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  1. Conflicting effects of BMI and waist circumference on iron status.

    PubMed

    Choma, Solomon Simon Ramphai; Alberts, Marianne; Modjadji, Sewela Elizabeth Perpetua

    2015-10-01

    The association between obesity and iron status has a long history and is still receiving attention. However comparative analysis of the association between general obesity (BMI) and visceral obesity (waist circumference) with iron status has not been extensively researched. The aim of the present study is thus to determine if body mass index and waist circumference have the same correlation with iron status. One thousand one hundred and thirty people (225 men and 905 women) aged 30 years and above participated in this study. Anthropometric parameters, haemoglobin, iron and total iron binding capacity concentrations were measured using standard methods. Percentage transferrin saturation was calculated and ferritin concentrations were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Obese or overweight women had significantly lower iron and transferrin saturation concentration when compared to non-obese women. In contrast, women with high waist circumference had comparable plasma iron and transferrin saturation to women with normal waist circumference. Partial correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that BMI is negatively and significantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration, whilst waist circumference is positively but insignificantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration. Binary regression analysis showed that obese or overweight people are more likely to have iron deficiency, whilst those with raised waist circumference are more likely to have iron overload. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index is negatively and significantly associated with low iron status, while waist circumference is positively and insignificantly associated with iron status. This is supported by a comparison of plasma iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin concentrations in participants with high body mass index and normal waist circumference and participants with

  2. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  3. The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.

    PubMed

    Camhi, Sarah M; Bray, George A; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Newton, Robert L; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H; Smith, Steven R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI.

  4. [Relationship between hypertension and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y Q; Liu, Y; Zheng, S L; Yang, Y; Fan, S; Yang, C; Zhang, J H; Ye, Y L

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To assess the relationship between hypertension and BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents in Luzhou, Sichuan province. Methods: A total of 2 033 middle-aged and elderly local residents aged 35-69 years were enrolled from Luzhou through stratified cluster sampling from March 27 to April 20, 2015. A face-to-face questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted by trained investigators. Results: The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 43.48%. The overweight rate, obesity rate, centrality obesity (calculated according to waist circumference) and centrality obesity (calculated according to waist-hip ratio) were 42.5%, 14.6%, 48.4% and 74.0%, respectively. The multivariate logistic analysis showed that gender and age were related to the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with age group <40 years, the OR values were 2.066 and 4.756 respectively in age groups 45-60 and ≥60 years. After control the confounding effect of gender and age, overweight, obesity and centrality obesity (calculated according to waist circumference) were risk factors for hypertension, waist-hip ratio was not used in the regression equation. BMI and waist circumference or waist-hip ratio had combined effect on the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with the normal adults, the risk for hypertension increased as the increase of the level of overweight and obesity [OR from 1.524 (95%CI: 1.044-2.226) to 4.461 (95%CI: 3.405-6.326) and OR from 1.569 (95%CI: 1.134-2.171) to 5.468 (95%CI: 3.797-7.876)]. Conclusions: The influences of BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio on the prevalence of hypertension were significant, but the influence of waist circumference on hypertension was greater than waist-hip ratio. Keeping normal bodyweight might be one of the effective hypertension prevention measures.

  5. The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Michael L.; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between body size, physical activity and semen parameters among male partners of couples attempting to become pregnant? SUMMARY ANSWER Overweight and obesity are associated with a higher prevalence of low ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Higher BMI is associated with impaired semen parameters, while increasing waist circumference (WC) is also associated with impaired semen parameters in infertile men. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study were utilized. The LIFE study is a population-based prospective cohort of 501 couples attempting to conceive in two geographic areas (Texas and Michigan, USA) recruited in 2005–2009. Couples were recruited from four counties in Michigan and 12 counties in Texas to ensure a range of environmental exposures and lifestyle characteristics. In person interviews were conducted to ascertain demographic, health and reproductive histories followed by anthropometric assessment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We categorized BMI (kg/m2) as <25.0 (underweight and normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight) 30.0–34.9 (obese, class I) and ≥35 (obese, class II) for analysis. Data were available for analysis in 468 men (93% participation), with a mean ± SD age of 31.8 ± 4.8 years, BMI of 29.8 ± 5.6 kg/m2 and WC of 100.8 ± 14.2 cm. The majority of the cohort (82%) was overweight or obese with 58% reporting physical activity <1 time/week. The median sperm concentration for the men in the cohort was 60.2 M/ml with 8.6% having oligospermia (<15 M/ml). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE When examining semen parameters, ejaculate volume showed a linear decline with increasing BMI and WC (P < 0.01). Similarly, the total sperm count showed a negative linear association with WC (P < 0.01). No significant relationship was seen between body size (i.e. BMI or WC) and semen

  6. In non-obese girls waist circumference predicts insulin resistance is comparably to MRI fat measures and superior to BMI

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgram, Peter M.; Connor, Ellen L.; Rehm, Jennifer L.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Zha, Wei; Reeder, Scott B.; Allen, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree to which waist circumference (WC), BMI, and MRI measured abdominal fat deposition predict insulin resistance (IR) in non-obese girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Methods Fifty-seven non-obese girls (12 African-American, 16 Hispanic White and 29 non-Hispanic White girls), aged 11–14 years old were assessed for WC, MRI hepatic proton density fat fraction, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, BMI Z-score, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, adiponectin, leptin, sex hormone binding globulin, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses adjusted for race and ethnicity indicated that only WC and visceral adipose tissue volume were independent predictors of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, while dependent predictors were hepatic proton density fat fraction, BMI Z-score, and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume. Hispanic White girls showed significantly higher mean fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower sex hormone binding globulin than non-Hispanic White girls (p-value <0.01). Conclusions In non-obese girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, WC, particularly when adjusted for race or ethnicity, is an independent predictor of IR comparable to MRI-derived measurements of fat and superior to BMI Z-score. PMID:26352642

  7. BMI-specific waist circumference is better than skinfolds for health-risk determination in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Clarke, Janine; Roy, Joel; Fowles, Jonathon

    2015-02-01

    Distribution of fat is important when considering health risk; however, the value added from skinfold measurements (SKF) when using body mass index (BMI) refined by waist circumference (WC) is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of SKF compared with WC in determination of health risk in the general population. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2; N = 5217) were used. Health outcomes included directly measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, lung function, self-reported health, and chronic conditions. Technical errors of measurements (TEM), sensitivity, and specificity analysis and linear regressions were conducted. Data indicated that TEM for SKF was above the acceptable 5% in most age and sex categories. Sensitivity and specificity of chronic conditions was not improved with the inclusion of SKF in models containing WC (in those aged 45-69 years) and SKF did not explain any additional variance in regression models containing WC. Health outcomes for those in the normal weight and overweight BMI category were significantly worse in those classified as high risk based on WC, whereas SKF did not consistently discriminate risk. In conclusion, evidence-based WC cut-points were shown to identify health risk, particularly in normal weight and overweight individuals. Thus, BMI refined by WC appears to be more appropriate than SKF for assessment of body composition when determining health risk in the general population.

  8. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, M; Gunn, P; Gibson, S

    2012-03-01

    Our aim was to differentiate the screening potential of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) for adult cardiometabolic risk in people of different nationalities and to compare both with body mass index (BMI). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for assessing the discriminatory power of anthropometric indices in distinguishing adults with hypertension, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and general cardiovascular outcomes (CVD). Thirty one papers met the inclusion criteria. Using data on all outcomes, averaged within study group, WHtR had significantly greater discriminatory power compared with BMI. Compared with BMI, WC improved discrimination of adverse outcomes by 3% (P < 0.05) and WHtR improved discrimination by 4-5% over BMI (P < 0.01). Most importantly, statistical analysis of the within-study difference in AUC showed WHtR to be significantly better than WC for diabetes, hypertension, CVD and all outcomes (P < 0.005) in men and women. For the first time, robust statistical evidence from studies involving more than 300 000 adults in several ethnic groups, shows the superiority of WHtR over WC and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors in both sexes. Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool.

  9. Establishing Waist-to-Height Ratio Standards from Criterion-Referenced BMI Using ROC Curves in Low-Income Children.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish health-related waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-points associating with FITNESSGRAM's body mass index (BMI) criterion-referenced standards in low-income children. A secondary aim was to examine the classification agreement between the derived WHtR cut-points and various cardiometabolic blood markers using current recommendations. Participants were 219 children from low-income schools (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Waist circumference, height, weight, and cardiometabolic blood markers were collected in a fasting state before school hours. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine WHtR cut-points that associated with a child meeting FITNESSGRAM's age- and sex-specific criterion-referenced standards for BMI. The derived WHtR cut-point was 0.50 (AUC = 0.89, p < 0.001; sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 0.82, and accuracy = 84.3%). Classification agreement using the derived WHtR cut-point with various blood marker standards was statistically significant but considered weak to fair (kappa 0.14-0.34, agreement = 59%-67%, and p < 0.01). The WHtR cut-point of 0.50 can be used with strong accuracy to distinguish low-income children who met FITNESSGRAM's criterion-referenced standards for body composition; however, the evidence was weaker for its use in distinguishing low-income children meeting specific cardiometabolic blood marker recommendations.

  10. Establishing Waist-to-Height Ratio Standards from Criterion-Referenced BMI Using ROC Curves in Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yi; Fu, You

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish health-related waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-points associating with FITNESSGRAM's body mass index (BMI) criterion-referenced standards in low-income children. A secondary aim was to examine the classification agreement between the derived WHtR cut-points and various cardiometabolic blood markers using current recommendations. Participants were 219 children from low-income schools (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Waist circumference, height, weight, and cardiometabolic blood markers were collected in a fasting state before school hours. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine WHtR cut-points that associated with a child meeting FITNESSGRAM's age- and sex-specific criterion-referenced standards for BMI. The derived WHtR cut-point was 0.50 (AUC = 0.89, p < 0.001; sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 0.82, and accuracy = 84.3%). Classification agreement using the derived WHtR cut-point with various blood marker standards was statistically significant but considered weak to fair (kappa 0.14–0.34, agreement = 59%–67%, and p < 0.01). The WHtR cut-point of 0.50 can be used with strong accuracy to distinguish low-income children who met FITNESSGRAM's criterion-referenced standards for body composition; however, the evidence was weaker for its use in distinguishing low-income children meeting specific cardiometabolic blood marker recommendations. PMID:27885339

  11. Waist circumference is superior to weight and BMI in predicting sexual symptoms, voiding symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms in men with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A A; Nettleship, J E; Salman, M; Almehmadi, Y

    2017-05-01

    Waist circumference is considered a useful predictor of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk, but its use as an indicator of sexual health status and quality of life (QoL) in hypogonadal men is unknown. We investigated whether three measurements of obesity, weight, body mass index and waist circumference, correlate with the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. A total of 261 patients were enrolled in a prospective study on hypogonadism treatment with intramuscular long-acting testosterone undecanoate. Patients with total testosterone ≤3.5 ng ml(-1) were enrolled, and baseline demographic data were recorded. Patient's response to IIEF, IPSS and AMS standardised questionnaires was recorded to evaluate health-related QoL. The mean length of treatment and follow-up was 4.7 years (max 6 years). ANOVA regression analysis showed that waist circumference was significantly inversely proportional to IIEF-5 and directly proportional to AMS and IPSS. Weight was inversely proportional to IIEF and directly proportional to IPSS but not associated with AMS. BMI had no proportionality to measurements of sexual function and quality of life. These results suggest that among weight, BMI and waist circumference, the latter is the best predictor of health-related QoL in men with hypogonadism.

  12. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference.

  13. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, María Lola; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n = 110) Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC) of 0.651 (P = 0.008), cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P < 0.001), cut-off point of ≥90 cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P = 0.008), cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ≥0.62 and WHtR ≥0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P = 0.006) and AUC of 0.717 (P = 0.014) for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ≥ 0.6) could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents. PMID:25574166

  14. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  15. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K; Sandling, Johanna K; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10(-7); Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches.

  16. Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xin; Song, Zhen-ya; Zhao, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women. Methods: A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and overweight/obesity groups based on BMI, and normal and abdominal obesity groups based on WC. Cardiometabolic variables included triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in middle-aged women (32.4%) than in young women (12.0%). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was also higher in middle-aged women (60.3%) than in young women (36.2%). There were significant differences in the comparison of all related cardiometabolic variables between different BMI (or WC) categories in young and middle-aged women groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, partial correlation analysis indicated that both BMI and WC were correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables. After adjustment for age and WC, although the correlation coefficient r′ was attenuated, BMI was still correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables in young and middle-aged women. After adjustment for age and BMI, partial correlation analysis showed that WC was correlated significantly with TG, FBG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in young women and significantly with TG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in middle-aged women. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was high in Chinese young and middle-aged women. BMI was a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than WC in young and middle-aged women, and moreover, measurement of both WC and BMI

  17. Feasibility of body roundness index for identifying a clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities compared to BMI, waist circumference and other anthropometric indices: the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2008 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Xu, Yang; Dong, Huimin

    2016-08-01

    The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are commonly used anthropometric measures for predicting cardiovascular diseases risk factors, but it is uncertain which specific measure might be the most appropriate predictor of a cluster of cardiometabolic abnormalities (CMA) in Chinese adults. A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have been recently developed as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. The main aims of this study were to investigate the predictive capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying various CMA compared to BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and to determine whether there exists a best single predictor of all CMA.We used data from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the final analysis included 8126 adults aged 18 to 85 years with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the best anthropometric indices to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CMA according to anthropometric indices.In women, the ROC analysis showed that BRI and WHtR had the best predictive capability in identifying all of CMA (area under the curves [AUCs] ranged from 0.658 to 0.721). In men, BRI and WHtR were better predictor of hypertension, diabetes, and at least 1 CMA (AUC: 0.668, 0.708, and 0.698, respectively), whereas BMI and WC were more sensitive predictor of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and MetS. Furthermore, the ABSI showed the lowest AUCs for each CMA. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BRI and WHtR were superior in discriminating hyperuricemia and at least 1 CMA while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension, diabetes, and MetS in women. In men, WC and BRI were the 2 best predictor of all CMA

  18. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  19. Waist-hip Ratio (WHR), a Better Predictor for Prostate Cancer than Body Mass Index (BMI): Results from a Chinese Hospital-based Biopsy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Han, Cheng-Tao; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Cui-Zhu; Yang, Wei-Yi; Shen, Ying; Vidal, Adriana C.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a better predictor of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence than body mass index (BMI) in Chinese men. Of consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsies in one tertiary center between 2013 and 2015, we examined data on 1018 with PSA ≤20 ng/ml. Clinical data and biopsy outcomes were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between BMI, WHR and PCa incidence. Area under the ROC (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of different prognostic models. A total of 255 men and 103 men were diagnosed with PCa and high grade PCa (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥8). WHR was an independent risk factor for both PCa (OR = 1.07 95%Cl 1.03–1.11) and HGPCa (OR = 1.14 95%Cl 1.09–1.19) detection, while BMI had no relationship with either PCa or HGPCa detection. Adding WHR to a multivariable model increased the AUC for detecting HGPCa from 0.66 (95%Cl 0.60–0.72) to 0.71 (95%Cl 0.65–0.76). In this Chinese cohort, WHR was significantly predictive of PCa and HGPCa. Adding WHR to a multivariable model increased the diagnostic accuracy for detecting HGPCa. If confirmed, including WHR measurement may improve PCa and HGPCa detection. PMID:28272469

  20. Waist-to-height ratio as a predictor of serum testosterone in ageing men with symptoms of androgen deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Carolyn A; Peverill, Roger E; Strauss, Boyd JG; Forbes, Elise A; McLachlan, Robert I

    2011-01-01

    The decline in serum testosterone in ageing men may be mediated in part by obesity; however, it is uncertain which measure of adiposity is most closely associated with testosterone levels. We have examined the relationships of age, adiposity and testosterone levels in ageing men with symptoms consistent with hypoandrogenism but who were otherwise in good health. We conducted a cross-sectional study of non-smoking men aged ≥54 years recruited from the community and who were free of cancer or serious medical illness. Height (Ht), weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height (WHt) ratio were calculated. Two morning blood samples were collected for measurement of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess their relationship with measures of adiposity. Two hundred and seven men aged 54–86 years were studied. On univariate analysis WHt ratio was more strongly correlated with TT and cFT than either WC or BMI. Furthermore, in models of TT and cFT, the addition of Ht to WC resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the regression coefficients for both WC (inverse correlate) and Ht (positive correlate), with the contributions of both WC and Ht both being significant (P<0.05 for all). In conclusion, WHt ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of both TT and cFT in this group of healthy but symptomatic ageing men. PMID:21478893

  1. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  2. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 years of age and weight or BMI status among older children; systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of prospective studies that examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6y of age and later weight or BMI status among older children. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, and EBSCO databases of prospective studies published from 2001 to 2011. Seven studies were analyzed. The study population was from 72 to 10,904 children. Three studies showed a consistent association between SSB intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI, or waist circumference later in childhood, one study showed a positive trend of consumption of SSB and childhood obesity and the OR for incidence of overweight by baseline beverage intake was 1.04, another study it was observed that an increase in total sugar intake and sugar from sweets and beverages in children 1-2 y of age and 7-9 y of age have a tendency to increase BMI, and two studies showed no association. In conclusion, although the trend of the reviews studies, indicate an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI or waist circumference later in childhood, to date, the results are inconsistent, and the two studies with the higher number of children showed a positive association.

