorption of the radiotracer on the walls of the tubing during transport through the tube. This is a more insidious effect since the amount recovered from the end of the tube can be significantly different than that introduced into the tubing. We have measured the simple mass transport using [{sup 18}F]fluoride in water which we have shown to be quantitatively recovered with no interaction with the tubing walls. We have also carried out experiments with several radiotracers including [{sup 18}F]Haloperidol, [{sup 11}C]L-deprenyl, [{sup 18}]N-methylspiroperidol ([{sup 18}F]NMS) and [{sup 11}C]buprenorphine. In all cases there was some retention of the radiotracer by untreated silicone tubing. The amount retained in the tubing ranged from 6% for L-deprenyl to 30% for NMS. The retention of the radiotracer was essentially eliminated after pretreatment with the relevant unlabeled compound. For example less am 2% of the [{sup 18}F]NMS was retained in tubing treated with unlabelled NMS. Similar results were obtained with baboon plasma although the amount retained in the untreated tubing was less in all cases. From these results it is possible to apply a mathematical correction to the measured input function to account for mechanical dispersion and to apply a chemical passivation to the tubing to reduce the dispersion due to adsorption of the radiotracer on the tubing walls.

  15. Trace samples of human blood in mosquitoes as a forensic investigation tool.

    PubMed

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects. PMID:26600546

  16. Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Zulfiqar, Samreen; Shahnawaz, Sadia; Ali, Muhammad; Bhutta, Arif Mahmood; Iqbal, Shahid; Hayat, Sikandar; Qadir, Shazia; Latif, Muhammad; Kiran, Nazia; Saeed, Ali; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results 27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions : This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output. PMID:23569878

  17. Field-adapted sampling of whole blood to determine the levels of amodiaquine and its metabolite in children with uncomplicated malaria treated with amodiaquine plus artesunate combination

    PubMed Central

    Ntale, Muhammad; Obua, Celestino; Mukonzo, Jackson; Mahindi, Margarita; Gustafsson, Lars L; Beck, Olof; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper W

    2009-01-01

    Background Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been widely adopted as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In Uganda, amodiaquine plus artesunate (AQ+AS), is the alternative first-line regimen to Coartem® (artemether + lumefantrine) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Currently, there are few field-adapted analytical techniques for monitoring amodiaquine utilization in patients. This study evaluates the field applicability of a new method to determine amodiaquine and its metabolite concentrations in whole blood dried on filter paper. Methods Twelve patients aged between 1.5 to 8 years with uncomplicated malaria received three standard oral doses of AQ+AS. Filter paper blood samples were collected before drug intake and at six different time points over 28 days period. A new field-adapted sampling procedure and liquid chromatographic method was used for quantitative determination of amodiaquine and its metabolite in whole blood. Results The sampling procedure was successively applied in the field. Amodiaquine could be quantified for at least three days and the metabolite up to 28 days. All parasites in all the 12 patients cleared within the first three days of treatment and no adverse drug effects were observed. Conclusion The methodology is suitable for field studies. The possibility to determine the concentration of the active metabolite of amodiaquine up to 28 days suggested that the method is sensitive enough to monitor amodiaquine utilization in patients. Amodiaquine plus artesunate seems effective for treatment of falciparum malaria. PMID:19331684

  18. Concentrations of drugs determined in blood samples collected from suspected drugged drivers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Burch, Hilary J; Clarke, Elizabeth J; Hubbard, Alison M; Scott-Ham, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This communication reports the blood concentrations of alcohol and drugs from 376 cases of alleged driving under the influence of drugs analysed at the Forensic Science Service Chorley and London laboratories between February 2010 and March 2011. The samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, cocaine, MDMA, opiates, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, methadone and methylmethcathinone (the 4-isomer of which is known as mephedrone). The results were interpreted with respect to the number and type of drugs of abuse detected and the concentrations measured. Alcohol was quantified in 113 cases (30%), and of these a level in excess of the prescribed UK limit for driving of 80 mg% was present in 90 cases. In 80 cases, only the concentration of alcohol was measured, the concentrations of both drugs and alcohol were measured in 33 cases. In the remaining 263 cases, only the concentrations of relevant drugs of abuse were measured. The most common drug of abuse quantified was cocaine which was detected in 92 cases, either as the active drug or as its major metabolite benzoylecgonine, followed by diazepam which was quantified in 76 cases. Concentrations of some new drugs, and drugs rarely reported in driving under the influence cases are also presented. PMID:23622475

  19. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus): impact of gender and season

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus). Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years), middle-aged (4–5 years) and old (6–10 years). Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction), the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur. PMID:23131178

  20. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  1. Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dahu; Berger, Andrew J.

    2007-04-01

    We report measurements of chemical concentrations in clinical blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) Raman spectroscopy to increase the collected signal strength. Both Raman and absorption spectra were acquired in the near-infrared region using the LCOF geometry. Spectra of 71 blood serum and 61 urine samples were regressed via partial least squares against reference analyzer values. Significant correlation was found between predicted and reference concentrations for 13 chemicals. Using absorption data to normalize the LCOF enhancement made the results more accurate. The experimental geometry is well suited for high-volume and automated chemical analysis of clear biofluids.

  2. Association of Global DNA Methylation and Global DNA Hydroxymethylation with Metals and Other Exposures in Human Blood DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wan-yee; Shang, Yan; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Ledesma, Marta; Leon, Montserrat; Laclaustra, Martin; Pollak, Jonathan; Guallar, Eliseo; Cole, Shelley A.; Fallin, M. Dani; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between human blood DNA global methylation and global hydroxymethylation has not been evaluated in population-based studies. No studies have evaluated environmental determinants of global DNA hydroxymethylation, including exposure to metals. Objective: We evaluated the association between global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation in 48 Strong Heart Study participants for which selected metals had been measured in urine at baseline and DNA was available from 1989–1991 (visit 1) and 1998–1999 (visit 3). Methods: We measured the percentage of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in samples using capture and detection antibodies followed by colorimetric quantification. We explored the association of participant characteristics (i.e., age, adiposity, smoking, and metal exposure) with both global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation. Results: The Spearman’s correlation coefficient for 5-mC and 5-hmC levels was 0.32 (p = 0.03) at visit 1 and 0.54 (p < 0.001) at visit 3. Trends for both epigenetic modifications were consistent across potential determinants. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds ratios of methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA were 1.56 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.57) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.88), respectively, for the comparison of participants above and below the median percentage of dimethylarsinate. The corresponding odds ratios were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.65) and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.94), respectively, for the comparison of participants above and below the median cadmium level. Arsenic exposure and metabolism were consistently associated with both epigenetic markers in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. The positive correlation of 5-mC and 5-hmC levels was confirmed in an independent study population. Conclusions: Our findings support that both epigenetic measures are related at the population level. The consistent trends in the associations between these two epigenetic

  3. Sampling blood from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in the field with and without anesthesia: Impacts on survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wimsatt, J.; Pearce, R.D.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Blood was collected from wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with and without anesthesia in Fort Collins, Colorado in 2004 to assess the impacts of these procedures on short-term survival and 1-yr return rates. Short-term survival and 1-yr return rates after release were passively monitored using PIT tag detection hoops placed at selected buildings. Comparison of 14-day maximum likelihood survival estimates from bats not bled (142 adult females, 62 volant juveniles), and bats sampled for blood with anesthesia (96 adult females, 23 volant juveniles) and without anesthesia (112 adult females, 22 volant juveniles) indicated no adverse effects of either treatment (juveniles: X2=53.38, df=41, P=0.09; adults: X2=39.09, df=44, P=0.68). Return rates of bats one year after sampling were similar among adult female controls (75.4%, n=142, 95% CI=67.4-82.2%), females sampled for blood with anesthesia (83.0%, n=112, 95% CI=74.8-89.5%), and females sampled without anesthesia (87.5%, n=96, 95% CI=79.2-93.4%). Lack of an effect was also noted in 1-yr return rates of juvenile females. These data suggest that the use of anesthesia during sampling of blood has no advantages in terms of enhancement of survival in big brown bats. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  4. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  5. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Paul F; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S; Frey, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB) that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384), pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553), and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955) and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome. PMID:27529227

  6. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Rühle, Paul F.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB) that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384), pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553), and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955) and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome. PMID:27529227

  7. Dried Blood Spot Proteomics: Surface Extraction of Endogenous Proteins Coupled with Automated Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  8. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  9. Profiles of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology in an Aging Urban Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Dushyant P.; Batheja, Nirmala O.; Sano, Mary; Jashnani, Kusum D.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Karunamurthy, Arivarasan; Kaur, Shalinder; Shenoy, Asha S.; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James; Perl, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology that complement clinical and epidemiological data on dementia from low and middle income countries are rare. We report the first large study on AD-related pathology in autopsy service-derived brains from an urban center in India, a low/middle income country, and compare findings with a similar sample from New York. Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were assessed in 91 brain specimens derived from hospital autopsy cases from Mumbai, India (age 60+ years; mean age 71.1 years, ± 8.3 SD; range 60–107 years) and compared with identically examined age-matched sample obtained in New York. These cases had no known clinical history of dementia. Our study showed that in comparison with the New York sample, the mean brain weight of the Mumbai sample was lower (p = 0.013) and mean diffuse plaque density was higher (p = 0.019), while differences in mean density and counts of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Our findings indicate that the burden of AD-related pathology was approximately equivalent in Mumbai and New York samples, which is at variance with expected lower AD-related lesion burden based on the clinical/epidemiological studies suggesting lower prevalence of AD in India. PMID:21187583

  10. Testing the applicability of six macroscopic skeletal aging techniques on a modern Southeast Asian sample.

    PubMed

    Gocha, Timothy P; Ingvoldstad, Megan E; Kolatorowicz, Adam; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Meghan-Tomasita J; Sciulli, Paul W

    2015-04-01

    Most macroscopic skeletal aging techniques used by forensic anthropologists have been developed and tested only on reference material from western populations. This study examined the performance of six aging techniques on a known age sample of 88 Southeast Asian individuals. Methods examined included the Suchey-Brooks method of aging the symphyseal face of the os pubis (Brooks and Suchey, Hum. Evol. 5 (1990) 227), Buckberry and Chamberlain's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 231 and Osborne et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 49 (2004) 1 revisions of the Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15 method of aging the auricular surface of the ilium, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 29 (1984) 1094, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 30 (1985) 853 method of aging the sternal end of the fourth rib, and Meindl and Lovejoy's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 57 methods for aging both lateral-anterior and vault sutures on the cranium. The results of this study indicate that application of aging techniques commonly used in forensic anthropology to individuals identified as Asian, and more specifically Southeast Asian, should not be undertaken injudiciously. Of the six individual methods tested here, the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging method performs best, though average age estimates were still off by nearly 10 years or greater. Methods for aging the auricular surface perform next best, though the Osborne et al. method works better for individuals below 50 years and the Buckberry and Chamberlain method works better for those above 50 years. Methods for age estimation from the sternal ends of the fourth rib and vault and lateral-anterior cranial sutures perform poorly and are not recommended for use on remains of Southeast Asian ancestry. Combining age estimates from multiple indicators, specifically the pubic symphysis and one auricular surface method, was superior to individual methods. Data and a worked example are provided for calculating the conditional

  11. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample.

    PubMed

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E; Hawley, Karri S; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-03-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  12. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  13. Establishment of a microplate assay for flow cytometric assessment and it is use for the evaluation of age-related phenotypic changes in canine whole blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Reis, Alexandre B; Carneiro, Cláudia M; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C; Mayrink, Wilson; Genaro, Odair; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo A

    2005-02-10

    The effectiveness of flow cytometric assays for canine use is still requiring standardization. Despite several studies using purified mononuclear cells, no methodology or reference ranges are available for immunophenotyping of whole blood leukocytes (WBL). Fresh and pre-fixed WBL were used to identify cell-subsets, (Thy-1(+)/CD5(+)/CD4(+)/CD8(+)/CD21(+) and CD14(+)) and measure MHC-II, CD45RA/CD45RB expression. We described here an efficient method for fast quantification of canine-WBL, using pre-fix in a microplate assay, which allows long-term sample storage prior to phenotyping. Decreased percentage of CD5(+)-T-cells within the lymphocyte-gate and increased percentage of CD21(+)-B-cells were observed in young animals, which led to higher T/B cell ratios in middle-aged dogs. Lower numerical counts of Thy-1(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD21(+) lymphocyte were observed when compared to young animals. In addition, we identified an age-related decline of MHC-II/CD45RA expression by lymphocytes. We proposed an improved method for phenotyping of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that has significant use for researchers and veterinary clinicians. The hematological changes of senescence previously identified on PBMC could be adequately reproduced on features identified by whole blood. Furthermore, this study supplies normal range references as baseline standards for clinical purposes, besides specific immunological parameters to monitor canine aging process. PMID:15621304

  14. External Quality Control for Dried Blood Spot Based C-reactive Protein Assay: Experience from the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peifeng; Herningtyas, Elizabeth H.; Kale, Varsha; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Risbud, Arun R.; McCreath, Heather; Lee, Jinkook; Strauss, John; O’Brien, Jennifer C.; Bloom, David E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, in dried blood spots has been increasingly incorporated in community-based social surveys internationally. Although the dried blood spot based CRP assay protocol has been validated in the United States, it remains unclear whether laboratories in other less developed countries can generate C-reactive protein results of similar quality. We therefore conducted external quality monitoring for dried blood spot based C-reactive protein measurement for the Indonesia Family Life Survey and the Longitudinal Aging Study in India. Our results show that dried blood spot based C-reactive protein results in these two countries have excellent and consistent correlations with serum-based values and dried blood spot based results from the reference laboratory in the United States. Even though the results from duplicate samples may have fluctuations in absolute values over time, the relative order of C-reactive protein levels remains similar and the estimates are reasonably precise for population-based studies that investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and health. PMID:25879265

  15. A Dimensional Liability Model of Age Differences in Mental Disorder Prevalence: Evidence from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  16. A dimensional liability model of age differences in mental disorder prevalence: evidence from a national sample.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. PMID:25858414

  17. Blood Flow Velocity in the Choroid in Punctate Inner Choroidopathy and Vogt-Koyanagi Disease:. and Multifractal Analysis of Choroidal Blood Flow in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Saito, W.; Fujii, H.; Yakubo, K.

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the important role of the choroidal circulation has been recognized in various fundus diseases, such as punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). An apparatus based on the laser speckle phenomenon, which we call laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) has been used to measure the blood flow velocity in the retina and choroid with the diode laser. PIC presents in myopic women who complain of decreased visual acuity. VKH disease is a bilateral, granulomatous chorioretinitis. The composite map of the LSFG represent that blood flow velocity in the choroid was decreased in PIC and VKH. After the treatment, blood flow velocity in this area was increased in both disease and visual acuity recovered. LSFG appears to be a safe and sensitive means to evaluate these disease progression and response to therapy. A multifractal analysis has been performed for blood flow data in the composite map of the LSFG. In consequence, multifractality becomes clearly worse for the AMD patient compared to normal choroidal blood flows. The multifractal analysis of LSFG data represents an additional useful method to detect the early stage of AMD.

  18. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Time-Dependent Data: Mean-Induced Association in Age-Heterogeneous Samples and an Alternative Method Based on Sequential Narrow Age-Cohort Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Scott M.; Flaherty, Brian P.; Hoffman, Lesa

    2006-01-01

    The effect of time-related mean differences on estimates of association in cross-sectional studies has not been widely recognized in developmental and aging research. Cross-sectional studies of samples varying in age have found moderate to high levels of shared age-related variance among diverse age-related measures. These findings may be…

  19. Using Modified Sample Entropy to Characterize Aging-Associated Microvascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous microvascular function can be assessed by skin blood flow (SBF) response to thermal stimuli. Usually, the activities of the regulatory mechanisms are quantified by means of spectral analysis of the response. However, spectral measures are unable to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of SBF signal. Sample entropy (SampEn) is a commonly used nonlinear measure of the degree of regularity of time series. However, SampEn value depends on the relationship between the frequency of the studied dynamics and sampling rate. Hence, when time series data are oversampled, SampEn may give misleading results. We modified the definition of SampEn by including a lag between successive data points of the vectors to be compared to address the oversampled issue. The lag could be chosen as the first minimum of the auto mutual information function of the time series. We tested the performance of modified SampEn using simulated signals and SBF data in the young and old groups. The results indicated that modified SampEn yields consistent results for different sampling rates in simulated data, but SampEn cannot. Blood flow data showed a higher degree of regularity during the maximal vasodilation period as compared to the baseline in both groups and a higher degree of regularity in the older group as compared to the young group. Furthermore, our results showed that during the second peak the more regular behavior of blood flow oscillations (BFO) is mainly attributed to enhanced cardiac oscillations. This study suggests that the modified SampEn approach may be useful for assessing microvascular function. PMID:27148065

  20. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  1. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  2. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  3. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26–74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D. PMID:27029739

  4. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Lisa A; Sherwood, Kelly L; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2007-01-01

    Background In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. Methods The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 ± 4 yr) at 4-(n = 53) and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55). Results Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively) and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L). Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and RBC (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) folate concentrations at 16-wk postpartum. Plasma and RBC folate values at 16-wk postpartum correctly identified the quartile of folate intake of only 26 of 55 (47%) and 18 of 55 (33%) of subjects, respectively. The mean RBC folate concentration of women consuming 151–410 μg/d of synthetic folate (2nd quartile of intake) did not differ from that of women consuming >410 μg/d (3rd and

  5. Comparison between continuous ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring and standard blood pressure measurements among patients of younger and older age group.

    PubMed

    Babić, Betty Korljan; Bagatin, Jugoslav; Kokić, Slaven; Ostojić, Sanja Barsić; Carević, Vedran; Berović, Nina

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between blood pressure measured in a physician's office and the average 24 hr continuous blood pressure monitored by hypertensive patients at home. If there is a difference between these two situations then is it possibly the result of a blood pressure response by the patient to the physician which is known as "white coat effect" or "white coat hypertension". We studied 80 hypertensive outpatients which were divided into two groups of 40 patients each--a younger patient group, with a mean age of 22.8 +/- 1.8 years, and an older patient group with a mean age of 50.3 +/- 5.7 years. They were selected because they had been diagnosed as essentially hypertension grade 1, according to 2007 ESH/ESC Guidelines, or the USA Joint National Committee Guidelines (JNC 7) (i.e., arterial blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg and < 160/100 mmHg) and 35 were not having any antihypertensive treatment. All participants in the study went through a two-week "wash-out" period without medication. At the beginning of the study blood pressure was measured using the Riva-Rocci-Korotkoff method (mercury sphygmomanometer) after 5 minutes of rest and with the patient in the sitting position. The average of the two last measurements by sphygmomanometer was used in the analysis. The subsequent measurement was made by continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs 90207 device). Continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed that 17 patients of the younger age group (42.5%) who were diagnosed hypertonic, according to mercury sphygmomanometeric measurement, were in fact normotonic. In the older age group only 7 (17.5%) of participants were normotonic during 24 hr blood pressure monitoring. The proportion of miss-diagnosed normotonic younger patients was directly related to elevated clinic blood pressure, which could be referred to as office hypertension or isolated clinic hypertension (white coat hypertension

  6. Rorschach comprehensive system data for a sample of 478 Iranian children at four ages.

    PubMed

    Hosseininasab, Abufazel; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Weiner, Irving B; Delavar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the international reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System by reporting the responses of 478 nonpatient Iranian children at the 4 age levels of 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, and 14 to 16. Interrater reliability is reported, and descriptive statistics are presented for each age level. In common with previous cross-national samples of young people, the Iranian Rorschach findings mirror several expected developmental changes, which indicates their construct validity, and show a low frequency of elevated PTI and DEPI, which limits the likelihood of Rorschach assessment suggesting serious cognitive or affective disorder when neither is present. PMID:25010000

  7. Age-related changes in skin blood flow at four anatomic sites of the body in males studied by xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Y.

    1990-04-01

    The normal skin blood flow in healthy subjects consisting of 28 males whose ages ranged from 20 to 72 years was measured by the xenon-133 clearance method at four different sites of the body to determine the presence of any age-related changes. The following results were obtained: Significant age-related changes were observed in the skin blood flow of the deltoid region, anterior chest, dorsum of the hand, and dorsum of the foot. Normal skin blood flow was demonstrated to be highly dependent on age and to significantly decrease with age. Average skin blood flow at these four regions of those 70 years of age decreased by 30 to 40 percent when compared to that of those 20 years of age. The skin blood flow at the deltoid region of healthy subjects was higher by 6.3 ml/100 gm per minute than that of patients in poor condition with cancer of the head and neck.

  8. ASSOCIATIONS OF BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE IN PREGNANCY WITH FETAL GROWTH AND GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY: FINDINGS FROM A PROSPECTIVE COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. However, the associations of patterns of blood pressure change during pregnancy with these outcomes have not been studied in detail. We studied repeat antenatal blood pressure measurements of 9,697 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (median (interquartile range) 10 (9, 11) measurements per woman). Bivariate linear spline models were used to relate blood pressure changes to perinatal outcomes. Higher systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure at baseline (8 weeks gestation) and a greater increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 36 weeks gestation were associated with lower offspring birthweight and being smaller for gestational age in confounder-adjusted models. For example, the mean difference (95% CI) in birthweight per 1 mmHg/week greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18-30 weeks was −71g (−134, −14) and between 30-36 weeks was −175g (−208, −145). A smaller decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure prior to 18 weeks and a greater increase between 18 and 36 weeks was associated with a shorter gestation (percentage difference in gestational duration per 1 mmHg/week greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18-30 weeks: −0.60% (−1.01, −0.18) and 30-36 weeks: −1.01% (−1.36, −0.74)). Associations remained strong when restricting to normotensive women. We conclude that greater increases in blood pressure, from the 18-week nadir, are related to reduced fetal growth and shorter gestation even in women whose blood pressure does not cross the threshold for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:24821945

  9. Distribution of blood pressure & correlates of hypertension in school children aged 5-14 years from North east India

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Prasanta Kr.; Devi, Utpala; Biswas, Dipankar; Kalita, Hem Ch.; Sharma, Meenakshi; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Elevated blood pressure (BP) in the young predicts serious cardiovascular events in the adults. High prevalence of adult hypertension reported from Assam, North East (NE) India may be linked with elevated blood pressure in the childhood. The present study was an attempt to describe the distribution of BP and correlates of hypertension in children aged 5-14 yr. Methods: A total of 10,003 school children from 99 schools of Dibrugarh district, Assam, NE India, were surveyed by stratified random cluster method. Blood pressure, demographic and anthropometric information were recorded. Blood pressure was categorized in to normal, prehypertension, stage I and stage II hypertension. Results: Girls had significantly higher (104.2 ± 12.0 vs. 103.2 ± 11.6 mm Hg, P<0.001) mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) than boys. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) revealed significant correlation with age, height, weight and BMI in overall and in gender specific analysis. Hypertension was found in 7.6 per cent school children (Boys: 7.3%, Girls: 7.8%). In multivariable analysis older age (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 2.82-3.91), children from tea garden community (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.08-1.55) and other community (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.18-1.73) and overweight (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) were independently associated with hypertension. Interpretation & conclusions: Mean blood pressure in the young school children of 5-14 yr was high. A programme comprising screening, early detection and health promotion through school health programmes may help prevent future complications of hypertension. PMID:26458345

  10. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Simon D; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Bergelson, Ilana; Dowling, David J; Banks, Michaela; Samuels, Ronald C; Reed, Steven G; Marshall, Jason D; Levy, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    Most infections occur in early life, prompting development of novel adjuvanted vaccines to protect newborns and infants. Several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLRAs) are components of licensed vaccine formulations or are in development as candidate adjuvants. However, the type and magnitude of immune responses to TLRAs may vary with the TLR activated as well as age and geographic location. Most notably, in newborns, as compared to adults, the immune response to TLRAs is polarized with lower Th1 cytokine production and robust Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. The ontogeny of TLR-mediated cytokine responses in international cohorts has been reported, but no study has compared cytokine responses to TLRAs between U.S. neonates and infants at the age of 6months. Both are critical age groups for the currently pediatric vaccine schedule. In this study, we report quantitative differences in the production of a panel of 14 cytokines and chemokines after in vitro stimulation of newborn cord blood and infant and adult peripheral blood with agonists of TLR4, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and glucopyranosyl lipid Adjuvant aqueous formulation (GLA-AF), as well as agonists of TLR7/8 (R848) and TLR9 (CpG). Both TLR4 agonists, MPLA and GLA-AF, induced greater concentrations of Th1 cytokines CXCL10, TNF and Interleukin (IL)-12p70 in infant and adult blood compared to newborn blood. All the tested TLRAs induced greater infant IFN-α2 production compared to newborn and adult blood. In contrast, CpG induced greater IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-12p40, IL-10 and CXCL8 in newborn than in infant and adult blood. Overall, to the extent that these in vitro studies mirror responses in vivo, our study demonstrates distinct age-specific effects of TLRAs that may inform their development as candidate adjuvants for early life vaccines. PMID:27081760