  3. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  4. The relationship of age, body mass index and waist circumference with blood pressure in Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Ghosh, Arnab; Roy, Sabyasachi; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 150 adult Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to study the relationship of age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure. The mean age and the BMI of the subjects were 40.7 years (S.D. = 15.2) and 23.2 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.2), respectively. The mean SBP, DBP and MAP were 124.7 mmHg (S.D. = 7.8), 81.5 mmHg (S.D. = 5.7) and 95.9 mmHg (S.D. = 6.1), respectively. Age had similar significant (p < 0.001) correlations with BMI and WC. Age and WC were significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with all the three blood pressure variables. In general, the correlations of BMI with SBP (r = 0.24, p < 0.01), DBP (r = 0.15, n.s.) and MAP (r = 0.19, p < 0.05) were weaker. Age controlled multiple regression analyses demonstrated that BMI did not have a significant effect of any blood pressure variable. However, WC had a significant impact (p < 0.0001) on SBP (t = 7.068), DBP (t = 5.190) and MAP (t = 6.387), even after adjusting for the effect of age. Moreover, even after age adjustment, percent variations in SBP (20.7%), DBP (12.5%) and MAP (17.2%) explained by WC were high. This significant impact (p < 0.0001) of WC on SBP (t = 9.426), DBP (t = 8.349) and MAP (t = 9.642) remained even after controlling for the combined effects of age and BMI.

  5. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... using three key measures: body mass index (BMI) waist circumference, and risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity. Waist Circumference Determine your waist circumference by placing a measuring ...

  6. Genetic predisposition to obesity and lifestyle factors--the combined analyses of twenty-six known BMI- and fourteen known waist:hip ratio (WHR)-associated variants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2013-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with BMI or the waist:hip ratio (WHR). However, evidence on gene-lifestyle interactions is still scarce, and investigation of the effects of well-documented dietary and other lifestyle data is warranted to assess whether genetic risk can be modified by lifestyle. We assessed whether previously established BMI and WHR genetic variants associate with obesity and weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and whether the associations are modified by dietary factors or physical activity. Individuals (n 459) completed a 3 d food record and were genotyped for twenty-six BMI- and fourteen WHR-related variants. The effects of the variants individually and in combination were investigated in relation to obesity and to 1- and 3-year weight change by calculating genetic risk scores (GRS). The GRS were separately calculated for BMI and the WHR by summing the increasing alleles weighted by their published effect sizes. At baseline, the GRS were not associated with total intakes of energy, macronutrients or fibre. The mean 1- and 3-year weight changes were not affected by the BMI or WHR GRS. During the 3-year follow-up, a trend for higher BMI by the GRS was detected especially in those who reported a diet low in fibre (P for interaction=0·065). Based on the present findings, it appears unlikely that obesity-predisposing variants substantially modify the effect of lifestyle modification on the success of weight reduction in the long term. In addition, these findings suggest that the association between the BMI-related genetic variants and obesity could be modulated by the diet.

  7. Candidate Gene Association Study of BMI-Related Loci, Weight, and Adiposity in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies are confined to middle-aged populations. It is unclear whether associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity persist in old age. We aimed to relate 10 body mass index (BMI)–associated SNPs to weight, BMI, % fat, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in Health ABC and AGES-Reykjavik comprising 4,846 individuals of European Ancestry, and 1,139 African Americans over age 65. SNPs were scaled using effect estimates from candidate SNPs. In Health ABC, a SNP near GNPDA2 was modestly associated with weight and SAT area (p = .008, p = .001). Risk score (sum of scaled SNPs) was associated with weight, BMI, and SAT area (p < .0001 for all), but neither GNPDA2 nor risk score was associated with weight, BMI, visceral adippose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, or % fat in AGES-Reykjavik. In African Americans, a SNP near SEC16B was weakly associated with weight (p = .04). In this sample of older adults, no BMI-associated SNPs were associated with weight or adiposity. PMID:23160366

  8. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (p<.05). The results of the three-way hierarchical regression revealed that body image was a statistically significant positive predictor of MVPA for adolescents, regardless of BMI. Additionally, body image was a stronger predictor of MVPA in boys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity.

  9. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors.

  10. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974

  11. Critical period for menarche derived by the wavelet interpolation method from changes in BMI with age in South Korean girls.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Tanaka, Nozomi

    2010-12-01

    Recently, few studies regarding the changes in BMI with age have been reported. In the present study, the wavelet interpolation method (WIM) was applied to the changes in BMI with age from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school in Korean girls, and the relationship between age at the maximum peak velocity (MPV) of BMI and age at menarche was confirmed by determining the age at MPV of BMI. Age at menarche and activity status were obtained from questionnaires given to 263 second grade high school girls in the Pusan area of South Korea. Moreover, longitudinal growth data on height and weight from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school (from 1997 to 2008) were obtained from health examination records. BMI was calculated from height and weight values from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school, and wavelet interpolation was applied to the distances of BMI in each grade. The change curve of BMI with age was determined by wavelet interpolation, and the age at MPV of BMI was determined from the changes in the velocity curve with age as the differentiation curve. Age at MPV of BMI was found to be 12.76 +/- 1.6 years, and age at menarche to be 12.34 +/- 1.1 years. The interval in age at the two times was -0.42 +/- 1.6 years, and a significant difference was seen between age at menarche and age at MPV of BMI. The reason that the age at menarche was a little earlier than the age at MPV of BMI is hypothesized to be abnormal melatonin levels influenced by lack of sleep in Korean school girls. However, it is proposed that the age at MPV of BMI is valid as the critical period for the age at menarche.

  12. Anti-aging Effect of Transplanted Amniotic Membrane Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Premature Aging Model of Bmi-1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Tao, Jianguo; Wang, Rong; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether transplanted amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice, postnatal 2-day-old Bmi-1−/− mice were injected intraperitoneally with the second-passage AMSCs from amniotic membranes of β-galactosidase (β-gal) transgenic mice or wild-type (WT) mice labeled with DiI. Three reinjections were given, once every seven days. Phenotypes of 5-week-old β-gal+ AMSC-transplanted or 6-week-old DiI+ AMSC-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice were compared with vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− and WT mice. Vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice displayed growth retardation and premature aging with decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis; a decreased ratio and dysmaturity of lymphocytic series; premature osteoporosis with reduced osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis; redox imbalance and DNA damage in multiple organs. Transplanted AMSCs carried Bmi-1 migrated into multiple organs, proliferated and differentiated into multiple tissue cells, promoted growth and delayed senescence in Bmi-1−/− transplant recipients. The dysmaturity of lymphocytic series were ameliorated, premature osteoporosis were rescued by promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis, the oxidative stress and DNA damage in multiple organs were inhibited by the AMSC transplantation in Bmi-1−/− mice. These findings indicate that AMSC transplantation ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice and could be a novel therapy to delay aging and prevent aging-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:26370922

  13. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  14. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ≥2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ≤90 cm in men or ≤85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P = 0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P = 0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P = 0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P = 0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older. PMID:24663403

  15. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  16. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, N; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, R; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two hour post load plasma glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3 cm v 79.2, p < 0.05). Mean waist-hip ratios were lower in Chinese men (0.90 v 0.91, p = 0.02) but higher in Chinese women (0.84 v 0.78, p < 0.001) compared with Europids. In both Chinese and Europid adults, higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese men and women, despite lower BMIs, is similar to or higher than that in local Europid men and women and intermediate between levels found in China and those in Mauritius. It is suggested that an increase in mean BMI to the levels in the Europid population will be associated with a substantial increase in glucose intolerance in Chinese people. PMID:9196645

  17. Coronary heart disease incidence in women by waist circumference within categories of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Canoy, Dexter; Cairns, Benjamin J; Balkwill, Angela; Wright, F Lucy; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian; Beral, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and large waist circumference are separately associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk but these measures are highly correlated. Their separate associations with incident CHD, cross-classifying one variable by the other, are less investigated in large-scale studies. We examined these associations in a large UK cohort (the Million Women Study), which is a prospective population-based study. We followed 496,225 women (mean age 60 years) with both waist circumference and BMI measurements who had no vascular disease or cancer. Adjusted relative risk and 20-year cumulative CHD incidence (first coronary hospitalization or death) from age 55 to 74 years were calculated using Cox regression. Plasma apolipoproteins were assayed in 6295 randomly selected participants. There were 10,998 incident coronary events after mean follow up of 5.1 years. Within each BMI category (<25, 25-29.9, ≥30 kg/m(2)), CHD risk increased with increasing waist circumference; within each waist circumference category (<70, 70-79.9, ≥79 cm), CHD risk increased with increasing BMI. The cumulative CHD incidence was lowest in women with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and waist circumference <70 cm, with 1 in 14 (95% confidence interval 1 in 12 to 16) women developing CHD in the 20 years from age 55 to 74 years, and highest in women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and waist circumference ≥80 cm, with 1 in 8 (95% confidence interval 1 in 7 to 9) women developing CHD over the same period. Similar associations for apolipoprotein B to A1 ratio across adiposity categories were observed, particularly in non-obese women. Our conclusions were that both waist circumference and BMI are independently associated with incident CHD.

  18. Association between hair mineral and age, BMI and nutrient intakes among Korean female adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887

  19. Correlation between Age, Gender, Waist-Hip Ratio and Intra Ocular Pressure in Adult North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surjit; Manjhi, Prafulla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraocular pressure (IOP) is affected by various systemic and local factors. The significance of studying the factors affecting IOP is because of its association with potentially blinding condition known as glaucoma. Aim Present study was conducted with the aim to find out the correlation between gender, age, Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) and IOP. Materials and Methods The study included 300 healthy individuals between 40-79years of age. The subjects were divided into 2 categories according to gender i.e., male and female. The subjects were divided into 4 categories according to age i.e., 40-49years, 50-59years, 60-69years and 70-79years. The subjects were divided into two groups according to Waist-hip ratio (WHR) as per WHO guidelines: WHR <0.9 and WHR >0.9 in males and WHR <0.85 and WHR >0.85 in females. IOP was recorded in each group using Goldmann Applanation tonometer and statistical comparisons were made to find correlation between gender, age, Waist-hip ratio and IOP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between IOP of males and females (p=0.235). The age and IOP were positively correlated with each other i.e., IOP increases with increasing age (r=0.511, p<0.001). Higher WHR is associated with significantly higher IOP in both the genders (males r =0.644, p<0.001; females r=0.794, p<0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in IOP amongst males and females. Increasing age and higher WHR are risk factors for raised IOP. PMID:28208848

  20. Body mass index, waist circumference and employment: evidence from older Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Irene

    2013-12-01

    Data from the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing are used to examine the relationship between fatness and obesity and employment status among older Irish adults. Employment status is regressed on one of the following measures of fatness: BMI and waist circumference entered linearly as continuous variables and obesity as a categorical variable defined using both BMI and waist circumference. Controls for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics in childhood and physical, mental and behavioural health are also included. The regression results for women indicate that all measures of fatness are negatively associated with the probability of being employed and that the employment elasticity associated with waist circumference is larger than the elasticity associated with BMI. The results for men indicate that employment is not significantly associated with BMI and waist circumference when these are entered linearly in the regression, but it is significantly and negatively associated with obesity defined either using BMI or waist circumference as categorical variables. The results also indicate that the negative association between obesity and employment status is larger among women. For example, the probability of being employed for the obese category defined using BMI is around 8 percentage points lower for women and 5 percentage points lower for men.

  1. EFFECT OF SEX, AGE, AND BMI ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTOR SKILLS AND OBJECT CONTROL SKILLS AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Chu; Lin, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Chia-Yen

    2015-12-01

    Purposive sampling was used to recruit 1,200 preschoolers between the ages of three and seven from 12 preschools throughout Taiwan in order to examine locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Fundamental motor skills were measured using the TGMD-2. Only age had a significant influence on locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills; sex had a small influence on object control skills, and BMI had a very limited influence on all three categories. The difference from previous studies related to BMI may be due to the different items included in the various tests, the number of trials conducted, and ways in which BMI was categorized.

  2. Hand Osteoarthritis Severity is Associated with Total Knee Joint Replacements Independently of BMI. The Ages-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Helgi; Helgadottir, Gudrun P; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors associated with having total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis in the AGES-Reykjavik Study, a large population based study of elderly Icelanders. Methods: Information about total knee and hip joint replacements (TKR,THR) and hand OA (HOA) severity was available in 2195 males and 2975 females, mean age 76±6 years. The prevalence of TKR was 223 (4.3%) and THR 316 (6.1%). We performed a backwards binary logistic regression analysis of possible OA associated variables including age, gender, abdominal circumference, BMI, hs-CRP, cholesterol, statin use, bone mineral density of the spine, education and smoking history as well as HOA severity and the presence of THR. Results: Only three factors showed significant associations with TKR; BMI (p=3.5x10-17), HOA severity (p=2.9x10-8) and THR (p=0.0002). The highest quintile of BMI was associated with a fivefold risk of TKR compared with the lowest (8% vs 1.6%), and severe HOA had a 2.4 fold risk compared with those with no HOA (8% vs 3.3%). There was no statistical interaction between BMI and HOA. Thus, individuals with BMI<23.5 with no evidence of HOA had a prevalence of TKR of 1.1%, while those with BMI>30.3 and severe HOA had a prevalence of 13.4%. Conclusions: Hand and hip osteoarthritis in conjunction with BMI are strongly associated with the prevalence of TKR due to osteoarthritis. Together, BMI and HOA severity seem to contribute to the majority of the total TKR prevalence. While BMI has long been recognized as the major risk factor for TKR, the influence of osteoarthritis at other sites may have been underestimated. PMID:21552415

  3. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  4. Waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in relation to all-cause mortality, cancer and sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Seidell, J C

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal obesity assessed by waist or waist/hip ratio are both related to increased risk of all-cause mortality throughout the range of body mass index (BMI). The relative risks (RRs) seem to be relatively stronger in younger than in older adults and in those with relatively low BMI compared with those with high BMI. Absolute risks and risk differences are preferable measures of risk in a public health context but these are rarely presented. There is a great lack of studies in ethnic groups (groups of African and Asian descent particularly). Current cut-points as recommended by the World Health Organization seem appropriate, although it may be that BMI-specific and ethnic-specific waist cut-points may be warranted. Waist alone could replace both waist-hip ratio and BMI as a single risk factor for all-cause mortality. There is much less evidence for waist to replace BMI for cancer risk mainly because of the relative lack of prospective cohort studies on waist and cancer risk. Obesity is also a risk factor for sleep apnoea where neck circumference seems to give the strongest association, and waist-hip ratio is a risk factor especially in severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. The waist circumference and waist-hip ratio seem to be better indicators of all-cause mortality than BMI.