  11. The impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples measured by the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2016-09-01

    The comet assay is frequently used in human biomonitoring for the detection of exposure to genotoxic agents. Peripheral blood samples are most frequently used and tested either as whole blood or after isolation of lymphocytes (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC). To investigate a potential impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples, we exposed blood ex vivo to mutagens with different modes of genotoxic action. The comet assay was performed either directly with whole blood at the end of the exposure period or with lymphocytes isolated directly after exposure. In addition to the recommended standard protocol for lymphocyte isolation, a shortened protocol was established to optimise the isolation procedure. The results indicate that the effects of induced DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites induced by ionising radiation and alkylants, respectively, are significantly reduced in isolated lymphocytes. In contrast, oxidative DNA base damage (induced by potassium bromate) and stable bulky adducts (induced by benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide; BPDE) seem to be less affected. Our findings suggest that in vivo-induced DNA damage might also be reduced in isolated lymphocytes in comparison with the whole blood depending of the types of DNA damage induced. Because only small genotoxic effects can generally be expected in human biomonitoring studies with the comet assay after occupational and environmental exposure to genotoxic agents, any loss might be relevant and should be avoided. The possibility of such effects and their potential impact on variability of comet assay results in human biomonitoring should be considered when performing or evaluating such kind of studies. PMID:27154923

  12. Heroin snorters versus injectors: comparison on drug use and treatment outcome in age-matched samples.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M J; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    1998-12-01

    Drug use histories and treatment outcomes were compared for age, race and gender-matched samples of intravenous (IV; n = 28) versus intranasal (IN; n = 28) opiate abusers entering a 3-day inpatient detoxification unit. Data were derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview. Both groups reported daily heroin use prior to detoxification, but IV users reported more days of alcohol and multiple drug use during the past 30 days. Despite age matching, IV users also started using alcohol at an earlier age and accumulated more lifetime months of regular alcohol, cocaine and multidrug use. IV users were more likely to enter treatment following the detox, but no significant outcome differences were noted at 1 and 3 months post-detoxification. The results show that intravenous, as compared to intranasal, opiate users have both a more severe pattern and a more extensive history of the use of non-opiate drugs. PMID:10933336

  13. Raman spectroscopy for a rapid diagnosis of sickle cell disease in human blood samples: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Filho, Antonio Carlos Bueno; Silveira, Landulfo; Yanai, Ana Leticia Sant'Anna; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been proposed as a tool for diagnosis of human blood diseases aiming a quick and accurate diagnosis. Sickle cell disease arises in infancy and causes a severe anemia; thus, an early diagnosis may avoid pathological complications such as vasoocclusion, hemolytic anemia, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and infections. This work evaluated spectral differences between hemoglobin S (HbS) and hemoglobin A (HbA) to be used in a diagnostic model based on principal components analysis. Blood samples of patients with a previous diagnosis of sickle cell disease were hemolyzed with water, centrifuged, and the pellet was collected with a pipette. Near-infrared Raman spectra (830 nm, 200 mW) were obtained from these samples, and a model based on principal components analysis and Mahalanobis distance were used to discriminate HbA from HbS. Differences were found in the spectra of HbS and HbA, mainly in the 882 and 1,373 cm(-1) (valine, HbA) and 1,547 and 1,622 cm(-1) (glutamic acid, HbS). The spectral model could correctly discriminate 100% of the samples in the correspondent groups. Raman spectroscopy was able to detect the subtle changes in the polypeptide chain (valine and glutamic acid substitution) due to the sickle cell disease and could be used to discriminate blood samples with HbS from HbA with minimum sample preparations (hemolysis with water and centrifugation). PMID:25217409

  14. Enhanced Stability of Blood Matrices Using a Dried Sample Spot Assay to Measure Human Butyrylcholinesterase Activity and Nerve Agent Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jonas W.; Pantazides, Brooke G.; Watson, Caroline M.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2015-01-01

    Dried matrix spots are safer to handle and easier to store than wet blood products, but factors such as intra-spot variability and unknown sample volumes have limited their appeal as a sampling format for quantitative analyses. In this work, we introduce a dried spot activity assay for quantifying butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) specific activity which is BChE activity normalized to the total protein content in a sample spot. The method was demonstrated with blood, serum, and plasma spotted on specimen collection devices (cards) which were extracted to measure total protein and BChE activity using a modified Ellman assay. Activity recovered from dried spots was ∼80% of the initial spotted activity for blood and >90% for plasma and serum. Measuring total protein in the sample and calculating specific activity substantially improved quantification and reduced intra-spot variability. Analyte stability of nerve agent adducts was also evaluated, and the results obtained via BChE-specific activity measurements were confirmed by quantification of BChE adducts using a previously established LC-MS/MS method. The spotted samples were up to 10-times more resistant to degradation compared to unspotted control samples when measuring BChE inhibition by the nerve agents sarin and VX. Using this method, both BChE activity and adducts can be accurately measured from a dried sample spot. This use of a dried sample spot with normalization to total protein is robust, demonstrates decreased intra-spot variability without the need to control for initial sample volume, and enhances analyte stability. PMID:25955132

  15. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  16. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations. PMID:23542765

  17. Persistent organochlorine pesticides detected in blood and tissue samples of vultures from different localities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, E; Bouwman, H; van der Bank, H; Verdoorn, G H; Hofmann, D

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography was used to establish the presence of quantifiable residues of 14 persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in whole blood, clotted blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle samples obtained from individual African whitebacked (Pseudogyps africanus), Cape griffon (Gyps coprotheres) and Lappetfaced (Torgos tracheliotos) vultures from different localities in South Africa. The levels of pesticides measured in whole blood samples of live specimens were compared between nestlings from two natural breeding colonies, adults from a wildlife area and birds held in captivity. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences between populations were detected in geometric means calculated for gamma-BHC (lindane), alpha(cis)-chlordane and alpha-endosulfan. Five of the organochlorine contaminants displayed significant variations between concentrations detected in the clotted blood, organs and muscles excised from vulture carcasses. This includes residues of gamma-BHC, alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, beta-endosulfan and heptachlor epoxide. Values of the respective biocides measured in vulture samples were generally low in comparison to results documented for a number of avian species. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochloride pesticides, continual monitoring of especially breeding colonies is recommended. Furthermore, the suitability of African whitebacked vulture nestlings as basic bioindicators is highly advocated. PMID:11461840

  18. Blunting of rapid onset vasodilatation and blood flow restriction in arterioles of exercising skeletal muscle with ageing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dwayne N; Moore, Alex W; Segal, Steven S

    2010-06-15

    Exercise capacity and skeletal muscle blood flow are diminished with ageing but little is known of underlying changes in microvascular haemodynamics. Further, it is not clear how the sympathetic nervous system affects the microcirculation of skeletal muscle with ageing or whether sex differences prevail in the regulation of arteriolar diameter in response to muscle contractions. In the gluteus maximus muscle of C57BL/6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that ageing would impair 'rapid onset vasodilatation' (ROV) in distributing arterioles (second-order, 2A) of old (20-month) males (OM) and females (OF) relative to young (3-month) males (YM) and females (YF). Neither resting (approximately 17 microm) nor maximum (approximately 30 microm) 2A diameters differed between groups. In response to single tetanic contractions at 100 Hz (duration, 100-1000 ms), ROV responses were blunted by half in OM relative to OF, YM or YF. With no effect in YM, blockade of alpha-adrenoreceptors with phentolamine (1 mum) restored ROV in OM. Topical noradrenaline (1 nM) blunted ROV in YM and YF to levels seen in OM and further suppressed ROV in OM (P < 0.05). To evaluate arteriolar blood flow, red blood cell velocity was measured in 2A of OM and YM; respective heart rates (353 +/- 22 vs. 378 +/- 15 beats min(1)) and carotid arterial blood pressures (76 +/- 3 vs. 76 +/- 1 mmHg) were not different. Blood flows at rest (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.2 nl s(1)) and during maximum dilatation (2.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.8 nl s(1)) with sodium nitroprusside (10 microM) were attenuated >60% (P < 0.05) in OM. Blood flow at peak ROV was blunted by 75-80% in OM vs. YM (P < 0.05). In response to 30 s of rhythmic contractions at 2, 4 and 8 Hz, progressive dilatations did not differ with age or sex. Nevertheless, resting and peak blood flows in YM were 2- to 3-fold greater (P < 0.05) than OM. We suggest that ageing blunts ROV and restricts blood flow to skeletal muscle of OM through subtle activation of alpha

  19. Dihydropteridine reductase activity in dried blood spots: effects of aging and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed Central

    Jeeps, C M; Silcox, A; Lloyd, B; Clayton, B E

    1986-01-01

    Dihydropteridine reductase (EC 1.6.99.7) (DHPR) activity was measured in blood spots from 50 neonates, 52 healthy adults aged 30-62 years, and 21 elderly controls aged 67-97 years, as well as 32 demented patients of whom 25 had senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Enzyme activity was stable for seven days at 4 degrees C and for at least 14 days at -20 degrees C. No important difference was found between the DHPR activity of venous and capillary blood. DHPR activity was considerably lower in the healthy adult group compared with neonates and the elderly group, and there was no sex difference at any age. The erythrocyte DHPR activity of patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type was similar to that of elderly controls. This result differs from that previously reported for leucocytes. PMID:3950042

  20. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  1. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  2. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Travica, Nikolaj; Sali, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. Subjects and methods A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. Results Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (P<0.001). Central hemodynamic-measures tended to improve in the garlic group more than in the placebo group, including central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFα, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. Conclusion Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation

  3. Determination of nickel in blood and serum samples of oropharyngeal cancer patients consumed smokeless tobacco products by cloud point extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Atif Gul; Nasreen, Syeda; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2014-10-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant public health issue in the world. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has been increased among people who have habit of chewing smokeless tobacco (SLT) in Pakistan. The aim of present study was to evaluate the concentration of nickel (Ni) in biological samples (whole blood, serum) of oral (n = 95) and pharyngeal (n = 84) male cancer patients. For comparison purposes, the biological samples of healthy age-matched referents (n = 150), who consumed and did not consumed SLT products, were also analyzed for Ni levels. As the Ni level is very low in biological samples, a preconcentration procedure has been developed, prior to analysis of analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Ni in acid-digested biological samples was complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithio carbamate (APDC), and a resulted complex was extracted in a surfactant Triton X-114. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by FAAS. The chemical variables, such as pH, amounts of reagents (APDC, Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume were optimized. The resulted data indicated that concentration of Ni was higher in blood and serum samples of cancer patients as compared to that of referents who have or have not consumed different SLT products (p = 0.012-0.001). It was also observed that healthy referents who consumed SLT products have two to threefold higher levels of Ni in both biological samples as compared to those who were not chewing SLT products (p < 0.01). PMID:24920259

  4. Rapid Diagnosis of Staphylococcal Catheter-Related Bacteraemia in Direct Blood Samples by Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zboromyrska, Yuliya; De la Calle, Cristina; Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Soriano, Alex; Alvarez-Martínez, Míriam José; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Arjona, Ruth; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; Mensa, José; Martínez, José Antonio; Mira, Aurea; Vila, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter. Paired blood cultures were processed by standard culture methods and 4 ml blood samples were processed by GeneXpert-MRSA assay for the detection of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). Sixteen CRB caused by staphylococci were diagnosed among 92 suspected patients. GeneXpert detected 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%), including 4 MSSA and 10 MR-CoNS in approximately 1 hour after specimen receipt. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert were 87.5% (CI 95%: 60.4-97.8) and 92.1% (CI 95%: 83-96.7), respectively, compared with standard culture methods. The sensitivity of GeneXpert for S. aureus was 100%. Regarding a cost-effectiveness analysis, the incremental cost of using GeneXpert was of 31.1€ per patient while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GeneXpert compared with blood culture alones was about 180€ per life year gained. In conclusion, GeneXpert can be used directly with blood samples obtained through infected catheters to detect S. aureus and MR-CoNS in approximately 1h after sampling. In addition, it is cost-effective especially in areas with high prevalence of staphylococcal CRB. PMID:27571200

  5. Rapid Diagnosis of Staphylococcal Catheter-Related Bacteraemia in Direct Blood Samples by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Soriano, Alex; Alvarez-Martínez, Míriam José; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Arjona, Ruth; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; Mensa, José; Martínez, José Antonio; Mira, Aurea

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter. Paired blood cultures were processed by standard culture methods and 4 ml blood samples were processed by GeneXpert-MRSA assay for the detection of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). Sixteen CRB caused by staphylococci were diagnosed among 92 suspected patients. GeneXpert detected 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%), including 4 MSSA and 10 MR-CoNS in approximately 1 hour after specimen receipt. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert were 87.5% (CI 95%: 60.4–97.8) and 92.1% (CI 95%: 83–96.7), respectively, compared with standard culture methods. The sensitivity of GeneXpert for S. aureus was 100%. Regarding a cost-effectiveness analysis, the incremental cost of using GeneXpert was of 31.1€ per patient while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GeneXpert compared with blood culture alones was about 180€ per life year gained. In conclusion, GeneXpert can be used directly with blood samples obtained through infected catheters to detect S. aureus and MR-CoNS in approximately 1h after sampling. In addition, it is cost-effective especially in areas with high prevalence of staphylococcal CRB. PMID:27571200

  6. Differential expression of minimal residual disease markers in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples from high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, NOBUYUKI; KOZAKI, AIKO; HARTOMO, TRI BUDI; YANAI, TOMOKO; HASEGAWA, DAIICHIRO; KAWASAKI, KEIICHIRO; KOSAKA, YOSHIYUKI; MATSUO, MASAFUMI; HIRASE, SATOSHI; MORI, TAKESHI; HAYAKAWA, AKIRA; IIJIMA, KAZUMOTO; NISHIO, HISAHIDE; NISHIMURA, NORIYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive solid tumor that leads to tumor relapse in more than half of high-risk patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD) is primarily responsible for tumor relapses and may be detected in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples. To evaluate the disease status and treatment response, a number of MRD detection protocols based on either common or distinct markers for PB and BM samples have been reported. However, the correlation between the expression of MRD markers in PB and BM samples remains elusive in the clinical samples. In the present study, the expression of 11 previously validated MRD markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) was determined in 23 pairs of PB and BM samples collected from seven high-risk neuroblastoma patients at the same time point, and the sample was scored as MRD-positive if one of the MRD markers exceeded the normal range. Although the number of MRD-positive samples was not significantly different between PB and BM samples, the two most sensitive markers for PB samples (CRMP1 and KIF1A) were different from those for BM samples (PHOX2B and DBH). There was no statistically significant correlation between the expression of MRD markers in the PB and BM samples. These results suggest that MRD markers were differentially expressed in PB and BM samples from high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:26722317

  7. Contribution of the Arterial System and the Heart to Blood Pressure during Normal Aging – A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Westerhof, Nico; Westerhof, Berend E.; Broomé, Michael; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure. PMID:27341106

  8. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children aged 24-72 months: NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Long, D Leann; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels with the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children aged 24-72 months using data from NHANES III (the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 µg/dl as the reference blood lead level (n = 3,127). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88 and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5, 5-10 and >10 µg/dl, respectively, compared with children having <2 µg/dl blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 and >10 µg/dl levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14 and 1.91, respectively, for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels with increasing numbers of carious teeth in children aged 24-72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases of children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment. PMID:25358243

  9. Gene-Age Interactions in Blood Pressure Regulation: A Large-Scale Investigation with the CHARGE, Global BPgen, and ICBP Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Simino, Jeannette; Shi, Gang; Bis, Joshua C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ehret, Georg B.; Gu, Xiangjun; Guo, Xiuqing; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sijbrands, Eric; Smith, Albert V.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Cadby, Gemma; Chen, Peng; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Corre, Tanguy; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Goel, Anuj; Johnson, Toby; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Navis, Gerjan; Ormel, Johan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rosmalen, Judith G.M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Snieder, Harold; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Luan, Jian’an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nolte, Ilja M.; Sim, Xueling; Sõber, Siim; van der Most, Peter J.; Verweij, Niek; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bouchard, Claude; Dehghan, Abbas; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elosua, Roberto; Franco, Oscar H.; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Hercberg, Serge; Hofman, Albert; James, Alan L.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Kähönen, Mika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kutalik, Zoltan; Larson, Martin G.; Launer, Lenore J.; Li, Guo; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Navis, Gerjan; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Papanicolau, George J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rice, Kenneth; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scott, Robert A.; Siscovick, David S.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Watkins, Hugh; Young, Terri L.; Aung, Tin; Bochud, Murielle; Farrall, Martin; Hartman, Catharina A.; Laan, Maris; Lakatta, Edward G.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Lucas, Gavin; Meneton, Pierre; Palmer, Lyle J.; Rettig, Rainer; Snieder, Harold; Tai, E. Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; van der Harst, Pim; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wong, Tien Yin; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Levy, Daniel; Palmas, Walter; Ridker, Paul M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Rao, Dabeeru C.

    2014-01-01

    Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GBPgen, and ICBP) and a nonstandard approach (age stratification and metaregression) to conduct a genome-wide search of common variants with age-dependent effects on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure. In a two-staged design using 99,241 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 20 genome-wide significant (p ≤ 5 × 10−8) loci by using joint tests of the SNP main effect and SNP-age interaction. Nine of the significant loci demonstrated nominal evidence of age-dependent effects on BP by tests of the interactions alone. Index SNPs in the EHBP1L1 (DBP and MAP), CASZ1 (SBP and MAP), and GOSR2 (PP) loci exhibited the largest age interactions, with opposite directions of effect in the young versus the old. The changes in the genetic effects over time were small but nonnegligible (up to 1.58 mm Hg over 60 years). The EHBP1L1 locus was discovered through gene-age interactions only in whites but had DBP main effects replicated (p = 8.3 × 10−4) in 8,682 Asians from Singapore, indicating potential interethnic heterogeneity. A secondary analysis revealed 22 loci with evidence of age-specific effects (e.g., only in 20 to 29-year-olds). Age can be used to select samples with larger genetic effect sizes and more homogenous phenotypes, which may increase statistical power. Age-dependent effects identified through novel statistical approaches can provide insight into the biology and temporal regulation underlying BP associations. PMID:24954895

  10. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection

    PubMed Central

    Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M. J. X.; Blesson, S.; Mengesha, B.; Diro, E.; Hailu, A.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. PMID:26787691

  11. Extended acclimatization is required to eliminate stress effects of periodic blood-sampling procedures on vasoactive hormones and blood volume in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, M R; Birmingham, J M; Patel, B; Whelan, G A; Krebs-Brown, A J; Hockings, P D; Osborne, J A

    2002-10-01

    Important in all experimental animal studies is the need to control stress stimuli associated with environmental change and experimental procedures. As the stress response involves alterations in levels of vasoactive hormones, ensuing changes in cardiovascular parameters may confound experimental outcomes. Accordingly, we evaluated the duration required for dogs (n = 4) to acclimatized to frequent blood sampling that involved different procedures. On each sampling occasion during a 6-week period, dogs were removed from their pen to a laboratory area and blood was collected either by venepuncture (days 2, 15, 34, 41) for plasma renin activity (PRA), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine, aldosterone, insulin, and atrial natriuretic peptide, or by cannulation (dogs restrained in slings; days 1, 8, 14, 22, 30, 33, 37, 40) for determination of haematocrit (HCT) alone (days 1 to 22) or HCT with plasma volume (PV; days 30 to 40). PRA was higher on days 2 and 15 compared with days 34 and 41 and had decreased by up to 48% by the end of the study (day 41 vs day 15; mean/SEM: 1.18/0.27 vs 2.88/0.79 ng ANG I/ml/h, respectively). EPI showed a time-related decrease from days 2 to 34, during which mean values had decreased by 51% (mean/SEM: 279/29 vs 134/20.9 pg/ml for days 2 and 34, respectively), but appeared stable from then on. None of the other hormones showed any significant variability throughout the course of the study. HCT was relatively variable between days 1 to 22 but stabilized from day 30, after which all mean values were approximately 6% lower than those between days 1 and 8. We conclude that an acclimatization period of at least 4 weeks is required to eliminate stress-related effects in dogs associated with periodic blood sampling. PMID:12396283

  12. Top-Down Proteomics and Direct Surface Sampling of Neonatal Dried Blood Spots: Diagnosis of Unknown Hemoglobin Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Rebecca L.; Griffiths, Paul; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2012-11-01

    We have previously shown that liquid microjunction surface sampling of dried blood spots coupled with high resolution top-down mass spectrometry may be used for screening of common hemoglobin variants HbS, HbC, and HbD. In order to test the robustness of the approach, we have applied the approach to unknown hemoglobin variants. Six neonatal dried blood spot samples that had been identified as variants, but which could not be diagnosed by current screening methods, were analyzed by direct surface sampling top-down mass spectrometry. Both collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry were employed. Four of the samples were identified as β-chain variants: two were heterozygous Hb D-Iran, one was heterozygous Hb Headington, and one was heterozygous Hb J-Baltimore. The fifth sample was identified as the α-chain variant heterozygous Hb Phnom Penh. Analysis of the sixth sample suggested that it did not in fact contain a variant. Adoption of the approach in the clinic would require speed in both data collection and interpretation. To address that issue, we have compared manual data analysis with freely available data analysis software (ProsightPTM). The results demonstrate the power of top-down proteomics for hemoglobin variant analysis in newborn samples.

  13. Pulsatile ocular blood flow in asymmetric exudative age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S.; Cheng, C.; Lee, A.; Lee, F.; Chou, J. C.; Hsu, W.; Liu, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Decreased perfusion or increased vascular resistance of the choroidal vessels had been proposed as the vascular pathogenesis for age related macular degeneration (AMD). This study planned to answer the question whether pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) was different in patients with asymmetric exudative AMD between eyes with drusen, choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), or disciform scar.
METHODS—37 patients with asymmetric exudative AMD were enrolled in this observational case series study. POBF were measured in both eyes of each subject. Eyes with high myopia, anisometropia, recent laser treatment, and glaucoma were excluded.
RESULTS—After adjusting for ocular perfusion pressure, intraocular pressure, and pulse rate, multivariate regression analysis with generalised estimating equation showed POBF was significantly higher in eyes with CNV (1217 (SD 476) µl/min) than the contralateral eyes with drusen (1028 (385) µl/min) (p = 0.024). Eyes with disciform scar had lower POBF than the contralateral eyes with drusen (999 (262) µl/min and 1278 (341) µl/min, respectively, p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the POBF and the lesion size of the CNV.
CONCLUSION—The POBF in eyes with drusen was lower than their fellow eyes with CNV, but higher than their fellow eyes with disciform scar. This finding suggests that haemodynamic differences between fellow eyes in individuals are relevant to the development of CNV and the formation of disciform scar. Further studies on the follow up patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of exudative AMD.

 PMID:11734510

  14. Hypomethylation of the IL17RC Promoter in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes is Not A Hallmark of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Verity F; Franchina, Maria; Jaffe, Andrew E; Branham, Kari E; Othman, Mohammad; Heckenlively, John R; Swaroop, Anand; Campochiaro, Betsy; Vote, Brendan J; Craig, Jamie E; Saffery, Richard; Mackey, David A; Qian, Jiang; Zack, Donald J; Hewitt, Alex W; Merbs, Shannath L

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Aberrant DNA methylation within the promoter of IL17RC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has recently been reported in AMD. To validate this association, we examined DNA methylation of the IL17RC promoter in peripheral blood. First, we used Illumina Human Methylation450 Bead Arrays, a widely-accepted platform for measuring global DNA methylation. Second, methylation status at multiple sites within the IL17RC promoter was determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing in two cohorts. Third, a methylation-sensitive QPCR-based assay was performed on a subset of samples. In contrast to previous findings, we did not find evidence of differential methylation between AMD cases and age-matched controls. We conclude that hypomethylation within the IL17RC gene promoter in peripheral blood is not suitable for use as a clinical biomarker of AMD. This study highlights the need for considerable replication of epigenetic association studies prior to clinical application. PMID:24373284

  15. Rapid detection of bacterial growth in blood samples by a continuous-monitoring electrical impedance apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Specter, S; Throm, R; Strauss, R; Friedman, H

    1977-01-01

    A growth detection method utilizing an automated apparatus capable of rapidly detecting bacterial growth by measuring changes of electrical impedance in bacteriological medium was utilized with "mock" blood cultures containing various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Measurement of changes of electrical impedance was found to ba as accurate and comparable for time of growth detection as the radiometric method for detection of the same bacteria using mock blood cultures. In a limited clinical trial the use of the electrical impedance apparatus detected in 1 positive specimen from 40 clinical blood specimens as rapidly as by radiometric measurement. Both methods were considerably faster for detecting bacterial growth as compared with conventional culture methods. The selected species of gram-positive and -negative organisms tested were all detected by the electrical impedance method, including aerobes and anerobes. However, addition of 5% CO2 to the incubation atmosphere enhanced detection of gram-positive organisms. PMID:336642

  16. 14C dating of small archaeological samples: neolithic to iron age in the central alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, J.; Keller, W. A.; Erne, R.; Bonani, G.; Wölfli, W.