  5. Breast-feeding Duration, Age of Starting Solids, and High BMI Risk and Adiposity in Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of solid feeding was associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breast-feeding (6 categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (4 categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant feeding practices, socioeconomic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis which accounted for potential confounders, demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breast-feeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breast-feeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) (adjusted β= −0.12 SD 95% CI: −0.19 to −0.05 per category change in breast-feeding duration, p=0.001) and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95 % CI: 2.53 to 5.56, p<0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breast-feeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population-level. PMID:21978208

  6. Preliminary data on the association between waist circumference and insulin resistance in children without a previous diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Palmeros-Exsome, Carolina; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Ortega, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the association between different anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance (IR) in Spanish schoolchildren without a previous diagnosis. A total of 443 Spanish schoolchildren (9-11 years of age) were studied in this cross-sectional study. The anthropometric measurements collected were weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds. Body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio, percentage body fat and fat-free body mass were determined. Overnight-fasted blood lipids, insulin and glucose levels were analysed, and estimation of IR, taking into account the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), was calculated. The children with IR had higher serum triglycerides and insulin levels, were heavier and taller, and had a higher BMI, a larger waist circumference, a larger hip circumference, a larger waist/hip ratio and thicker bicipital and tricipital skinfolds than those who did not have IR. Age, sex, BMI and waist circumference explained 32.0% of the variance in the HOMA values; only sex, triglycerides and waist circumference independently influenced this variable. A 1-cm increase in waist circumference was associated with approximately a 3.8% increase in the mean HOMA value. The children with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex were at greater risk of showing IR as measured by the HOMA: odds ratio = 6.94 (2.01-23.91; P < 0.001). In conclusion, according to these results, waist circumference is the best anthropometric parameter associated with IR in children, and those with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex would appear to be at particular risk.

  7. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  8. Predictors of metabolic syndrome in the Iranian population: waist circumference, body mass index, or waist to hip ratio?

    PubMed

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Andalib, Elham; Talaie, Mohammad; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaie, Esmaiel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist to hip ratio (WHR) could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome and, if so, what would be the cutoff points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate metabolic syndrome in different age and sex subgroups. Methods. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS). In total, 468 individuals (194 with and 274 subjects without metabolic syndrome) according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were measured and plotted using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results. According to ROC curve analysis, WC and WHR parameters were better indicators of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI in women, whereas in men WHR had a lower discriminating value compared to the other two parameters. Among these three anthropometric parameters, BMI had a lower sensitivity and WC and WHR both had a higher sensitivity for predicting metabolic syndrome in women compared with in men. The cut points for WC were nearly equal in men and women, 90.3 versus 90.0, respectively. Women had higher cut points for BMI (28.5 kg/m(2)) compared to men (26.0 kg/m(2)). Our results showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for WC cut points specially in women. To predict metabolic syndrome, we looked into optimal age-specific cut points for BMI, WC, and WHR. The results indicated that WC had the highest discriminating value compared to other indicators in the different age subgroups. The optimal cut points for all three parameters gradually increased with age. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that regardless of gender and age variables, WC could be a preferred parameter for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WHR in Iranian population.

  9. Overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to three BMI classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the suitability of three commonly-used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Methods Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (8–14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS) with data collected in 2005–2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted Kappa (kw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Results The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (kw=0.87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (kw=0.69), and CDC and WHO (kw=0.73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Conclusion Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. PMID:26095406

  10. Comparing the Effects of Age, BMI and Gender on Severe Injury (AIS 3+) in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5

  11. Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hankinson, Arlene L; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Loria, Catherine M; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation.

  12. Differentiating the associations of waist circumference and body mass index with cardiovascular disease risk in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Shi, Liang; Jia, Jian; Li, Yanyun; Yang, Qundi; Ruan, Ye; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2015-03-01

    It is not known which obesity index best explains variations in cardiovascular disease risk across populations. The objective of this study was to differentiate the associations of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with cardiovascular disease risk in a Chinese population. Cardiovascular risk factors, WC, and BMI were measured in 13 817 adults aged more than 18 years in Shanghai. Higher WC tertiles were associated with higher blood pressure and higher cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose concentrations within each tertile of BMI and vice versa. The odds ratios (ORs) of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome increased with successive WC (or BMI) tertiles after adjustment for BMI (or WC) and several covariates. However, BMI tertiles were not associated with the ORs of diabetes after adjustment for WC. WC may be better than BMI as an alternative measure of body fatness or fat distribution for predicting diabetic risks in Chinese adults.

  13. Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference in men and women: The Scottish MONICA surveys 1989--1995.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruoling; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference were measured in three Scottish MONICA cross-sectional surveys of 2233 men and 2516 women aged 25-64 years in 1989-1995. Means of waist circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) increased with level of deprivation (measured by the Carstairs index) more significantly in women than in men, and more significantly in non-smokers than in current-smokers. Their obesity cases defined by conventional cut-points showed similar patterns of relation to deprivation. There appeared to be more obviously consistent and significant increases in the prevalence of large waist circumference with deprivation for both sexes than in the prevalence of WHR and BMI above the 90th centile. Also there was a more significant trend of increase in waist circumference over time than there was in WHR and BMI for both sexes. Residual case-control analysis, controlling for height, showed a 'dose-response' relationship between deprivation and waist circumference. Compared to the most affluent (the first tertile of the Carstairs score), odds ratio for men in the middle group (the second tertile) adjusted for age, survey year and smoking status was 1.37 (95%CI 1.10-1.70) and in the most deprived (the third tertile) 1.46 (1.17-1.82); and for women 1.22 (0.99-1.50) and 1.81 (1.47-2.23). The study suggests that large waist circumference, increasingly prevalent, is directly related to socioeconomic deprivation, and greater attention should be paid to increasing girth in the socially deprived.

  14. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Møller, Bente K.; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T.; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. Objective To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. Design We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Results Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.19) and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.15). Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001) and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01). Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05), but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p<005) and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005). Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings. Conclusions Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not

  15. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m(2)), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P < 0.001). Over 4.3 years, the prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from

  16. Is being in school better? The impact of school on children's BMI when starting age is endogenous.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Patricia M; Butcher, Kristin F; Cascio, Elizabeth U; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of attending school on body weight and obesity using a regression-discontinuity design. As is the case with academic outcomes, school exposure is related to unobserved determinants of weight outcomes because some families choose to have their child start school late (or early). If one does not account for this endogeneity, it appears that an additional year of school exposure results in a greater BMI and a higher probability of being overweight or obese. When we compare the weight outcomes of similar age children with one versus two years of school exposure due to regulations on school starting age, the significant positive effects disappear, and most point estimates become negative, but insignificant. However, additional school exposure appears to improve weight outcomes of children for whom the transition to elementary school represents a more dramatic change in environment (those who spent less time in childcare prior to kindergarten).

  17. Dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink⁴a) pathway provokes an aging-associated decline of submandibular gland function.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Kimi; Katano, Satoshi; Iida, Mayu; Kimura, Hiromi; Okuma, Atsushi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Ohtani, Naoko; Hara, Eiji; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    Bmi-1 prevents stem cell aging, at least partly, by blocking expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(Ink4a) . Therefore, dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink4a) pathway is considered key to the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of associated degenerative diseases during aging. However, because Bmi-1 knockout (KO) mice die within 20 weeks after birth, it is difficult to determine exactly where and when dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink4a) pathway occurs during aging in vivo. Using real-time in vivo imaging of p16(Ink4a) expression in Bmi-1-KO mice, we uncovered a novel function of the Bmi-1/p16(Ink4a) pathway in controlling homeostasis of the submandibular glands (SMGs), which secrete saliva into the oral cavity. This pathway is dysregulated during aging in vivo, leading to induction of p16(Ink4a) expression and subsequent declined SMG function. These findings will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the aging-related decline of SMG function and associated salivary gland hypofunction, which is particularly problematic among the elderly.

  18. Is waist circumference ≥102/88cm better than body mass index ≥30 to predict hypertension and diabetes development regardless of gender, age group, and race/ethnicity? Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Choe, Siyoung; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2017-04-01

    Between body mass index (BMI) ≥30 and waist circumference (WC) ≥102/88cm, we investigated which of the two measures is a better predictor of two of the most common chronic diseases - diabetes mellitus and hypertension while also examining differential association by gender, age group, and race/ethnicity. Meta-analysis was conducted for all longitudinal studies with at least 12months of follow-up published up to April 2015. Ratio of relative risk (rRR) and relative risk of diseases were computed and compared by baseline obesity measurement. The final sample included 23 longitudinal observation studies involving 62 study arms with 259,200 individuals. WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor than BMI≥30 for development of diabetes (rRR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68-0.96), but not for hypertension (rRR=0.92, 95% CI=0.80-1.06). Subgroup analyses showed WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor for diabetes in women than men, and for ages 60 and older than other ages. Only WC≥102/88cm, not BMI≥30, predicted development of hypertension among Hispanic/Latinos. Neither BMI≥30 nor WC≥102/88cm were significant predictors of hypertension when age group was controlled. Central obesity may be a more serious risk factor for diabetes development in women and for older ages. The predictive power of BMI≥30 or WC≥102/88cm in hypertension development should not be emphasized as either could mask the effect of age.

  19. Associations between dietary intakes of first-time fathers and their 20-month-old children are moderated by fathers' BMI, education and age.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Adam D; Cameron, Adrian J; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-09-28

    Children's learning about food is considerable during their formative years, with parental influence being pivotal. Research has focused predominantly on maternal influences, with little known about the relationships between fathers' and children's diets. Greater understanding of this relationship is necessary for the design of appropriate interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the diets of fathers and their children and the moderating effects of fathers' BMI, education and age on these associations. The diets of fathers and their first-born children (n 317) in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program were assessed using an FFQ and 3 × 24-h recalls, respectively. The InFANT Program is a cluster-randomised controlled trial in the setting of first-time parents groups in Victoria, Australia. Associations between father and child fruit, vegetable, non-core food and non-core drink intakes were assessed using linear regression. The extent to which these associations were mediated by maternal intake was tested. Moderation of associations by paternal BMI, education and age was assessed. Positive associations were found between fathers' and children's intake of fruit, sweet snacks and take-away foods. Paternal BMI, education and age moderated the relationships found for the intakes of fruit (BMI), vegetables (age), savoury snacks (BMI and education) and take-away foods (BMI and education). Our findings suggest that associations exist at a young age and are moderated by paternal BMI, education and age. This study highlights the importance of fathers in modelling healthy diets for their children.

  20. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  1. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  2. Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of waist circumference as a single screening tool for identification of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Kee, C C; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ali, Z Ahmad; Safiza, M N Noor; Suzana, S; Khor, G L; Rahmah, R; Jamalludin, A R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H; Faudzi, Y Ahmad; Amal, N M

    2011-12-01

    Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low

  4. Household food insecurity is not associated with BMI for age or weight for height among Brazilian children aged 0-60 months.

    PubMed

    Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0-60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006-07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (β coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.35 - -0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.42 - -0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0-60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0-60 months.

  5. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  6. Relationships between gray matter, body mass index, and waist circumference in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florian; Levitt, Jennifer G; Phillips, Owen R; Luders, Eileen; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are often defined by the body mass index (BMI), which associates with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and possibly with dementia as well as variations in brain volume. However, body fat distribution and abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference) is more strongly correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk than is BMI. While prior studies have revealed negative associations between gray matter tissue volumes and BMI, the relationship with respect to waist circumference remains largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effects of both BMI and waist circumference on local gray matter volumes in a group of 115 healthy subjects screened to exclude physical or mental disorders that might affect the central nervous system. Results revealed significant negative correlations for both BMI and waist circumference where regional gray matter effects were largest within the hypothalamus and further encompassed prefrontal, anterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum. However, associations were more widespread and pronounced for waist circumference than BMI. Follow-up analyses showed that these relationships differed significantly across gender. While associations were similar for both BMI and waist circumference for males, females showed more extensive correlations for waist circumference. Our observations suggest that waist circumference is a more sensitive indicator than BMI, particularly in females, for potentially determining the adverse effects of obesity and overweight on the brain and associated risks to health.

  7. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P < 0.0001) and in the lean BMI-classified subjects (P < 0.0001), but not in the overweight or obese-classified individuals. Importantly, BF% was significantly higher in lean (by BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P < 0.0001), whereas no differences were observed for BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  8. Height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference references for 7- to 17-year-old children from rural Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Baxter-Jones, A; Souza, M; Santos, D; Maia, J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to develop references of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat for rural Portuguese children and adolescents and (2) to compare these results with other international references. The sample comprised 3094 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from Vouzela, a central region in Portugal. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body fat were measured. Centile curves were constructed using the LMS method. The Vouzela sample showed similar height median values compared to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) percentile curves but greater values for weight and BMI. Percent body fat 50th percentile was greater in Vouzela children and adolescents compared to their international peers, except for boys aged 8-12 years. Boys' waist circumference median values were similar to those from the USA, whilst girls were similar until 12 years of age, after which the differences increased with age. The percentile curves constructed provide population specific references for growth and body composition of children and adolescents from rural Portugal. It is expected that they will be a useful tool for clinical and public health settings in rural Portugal.

  9. Determining the waist circumference in african americans which best predicts insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Anne E; Sen, Sabyasachi; Ricks, Madia; Frempong, Barbara A; Sebring, Nancy G; Kushner, Harvey

    2008-04-01

    Total body size and central fat distribution are important determinants of insulin resistance. The BMI and waist circumference (WC) thresholds in African Americans that best predict insulin resistance are unknown. Our goal was to determine the BMI and WC values in African Americans, which optimally predict insulin resistance. The subjects were African Americans (68 men, 63 women), aged 35 +/- 8 years (mean +/- s.d.), with a BMI of 30.9 +/- 7.5, in the range of 18.5-54.7 kg/m(2), and with a WC of 98 +/- 18, in the range of 69-173 cm. Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)). The Youden index was calculated to determine the WC and BMI thresholds that predict insulin resistance with an optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity. In men the thresholds that optimally predicted insulin resistance were a BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =102 cm. For women, insulin resistance was best predicted by a BMI > or =32 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =98 cm. In African Americans, insulin resistance (in men) was best predicted by a WC > or =102 cm, and in women by a WC > or =98 cm, or by a BMI value that fell in the obese category (men: > or =30 kg/m(2), women: > or =32 kg/m(2)).

  10. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24-28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Leng, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks with 0-3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11-1.13), 1.05 (1.04-1.06), 1.07 (1.06-1.08), and 1.11 (1.10-1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m(2)) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10-1.17), 1.01 (0.99-1.03), 0.99 (0.96-1.01), and 1.00 (0.97-1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2)); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI.