    1984-11-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C dating will widen enormously the range and scope of archaeological investigations. This is due mainly to 100- to 1000-fold sample size reduction over conventional dating. In order to determine the size and the quality of samples that can be accepted for AMS 14C dating, we have selected archaeological samples relating to the Neolithic to Iron Age. The basis of our AMS target preparations is the coking (pyrolysis) of organic matter after elimination of impurities by various physical and chemical treatments. The effect of the morphology as well as of the grain size distribution of the charcoal particles was determined in order to achieve optimal conditions for accelerator dating.

  17. Stability of human α-salivary amylase in aged forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Ilaria; Rapi, Stefano; Ricci, Ugo

    2014-07-01

    The unequivocal tissue identification in forensic casework samples is a key step for crime scene reconstruction. Just knowing the origin of a fluid can sometimes be enough to either prove or disprove a fact in court. Despite the importance of this test, very few data are available in literature concerning human saliva identification in old forensic caseworks. In this work the stability of human α-amylase activity in aged samples is described by using three different methods integrated with DNA profiling techniques. This analytical protocol was successfully applied on 26-years old samples coming from anonymous threat letters sent to prosecutors who were working on "the Monster of Florence", a case of serial murders happened around Florence (Italy) between 1968 and 1985. PMID:24755314

  18. Blood and plasma glutathione measured in healthy subjects by HPLC: relation to sex, aging, biological variables, and life habits.

    PubMed

    Michelet, F; Gueguen, R; Leroy, P; Wellman, M; Nicolas, A; Siest, G

    1995-10-01

    We report an HPLC method for measuring the concentrations of reduced (GSH) and total (GSHt) free glutathione in human plasma and whole blood. The chromatographic step was coupled with a postcolumn derivatization reaction and fluorometric detection. The linear range was 0.81-13.02 mumol/L, and the detection limit was 0.13 mumol/L. In healthy adults (ages 18-73 years), mean concentrations were 941 +/- 155 mumol/L for GSHt and 849 +/- 63 mumol/L for GSH in blood (107 men, 94 women), and 3.39 +/- 1.04 mumol/L for GSH in plasma (66 men, 58 women). Blood GSHt but not GSH was significantly lower in children (32 boys, 32 girls: 872 +/- 157 mumol/L) than in adults. Blood GSHt and GSH appeared to be correlated positively with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the regular practice of physical exercise, and negatively with alcohol abstinence. We observed positive correlations between blood GSHt and cholesterol and calcium concentrations, and between blood GSH and cholesterol concentration. PMID:7586526

  19. A nested PCR assay exhibits enhanced sensitivity for detection of Theileria parva infections in bovine blood samples from carrier animals.

    PubMed

    Odongo, David O; Sunter, Jack D; Kiara, Henry K; Skilton, Robert A; Bishop, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Theileria parva causes East Coast fever, an economically important disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay for the detection of T. parva DNA in cattle blood spotted onto filter paper using primers derived from the T. parva-specific 104-kDa antigen (p104) gene. The sensitivity of this assay was compared to a previously described p104-based PCR and also the reverse line blot (RLB) technique, using serial dilutions of blood from a calf with known T. parva piroplasm parasitaemia. The relative sensitivities of the three assays were 0.4, 1.4 and 4 parasites/microl corresponding to blood parasitaemias of 9.2 x 10(-6)%, 2.8 x 10(-5)% and 8.3 x 10(-5)%, respectively. The three assays were applied to samples from two calves infected with the T. parva Muguga stock. Parasite DNA was consistently detectable by the two p104 PCR assays until 48 and 82 days post-infection, respectively, and thereafter sporadically. RLB detected parasite DNA in the two infected calves until days 43 and 45. Field samples from 151 Kenyan cattle exhibited 37.7% positivity for T. parva by regular p104 PCR and 42.3% positivity using p104 nPCR. Among 169 cattle blood samples from Southern Sudan, 36% were positive for T. parva using nPCR. The nPCR assay represents a highly sensitive tool for detection and monitoring of asymptomatic carrier state infections of T. parva in the blood of cattle. PMID:19902251

  20. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    NISHIMORI, Asami; KONNAI, Satoru; IKEBUCHI, Ryoyo; OKAGAWA, Tomohiro; NAKAHARA, Ayako; MURATA, Shiro; OHASHI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  1. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  2. A multiplex nested PCR for the detection and identification of Candida species in blood samples of critically ill paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nosocomial candidaemia is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill paediatric patients; thus, the early detection and identification of the infectious agent is crucial for successful medical intervention. The PCR-based techniques have significantly increased the detection of Candida species in bloodstream infections. In this study, a multiplex nested PCR approach was developed for candidaemia detection in neonatal and paediatric intensive care patients. Methods DNA samples from the blood of 54 neonates and children hospitalised in intensive care units with suspected candidaemia were evaluated by multiplex nested PCR with specific primers designed to identify seven Candida species, and the results were compared with those obtained from blood cultures. Results The multiplex nested PCR had a detection limit of four Candida genomes/mL of blood for all Candida species. Blood cultures were positive in 14.8% of patients, whereas the multiplex nested PCR was positive in 24.0% of patients, including all culture-positive patients. The results obtained with the molecular technique were available within 24 hours, and the assay was able to identify Candida species with 100% of concordance with blood cultures. Additionally, the multiplex nested PCR detected dual candidaemia in three patients. Conclusions Our proposed PCR method may represent an effective tool for the detection and identification of Candida species in the context of candidaemia diagnosis in children, showing highly sensitive detection and the ability to identify the major species involved in this infection. PMID:25047415

  3. Discrepancies between VEGF −1154 G>A Polymorphism Analysis Performed in Peripheral Blood Samples and FFPE Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marisi, Giorgia; Passardi, Alessandro; Calistri, Daniele; Zoli, Wainer; Amadori, Dino; Ulivi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with the response or toxicity to different types of treatment. Although SNP analysis is usually performed on DNA from peripheral blood, formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is often used for retrospective studies. We analyzed VEGF (−2578C>A, −1498C>T, −1154G>A, −634C>G, +936C>T) and eNOS (+894G>T, −786T>C, VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) 27bp intron 4) polymorphisms by direct sequencing or Real Time PCR in 237 patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Peripheral blood was used for 153 patients, whereas only FFPE tumor tissue was available for 84 patients. All SNP frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), with the exception of VEGF −1154, which was only in HWE in peripheral blood specimens. We therefore analyzed this SNP in DNA extracted from FFPE tumor tissue compared to FFPE healthy tissue and peripheral blood from 20 patients. Numerous heterozygous patients in peripheral blood DNA were homozygous for the A-allele in both tumor and healthy FFPE tissues. Our findings indicate that, although FFPE tissue might be a suitable specimen for genotyping, VEGF −1154 does not give reliable results on this type of material. As other SNPs may also have this limitation, genotype concordance should first be confirmed by comparing results obtained from FFPE and fresh sample analyses. PMID:25079441

  4. Using peripheral smear review, age and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors of abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytoses diagnosed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jared M; Cruser, Dan L; Myers, Jerome B; Fernelius, Colby A; Holm, Mitchel T; Waldner, Dale L

    2008-09-01

    Absolute lymphocytosis in the elderly raises the possibility of malignancy and generally warrants further investigation. To better correlate clinical variables with the frequency of neoplastic lymphoid processes in this population, we retrospectively reviewed archived flow cytometric analyses from peripheral blood specimens on patients of 50 years of age and older that had been deemed suspicious for a lymphoproliferative process after peripheral smear review. Age, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), white blood cell count and relative lymphocyte count were correlated with the results of flow cytometry. Of 71 total cases, 42 (59%) had an abnormal immunophenotype. Independent variables that showed significant differences between normal and abnormal immunophenotype were mean age (p = 0.001) and ALC (p = 0.0032). We combined age and absolute lymphocyte count variables to look for the best possible cutoff values to predict the likelihood of an abnormal immunophenotype. ALC cutoff values of >or=4 x 10(9) cells/L for patients over 67 years of age, and >6.7 x 10(9) cells/L for patients between 50 and 67 years of age, had a high sensitivity for detecting an abnormal immunophenotype. PMID:18798107

  5. An in vitro anticoagulant effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) in blood samples of normal Sudanese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Taj Eldin, Imadeldin M; Abdalmutalab, Majed M; Bikir, Haydar E

    2013-01-01

    Haemostasis is the process of forming clots in the walls of damaged blood vessels to prevent abnormal bleeding and to maintain intravascular blood in a fluid state. Fenugreek is largely universal staple herb, popular throughout history and it has been consumed for treatment of different disorders. We aimed to study the possible anticoagulant effect of Fenugreek aqueous extract in vitro by using blood samples of normal individuals. In vitro anticoagulant effects of Fenugreek aqueous extract (5%) in different volumes (25, 50 and 75 μL) were examined in the blood samples of normal individuals by measuring prothrombin time (PT). The aqueous extract of Fenugreek was found to inhibit coagulation process in vitro and significantly prolonged prothrombin time in a dose-dependent manner. Fenugreek aqueous extract in different concentrations inhibits clot formation and increases prothrombin time. Subject to further studies on efficacy and safety, It can well be used, in the future, as a supplementary anticoagulant agent in cardiovascular diseases and to prevent hypercoagulable states.

  6. A one-step extraction procedure for the screening of cocaine, amphetamines and cannabinoids in postmortem blood samples.

    PubMed

    Pelição, Fabrício Souza; Peres, Mariana Dadalto; Pissinate, Jauber Fornaciari; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa

    2014-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification in postmortem whole blood samples of cocaine (COC), amphetamines (AMPs) and cannabis; the main drugs involved in cases of impaired driving in Brazil. The analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction by means of Bond-Elute Certify cartridges, derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide at 80°C for 30 min and analyzed by GC-MS. Linearity ranged from 10 to 500 ng/mL, except for ecgonine methyl ester, for which linearity ranged from 10 to 100 ng/mL. Inter- and intra-day imprecision ranged from 2.8 to 18.4% and from 1.5 to 14.9%, respectively. Accuracy values lay between 86.9 and 104.4%. The limit of quantitation for all drugs was 10 ng/mL and recoveries were >74% for all analytes, except for cannabinoids, which showed poor recovery (∼30%). The developed method was applied to real samples collected from deceased victims due to traffic accidents. These samples were selected according to the results obtained in immunoassay screening on collected urine samples. Five samples were positive for the presence of COC and metabolites, four samples were positive for cannabinoids, six samples were positive for AMPs and two samples were drug negative. Some samples were positive for more than one class of drug. Results obtained from whole blood samples showed good agreement with urine screening. The developed method proved capable of quantifying all three classes of drugs of abuse proposed in this study, through a one-step extraction procedure. PMID:24782143

  7. RNA sequencing for increasing gene discovery and and coverage using globin RNA reduced porcine blood samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Transcriptome analysis in porcine whole blood will provide major insights to decipher genetic mechanisms for host responses to viral infection. The abundance of porcine globin transcripts, however, impedes the ability to detect less abundant transcripts. The objective of our study was to...