  11. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24–28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks with 0–3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11–1.13), 1.05 (1.04–1.06), 1.07 (1.06–1.08), and 1.11 (1.10–1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m2) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10–1.17), 1.01 (0.99–1.03), 0.99 (0.96–1.01), and 1.00 (0.97–1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI. PMID:28251156

  12. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Ewertowska, Marlena; Arndt, Adam; Junik, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, lipid disorders, carbohydrate disorders, and arterial hypertension. According to the 2005 IDF criteria, subsequently revised in 2009, abdominal obesity is identified as the waist circumference of ≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men. It is responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a correlation between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation with hypertension, lipid disorders, and carbohydrate disorders. A cross-sectional two-site study was conducted in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship for 24 months. The study group consisted of 839 patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome: 345 men (41.1%) and 494 women (58.9%) aged 32-80. In the study group, WC was found to be significantly correlated with BMI (R = 0.78, P < 0.01). The presence of overweight in men (BMI 25, 84 kg/m(2)) and even normal body weight in women (BMI 21,62 kg/m(2)) corresponds to an increased volume of visceral tissue in the abdomen. Introduction of primary prophylaxis in those people to limit the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases should be considered.

  13. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Ewertowska, Marlena; Arndt, Adam; Junik, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, lipid disorders, carbohydrate disorders, and arterial hypertension. According to the 2005 IDF criteria, subsequently revised in 2009, abdominal obesity is identified as the waist circumference of ≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men. It is responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a correlation between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation with hypertension, lipid disorders, and carbohydrate disorders. A cross-sectional two-site study was conducted in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship for 24 months. The study group consisted of 839 patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome: 345 men (41.1%) and 494 women (58.9%) aged 32–80. In the study group, WC was found to be significantly correlated with BMI (R = 0.78, P < 0.01). The presence of overweight in men (BMI 25, 84 kg/m2) and even normal body weight in women (BMI 21,62 kg/m2) corresponds to an increased volume of visceral tissue in the abdomen. Introduction of primary prophylaxis in those people to limit the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases should be considered. PMID:24729884

  14. A comparison of heart rate variability, n-3 PUFA status and lipid mediator profile in age- and BMI-matched middle-aged vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana M; Sanders, Thomas A B; Kendall, Alexandra C; Nicolaou, Anna; Gray, Robert; Al-Khatib, Haya; Hall, Wendy L

    2017-04-03

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans. Day-time interbeat intervals (IBI), adjusted for physical activity, age, BMI and sex, were significantly shorter in vegans compared with omnivores (mean difference -67 ms; 95 % CI -130, -3·4, P50 % and high-frequency power) were similarly lower in vegans, with no differences during sleep. In conclusion, vegans have higher 24 h SDNN, but lower day-time HRV and shorter day-time IBI relative to comparable omnivores. Vegans may have reduced availability of precursor markers for pro-resolving lipid mediators; it remains to be determined whether there is a direct link with impaired cardiac function in populations with low-n-3 status.

  15. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  16. Religion and BMI in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kortt, Michael A; Dollery, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We estimated the relationship between religion and body mass index (BMI) for a general and representative sample of the Australia population. Data from the Household Income Labour Dynamics survey were analysed for 9,408 adults aged 18 and older. OLS regression analyses revealed that religious denomination was significantly related to higher BMI, after controlling for socio-demographic, health behaviours, and psychosocial variables. 'Baptist' men had, on average, a 1.3 higher BMI compared to those reporting no religious affiliation. Among women, 'Non-Christians' had, on average, a 1 unit lower BMI compared to those reporting no religious affiliation while 'Other Christian' women reported, on average, a 1 unit higher BMI. Our results also indicate that there was a negative relationship between religious importance and BMI among Australian women.

  17. Comparison of the Association of Excess Weight on Health Related Quality of Life of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Age- and BMI-Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shishehgar, Farnaz; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajian, Sepideh; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background It is assumed that obesity adversely affects the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), not only due to the excess weight, but also due to several other obesity induced metabolic and reproductive consequences. We aimed to compare the effects of excess body weight on the HRQOL between women with PCOS and controls. Methods This is a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 age- and BMI- matched controls. The Iranian version of short form health survey 36 (SF 36) was used to assess HRQOL. Domains of SF 36 were compared in women with PCOS and controls using multivariate analysis of covariance. The Pearson correlation was used to assess the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and domain scores of SF 36, and the differences between two correlations in cases and controls, using Fisher’s Z test. Results Women with PCOS had significantly lower scores for both, the physical and the mental component summary scales, compared to controls. In the cases, a significant negative correlations were observed for BMI with physical function (r = - 0.301, P<0.001), bodily pain (r = - 0.23, P = 0.006), and physical summary score (r = -0.3, P = 0.007). In controls, significant correlation was seen for BMI with bodily pain (r = - 0.3, P<0.001) and physical summary score (r = - 0.27, P = 0.001). The differences between correlations of physical function with BMI in PCOS and controls were statistically significant (Z = -2.41, P = 0.008). Conclusion Although the physical aspects of HRQOL are adversely affected by overweight in both PCOS and controls, these impaired effects are greater in women with PCOS. PMID:27736861

  18. Common Clinical Conditions – Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BAXI, Sanjiv M.; GREENBLATT, Ruth M.; BACCHETTI, Peter; SCHERZER, Rebecca; MINKOFF, Howard; HUANG, Yong; ANASTOS, Kathryn; COHEN, Mardge; GANGE, Stephen J.; YOUNG, Mary; SHLIPAK, Michael G.; GANDHI, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tenofovir is used commonly in HIV treatment and prevention settings, but factors that correlate with tenofovir exposure in real-world setting are unknown. Design Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of tenofovir in a large, diverse cohort of HIV-infected women over 24-hours at steady-state were performed and factors that influenced exposure (assessed by areas-under-the-time-concentration curves, AUCs) identified Methods HIV-infected women (n=101) on tenofovir-based therapy underwent intensive 24-hour PK sampling. Data on race/ethnicity, age, exogenous steroid use, menstrual cycle phase, concomitant medications, recreational drugs and/or tobacco, hepatic and renal function, weight and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Multivariable models using forward stepwise selection identified factors associated with effects on AUC. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) prior to starting tenofovir were estimated by the CKD-EPI equation using both creatinine and cystatin-C measures Results The median (range) of tenofovir AUCs was 3350 (1031–13,911) ng x h/mL. Higher AUCs were associated with concomitant ritonavir use (1.33-fold increase, p 0.002), increasing age (1.21-fold increase per decade, p=0.0007) and decreasing BMI (1.04-fold increase per 10% decrease in BMI). When GFR was calculated using cystatin-C measures, mild renal insufficiency prior to tenofovir initiation was associated with higher subsequent exposure (1.35-fold increase when pre-tenofovir GFR <70mL/min, p=0.0075). Conclusions Concomitant ritonavir use, increasing age, decreasing BMI and lower GFR prior to tenofovir initiation as estimated by cystatin C were all associated with elevated tenofovir exposure in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinicians treating HIV-infected women should be aware of common clinical conditions that affect tenofovir exposure when prescribing this medication. PMID:24275255

  19. Blood pressure and waist circumference: an empirical study of the effects of waist circumference on blood pressure among Bengalee male jute mill workers of Belur, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Ghosh, Arnab; Roy, Sabyasachi; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2003-07-01

    An investigation of 150 adult Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers in Belur, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, was conducted to study the relationship between central obesity and blood pressure. In accordance with their waist circumference measurement, the subjects were divided into two categories: centrally non-obese (CNO) and centrally obese (CO). The participants were classified as the CO group if they had a WC of 80 cm or more. Results showed that none of the CNO subjects was mild hypertensive (SBP>/=140 mmHg and/or DBP>/=90 mmHg) while 85 of the CO subjects (82.5%) were mild hypertensives, the difference being statistically significant (chi-square=9.33; p<0.0025). Moreover, the data also revealed that the CO subjects had much (p<0.001) greater mean weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure than the CNO group members. The significant difference in blood pressure was found even after correcting the confounding effects of age and BMI variables. The results of this study showed that, the Bengalee male jute mill workers in the CO group had significantly higher blood pressure irrespective of age and overall adiposity (BMI). Therefore, the presence of central obesity is deemed a risk factor, for hypertension regardless of age and BMI. Thus, a WC cut-off point of 80 cm could be employed for health promotion among Bengalee men so as to prevent and manage hypertension effectively.

  20. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones

  1. Waist:height ratio, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome abnormalities in Colombian schooled adolescents: a multivariate analysis considering located adiposity.

    PubMed

    Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio; Aguilar-de Plata, Cecilia; Suárez-Ortegón, Milton Fabian

    2015-09-14

    Very few large studies in Latin America have evaluated the association between waist:height ratio (W-HtR) and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Further, multivariable analyses verifying the independence of located subcutaneous fat have not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of W-HtR and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic syndrome abnormalities and high LDL-cholesterol levels in schooled adolescents before and after adjusting for trunk skinfolds and BMI. The sample consisted of 831 boys and 841 girls aged 10-17 years. Biochemical, blood pressure and anthropometrical variables were measured. Age- and sex-specific quartiles of W-HtR and WC were used in Poisson regression models to evaluate the associations. High WC values (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) were associated with high TAG levels in both sexes (prevalence ratio, boys: 2·57 (95 % CI 1·91, 3·44); girls: 1·92 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·47); P0·05). High W-HtR (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) was only independently associated with high TAG in female adolescents (1·99 (95 % CI 1·55, 2·56); P<0·05). In conclusion, WC showed better association with cardiometabolic risk than W-HtR in the children of this study. This observation does not support W-HtR as a relevant adiposity marker for cardiovascular and metabolic risk in adolescence.

  2. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will determine BMI at routine checkups and plot this measurement on a chart against those of ... what is normal changes with age, doctors must plot children's BMI measurements on standard growth charts rather ...

  3. Comparison of body fat estimation using waist:height ratio using different 'waist' measurements in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine differences in predicting total and regional adiposity using the waist:height ratio (WHtR) calculated using different 'waist' measurements. Body composition of ninety-five males and 121 female Australian adults (aged 20 years and above) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The WHtR was calculated using: (1) the narrowest point between the lower costal border and the top of the iliac crest (WHtR-W), and (2) at the level of the umbilicus (WHtR-A). Relationships between calculated WHtR and measured body composition, such as percentage body fat (%BF) and percentage trunk fat (%TF) were determined. Values obtained from WHtR-A were significantly greater than WHtR-W in both groups (P < 0.05). While no correlation differences between WHtR-W and WHtR-A in relation to body composition variables were observed, females showed significantly lower correlation with lean mass compared with BMI. Regression analyses showed that neither WHtR had an age influence on %TF estimation. Estimated %BF and %TF were comparable for both WHtR and also with estimated values using a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Sensitivity of excess %BF and %TF increased by using WHtR-A, particularly in females. In conclusion, the umbilicus measurement may be better than using the narrowest site in the WHtR calculation, particularly in females. To improve the screening ability of the WHtR and make comparisons between studies easier there may be a need to standardise the measurement location. Further studies are recommended to confirm the findings across different ethnic groups.

  4. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  5. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-09

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  6. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  7. Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), calculated by dividing the waist circumference (WC) by height, has recently gained attention as an anthropometric index for central adiposity. It is an easy-to-use and less age-dependent index to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk. A WHtR cutoff of 0.5 can be used in different sex and ethnic groups and is generally accepted as a universal cutoff for central obesity in children (aged ≥6 years) and adults. However, the WHtR has not been validated in preschool children, and the routine use of WHtR in children under age 6 is not recommended. Prospective studies and meta-analysis in adults revealed that the WHtR is equivalent to or slightly better than WC and superior to body mass index (BMI) in predicting higher cardiometabolic risk. In children and adolescents, studies have shown that the WHtR is similar to both BMI and WC in identifying those at an increased cardiometabolic risk. Additional use of WHtR with BMI or WC may be helpful because WHtR considers both height and central obesity. WHtR may be preferred because of its simplicity and because it does not require sex- and age-dependent cutoffs; additionally, the simple message 'keep your WC to less than half your height' may be particularly useful. This review article summarizes recent publications on the usefulness of using WHtR especially when compared to BMI and WC as a screening tool for obesity and related cardiometabolic risks, and recommends the use of WHtR in clinical practice for obesity screening in children and adolescents. PMID:27895689

  8. Comparing Two Waist-to-Height Ratio Measurements with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Youth with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lenna L.; Kahn, Henry S.; Pettitt, David J.; Fino, Nora F.; Morgan, Tim; Maahs, David M.; Crimmins, Nancy A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liese, Angela D.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Bell, Ronny A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is commonly measured by either the World Health Organization (WHO) or National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocol. Objective Compare the associations of WHO vs. NHANES WC-to-height ratio (WHtR) protocols with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in a sample of youth with diabetes. Methods For youth (10–19 years old with type 1 [N=3082] or type 2 [N=533] diabetes) in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, measurements were obtained of WC (by two protocols), weight, height, fasting lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, Non-HDL cholesterol) and blood pressures. Associations of CMRFs with WHO and NHANES WHtR were modeled stratified by body mass index (BMI) percentiles for age/sex: lower BMI (<85th BMI percentile; N=2071) vs. higher BMI (≥85th percentile; N=1594). Results Among lower-BMI participants, both NHANES and WHO WHtR were associated (p<0.005) with all CMRFs except blood pressure. Among higher-BMI participants, both NHANES and WHO WHtR were associated (p<0.05) with all CMRFs. WHO WHtR was more strongly associated (p<0.05) than NHANES WHtR with triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in lower-BMI participants. Among high-BMI participants, WHO WHtR was more strongly associated (p<0.05) than NHANES WHtR with triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion Among youth with diabetes, WHtR calculated from either WC protocol captures cardiometabolic risk. The WHO WC protocol may be preferable to NHANES WC. PMID:28232855

  9. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M.; Hsiung, Chao A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index. We used baseline measurements (2009–2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years). In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35–0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33–0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA. A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly. PMID:28178143

  10. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  11. In Obesity, HPA Axis Activity Does Not Increase with BMI, but Declines with Aging: A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tenk, Judit; Mátrai, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Rostás, Ildikó; Garami, András; Szabó, Imre; Solymár, Margit; Pétervári, Erika; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Füredi, Nóra; Párniczky, Andrea; Zsiborás, Csaba; Balaskó, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. It involves numerous endocrine disorders as etiological factors or as complications. Previous studies strongly suggested the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in obesity, however, to date, no consistent trend in obesity-associated alterations of the HPA axis has been identified. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce abnormalities of the HPA axis. Thus, the question arises whether obesity is correlated with peripheral indicators of HPA function in adult populations. Objectives We aimed to meta-analyze literature data on peripheral cortisol levels as indicators of HPA activity in obesity during aging, in order to identify possible explanations for previous contradictory findings and to suggest new approaches for future clinical studies. Data Sources 3,596 records were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library Database. Altogether 26 articles were suitable for analyses. Study Eligibility Criteria Empirical research papers were eligible provided that they reported data of healthy adult individuals, included body mass index (BMI) and measured at least one relevant peripheral cortisol parameter (i.e., either morning blood cortisol or 24-h urinary free cortisol). Statistical Methods We used random effect models in each of the meta-analyses calculating with the DerSimonian and Laird weighting methods. I-squared indicator and Q test were performed to assess heterogeneity. Meta-regression was applied to explore the effect of BMI and age on morning blood and urinary free cortisol levels. To assess publication bias Egger’s test was used. Results Obesity did not show any correlation with the studied peripheral cortisol values. On the other hand, peripheral cortisol levels declined with aging within the obese, but not in the non-obese groups. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrated that obesity or healthy aging does not

  12. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  13. Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bellocco, Rino; Jia, Chongqi; Ye, Weimin; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2010-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) have been well documented. However, there is less research investigating whether or not these health benefits might differ among males and females or among subjects characterized by different levels of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC). Baseline total PA, BMI, WHR and waist circumference were measured in 14,585 men and 26,144 women who participated in the Swedish National March. Their effects on all-cause mortality were analyzed with a follow-up time of almost 10 years. Sedentary men with a BMI ≥ 30 had a 98% (95% CI: 30-201%) increased risk of mortality compared to normal weight men with a high level of total PA. The same trend was observed for sedentary men with high WHR or waist circumference, compared to lean and highly active men. Sedentary women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more had almost doubled, i.e. 97% (95% CI: 35-189%) increased mortality risk compared to physically active women with a waist circumference below 80 cm. BMI in men, but waist circumference in women better forecast all-cause mortality. We found no substantial effect modification between different measures of adiposity and physical activity-physical inactivity and obesity seem to increase total mortality risk independently and additively.

  14. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio: which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 82,864 participants from nine cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Czernichow, Sébastien; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined both the relative magnitude of association and the discriminative capability of multiple indicators of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. We conducted an individual-participant meta-analysis of 9 cohort studies of men and women drawn from the British general population resulted in sample of 82,864 individuals. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured directly. There were 6,641 deaths (1,998 CVD) during a mean of 8.1 years of follow-up. After adjustment, a one SD higher in WHR and WC was related to a higher risk of CVD mortality (HR (95% CI)): 1.15 (1.05-1.25) and 1.15 (1.04-1.27), respectively. The risk of CVD also increased linearly across quintiles of both these abdominal obesity markers with a 66% increased risk in the highest quintile of WHR. In age- and sex-adjusted models only, BMI was related to CVD mortality but not in any other analyses. No major differences were revealed in the discrimination capabilities of models with BMI, WC or WHR for cardiovascular or total mortality outcomes. In conclusion, measures of abdominal adiposity, but not BMI, were related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. No difference was observed in discrimination capacities between adiposity markers. PMID:21521449

  15. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity) with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence), PA (physical activity), smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), CHOL (cholesterol), FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose), diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes). Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC). Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population. PMID:26770218

  16. Body mass index, waist-circumference and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Iranian adults: Isfahan healthy heart program.

    PubMed

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardio-metabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC

  17. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hexing; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. According to the physical examination data in October, 2011, 124 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 82 obese students 8–15 years of age were randomly chosen from these schools on the basis of BMI-based age- and sex-specific criterion. First morning urine was collected in January, 2012, and fourteen urine phthalate metabolites (free plus conjugated) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the associations between naturally log-transformed urine phthalate metabolites and BMI or WC. Results The urine specific gravity-corrected concentrations of nine urine phthalate metabolites and five molar sums were positively associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children after adjustment for age and sex. However, when other urine phthalate metabolites were included in the models together with age and sex as covariables, most of these significant associations disappeared except for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, some associations showed sex- or age-specific differences. Conclusions Some phthalate exposures were associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study and lack of some important obesity-related covariables, further studies are needed to confirm the associations. PMID:23437242

  18. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index and waist circumference in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Park, Soo-Jung; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Blood mercury (methyl-mercury) from environmental exposure may be related to inflammation in our body. We investigated the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. On the basis of data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012), 11,159 subjects (5543 males and 5616 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Partial correlation, linear regression, and analysis of covariance (according to the mercury quartile) tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between blood mercury and BMI or waist circumference. In addition, we determined the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased BMI and waist circumference in both genders. Mean values of blood mercury concentration were 5.07 ± 0.07 μg/L in males and 3.59 ± 0.04 μg/L in females. After log transformation of blood mercury, significant (p < 0.001) correlation was found between blood mercury concentration and BMI or waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant and gradual increase as mercury quartile increased in both genders. Blood mercury concentration was weakly but significantly (p < 0.001) associated with BMI and waist circumference. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration correlated with increased BMI and waist circumference were around 3.95 μg/L in males and 3.40 μg/L in females.

  19. The relationship between body mass index, waist circumference and psoriatic arthritis in the Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Onsun, Nahide; Topukçu, Bugce; Su, Ozlem; Bahalı, Anil Gulsel; Dizman, Didem; Rezvani, Aylin; Uysal, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the skin, with a complex aetiology. Recently it has been suggested that the chronic inflammation of psoriasis may cause metabolic and vascular disorders. The relationship between obesity and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is not clear, and there are insufficient prospective studies addressing this subject. Aim To investigate the relationship between psoriatic arthritis, severity of psoriasis and obesity in the Turkish population. Material and methods Patient data from psoriasis outpatient clinics from February 2007 to July 2013 were reviewed retrospectively using the Psoriasis-Turkey (PSR-TR) registration system. Patients’ age, onset age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and arthritis information were reviewed. In the outpatient clinics, patients who had joint pain consulted rheumatology clinics. The CASPAR criteria were used for the diagnosis of arthritis. Results A total of 443 males and 495 females enrolled in this study. The mean age of females was 43.9 years (18–93 years) and the mean age of males was 44.6 years (18–89 years). A total of 231 (25%) patients had psoriatic arthritis. Investigation of the relationship between PASI, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and arthritis revealed a statistically significant relationship between each variable. Conclusions In this study we observed a relationship between PsA and high BMI, high WC and high PASI. Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder and a chronic inflammatory state induced by adiposity may lead to PsA. PMID:27512358

  20. Inverted BMI rather than BMI is a better predictor of DEXA determined body fatness in children.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M J; Martins, C; Silva, G; Marques, E; Mota, J; Aires, L

    2014-05-01

    This study compared body mass index (BMI) and inverted BMI (iBMI) as predictors of body fatness in 177 Portuguese children (149 girls and 96 boys) aged 7-16 years. Participants undertook measures of height and body mass from which BMI (kg/m(2)) and iBMI (cm(2)/kg) were determined. Maturation was determined via self-report and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m(2)) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant relationships were evident between BMI and iBMI and FMI (both P=0.0001). BMI was not normally distributed (P=0.0001) but iBMI was (P>0.05). Analysis of covariance identified that BMI and iBMI, controlling for maturation, were both significant predictors of FMI (both P=0.0001) but that iBMI predicted a slightly greater amount of the variance (adjusted R(2)=0.970) compared with BMI (adjusted R(2)=0.968). This study suggests that iBMI is a similar proxy for body fatness compared with BMI in children.

  1. Waist-to-Hip Ratio is Related to Body Fat Content and Distribution Regardless of the Waist Circumference Measurement Protocol in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Nuno M; Santa-Clara, Helena; Melo, Xavier; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Silva-Nunes, José; Sardinha, Luís B

    2016-08-01

    Central accumulation and distribution of body fat (BF) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), commonly elevated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, has been endorsed as a risk related marker of central BF content and distribution, but no standardized waist circumference measurement protocol (WCmp) has been proposed. We aimed to investigate whether using different WCmp affects the strength of association between WHR and BF content and distribution in NAFLD patients. BF was assessed with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 28 NAFLD patients (19 males, 51 ± 13 years, and 9 females, 47 ± 13 years). Waist circumference (WC) was measured using four different WCmp (WC1: minimal waist; WC2: iliac crest; WC3: mid-distance between iliac crest and lowest rib; WC4: at the umbilicus) and WHR was calculated accordingly (WHR1, WHR2, WHR3 and WHR4, respectively). High WHR was found in up to 84.6% of subjects, depending on the WHR considered. With the exception of WHR1, all WHR correlated well with abdominal BF (r = .47 for WHR1; r = .59 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .58 for WHR4) and BF distribution (r = .45 for WHR1; r = .56 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .51 for WHR4), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). WHR2 and WHR3 diagnosed exactly the same prevalence of high WHR (76.9%). The present study confirms the strong relation between WHR and central BF, regardless of WCmp used, in NAFLD patients. WHR2 and WHR3 seemed preferable for use in clinical practice, interchangeably, for the diagnosis of high WHR in NAFLD patients.

  2. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ataíde Lima, Raquel Patrícia; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Rafaella; Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição; Teixeira de Lima, Roberto; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Gouveia Filizola, Rosália; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Rios Asciutti, Luiza Sonia; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level), including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05): the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for the total

  3. Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood.

    PubMed

    Rönn, Tina; Volkov, Petr; Gillberg, Linn; Kokosar, Milana; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jacobsen, Anna Louisa; Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Jansson, Per-Anders; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Groop, Leif; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Vaag, Allan; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed the DNA methylation of ∼480 000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of aging in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with the methylation of 711 sites, annotated to, for example, RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue.

  4. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  5. Waist circumference and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Marijnissen, Radboud M; Naudé, Petrus J W; Comijs, Hannie C; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-03-01

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a young population and depression severity scales instead of patients with established diagnosis of depressive disorder. We examined the relation between waist circumference and late-life depression using the baseline data of The Netherlands Study of Depression in Older people (NESDO). Psychopathology has been assessed with Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1. Adjusted for age, sex, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), drug use, cognition and chronic diseases as well as adjusted for body mass index (BMI), analysis of covariance showed that depressed older patients (n=376) had a significantly lower waist circumference (WC) compared to their non-depressed comparisons (n=130): estimated marginal mean (SE)=93.9 (0.5) versus 97.8 (0.8) cm (F=15.9; df=1467; p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses within the depressed group showed that both, depression severity (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms) as well as duration-related depression characteristics (age of onset, duration of illness, life-time comorbid dysthymia), were associated with the WC. Only the severity of depressive symptoms remained significant after further adjusted for the BMI. Interestingly, a recently discovered adipokine, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), was associated with late-life depression, but only in the subgroup of patients with a pathologically increased WC. Population-based findings on the positive association between obesity and depressive symptoms can thus not be generalised to a clinical sample of depressed older patients. The impact of the WC on course and treatment outcome of late-life depression should be examined in clinical samples

  6. Association of pasta consumption with body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: results from Moli-sani and INHES studies

    PubMed Central

    Pounis, G; Castelnuovo, A Di; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; Bonaccio, M; Bonanni, A; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Pasta as a traditional component of Mediterranean diet (MeD) in Italy has not been studied in detail in the management of body weight. This study aimed at evaluating the association of pasta intake with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio, in two large epidemiological datasets. Subjects/Methods: A total of 14 402 participants aged ⩾35 years randomly recruited from the general population of the Molise region (Moli-sani cohort) and 8964 participants aged >18 years from all over Italy (Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey, INHES) were separately analyzed. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-food frequency questionnaire and one 24-h dietary recall were used for dietary assessment. Weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured in Moli-sani or self-reported in INHES. Residuals methodology corrected for either total energy intake or body weight was used for the analysis of pasta intake. Results: Higher pasta intake was associated with better adhesion to MeD in both genders (P for both<0.001). In the Moli-sani study, after multivariable analysis, pasta-energy residuals were negatively associated with BMI in women but not in men (β-coef=−0.007, P=0.003 for women and β-coef=−0.001, P=0.58 for men). When pasta intake-body weight residuals were used, pasta intake was significantly and negatively associated with BMI in crude and multi-adjusted models (including adhesion to MeD) in both genders and Moli-sani and INHES studies (for all β-coef<0, P<0.05). In the Moli-sani study, pasta-body weight residuals were significantly and negatively associated with waist and hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (for all β-coef<0, P<0.05). Conclusions: As a traditional component of MeD, pasta consumption was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio and with a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:27376700

  7. [Influence of smoking and abdominal obesity on lung age].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kyoko; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Ayako; Tanaka, Hiromi; Hino, Yumiko; Takahuta, Keisuke; Ikeda, Taeko; Habara, Toshiyuki

    2011-09-01

    Smoking is the riskiest factor for impairment of pulmonary function. Recent researches have indicated that abdominal obesity is also associated with the impairment. 'Lung age' is a novel index to evaluate respiratory function, and it is calculated from the data of the height, sex, and forced expiratory volume in 1-second. Using 'lung age' as an index, we studied on the relationship of 'lung age' to smoking, waist circumference, BMI, or metabolic syndrome. The study population included 1,681 persons who visited our Medical Checkup Office, and the population consisted of smoker group (n = 279) and non-smoker group (n = 1,402). In both men and women, 'lung age' was significantly higher in the smoker group than in non-smoker group (p < 0.05). In addition, the smoker group and non-smoker group were classified by waist circumference, BMI, and the presence of metabolic syndrome, respectively. As a result, 'lung age' of smoker with abdominal obesity group, smoker with obesity group, and smoker with metabolic syndrome group were significantly high. Furthermore, in multivariate linear regression analysis, we examined relation between 'lung age' and the following factors including gender, smoking, waist circumference, BMI and metabolic syndrome. There was closely related to 'lung age' in order of gender, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and waist circumference. Both smoking and abdominal obesity should be significant risk factors in increasing 'lung age'.

  8. Walking mediates associations between neighborhood activity supportiveness and BMI in the Women’s Health Initiative San Diego cohort

    PubMed Central

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Adams, Marc A.; Norman, Gregory J.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Criqui, Michael H.; Allison, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether walking mediates neighborhood built environment associations with weight status in middle- and older-aged women. Methods Participants (N=5085; mean age=64±7.7; 75.4% White non-Hispanic) were from the Women’s Health Initiative San Diego cohort baseline visits. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured objectively. Walking was assessed via survey. The geographic information system (GIS)-based home neighborhood activity supportiveness index included residential density, street connectivity, land use mix, and number of parks. Results BMI was 0.22 units higher and the odds ratio for being obese (vs. normal or overweight) was 8% higher for every standard deviation decrease in neighborhood activity supportiveness. Walking partially mediated these associations (22–23% attenuation). Findings were less robust for waist circumference. Conclusions Findings suggest women who lived in activity-supportive neighborhoods had a lower BMI than their counterparts, in part because they walked more. Improving neighborhood activity supportiveness has population-level implications for improving weight status and health. PMID:26798961

  9. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.

    2016-01-01

    BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications. PMID:27168727

  10. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. Participants 148 731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. Results The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being −0.31% (95% CI −0.42% to −0.19), −0.08% (−0.19% to 0.03%) and −0.74% (−0.96% to −0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (−0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. Conclusions For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. PMID:26264275

  11. Waist-to-height ratio is an effective indicator for comprehensive cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shiwei; Lu, Yun; Qi, Huajin; Li, Feng; Shen, Zhenhai; Wu, Liuxin; Yang, Chengjian; Wang, Ling; Shui, Kedong; Yao, Weifeng; Qiang, Dongchang; Yun, Jingting; Zhou, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between cardiovascular health and the waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). A cross-sectional study was performed recruiting 26701 middle-aged Chinese men. Of the seven ideal cardiovascular health metrics, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were found to increase with an elevation of the mean WC and WHtR. The mean WC and WHtR were significantly lower in the subjects with intermediate or ideal cardiovascular health than those with poor or intermediate health. After adjustment for age, the mean WC and WHtR decreased by 1.486 cm and 0.009 per 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score, and 2.242 cm and 0.013 per 1-point increase in the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics, respectively. The cardiovascular health score was negatively correlated with the WC (r = −0.387) and WHtR (r = −0.400), while the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics was negatively associated with the WC (r = −0.384) and WHtR (r = −0.395). The cardiovascular health is correlated negatively with the WC and WHtR, and a stronger correlation existed between the cardiovascular health and WHtR than WC. PMID:28220844

  12. Protocol variations in arm position influence the magnitude of waist girth.

    PubMed

    Lennie, Susan C; Amofa-Diatuo, Tracy; Nevill, Alan; Stewart, Arthur D

    2013-01-01

    Waist girth is recognised as a better predictor of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, compared to other measures. Although several protocols for waist girth exist, arm position is either ignored, or not specified in unambiguous terms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if arm position influenced anthropometric waist girth measurement. Waist girth was measured in 92 adults (19 males, 73 females) with arms relaxed, abducted, horizontal, folded across the chest (three variations) and raised vertically. Duplicate measures, in all positions, were recorded by a single International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK)-trained technician to a precision of 0.2% technical error of measurement (TEM). Arm position had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on waist girth. Male participants had greater waist girth than females (P < 0.001) and the waist girth differences across the varying arm positions exhibited a significant position-by-gender interaction (P < 0.001). The arm position-by-body mass index (BMI) category interaction was also significant (P = 0.016) with greater differences observed at higher BMI. These findings suggest caution in comparing results of different studies where arm position is not specified and indicate that the arm position corresponding to the ISAK protocol has the lowest error and is therefore recommended.