  8. The effect of supplementary calcium on blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18-30 years in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in developed countries and has an increasing trend in developing countries. There are some evidences that calcium supplementation may decrease blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular disease, but they are not conclusive and there is no agreement in this respect. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supplementary calcium on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18–30 years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five normotensive volunteers were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group received 1000 mg/day calcium (four doses of 625 mg calcium carbonate) for 1 month and the control group received placebo (dextrose). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was determined before and after intervention in supine position after 10 min of rest. Results: The mean daily calcium intake from food was 773.9 mg in treatment and 721 mg in control group (no significant difference) but in both the groups dietary calcium intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance: After calcium supplementation, the mean change of systolic blood pressure was not significant in the two groups, but diastolic blood pressure reduced in treatment group and increased in control group (−4.9 vs 2.6 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that, calcium supplementation does not have any effect on systolic blood pressure of our volunteers but can decrease diastolic blood pressure significantly and therefore it seems that calcium supplementation may be useful for people with increased diastolic blood pressure, especially for those who receive less calcium than recommended dietary allowance. PMID:26430694

  9. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  10. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-28

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10(-12) to 10(-8) g mL(-1). The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL(-1)) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design. PMID:26183340

  11. How You Can Help Medical Research: Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples

    MedlinePlus

    ... sample to make sure the proposed research is ethical, useful, and based on good science. After the ... discuss further? • Am I comfortable with experts making decisions about how my samples will be used in ...

  12. Differential effects of aging and exercise on intra-abdominal adipose arteriolar function and blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), which typically comprises an increased percentage of body mass with advancing age, receives a large proportion of resting cardiac output. During exercise, an old age-associated inability to increase vascular resistance within the intra-abdominal AT may compromise the ability of the cardiovascular system to redistribute blood flow to the active musculature, contributing to the decline in exercise capacity observed in this population. We tested the hypotheses that 1) there would be an elevated perfusion of AT during exercise with old age that was associated with diminished vasoconstrictor responses of adipose-resistance arteries, and 2) chronic exercise training would mitigate the age-associated alterations in AT blood flow and vascular function. Young (6 mo; n = 40) and old (24 mo; n = 28) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YSed), old sedentary (OSed), young exercise trained (YET), or old exercise trained (OET) groups, where training consisted of 10-12 wk of treadmill exercise. In vivo blood flow at rest and during exercise and in vitro α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstrictor responses in resistance arteries from AT were measured in all groups. In response to exercise, there was a directionally opposite change in AT blood flow in the OSed group (∼150% increase) and YSed (∼55% decrease) vs. resting values. Both α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstriction were diminished in OSed vs. YSed AT-resistance arteries. Exercise training resulted in a similar AT hyperemic response between age groups during exercise (YET, 9.9 ± 0.5 ml·min−1·100−1 g; OET, 8.1 ± 0.9 ml·min−1·100−1 g) and was associated with enhanced myogenic and α-adrenergic vasoconstriction of AT-resistance arteries from the OET group relative to OSed. These results indicate that there is an inability to increase vascular resistance in AT during exercise with old age, due, in part, to a diminished vasoconstriction of AT arteries. Furthermore, the

  13. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  14. Sample Entropy Tracks Changes in EEG Power Spectrum With Sleep State and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Eugene N.; Bruce, Margaret C.; Vennelaganti, Swetha

    2009-01-01

    The regularity of EEG signals was compared between middle-aged (47.2 ± 2.0 yrs) and elderly (78.4 ± 3.8 yrs) female subjects in Wake (W), NREM stages 2 and 3 (S2, S3), and REM. Signals from C3A2 leads of healthy normal subjects, acquired from polysomnograms obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study, were analyzed using both Sample Entropy (SaEn) and power spectral analysis (delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency band powers). SaEn changed systematically and significantly (p<0.001) with sleep state in both age groups, following the relationships W > REM > S2 > S3. SaEn was found to be negatively correlated with delta power and positively correlated with beta power. Small changes in SaEn appear to reflect changes in spectral content rather than changes in regularity of the signal. A better predictor of SaEn than the frequency band powers was the logarithm of the power ratio (alpha+beta)/(delta+theta). Thus, SaEn appears to reflect the balance between sleep-promoting and alertness-promoting mechanisms. SaEn of the elderly was larger than that of middle-aged subjects in S2 (p=0.029) and REM (p=0.001), suggesting that cortical state is shifted towards alertness in elderly subjects in these sleep states compared to middle-aged. PMID:19590434

  15. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  16. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  17. Lower groundwater ¹⁴C age by atmospheric CO₂ uptake during sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pradeep K; Araguas-Araguas, Luis; Choudhry, Manzoor; van Duren, Michel; Froehlich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Uptake of atmospheric CO₂ during sample collection and analysis, and consequent lowering of estimated ages, has rarely been considered in radiocarbon dating of groundwater. Using field and laboratory experiments, we show that atmospheric CO₂ can be easily and rapidly absorbed in hyperalkaline solutions used for the extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon, resulting in elevated ¹⁴C measurements. Kinetic isotope fractionation during atmospheric CO₂ uptake may also result in decrease of δ¹³C, leading to insufficient corrections for addition of dead carbon by geochemical processes. Consequently, measured ¹⁴C values of groundwater should not be used for age estimation without corresponding δ¹³C values, and historical ¹⁴C data in the range of 1 to 10% modern Carbon should be re-evaluated to ensure that samples with atmospheric contamination are recognized appropriately. We recommend that samples for ¹⁴C analysis should be collected and processed in the field and the laboratory without exposure to the atmosphere. These precautions are considered necessary even if ¹⁴C measurements are made with an accelerator mass spectrometer. PMID:24032418

  18. Age of the bay of biscay: evidence from seismic profiles and bottom samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, E J; Ewing, J I

    1969-10-01

    Paleomagnetic data and marine magnetic surveys suggest that the Bay of Biscay was created by rifting due to an anticlockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula. The period during which movement occurred is not known precisely, but a rotation, amounting to 22 degrees, appears to have taken place in post-Eocene time. To provide independent evidence on the age of the rift, bottom samples from the Biscay abyssal plain have been related to the distribution of seismic reflectors within the sediments. The investigation shows that a large part of the Bay of Biscay was in existence in late Cretaceous times and that the data can be interpreted in terms of some early Tertiary rotation. However, the amount of possible Tertiary opening is appreciably less than the paleomagnetic results suggest. In view of the fact that reflectors of Middle-Upper Miocene age can be traced as undisturbed horizons across the bay, all tectonic movements must have ceased by the early Miocene. PMID:17769757

  19. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  20. Cervical dilatation and grade of doctor affects the interval between decision and result of fetal scalp blood sampling in labour.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Stephanie; Roberts, Stephen A; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-08-01

    Fetal scalp blood sampling (FSBS) is used to provide information regarding fetal acid-base status during labour. This study assessed the interval between the decision to perform the procedure and obtaining the result and evaluated whether it is affected by cervical dilatation or the experience of the doctor. The median time for FSBS was 10 min. When cervical dilatation was ≤4 cm samples took approximately 30% longer to obtain. After adjustment for dilation, there were no significant differences between different grades of doctors. FSBS is shorter than previously reported; clinicians should be aware that procedures in early labour take longer to complete. PMID:26399279

  1. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  2. Relations between Executive Function and Academic Achievement from Ages 5 to 17 in a Large, Representative National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in complex executive function (EF) in a large, representative sample (N=2036) aged 5 to 17 using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a). Relations between complex EF and academic achievement were examined on a sub-sample (N = 1395) given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised…

  3. Effects of aroma massage on home blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure, and sleep quality in middle-aged women with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ju, Myeong-Sook; Lee, Sahng; Bae, Ikyul; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Seong, Kayeon; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n = 28), the placebo group (n = 28), and the no-treatment control group (n = 27). To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group received a massage with essential oils prescribed by an aromatherapist once a week and body cream once a day. The placebo group received a massage using artificial fragrance oil once a week and body cream once a day. BP, pulse rate, sleep conditions, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were monitored before and after the experiment. There was a significant difference in home systolic blood pressure (SBP) (F = 6.71, P = 0.002) between groups after intervention. There was also a significant difference in SBP (F = 13.34, P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (F = 8.46, P = 0.005) in the laboratory between aroma massage and placebo groups. In sleep quality, there was a significant difference between groups (F = 6.75, P = 0.002). In conclusion, aroma massage may help improve patient quality of life and maintain health as a nursing intervention in daily life. PMID:23431338

  4. Effects of Aroma Massage on Home Blood Pressure, Ambulatory Blood Pressure, and Sleep Quality in Middle-Aged Women with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Myeong-Sook; Lee, Sahng; Bae, Ikyul; Hur, Myung-Haeng; Seong, Kayeon; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aroma massage applied to middle-aged women with hypertension. The research study had a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronized design to investigate the effect on home blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP, and sleep. The hypertensive patients were allocated into the aroma massage group (n = 28), the placebo group (n = 28), and the no-treatment control group (n = 27). To evaluate the effects of aroma massage, the experimental group received a massage with essential oils prescribed by an aromatherapist once a week and body cream once a day. The placebo group received a massage using artificial fragrance oil once a week and body cream once a day. BP, pulse rate, sleep conditions, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were monitored before and after the experiment. There was a significant difference in home systolic blood pressure (SBP) (F = 6.71, P = 0.002) between groups after intervention. There was also a significant difference in SBP (F = 13.34, P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (F = 8.46, P = 0.005) in the laboratory between aroma massage and placebo groups. In sleep quality, there was a significant difference between groups (F = 6.75, P = 0.002). In conclusion, aroma massage may help improve patient quality of life and maintain health as a nursing intervention in daily life. PMID:23431338

  5. Spectroscopic age and metallicity for a sample of Globular Clusters from Stellar Population Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M. J.; Calderón, P.

    2009-05-01

    We present spectroscopic age and metallicity predictions for a sample of 20 Globular Clusters in the massive E0 galaxy NGC 1407 (data from Cenarro et al. 2007, AJ, 134, 391) and for the Galacic Globular Clusters data from the Library of Integrated Spectra of Galactic Globular Clusters (GGC's) from Schiavon et al. (2005, ApJS, 160, 163) including the widely studied 47 Tuc cluster. Using index-index plots we compared model Single Stellar Populations (SSP's) spectra to the integrated spectra of both samples of Globular Clusters using high resolution line strength indices (Stock, in prep.) and the syntethic SSP's models from P. Coelho (2007, private comm.) as well as the CB07 solar models. For the GC's in NGC1407, the predictions from the syntethic models's with [α /Fe]=0.4 are in good agreement with the results from Cenarro et al. (2007, AJ, 134, 391), taking into account that the dispersion is partially due to the fact that the mean [α/Fe] ratio of the sample is ≈ 0.3 dex, resulting in younger ages and lower metallicities (Thomas et al. 2003, A&A, 401, 429). We observe a bimodal distribution of the Fe4383+ index which is in turn an indicator of metallicity, also seen in Cenarro et al. (2005). The CB07 models predict ages that are widely spread over the plot yielding ages greater than 14 Gyrs. The metallicity derived from these models are very low for almost all the objects (Z < 0.008). The distribution of the GGC's on the syntethic model grid shows a trend in the sense that metal poor clusters are younger than metal rich ones, but this effect might not be real (de Angeli et al. 2005, AJ, 130, 116). For 47 Tuc we estimate an age of ≈ 10 Gyr, and metallicity Z < 0.011 (<[Fe/H]= -0.5) which are both comparable with the values reported in the literature (Carretta et al. 2000; Liu & Chaboyer 2000, ApJ, 544, 818; Schiavon et al. 2002, ApJ, 580, 873; Gratton et al. 2003, A&A, 408, 529).