  13. LMS tables for waist circumference and waist–height ratio in Colombian adults: analysis of nationwide data 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, R; Correa-Bautista, J E; Martínez-Torres, J; Méneses-Echavez, J F; González-Ruiz, K; González-Jiménez, E; Schmidt-RioValle, J; Lobelo, F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). These data are lacking for Colombian adults. This study aims at establishing smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR; appropriate cutoffs were selected using receiver-operating characteristic analysis based on data from the representative sample. Subjects/Methods: We used data from the cross-sectional, national representative nutrition survey (ENSIN, 2010). A total of 83 220 participants (aged 20–64) were enroled. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC and WHtR were measured and percentiles calculated using the LMS method (L (curve Box-Cox), M (curve median), and S (curve coefficient of variation)). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cutoff point of WC and WHtR for overweight and obesity based on WHO definitions. Results: Reference values for WC and WHtR are presented. Mean WC and WHtR increased with age for both genders. We found a strong positive correlation between WC and BMI (r=0.847, P< 0.01) and WHtR and BMI (r=0.878, P<0.01). In obese men, the cutoff point value is 96.6 cm for the WC. In women, the cutoff point value is 91.0 cm for the WC. Receiver operating characteristic curve for WHtR was also obtained and the cutoff point value of 0.579 in men, and in women the cutoff point value was 0.587. A high sensitivity and specificity were obtained. Conclusions: This study presents first reference values of WC and WHtR for Colombians aged 20–64. Through LMS tables for adults, we hope to provide quantitative tools to study obesity and its complications. PMID:27026425

  14. Age, Gender and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Asian American College Students and Their Parents Using Different BMI Cutoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…

  15. Waist cancer: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Girish D; Borisa, Ashok; Tayade, Mukund B

    2011-11-01

    Saree is a type of female costume unique to Indian subcontinent. This includes a superficial cloth and a skirt underneath which is fastened securely to the waist by a cord. Persistent and long-term wearing of this costume has resulted in waist dermatoses. This waist dermatoses giving rise to malignancy is being reported here and 'saree cancer' is the term used to this entity of waist cancer. Here two cases of waist cancer are reported.

  16. Race, childhood insulin, childhood caloric intake, and class 3 obesity at age 24: 14-year prospective study of schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity.

  17. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  18. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m2 (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m2 (overweight), and >25 kg/m2 (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. Results When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Conclusion Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI. PMID:28029026

  19. Whether age of menarche is influenced by body mass index and lipoproteins profile? a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Maryam; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Menarche, a milestone in the reproductive life span of a woman, is influenced by several genetics and environmental factors. There is no consensus regarding the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles on the age of menarche, as the results of various studies demonstrate. Objective: To investigate the correlation between age of menarche and BMI/lipoprotein profile in a community sample of Iranian girls. Materials and Methods: In the study, 370 girls, aged 10-16 years, who began their menarche within six months prior to the study, were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) population. Information was documented regarding their body composition, including height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference were collected and their lipid profiles were assessed after a 12-hour fast. Results: In this study, the mean±SD of age of menarche and BMI were 12.6±1.1 years and 21.7±3.9 kg/m2, respectively. There were statistically significant relationships between age of menarche and height, BMI, waist circumference, and the maternal educational level. The relationship between age of menarche and the weight and lipid profiles of subjects was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Age at menarche is not influenced by lipid profiles but it is influenced by BMI. PMID:25246895

  20. Correlation of the Lipid Profile, BMI and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Balaban, Jagoda; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To the reduction of bone density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women contribute elevated lipid parameters and Body Mass Index (BMI). Goal: The goal of our study was to determine the correlation between lipid parameters, BMI and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study was carried out by matched type between experimental group and controls. The experimental group consisted of 100 females at postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was diagnosed osteoporosis at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age but without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (± 2 years). To all participants of the study were carried out biochemical analysis of blood, or the analysis of the lipid profile that included total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol, and was determined the values of BMI and waist circumference (WC). Results: Analysis of the data of our research shows that by the univariate logistic regression the values of lipid parameters total cholesterol (p=0.000), LDL (p=0.005) and TG (p=0.033) were significantly associated with osteoporosis, while in multivariate logistic model only total cholesterol (p= 0.018) was found as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. BMI values were not statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis (p=0.727). Conclusion: On the decrease in bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women influence many risk factors whose identification has the aim to develop more effective prevention of this disease in the elderly. PMID:28144189

  1. A study of serum cholesterol level in young adults and its relation to body mass index and waist-circumference.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumitra; Jahan, Wasima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the serum total cholesterol (TC) level in young adults of Dibrugarh town of Assam and to find the association of serum cholesterol level with body mass index (BMI) and waist-circumference (WC). A cross-sectional study was done among 150 healthy young adults aged 20-30 years. TC was estimated by the enzymatic method. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 200 mg/dl. Cases were classified into different categories of BMI and WC according to the recommendations of WHO/IASO/IOTF (2000). The range of TC level in the study group was found to be (146-212) mg/dl. Mean cholesterol level in males and females were 169.5±3.6 and 172.3±15.09 mg/dl respectively. 7% of the cases had hypercholesterolemia. TC was significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.90, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.73, p<0.001 in males and r=0.86, p<0.001 in females). We conclude that young adults ≥20 years of age and especially who are overweight should be advised routine cholesterol testing so that preventive measures can be adopted to avoid hypercholesterolemia and it's complications in future life.

  2. Secular trends in the association between nativity/length of US residence with body mass index and waist circumference among Mexican-Americans, 1988–2008

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Aiello, Allison E.; Schulz, Amy J.; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether associations between nativity/length of US residence and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) varied over the past two decades. Methods Mexican-Americans aged 20–64 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994), and NHANES (1999–2008). Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models further adjusted for age, education, and NHANES period. Results We found no evidence of secular variation in the nativity/length of US residence gradient for men or women. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans, irrespective of residence length, had lower mean BMI and WC than their US-born counterparts. However among women, education modified secular trends in nativity differentials: notably, in less-educated women, nativity gradients widened over time due to alarming increases in BMI among the US-born and little increase in the foreign-born. Conclusions Associations between nativity/length of US residence and BMI/WC did not vary over this 20-year period, but we noted important modifications by education in women. Understanding these trends is important for identifying vulnerable subpopulations among Mexican-Americans and for the development of effective health promotion strategies in this fast-growing segment of the population. PMID:23052250

  3. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e

  4. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    PubMed Central

    Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high) BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2) to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3) to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12. Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496) were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs. Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs. Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than children

  5. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoff for Overweight and Central Obesity among Adults in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    An, Yom; Yi, Siyan; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gupta, Vinay; Prak, Piseth Raingsey; Oum, Sophal; LoGerfo, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786) were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229) were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years) and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years) for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001) when BMI of 23.0 kg/m2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001) when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥94.0 cm in men). Conclusion Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years. PMID:24205019

  6. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline123

    PubMed Central

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Objective: Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. Methods: We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women’s Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to <25 kg/m2. Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. Results: During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: <0.0001) where the strongest inverse association was observed among women with a BMI <23 kg/m2 (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.94). Conclusion: Our results suggest that greater baseline intake of fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. PMID:25934663

  7. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Cruz, A.; Wojcicki, J. M.; Bacardí-Gascón, M.; Castellón-Zaragoza, A.; García-Gallardo, J. L.; Schwartz, N.; Heyman, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children’s perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children‘s and parents’ weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. Results One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30) had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR) 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2–19, p = 0.03). Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6–8.3), p = 0.01) and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4–7.1, p = 0.01). Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1–29.1, p = 0.01). Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Conclusions Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity. PMID:21519746

  8. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Design Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). Results IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. Conclusion The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice. PMID:24475305

  9. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants.Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study.Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMIpeak; in kg/m(2)) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics (n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression.Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMIpeak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMIpeak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes.Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

  10. Physical Environment May Modify The Association Between Depressive Symptoms And Change In Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Roux, Ana V Diez; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Schreiner, Pamela; Carnethon, Mercedes; Nettleton, Jennifer; Mujahid, Mahasin; Michos, Erin D.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Golden, Sherita H

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and adiposity has been recognized, the contribution of neighborhood factors to this relationship has not been assessed. This study evaluates whether physical and social neighborhood environment modify the bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and adiposity (measured by waist circumference and BMI). Methods Using data on 5,122 men and women (age 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) we investigated whether neighborhood physical (i.e. walking environment, availability of healthy food) and social (i.e. safety, aesthetics, social coherence) environments modified the association between: (1) baseline elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale score ≥ 16) and change in adiposity (as measured by waist circumference [WC] and body mass index [BMI]); and (2) baseline overweight/obesity (WC > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women, or BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and change in depressive symptoms using multilevel models. Neighborhood-level factors were obtained from the MESA Neighborhood Study. Results A greater increase in WC in participants with versus without EDS was observed in those living in poorly-rated physical environment, but not in those living in better-rated environments (interaction p-value=0.045). No associations were observed with BMI. Baseline overweight/obesity was not associated with change in depressive symptoms and there was no modification by neighborhood-level factors. Conclusions EDS were associated with greater increase in WC among individuals living in poor than in better-rated physical environments. No association was found between overweight/obesity and change in depressive symptoms. PMID:24388121

  11. Infant BMI trajectories are associated with young adult body composition

    PubMed Central

    Slining, M. M.; Herring, A. H.; Popkin, B. M.; Mayer-Davis, E. J.; Adair, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic aspect of early life growth is not fully captured by typical analyses, which focus on one specific time period. To better understand how infant and young child growth relate to the development of adult body composition, the authors characterized body mass index (BMI) trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and evaluated their association with adult body composition. Data are from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed a birth cohort to age 22 years (n=1749). In both males and females, LCGA identified seven subgroups of respondents with similar BMI trajectories from 0 to 24 months (assessed with bimonthly anthropometrics). Trajectory groups were compared with conventional approaches: (1) accelerated growth between two time points (0–4 months), (2) continuous BMI gain between two points (0–4 months and 0–24 months) and (3) BMI measured at one time point (24 months) as predictors of young adult body composition measures. The seven trajectory groups were distinguished by age-specific differences in tempo and timing of BMI gain in infancy. Infant BMI trajectories were better than accelerated BMI gain between 0 and 4 months at predicting young adult body composition. After controlling for BMI at age 2 years, infant BMI trajectories still explained variation in adult body composition. Using unique longitudinal data and methods, we find that distinct infant BMI trajectories have long-term implications for the development of body composition. PMID:24040489

  12. Determining the optimal cutoff points for waist circumference and body mass index for identification of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in urban Thai population.

    PubMed

    Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Dansethakul, Prabhop; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Pidetcha, Phannee; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the prevalence and optimal waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) cutoff point for metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MS) from urban Thai population. The optimal BMI/WC cutoff has been used for identifying and evaluating metabolic abnormalities for screening individuals having risk factor of MS.

  13. Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ≥97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

  14. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  15. Eating behaviour patterns and BMI in Portuguese higher education students.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine prototypical patterns of eating behaviour among Portuguese higher education students, and to relate these patterns with BMI. Data from 280 higher education students (63.2% females) aged between 18 and 27 years were analysed. Several eating behaviour dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed, and eating styles were derived through cluster analysis. BMI for current, desired and maximum self-reported weights and the differences between desired and current BMI and between maximum and current BMI were calculated. Women scored higher in emotional eating and restraint, whereas men showed higher eating self-efficacy. Men had higher current, desired and maximum BMI. Cluster analysis showed three eating styles in both male and female subsamples: "Overeating", "High self-efficacy" and "High restraint". High self-efficacy women showed lower BMI values than the others, and restrictive women had higher lost BMI. High self-efficacy men showed lower desired BMI than overeaters, and lower maximum and lost BMI than highly restrictive ones. Restrictive women and men differ on important eating behaviour features, which may be the cause of differences in the associations with BMI. Eating self-efficacy seems to be a central variable influencing the relationships between other eating behaviour dimensions and BMI.

  16. Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk. PMID:23520466

  17. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  18. The Associations of Month of Birth With Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Leg Length: Findings From the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Methods We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2. A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). Results MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March–July for BMI and March–June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m2 for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February–August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). Conclusions These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena. PMID:25716579

  19. [Nutrictional behaviours of men at the age 20-60 with regard to anthropometric indicators of nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse eating behaviours of men in regard to selected anthropometric indicators of nutritional status (BMI and waist circumference). The test sample for this research were men aged 20-40 (n = 592) and 40-60 (n = 802) employees of Tadeusz Sendzimir Steel Mill in Cracow. The indices of nutritional status were established on the basis of anthropometric measurements, whereas eating behaviours were described on the basis of an authorial questionnaire. Statistical analysis of data was conducted by means of chi2 independence test. The research corroborated the existence of a correlation between BMI and waist circumference indices and certain male eating behaviours. Having 1-2 meals per day was to be observed among men with a higher BMI, whereas having 4-5 meals per day among men with a healthy BMI (p < 0.01). Younger men with proper body weight declare a higher regularity of having meals than obese ones (p < 0.05). This research has not found any correlation between BMI and waist circumference indices and the frequency of eating vegetables, fruit, fish and "fast-food" products. However a tendency among obese men to cut down on eating sweets has been discovered (according to BMI), irrespective of their age, as compared to men with proper body mass (p < 0.05). The same phenomenon was also confirmed in the group of younger men in the waist circumference category (p < 0.05). Hence, correlations exist between psychosomatic indices and certain eating behaviours of men aged 20-60, which explain the development of obesity. At the same time obese men tend to rationalise certain eating behaviours, whose purpose is to reduce excessive body weight.

  20. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMI<25 kg/m(2), waist ≥85 cm; n=31), a group with normal BMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist <85 cm; n=68), and a group with low normal BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMI<22 kg/m(2) and waist<85 cm; n=68). We measured the plasma glucose and serum insulin levels before glucose loading and after 30 and 120 minutes and calculated several indexes of insulin secretion and sensitivity. Results Subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.005) among the clinical variables and with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.0001) among the anthropometric variables but not with WC in either analysis. Conclusion Decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR were observed in subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors.

  1. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomyagkov, A.; Levichev, E.; Piminov, P.