  6. Association between Caregiving, Meaning in Life, and Life Satisfaction beyond 50 in an Asian Sample: Age as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; O, Jiaqing

    2012-01-01

    The association between caregiving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction was examined in sample of 519 older Asian adults beyond 50 years of age. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine age as moderator of the associations between caregiving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction. Age moderated the association…

  7. DNA detection of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep milk and blood samples in relation to phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Luptakova, L; Benova, K; Rencko, A; Petrovova, E

    2015-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that is important both for veterinary medicine (economic losses in the herd) and for public health (immunocompromised patients and pregnant women). An important source of Toxoplasma infection in humans is consumption of contaminated meat and milk (undercooked meat and unpasteurized milk). Small ruminants are important in both milk and meat production throughout the world because of free-range husbandry. The purpose of our study was to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA in ewes' milk 1 month after the term, and to determine the relationship between the occurrence of this DNA in blood and milk based on the phase of infection. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the animals were divided into two groups (immunoglobulin M positive (IgM+), IgM-). With real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), T. gondii DNA was detected in seven milk samples (28%) and five blood samples (20%) of the IgM+ group (25 samples). In the IgM- group T. gondii DNA was detected in two milk samples (3.6%) out of 55 samples. PMID:25630551

  8. Comparison of blood plasma sample preparation methods for combined LC-MS lipidomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Rainey E; Ducrocq, Antoine J; McDougall, Danielle J; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this research was to find the most comprehensive lipid extraction of blood plasma, while also providing adequate aqueous preparation for metabolite analysis. Comparisons have been made previously of the Folch, Bligh-Dyer, and Matyash lipid extractions; furthermore, this paper provides an additional comparison of a phospholipid removal plate for analysis. This plate was used for lipid extraction rather than its intended use in lipid removal for polar analysis, and it proves to be robust for targeted lipid analysis. Folch and Matyash provided reproducible recovery over a range of lipid classes, however the Matyash aqueous layer compared well to a typical methanol preparation for polar metabolite analysis. Thus, the Matyash method is the best choice for an untargeted biphasic extraction for metabolomics and lipidomics in blood plasma. PMID:26343017

  9. Sex differences in children's response to parental divorce: 2. Samples, variables, ages, and sources.

    PubMed

    Zaslow, M J

    1989-01-01

    This second of a two-part review examines four possibilities for explaining the discrepancy across studies in findings of sex differences in children's responses to parental divorce: sample type, nature of outcome variables, age of the child, and sources of data. Recommendations are made for further research that could clarify the nature and origins of differences by child gender in reactions to parental divorce. Part 1, reviewing research methodology and post divorce family forms, was published by this Journal in July 1988. PMID:2648853

  10. Analysis of tumor template from multiple compartments in a blood sample provides complementary access to peripheral tumor biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Strauss, William M; Carter, Chris; Simmons, Jill; Klem, Erich; Goodman, Nathan; Vahidi, Behrad; Romero, Juan; Masterman-Smith, Michael; O'Regan, Ruth; Gogineni, Keerthi; Schwartzberg, Lee; Austin, Laura K; Dempsey, Paul W; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Targeted cancer therapeutics are promised to have a major impact on cancer treatment and survival. Successful application of these novel treatments requires a molecular definition of a patient's disease typically achieved through the use of tissue biopsies. Alternatively, allowing longitudinal monitoring, biomarkers derived from blood, isolated either from circulating tumor cell derived DNA (ctcDNA) or circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ccfDNA) may be evaluated. In order to use blood derived templates for mutational profiling in clinical decisions, it is essential to understand the different template qualities and how they compare to biopsy derived template DNA as both blood-based templates are rare and distinct from the gold-standard. Using a next generation re-sequencing strategy, concordance of the mutational spectrum was evaluated in 32 patient-matched ctcDNA and ccfDNA templates with comparison to tissue biopsy derived DNA template. Different CTC antibody capture systems for DNA isolation from patient blood samples were also compared. Significant overlap was observed between ctcDNA, ccfDNA and tissue derived templates. Interestingly, if the results of ctcDNA and ccfDNA template sequencing were combined, productive samples showed similar detection frequency (56% vs 58%), were temporally flexible, and were complementary both to each other and the gold standard. These observations justify the use of a multiple template approach to the liquid biopsy, where germline, ctcDNA, and ccfDNA templates are employed for clinical diagnostic purposes and open a path to comprehensive blood derived biomarker access. PMID:27049831

  11. The expression of CK-19 gene in circulating tumor cells of blood samples of metastatic breast cancer women

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Setareh; Mokarian, Fariborz; Panjehpour, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Breast cancer in one third of all patients will go on to metastasis, which is the main cause of mortality in cancer cases. Tumor cells detach from primary tumor and enter into the circulation as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which can form metastatic lesions. In this study, the expression of CK-19 gene in blood samples of metastatic breast cancer women was investigated and compared to control group. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer and 20 healthy female volunteers enrolled in this study. For every patient and healthy donor 10 ml peripheral blood was collected. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by gradient density centrifugation using Ficoll Hypaque. CK-19 gene expression was evaluated using SYBR green-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The relative expression level of CK-19 was calculated using the 2−ΔΔCt analysis method. The mean of CK-19 expression was increased in metastatic breast cancer when compared to those of normal women (1.50 fold). 38.1% of the metastatic breast cancer patients showed CK-19 mRNA-detectable CTCs in their blood samples. There was no statistically significant difference between the relative expression level of CK-19 and the patient's clinicopathological characteristics. According to our knowledge, no study for determining CTC biomarkers in Iranian breast cancer women patients has yet been established. Our results suggest that the CK-19 mRNA expression investigation may be useful for monitoring CTCs in the blood of metastatic breast cancer patients, predicting early metastatic relapse or monitoring of anti-metastasis treatments. PMID:26779268

  12. [Epidemiological study of blood stasis and plasma tissue plasminogen activator and its inhibitor activity in healthy aged].

    PubMed

    Liangmin, L D; Lu, L H; Zhang, X M

    1994-12-01

    According to the blood stasis survey of 77 healthy subjects in presenile geriatric period, in comparison with 35 healthy young people, it was found the 51.79% of healthy subjects had blood stasis. The detectable rate were significantly different among various age groups (P < 0.005), and the rate increase was age-dependent. Chromogenic peptide substrate analytical method was used to detect plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity and ratio of P/t. The result revealed that the activity of plasma t-PA in presenile geriatric period subjects was significantly higher than that of young people (P < 0.01), but the activity of PAI had no difference in various age groups, and the ratio of P/t was markedly decreased. It showed that this was the physiological compensatory reaction of aging organism against hypercoagulability, and it was an effective way to maintain the physiological balance of the aged. PMID:7719105

  13. Effects of donors’ age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyang; Du, Xiaochun; Chen, Qian; Xiang, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of donor age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) by comparing MenSCs derived from donors with three different age ranges and after different passage times. Continuous passage, flat cloning, cell proliferation assays, flow cytometric phenotyping and whole human genome microarray were performed to systematically analyze the relationship between the self-renewal ability of MenSCs as well as their potential to maintain their stem cell characteristics and to resist aging. The results demonstrated that the immunophenotypes and in vitro cultural characteristics of MenSCs did not change significantly with the progression of aging. However, some important signal pathways including MAPK, the insulin signaling pathway, pathways involved in carcinogenesis such as PPAR and P53, and cytokines and their receptors, as well as other pathways associated with immune response and aging, changed to various extents under the conditions of aging after a long time in vitro. The enriched differentially-expressed genes were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, stress response, cell proliferation, development and apoptosis. The key differentiallyexpressed genes associated with age and passage number were identified for use as biomarkers of cell aging. PMID:26823782

  14. Foetal scalp blood sampling during labour for pH and lactate measurements.

    PubMed

    Carbonne, Bruno; Pons, Kelly; Maisonneuve, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Second-line methods of foetal monitoring have been developed in an attempt to reduce unnecessary interventions due to continuous cardiotocography (CTG), and to better identify foetuses that are at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. Very few studies directly compared CTG with foetal scalp blood (FBS) and CTG only. Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) was published in the 1970s and had limited power to assess neonatal outcome. Direct and indirect comparisons conclude that FBS could reduce the number of caesarean deliveries associated with the use of continuous CTG. The main drawbacks of FBS are its invasive and discontinuous nature and the need for a sufficient volume of foetal blood for analysis, especially for pH measurement, resulting in failure rates reaching 10%. FBS for lactate measurement became popular with the design of test-strip devices, requiring <0.5 mL of foetal blood. RCTs showed similar outcomes with the use of FBS for lactates compared with pH in terms of obstetrical interventions and neonatal outcomes. In conclusion, there is some evidence that FBS reduces the need for operative deliveries. However, the evidence is limited with regard to actual standards, and large RCTs, directly comparing CTG only with CTG with FBS, are still needed. PMID:26253238

  15. Revisiting mobilisation of skeletal lead during pregnancy based on monthly sampling and cord/maternal blood lead relationships confirm placental transfer of lead.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Korsch, Michael; Taylor, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb) can be released from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and transferred to the infant. Most support for this hypothesis comes from blood Pb (PbB) studies involving limited sampling during pregnancy, the maximum usually being five samplings, including at delivery. We provide longitudinal data for PbB concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios for three cohorts of pregnant females (n = 31), two of which are based on monthly sampling and the other on quarterly sampling. We also provide data for samples collected post-partum. The data are compared with changes observed in a matched, by country and age, non-pregnant control cohort (n = 5). The monthly data illustrate the variability between subjects, which is also apparent when the data are compared on a trimester basis. Mixed model analyses showed that, in the third trimester, the mean PbB level was significantly lower for women (n = 10) who took a calcium (Ca) supplement (PbB 1.6 µg/dL) than those whose Ca intake was low (low-Ca cohort; n = 15; PbB 2.5 µg/dL) because low Ca means more mobilisation is required for homoeostasis so that more Pb was mobilised from the skeleton. For women who took the supplement, post-partum PbB levels were significantly higher than those in the other periods (2.7 vs 1.4-1.6 µg/dL). For women in the low-Ca cohort, PbB levels were higher at post-partum than in pre-pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters (3.1 vs 1.8 µg/dL), while the levels in the third trimester were higher than those in the first and second trimesters. Importantly, the increase in PbB during gestation was delayed until the third trimester in the Ca-supplemented cohort compared with the low-Ca cohort. Regression analysis showed that the changes over trimester were very similar for PbB and the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio providing convincing evidence for extra mobilisation of Pb from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation. Isotopic ratios in the cord blood samples were

  16. [Evaluation of serum iron in hemodialysis patients and its variation due to the difference of blood sampling time].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasutoshi; Ozawa, Yasuaki; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Diurnal variations in serum iron concentration were examined to investigate the influence of sampling time in hemodialysis (HD) patients and healthy subjects. The serum iron concentration and TIBC of HD patients decreased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.01 respectively) compared to those of healthy subjects. Inversely, the serum ferritin concentration of HD patients increased significantly (p<0.01) compared to that of healthy subjects. These findings show the disturbance of iron transport system: under such condition intracellural iron transition out into peripheral blood stream is low in HD patients. Serum iron concentration in samples collected in the evening decreased significantly both in HD patients (p<0.05) and in healthy subjects (p<0.01). Diurnal variations in serum iron concentration reveal almost similar decrement in both groups. In HD patients, serum iron concentration of the blood samples collected on the third day morning after HD and second day morning after HD was examined to see the influence from changes of circulating plasma volume. The serum iron concentration and Hct value in the second day sampling increased significantly compared to the third day sampling (p<0.01, p<0.01 respectively). In addition, the serum iron concentration corrected by Hct in the second day sampling increased significantly (p<0.01) compared to the third day sampling. We conclude from our results that diurnal variations of serum iron concentration vary in sampling time in HD patients as well as in healthy subjects. We also deduct that there may be other factors concerning changes in circulating plasma volume. PMID:22352015

  17. Dried blood spots and sparse sampling: a practical approach to estimating pharmacokinetic parameters of caffeine in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Parul; Mulla, Hussain; Kairamkonda, Venkatesh; Spooner, Neil; Gade, Sonya; Della Pasqua, Oscar; Field, David J.; Pandya, Hitesh C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Dried blood spots (DBS) alongside micro‐analytical techniques are a potential solution to the challenges of performing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in children. However, DBS methods have received little formal evaluation in clinical settings relevant to children. The aim of the present study was to determine a PK model for caffeine using a ‘DBS/microvolume platform’ in preterm infants. Methods DBS samples were collected prospectively from premature babies receiving caffeine for treatment of apnoea of prematurity. A non‐linear mixed effects approach was used to develop a population PK model from measured DBS caffeine concentrations. Caffeine PK parameter estimates based on DBS data were then compared with plasma estimates for agreement. Results Three hundred and thirty‐eight DBS cards for caffeine measurement were collected from 67 preterm infants (birth weight 0.6–2.11 kg). 88% of cards obtained were of acceptable quality and no child had more than 10 DBS samples or more than 0.5 ml of blood taken over the study period. There was good agreement between PK parameters estimated using caffeine concentrations from DBS samples (CL = 7.3 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 593 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 57 h) and historical caffeine PK parameter estimates based on plasma samples (CL = 4.9–7.9 ml h−1 kg−1; V = 640–970 ml kg−1; t1/2 = 101–144 h). We also found that changes in blood haematocrit may significantly confound estimates of caffeine PK parameters based on DBS data. Conclusions This study demonstrates that DBS methods can be applied to PK studies in a vulnerable population group and are a practical alternative to wet matrix sampling techniques. PMID:22822712

  18. Evaluation of limited blood sampling population input approaches for kinetic quantification of [18F]fluorothymidine PET data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantification of kinetic parameters of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents normally requires collecting arterial blood samples which is inconvenient for patients and difficult to implement in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a population-based input function (POP-IF) reliant on only a few individual discrete samples allows accurate estimates of tumour proliferation using [18F]fluorothymidine (FLT). Methods Thirty-six historical FLT-PET data with concurrent arterial sampling were available for this study. A population average of baseline scans blood data was constructed using leave-one-out cross-validation for each scan and used in conjunction with individual blood samples. Three limited sampling protocols were investigated including, respectively, only seven (POP-IF7), five (POP-IF5) and three (POP-IF3) discrete samples of the historical dataset. Additionally, using the three-point protocol, we derived a POP-IF3M, the only input function which was not corrected for the fraction of radiolabelled metabolites present in blood. The kinetic parameter for net FLT retention at steady state, Ki, was derived using the modified Patlak plot and compared with the original full arterial set for validation. Results Small percentage differences in the area under the curve between all the POP-IFs and full arterial sampling IF was found over 60 min (4.2%-5.7%), while there were, as expected, larger differences in the peak position and peak height. A high correlation between Ki values calculated using the original arterial input function and all the population-derived IFs was observed (R2 = 0.85-0.98). The population-based input showed good intra-subject reproducibility of Ki values (R2 = 0.81-0.94) and good correlation (R2 = 0.60-0.85) with Ki-67. Conclusions Input functions generated using these simplified protocols over scan duration of 60 min estimate net PET-FLT retention with reasonable accuracy. PMID

  19. Highway crash costs in the United States by driver age, blood alcohol level, victim age, and restraint use.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Lestina, D C; Spicer, R S

    1998-03-01

    This paper estimates 1993 U.S. highway crash incidence and costs by driver age, alcohol use, victim age, occupant status, and restraint use. Notable findings are: (1) crash costs of novice drivers are high enough to yield preliminary benefit-cost ratios around 4-8 for a provisional licensing system that restricts driving after midnight and 11 for zero alcohol tolerance for young drivers with violators receiving a 6-month suspension; (2) the costs to people other than the intoxicated driver per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099% exceed the value of driver mobility; (3) the safety costs of drunk driving appear to exceed $5.80 per mile, compared with $2.50 per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099%, and $0.11 per mile driven sober; (4) highway crashes cause an estimated 3.2% of U.S. medical spending, including more than 14% of medical spending for ages 15-24; (5) ignoring crash-involved occupants whose restraint use is unknown, the 13% of occupants who police reported were traveling unrestrained accounted for an estimated 42% of the crash costs; and (6) if these unrestrained occupants buckled up, the medical costs of crashes would decline by an estimated 18% (almost $4 billion annually) and the comprehensive costs by 24%. PMID:9450118

  20. A longitudinal analysis of the effects of age on the blood plasma metabolome in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Tran, ViLinh; Wachtman, Lynn M; Green, Cara L; Jones, Dean P; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-04-01

    Primates tend to be long-lived for their size with humans being the longest lived of all primates. There are compelling reasons to understand the underlying age-related processes that shape human lifespan. But the very fact of our long lifespan that makes it so compelling, also makes it especially difficult to study. Thus, in studies of aging, researchers have turned to non-human primate models, including chimpanzees, baboons, and rhesus macaques. More recently, the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, has been recognized as a particularly valuable model in studies of aging, given its small size, ease of housing in captivity, and relatively short lifespan. However, little is known about the physiological changes that occur as marmosets age. To begin to fill in this gap, we utilized high sensitivity metabolomics to define the longitudinal biochemical changes associated with age in the common marmoset. We measured 2104 metabolites from blood plasma at three separate time points over a 17-month period, and we completed both a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the metabolome. We discovered hundreds of metabolites associated with age and body weight in both male and female animals. Our longitudinal analysis identified age-associated metabolic pathways that were not found in our cross-sectional analysis. Pathways enriched for age-associated metabolites included tryptophan, nucleotide, and xenobiotic metabolism, suggesting these biochemical pathways might play an important role in the basic mechanisms of aging in primates. Moreover, we found that many metabolic pathways associated with age were sex specific. Our work illustrates the power of longitudinal approaches, even in a short time frame, to discover novel biochemical changes that occur with age. PMID:26805607

  1. Comparison of three rheological models of shear flow behavior studied on blood samples from post-infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowska-Gapińska, Anna; Gapinski, Jacek; Elikowski, Waldemar; Jaroszyk, Feliks; Kubisz, Leszek

    2007-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of blood viscosity was performed on the basis of mathematical models of non-Newtonian fluid shear flow behavior (Casson, Ree-Eyring and Quemada). A total of 100 blood samples were drawn from clinically stable survivors of myocardial infarction, treated with aspirin or acenocoumarol and controls to these drugs. Whole blood and plasma viscosity were measured at a broad range of shear rates using a rotary-oscillating viscometer Contraves LS40. Numerical analysis of the experimental data was carried out by means of linear (for Casson) and non-linear regression for the remaining models. In the evaluation of the results, both the fit quality and physical interpretation of the models' parameters were considered. The Quemada model fitted most precisely with the experimental findings and, despite the controversies concerning the relationship between in vivo tissue perfusion and in vitro rheological measurements, seemed to be a valuable method enhancing investigation possibilities of cardiovascular patients. Our results suggest that aspirin does not affect blood rheological properties, while acenocoumarol may slightly alter red cell deformability and rouleaux formation. PMID:17674068

  2. Dried venous blood samples for the detection and quantification of measles IgG using a commercial enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Michaela A.; Byrnes, Graham B.; Leydon, Jennie A.; Kelly, Heath A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether samples of dried venous blood (DVB) were an acceptable alternative to serum for detecting measles-specific IgG in a commercial enzyme immunoassay. METHODS: Paired samples of serum and DVB were collected from 98 suspected cases of measles and 1153 schoolchildren in Victoria, Australia. All samples were tested using the Dade Behring Enzygnost Anti-Measles-Virus/IgG immunoassay. DVB samples were eluted using either the sample buffer provided with the kit or 5% dry milk powder in phosphate-buffered saline-Tween 20. FINDINGS: DVB samples eluted by sample buffer showed significantly better linear correlation to the serum samples than did DVB samples eluted in 5% dry milk in phosphate-buffered saline-Tween 20. To improve the comparability of serum and DVB samples an adjustment factor of 1.28 was applied to the optical density (OD) values of DVB. This adjustment also enabled quantification of the titre of measles IgG in mIU/ml directly from the OD value using the alpha calculation as specified by the kit protocol. For DVB samples stored for less than six months at 4 degrees C, the assay showed an overall sensitivity of 98.4% and a specificity of 97.2% compared with the results of serum testing. CONCLUSION: These results illustrate the potential for DVB samples to be widely used with the Dade Behring enzyme immunoassay system for determining the immunity of the individual and the population to the measles virus. PMID:14758429

  3. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)–based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. Methods. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. Results. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%–95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%–100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Conclusions. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform—for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. PMID:25991465

  4. Wake Up Time, Light, and Mood in a Population Sample Age 40-64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Takuro; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Concern that disturbances of sleep and light exposures at night might increase cancer risks have been expressed, but little actual exposure data has been collected. Measurements from a representative population sample were examined to understand the magnitude of in-bed light exposure at night and possible correlates. Methods From 1990 to 1994, a home survey of sleep disorders among adults ages 40-64 was conducted in the City of San Diego California, using stratified representative sampling techniques. Along with questionnaires, sleep logs, and 3-night wrist activity and pulse oximetry measures, bedside illumination was measured with a computer recording system. Questionnaires included the CESD depression scale and a scale of symptoms typical of winter depression. Results Complete data were available from 286 men and women, whose mean in-bed intervals averaged 7 hours and 42 minutes. The mean room illumination during the first part of the night was mean 12.7 lux (median 3.2 lux) and during the last 2 hours in bed averaged 28.7 lux (median 18.9 lux). Nocturnal light exposure was positively correlated with age, male gender, summer season, time in bed, wake-up time, and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Complex bi-directional interactions may take place between sleep disturbances, depression, time in bed, wake-up-time, and in-bed illumination. The most crucial light exposures appear to occur in the last 2 hours in bed, largely after dawn, so daylight exposure may be an important factor. PMID:25866517

  5. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure. PMID:26519423

  6. Image analysis of pubic bone for age estimation in a computed tomography sample.

    PubMed

    López-Alcaraz, Manuel; González, Pedro Manuel Garamendi; Aguilera, Inmaculada Alemán; López, Miguel Botella

    2015-03-01

    Radiology has demonstrated great utility for age estimation, but most of the studies are based on metrical and morphological methods in order to perform an identification profile. A simple image analysis-based method is presented, aimed to correlate the bony tissue ultrastructure with several variables obtained from the grey-level histogram (GLH) of computed tomography (CT) sagittal sections of the pubic symphysis surface and the pubic body, and relating them with age. The CT sample consisted of 169 hospital Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) archives of known sex and age. The calculated multiple regression models showed a maximum R (2) of 0.533 for females and 0.726 for males, with a high intra- and inter-observer agreement. The method suggested is considered not only useful for performing an identification profile during virtopsy, but also for application in further studies in order to attach a quantitative correlation for tissue ultrastructure characteristics, without complex and expensive methods beyond image analysis. PMID:24986514

  7. Catecholamine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  8. STS-55 MS3 Harris draws blood sample from Payload Specialist Schlegel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel (left) serves as a test subject inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, a physician, performs one of many blood draws designed to help investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. The two crewmembers use intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints (foot loops) in front of Rack 10, a stowage rack, to steady themselves during the procedure. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  9. Determination of cathinones and related ephedrines in forensic whole-blood samples by liquid-chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lambert K

    2011-04-01

    A liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry method using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionisation (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of cathinone, methcathinone, ethcathinone, amfepramone, mephedrone, flephedrone, methedrone, methylone, butylone, cathine, norephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine and methylpseudoephedrine in human live and post-mortem whole blood. The blood proteins were precipitated by the addition of methanol, and the extract was purified by ultrafiltration. The separation of diastereomeric ephedrines was achieved on an ethyl-linked phenyl column. Matrix-matched calibrants combined with the isotope dilution of selected substances were used for quantitative analysis. The relative intra-laboratory reproducibility standard deviations were generally better than 7% at concentrations of 20 μg/L, and the mean true recoveries were 87-106% in the concentration range of 10-250 μg/L. The detection limits were in the range of 0.5-3 μg/L. The cathinones were unstable in whole blood and sample extracts under neutral conditions, but the stability could be improved by the acidification of the sample matrix. PMID:21376674

  10. Variation of DNA methylation in candidate age-related targets on the mitochondrial-telomere axis in cord blood and placenta

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, B.G.; Byun, HM.; Cox, B.; Gyselaers, W.; Izzi, B.; Baccarelli, A.A.; Nawrot, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epigenetics is tissue-specific and potentially even cell-specific, but little information is available from human reproductive studies about the concordance of DNA methylation patterns in cord blood and placenta, as well as within-placenta variations. We evaluated methylation levels at promoter regions of candidate genes in biological ageing pathways (SIRT1, TP53, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TFAM), a subtelomeric region (D4Z4) and the mitochondrial genome (MT-RNR1, D-loop). Methods Ninety individuals were randomly chosen from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort to evaluate methylation concordance between cord blood and placenta using highly quantitative bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing. In a subset of nineteen individuals, a more extensive sampling scheme was performed to examine within-placenta variation. Results The DNA methylation levels of the subtelomeric region and mitochondrial genome showed concordance between cord blood and placenta with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.31 to 0.43, p ≤ 0.005, and also between the maternal and foetal sides of placental tissue (r = 0.53 to 0.72, p ≤ 0.05). For the majority of targets, an agreement in methylation levels between four foetal biopsies was found (with intra-class correlation coefficients ranging from 0.16 to 0.72), indicating small within-placenta variation. Conclusions The methylation levels of the subtelomeric region (D4Z4) and mitochondrial genome (MT-RNR1, D-loop) showed concordance between cord blood and placenta, suggesting a common epigenetic signature of these targets between tissues. Concordance was lacking between the other genes that were studied. In placental tissue, methylation patterns of most targets on the mitochondrial-telomere axis were not strongly influenced by sample location. PMID:25047690

  11. Rapid Treponema pallidum Clearance from Blood and Ulcer Samples following Single Dose Benzathine Penicillin Treatment of Early Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Ra