    2016-12-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA Φ NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA Φ NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  2. Waist-to-Hip Ratio versus Body Mass Index as Predictor of Obesity-Related Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonnold, Mollie; Mele, Lisa M; Myatt, Leslie; Hauth, John C; Leveno, Kenneth J; Reddy, Uma M; Mercer, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Objective In nonpregnant populations the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is a better predictor of obesity-related outcomes than body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to determine, in pregnancy, the relationship between these measures of obesity, and large-for-gestational age (LGA) and cesarean delivery (CD). Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the Combined Antioxidant and Preeclampsia Prediction Study. Women with a WHR of ≥ 0.85 and 0.80 to 0.84 at 9 to 16 weeks gestation were compared with those with a WHR < 0.80. Women with early pregnancy BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) (obese) and 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) (overweight) were compared with those < 25.0 kg/m(2). LGA was defined as > 90% by Alexander nomogram. Univariable analysis, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used. Results Data from 2,276 women were analyzed. After correcting for potential confounders, only BMI ≥ 30 was significantly associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.07, 1.35-3.16) while BMI 25.0-29.9 (aOR: 1.5, 0.98-2.28), WHR 0.8-0.84 (aOR: 1.33, 0.83-2.13), and WHR ≥ 0.85 (aOR: 1.05, 0.67-1.65) were not. Risk for CD was increased for women with elevated WHR and with higher BMI compared with normal. Conclusion WHR is not associated with LGA. While BMI performed better than WHR, neither was a strong predictor of LGA or need for CD in low-risk nulliparous women.

  3. Identification of skeletal muscle mass depletion across age and BMI groups in health and disease--there is need for a unified definition.

    PubMed

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2015-03-01

    Although reduced skeletal muscle mass is a major predictor of impaired physical function and survival, it remains inconsistently diagnosed to a lack of standardized diagnostic approaches that is reflected by the variable combination of body composition indices and cutoffs. In this review, we summarized basic determinants of a normal lean mass (age, gender, fat mass, body region) and demonstrate limitations of different lean mass parameters as indices for skeletal muscle mass. A unique definition of lean mass depletion should be based on an indirect or direct measure of skeletal muscle mass normalized for height (fat-free mass index (FFMI), appendicular or lumbal skeletal muscle index (SMI)) in combination with fat mass. Age-specific reference values for FFMI or SMI are more advantageous because defining lean mass depletion on the basis of total FFMI or appendicular SMI could be misleading in the case of advanced age due to an increased contribution of connective tissue to lean mass. Mathematical modeling of a normal lean mass based on age, gender, fat mass, ethnicity and height can be used in the absence of risk-defined cutoffs to identify skeletal muscle mass depletion. This definition can be applied to identify different clinical phenotypes like sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity or cachexia.

  4. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI) cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS) risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC) as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome) were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2). Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%). When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%). Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166–1.190). By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093–1.118). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc) = 69% and 61%, respectively)] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65%) with sensitivity and

  5. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  6. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  7. Childhood BMI Trajectories Predicting Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Brittany P.; Nelson, Jackie A.; Holub, Shayla C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study compared growth parameters of girls’ and boys’ BMI trajectories from infancy to middle childhood, and evaluated these parameters as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescence. Methods Using 657 children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), quadratic growth curve analyses were conducted to establish growth parameters (intercept, slope, quadratic term) for girls and boys from 15 months to age 10 ½. Parameters were compared across gender and evaluated as predictors of a CVD risk index at age 15, controlling for characteristics of the adiposity rebound (AR) including age at which it occurred and children’s BMI at the rebound. Results Boys had more extreme trajectories of growth compared to girls with higher initial BMI at 15 months (intercept), more rapid declines in BMI before the AR (slope), and sharper rebound growth in BMI after the rebound (quadratic term). For boys and girls, higher intercept, slope, and quadratic term values predicted higher CVD risk at age 15, controlling for characteristics of the AR. Conclusions Findings suggest that individuals at risk for developing CVD later in life may be identified before the AR by elevated BMI at 15 months and slow BMI declines. Due to the importance of early intervention in altering lifelong health trajectories, consistent BMI monitoring is essential in identifying high-risk children. PMID:25746172

  8. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  9. The Effect of Obesity and Increased Waist Circumference on the Outcome of Laparoscopic Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, E. M.; Thomas, A. Z.; Manecksha, R. P.; Lynch, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obesity can be determined by body mass index (BMI); however waist circumference (WC) is a better measure of central obesity. This study evaluates the outcome of laparoscopic nephrectomy on patients with an abnormal WC. Methods. A WC of >88 cm for women and >102 cm for men was defined as obese. Data collected included age, gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score, renal function, anaesthetic duration, surgery duration, blood loss, complications, and duration of hospital stay. Results. 144 patients were assessed; 73 (50.7%) of the patients had abnormal WC for their gender. There was no difference between the groups for conversion to open surgery, number of ports used, blood loss, and complications. Abnormal WC was associated with a longer median anaesthetic duration, 233 min, IQR (215–265) versus 204 min, IQR (190–210), p = 0.0022, and operative duration, 178 min, IQR (160–190) versus 137 min, IQR (128–162), p < 0.0001. Patients with an abnormal WC also had a longer inpatient stay, p = 0.0436. Conclusion. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is safe in obese patients. However, obese patients should be informed that their obesity prolongs the anaesthetic duration and duration of the surgery and is associated with a prolonged recovery. PMID:28210271

  10. Association of body mass index, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome with serum cystatin C in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xin; Jiang, Yan; Qin, Guangming; Qian, Yafang; Shen, Xiaoru; Jiang, Zhenyan; Zheng, Shu; Song, Zhenya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) with serum cystatin C (CysC) in a Chinese population. Methods: The population was composed of 5866 subjects. MetS was diagnosed using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2005 (NCEP-R) criteria. Covariates were analyzed using logistic regression and Spearman partial correlation. Results: In this population, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum creatinine (Scr), and CysC were significantly higher, and HDL-C and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) (eGFRCKD-EPI) were significantly lower in the MetS than in the non-MetS group. TG, LDL-C, FPG, hs-CRP, BMI, WC, SBP, DBP, and Scr were significantly higher, and HDL-C and eGFRCKD-EPI were significantly lower in the 4th quartile than in the 1st quartile of CysC. Logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, hs-CRP, and CysC were independently associated with the presence of MetS (OR = 3.732, 1.028, 1.051, and 3.334, respectively; P < 0.05). No significant association between the presence of MetS and either Scr or eGFRCKD-EPI was observed. After adjustment for age and sex, BMI, WC, hs-CRP, and Scr were all positively correlated, whereas eGFRCKD-EPI was negatively correlated with CysC (r = 0.029, 0.061, 0.189, 0.227, and −0.210, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that the CysC was more closely associated with the presence of MetS, as compared Scr or eGFRCKD-EPI. CysC was positively correlated with BMI, and more strongly, positively correlated with WC and inflammation. PMID:28272253

  11. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  12. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies.

  13. Performance of the waist-to-height ratio in identifying obesity and predicting non-communicable diseases in the elderly population: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Márcia Mara; Thumé, Elaine; De Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Tomasi, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out aiming to collect evidence on the use of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on the elderly population, focusing on validity measures to identify the best anthropometric indicator in assessing obesity associated with non-communicable diseases. The review consisted in a search of papers published on the databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Lilacs, with no restriction regarding period of publication, using the following combinations: abdominal fat or overweight or obesity and waist-to-height ratio or waist height or waist ht or WHtR or waist to stature ratio or wst stature or WSR or stature and girth. Sixteen papers were selected, most of which with high methodological quality. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was the validity measure explored in 13 papers, followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. In all studies, the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) received special attention for analysis along with WHtR. Five manuscripts showed evidence of WHtR being the best anthropometric index when used alone, four showed that both WHtR and WC had the best discriminatory power in predicting cardiovascular risk factors compared to the other indices, and two ranked WHtR at the same performance level as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. An association was shown of the obesity assessed by WHtR in predicting risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes compared to other anthropometric parameters.

  14. Impact of weight loss on waist circumference and the components of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Amy E; Kraftson, Andrew T; Ajluni, Nevin; Fowler, Christine E; Nay, Catherine K; Miller, Nicole M; Burant, Charles F; Herman, William H

    2017-01-01

    Objective Central adiposity is a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Little is known about the impact of medical weight loss and decreased waist circumference (WC) on the MetS. Our objective was to assess the impact of changes in WC on blood pressure, lipids and glycemia. Research design and methods We studied 430 obese patients enrolled in a 2-year, intensive, behavioral, weight management program. We report results for participants who completed 6-month and 2-year follow-up. Results Participants were 49±9 years of age (mean±SD), 56% were women and 85% were white. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was 41±6 kg/m2 and baseline WC was 120±14 cm. At 6 months, BMI decreased by 6±3 kg/m2 and WC by 14±9 cm. Relative change in WC was defined as the 6-month or 2-year WC minus the baseline WC divided by the baseline WC. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 8 mm Hg for the tertile of participants with the largest relative decrease in WC and by 2 mm Hg for those with the smallest relative decrease in WC (p=0.025). Similar patterns of improvement were observed in total cholesterol (−29 vs −12 mg/dL, p=0.017), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (−19 vs −4 mg/dL, p=0.033), and glycated hemoglobin (−1.2 vs −0.3%, p=0.006). At 2 years, BMI decreased by 5±4 kg/m2 and WC by 11±11 cm and similar patterns of improvements were seen in components of the MetS. At both 6 months and 2 years, larger relative decreases in WC were associated with greater improvements in lipids and glycemia independent of sex. Conclusions In obese people, greater relative decreases in WC with medical weight loss are associated with greater improvements in components of the MetS independent of sex. PMID:28316795

  15. An Anthropometric Risk Index Based on Combining Height, Weight, Waist, and Hip Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) can be considered an application of a power law model to express body weight independently of height. Based on the same power law principle, we previously introduced a body shape index (ABSI) to be independent of BMI and height. Here, we develop a new hip index (HI) whose normalized value is independent of height, BMI, and ABSI. Similar to BMI, HI demonstrates a U-shaped relationship to mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) population. We further develop a new anthropometric risk index (ARI) by adding log hazard ratios from separate nonlinear regressions of the four indicators, height, BMI, ABSI, and HI, against NHANES III mortality hazard. ARI far outperforms any of the individual indicators as a linear mortality predictor in NHANES III. The superior performance of ARI also holds for predicting mortality hazard in the independent Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. Thus, HI, along with BMI and ABSI, can capture the risk profile associated with body size and shape. These can be combined in a risk indicator that utilizes complementary information from height, weight, and waist and hip circumference. The combined ARI is promising for further research and clinical applications. PMID:27830087

  16. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women. Relationships with age, body mass index and insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Mazza, E; Maccario, M; Ramunni, J; Gauna, C; Bertagna, A; Barberis, A M; Patroncini, S; Messina, M; Ghigo, E

    1999-10-01

    Sex and age are the major determinants of serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S): they are about twice in men than in women and show a progressive reduction from the end of the puberty to aging in both sexes. It has been reported that DHEA-S levels are also negatively influenced by insulin. Moreover, DHEA-S levels reduction has been associated to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, which connotes hyperinsulinemic states, such as obesity. We have evaluated serum levels of DHEA-S and insulin as function of age and body mass index (BMI) in 376 adult women (age 18.1-89.6 yrs, median 42.2; BMI 15.7-57.8 kg/m2, median 32.7) by multiple regression and piecewise regression analysis. Insulin levels positively associated to BMI (p=0.000002) and DHEA-S levels negatively associated with age (p=0.000001). Considering the whole population, DHEA-S levels were related positively with BMI (p=0.0013) independently of age. DHEA-S were also directly related to insulin levels independently of age (p=0.042), but this association disappeared after correction for BMI. Piecewise regression analysis did not reveal a threshold level for the increase of BMI (p=0.0004). Interestingly, DHEA-S levels and BMI were positively associated before but not after menopause. Taking into account only obese population, (no.=143, age 18.7-67.3 yrs, mean 39.0, median 39.4) DHEA-S levels were again related negatively with age and positively with BMI, while were unrelated with waist to hip ratio (p=0.391). Our data show that increasing body mass and insulin secretion is not associated to DHEA-S reduction in women. This evidence suggests that DHEA-S is unlikely implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in obese women.

  18. [BMI of the children attending elementary schools in Tuzla Canton].

    PubMed

    Jusupović, Fatima; Juricić, Mojca; Rudić, Aida; Hazihalilović, Jasminka; Kasumović, Merima; Kalesic, Mirela

    2005-01-01

    BMI is frequently used in different studies as indicator of nutritional status. When BMI exceeds the limit values then it represents the risk factor leading to different diseases; therefore it is important to calculate BMI for young persons. In cases when BMI differs from the recommended value it is necessary to apply different measures in order to prevent diseases. The aim of this paper was to assess the present status and on the basis of the result obtained to assess the need for eventual preventive activities leading to healthy life stytes. This study was performed on a sample of 1544 school boys and girls aged eight, ten and fourteen attending first, third and seventh class of elementary school. The study covered four municipalities of Tuzla Canton: Tuzla, Lukavac, Gradanica and Kladanj, and both urban and rural areas. We used the method of anthropometric measurement (IBP International Biological Program) of body mass and body height, followed by calculation of BMI and statistical evaluation. This study found that the average BMI of girls and boys is increasinglongitudinally with the age, with significant change between 10 years and 14 years, without significant gen der difference. Boys aged eight have BMI 15.76, len years 16.52 and are similar to the BMI of girls aged eight 15.44 and ten years 16.59. Fourteen-year-old girls have BMI which is 19.54, higher than the BMI of boys at the same age which is 18.75. Having in mind the range of BMI percentile values for normal nutritional status (from 5 to 85) the values for eight years old boys ranged from 14.1 to 19.4, for ten-year-old boys from 13.4 to 19.2, and for fourteen-year-old boys from 13.6 to 19.5. The values for girls showed the following results; for eight-year-old girls the value ranged from 13.9 to 20.6; for ten-year-old girls t'rom 13.5 to 20.5 and fourteen-year-old girls from 13.7 to 19.6. In the sample there was 6.6% underweight children, and 15.2% overweight children, but the portion of overweight

  19. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  20. Relationship between obesity and several cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Korean individuals: comparison of body mass index and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki Chul; Ryu, Seungho; Reaven, Gerald M

    2007-03-01

    Recent versions of the criteria for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome have emphasized the superiority of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC), in identifying individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, there is evidence that body mass index (BMI), an estimate of overall obesity, fulfills this function as effectively as does WC. The present analysis was performed to compare the relative use of these 2 indices of obesity to identify multiple CVD risk factors. The study population consisted of 19584 apparently healthy men and women of Korean ethnicity, and the CVD risk factors measured included fasting plasma concentrations of the following variables: glucose, insulin, total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The univariate relationships between the 2 indices of obesity and the 9 CVD risk factors were relatively modest (the highest r value was 0.45), but they were all statistically significant, and the magnitude of the relationships between the CVD risk factors and BMI and WC were comparable. When multivariate analysis was performed, adjusting for age and either BMI or WC, each index of obesity continued to have an independent relationship, albeit reduced in magnitude, with the CVD risk factors. These findings suggest that measurements of BMI provide as much clinical insight as do determinations of WC in identifying multiple CVD risk factors in a large population of apparently healthy Korean men and women, and that the use of both indices would provide the most information.

  1. Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (−0.50 vs. −0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2

  2. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Height Ratio Distributions in Polish and German Schoolchildren: Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Schwandt, Peter; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) between Polish (PL) and German (GE) children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL (n = 11,326) GE (n = 8,218) participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity) corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m) for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI) prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower (P < 0.05) than those from Germany (boys: 4.4% (3.6-5.2) vs. 8.9% (7.3-10.5); girls: 10.7% (9.0-12.3) vs. 26.4% (23.2-29.6)), whereas, using the WHtR > 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5) vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9); they were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6) vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4). The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4) vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0), P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7) vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0), P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects. PMID:24049597

  3. Body composition-derived BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Indians and Creoles of Mauritius: comparison with Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Hunma, S; Ramuth, H; Miles-Chan, J L; Schutz, Y; Montani, J-P; Joonas, N; Dulloo, A G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Global estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence are based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cut-off values of 25 and 30 kg m−2, respectively. To validate these BMI cut-offs for adiposity in the island population of Mauritius, we assessed the relationship between BMI and measured body fat mass in this population according to gender and ethnicity. Methods: In 175 young adult Mauritians (age 20-42 years) belonging to the two main ethnic groups—Indians (South Asian descent) and Creoles (African/Malagasy descent), body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured, total body fat assessed by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution and trunk (abdominal) fat by segmental bioimpedance analysis. Results: Compared to body fat% predicted from BMI using Caucasian-based equations, body fat% assessed by D2O dilution in Mauritians was higher by 3–5 units in Indian men and women as well as in Creole women, but not in Creole men. This gender-specific ethnic difference in body composition between Indians and Creoles is reflected in their BMI–Fat% relationships, as well as in their WC–Trunk Fat% relationships. Overall, WHO BMI cut-offs of 25 and 30 kg m−2 for overweight and obesity, respectively, seem valid only for Creole men (~24 and 29.5, respectively), but not for Creole women whose BMI cut-offs are 2–4 units lower (21–22 for overweight; 27–28 for obese) nor for Indian men and women whose BMI cut-offs are 3–4 units lower (21–22 for overweight; 26–27 for obese). Conclusions: The use of BMI cut-off points for classifying overweight and obesity need to take into account both ethnicity and gender to avoid gross adiposity status misclassification in this population known to be at high risk for type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This is particularly of importance in obesity prevention strategies both in clinical medicine and public health. PMID:27698347

  4. Social ideological influences on food consumption, physical activity and BMI.

    PubMed

    Wang, W C; Worsley, A; Cunningham, E G

    2009-12-01

    We investigated relationships between ideological beliefs (i.e., diaphanous body image and environmental concerns), food attitudes, evening meal patterns, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. A survey was conducted among shoppers aged 40-70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested among female baby boomers (n=547) for younger (n=245) and older (n=302) age groups using structural equation modeling. Findings showed that diaphanous body image had a direct and positive influence on negative food attitudes, which is likely to lead to higher BMI for both age groups. Body image beliefs were positively related to physical activity only for women aged 56-70 years. In contrast, among women aged 40-55 years, strong pro-environmental concerns suggested less consumption of both healthy (e.g., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., sugar and fats) foods. Moreover, strong pro-animal concerns resulted in higher BMI for the younger women. As expected, increased physical activity negatively influenced BMI. Importantly, the associations between ideological beliefs, attitudes, evening meal patterns, and BMI differed between younger and older female baby boomers.

  5. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  6. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  7. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  8. No Obesity Paradox-BMI Incapable of Adequately Capturing the Relation of Obesity with All-Cause Mortality: An Inception Diabetes Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza; Arshi, Banafsheh; Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Background. To reconcile "the obesity paradox," we tested if (1) the contribution of anthropometric measures to mortality was nonlinear and (2) the confounding of hip circumference contributed to the obesity paradox recently observed among diabetic patients. Methods. We analyzed data of diabetic patients attending a community-based prospective, "Tehran lipid and glucose study." In the mortality analysis, anthropometric measures-body mass index (BMI), waist, and hip circumference-were assessed using Cox models incorporating cubic spline functions. Results. During 12 990 person-years follow-up, BMI levels below 27 and those above 40 kg·m(-2) were associated with increased mortality. When we added waist circumference to the BMI in the multivariate-adjusted model, the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values below 27 kg·m(-2) increased, whereas the steepness of BMI-mortality association curve slope for values above this threshold decreased. Further adjusting the model for hip circumference, the steepness of the slopes of the association curve moved towards null on both extremes and no associations between BMI and all-cause mortality remained. Conclusion. BMI harbors intermixed positive and negative confounding effects on mortality of waist and hip circumference. Failing to control for the confounding effect of hip circumference may stymie unbiased hazard estimation and render conclusions paradoxical.

  9. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Various Definitions and Hypertriglyceridemic-Waist in Malaysian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zainuddin, Laila Ruwaida Mohd; Isa, NurFirdaus; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed according to several different criteria such as the latest International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Program III (NCEP ATPIII), and World Health Organization (WHO). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the concordance between the above mentioned definition, and hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria. Methods: This cross sectional study was done in Bachok, Malaysia and involved 298 respondents aged between 18 to 70 years. Multistage random sampling method was used to identify study locations while convenient random sampling method was applied to select individuals. Hypertriglyceridemic waist was defined from an internationally acceptable cut-off criterion. Kappa statistic (κ test) was used to determine the concordance between various definitions and hypertriglyceridemic-waist. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on different definitions was 32.2% (IDF), 28.5% (NCEP ATP III) and 12.4% (modified WHO). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic-waist was 19.7% and based on the IDF criteria a total of 97.5% participants with hypertriglyceridemic-waist had metabolic syndrome. The IDF criteria showed the highest concordance with NCEP ATPIII criteria (κ = 0.63), followed by hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria (κ = 0.62) and WHO criteria (κ = 0.26). Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest using the IDF criteria compared to NCEP ATPIII, modified WHO and hypertriglyceridemic-waist. There was a good concordance of IDF criteria with NCEP ATP III and hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria. PMID:22174962

  10. Measuring Waist Circumference in Disabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; Ligthart, K. A. M.; Kramer, J.; Hoeve, S.; van der Schans, C. P.; Haisma, H. H.

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether waist circumference can be measured validly and reliably when a subject is in a supine position. This issue is relevant when international standards for healthy participants are applied to persons with severe intellectual, sensory, and motor disabilities. Thus, the aims of our study were (1) to determine the validity…

  11. Correlation between waist and mid-thigh circumference and cardiovascular fitness in Korean college students: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sung-Sik; Chung, Jae-Soon; So, Wi-Young

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We investigated whether waist and mid-thigh circumference correlated with cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in a selected sample of Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 41 college students (25 males, 16 females; age, > 19 years) who visited the sports medicine laboratory at the Korea National University of Transportation in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea, to undergo measurements of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and waist and mid-thigh circumference. [Results] VO2max did not correlate with waist circumference or mid-thigh circumference in males, whereas VO2max was negatively correlated with mid-thigh circumference, but not waist circumference, in females. [Conclusion] Mid-thigh circumference was not associated with cardiovascular fitness or waist in male college students. However, it was associated with cardiovascular fitness in female college students. Well-designed studies are needed to investigate this further.

  12. Waist circumference threshold values for type 2 diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2009-07-01

    Adult gains in body weight, excess adiposity, and intra-abdominal fat have each been associated with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), forming the basis for preventive medicine guidelines and actuarial predictions using practical indices of weight (e.g., body mass index [BMI]) and waist circumference (WC). As obesity-related disease spreads beyond affluent western countries, application of WC thresholds to other populations has highlighted issues of their generalizability. For example, U.S. national health goals based on BMI < 25 kg/m(2) and WC < 89 cm (women) and <102 cm (men) differ considerably with a recent law in Japan mandating intervention for older adults with WC exceeding 90 cm (women) and 85 cm (men). The U.S. military has also faced issues of generalizability of WC-based adiposity standards that are fair and achievable. Data from many studies indicate that WC is a reliable biomarker for T2DM risk, suggesting that, for adult men and women, action thresholds should be more stringent than current U.S. guidelines, and it would not be harmful to set worldwide targets somewhere below 90 cm for men and women, regardless of weight status. Medical technology has provided many great insights into disease, including modern imaging technologies that have differentiated fat depots that have the greatest influence on T2DM, but ultimately, an inexpensive measuring tape provides the most useful and cost-effective preventive measure for T2DM today. At some point in the future, a Star Trek-like abdominal body fat "tricorder" noninvasive assessment of tissue composition may provide an advantage over abdominal girth.

  13. Urinary Triclosan Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in the US General Population: Experience in NHANES 2003-2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jinying; Wang, Guangdi; Zhu, Yun; Rabito, Felicia; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Chen, Wei; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Background Humans are extensively exposed to triclosan, an antibacterial and antifungal agent. Triclosan’s effects on human health, however, have not been carefully investigated. Objective To examine whether triclosan exposure is associated with obesity traits. Methods This study included 2,898 children (6-19 years old) and 5,066 adults (20 years or older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2010 and had a detectable level of urinary triclosan. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between urinary triclosan and both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Results Each standard deviation increase in urinary triclosan was associated with a 0.34 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.05, 0.64) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (p=0.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.09, 1.74) cm smaller waist circumference (p=0.03) in boys, and a 0.62 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.94) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (p=0.0002) and 1.32 (95% CI: 0.54, 2.09) cm smaller waist circumference in girls (P=0.001); a 0.42 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.77) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (P=0.02) and 1.35 (95% CI: 0.48, 2.22) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.003) in men, and a 0.71 (95% CI: 0.34, 1.07) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (P=0.0002) and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.50) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.0001) in women. In both children and adults, there was a consistent trend for lower levels of BMI and smaller waist circumference with increasing levels of urinary triclosan, from the lowest to the highest quartile of urinary triclosan (P≤0.001 in all cases). Conclusion Triclosan exposure is inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference. The biological mechanisms linking triclosan exposure to obesity await further investigation. PMID:25823951

  14. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  15. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  16. Preference for women's body mass and waist-to-hip ratio in Tsimane' men of the Bolivian Amazon: biological and cultural determinants.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Kościński, Krzysztof; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The issue of cultural universality of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attractiveness in women is currently under debate. We tested men's preferences for female WHR in traditional society of Tsimane'(Native Amazonians) of the Bolivian rainforest (N = 66). Previous studies showed preferences for high WHR in traditional populations, but they did not control for the women's body mass.We used a method of stimulus creation that enabled us to overcome this problem. We found that WHR lower than the average WHR in the population is preferred independent of cultural conditions. Our participants preferred the silhouettes of low WHR, but high body mass index (BMI), which might suggest that previous results could be an artifact related to employed stimuli. We found also that preferences for female BMI are changeable and depend on environmental conditions and probably acculturation (distance from the city). Interestingly, the Tsimane' men did not associate female WHR with age, health, physical strength or fertility. This suggests that men do not have to be aware of the benefits associated with certain body proportions - an issue that requires further investigation.

  17. Nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring: a file audit of risk factor prevalence and impact of an intervention to enhance measurement of waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Nijjar, Sukh; Watkins, Andrew; Garwood, Natasha; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to: (i) document the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among mental health consumers (inpatients) with various diagnoses; and (ii) audit the frequency of waist circumference (WC) documentation before and after an intervention that involved a single nurse-education session, and change in assessment-form design. The study was undertaken in a private psychiatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twenty-five nurses participated in the educational intervention. File audits were performed prior to intervention delivery (n = 60), and 3 months' (n = 60), and 9 months' (n = 60) post-intervention. Files were randomly selected, and demographic (age, diagnosis) and risk factor (WC, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, blood pressure) data were extracted. WC was higher in this cohort compared to published general population means, and only 19% of patients had a BMI within the healthy range. In total, 37% of patients smoked, while 31% were hypertensive. At baseline, none of the audited files reported WC, which increased to 35 of the 60 (58%) files audited at the 3-month follow up. At the 9-month follow up, 25 of the 60 (42%) files audited reported a WC. In the 120 post-intervention files audited, only two patients refused measurement. These results illustrate the poor physical health of inpatients, and suggest that nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring can be enhanced with minimal training.

  18. Association of eating behaviors and BMI among elementary school students from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Munguia-Lizárraga, Samuel; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Armendáriz-Anguiano, Ana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) with body max index (BMI) among elementary schools children in Mexico. 5th and 6th grade students were recruited from two schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obese children were classified according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) BMI z-score. The TFEQ-R18 questionnaire was applied to assess behavioral patterns. Gender differences of UE and EE were observed. Private school children had higher scores of CR and UE. Children with CR were three times more likely to have abdominal obesity (AO) and children with OW or O were more likely to have UE. Children attending the private school and those with AO had higher CR scores; private school children, those with overweight or obesity and with AO had higher UE scores.

  19. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus; Halkjaer, Jytte; Holst, Claus; Forouhi, Nita G; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5·5 years. Mixed-effect linear regression was used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Among all participants, the average annual change in waist circumference was - 0·01 cm/10 g higher total fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·01, 0·00) and - 0·01 cm/10 g higher fatty fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·02, - 0·01), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lean fish consumption was not associated with change in waist circumference. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption measurements did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became slightly wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by sex, age or waist circumference at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference.

  20. Waist circumference is the best index for obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ravensbergen, Henrike Rianne Joanna Cornelie; Lear, Scott Alexander; Claydon, Victoria Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is an important identifier of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but is challenging to determine accurately in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Body mass index (BMI) is used worldwide as a simple indicator of obesity, but is difficult to measure in individuals with SCI. Furthermore, standard BMI cutoffs underestimate obesity in this population. Therefore, we aimed to identify the best marker of obesity in individuals with SCI, considering both practicality, and ability to detect adiposity and CVD risk. Five anthropometric measures were evaluated: BMI; waist circumference (WC); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); waist-to-hip ratio; and neck circumference. We evaluated relationships between these measures and abdominal and total body-fat percentage, seven cardiovascular metabolic risk factors (fasting insulin, glucose, glucose tolerance, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol), and the Framingham risk score. BMI, WC, and WHtR were correlated with abdominal fat percentage. WC and WHtR were correlated with five metabolic risk factors as well as the Framingham risk score. WC is a more practical measure for an SCI population. The optimal cutoff for identifying adverse CVD risk in individuals with SCI was identified as WC ≥94 cm, with 100% sensitivity and 79% specificity. We propose that WC is a simple, more sensitive alternative to BMI in this population that is easy to use in multiple settings. The cutoff provides a simple tool to predict adverse CVD risk profiles that can be used to guide risk management, as well as as a practical aid for individuals with SCI to maintain a healthy body composition.

  1. Waist Circumference Is the Best Index for Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ravensbergen, Henrike (Rianne) Joanna Cornelie; Lear, Scott Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an important identifier of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but is challenging to determine accurately in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Body mass index (BMI) is used worldwide as a simple indicator of obesity, but is difficult to measure in individuals with SCI. Furthermore, standard BMI cutoffs underestimate obesity in this population. Therefore, we aimed to identify the best marker of obesity in individuals with SCI, considering both practicality, and ability to detect adiposity and CVD risk. Five anthropometric measures were evaluated: BMI; waist circumference (WC); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); waist-to-hip ratio; and neck circumference. We evaluated relationships between these measures and abdominal and total body-fat percentage, seven cardiovascular metabolic risk factors (fasting insulin, glucose, glucose tolerance, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol), and the Framingham risk score. BMI, WC, and WHtR were correlated with abdominal fat percentage. WC and WHtR were correlated with five metabolic risk factors as well as the Framingham risk score. WC is a more practical measure for an SCI population. The optimal cutoff for identifying adverse CVD risk in individuals with SCI was identified as WC ≥94 cm, with 100% sensitivity and 79% specificity. We propose that WC is a simple, more sensitive alternative to BMI in this population that is easy to use in multiple settings. The cutoff provides a simple tool to predict adverse CVD risk profiles that can be used to guide risk management, as well as as a practical aid for individuals with SCI to maintain a healthy body composition. PMID:24070685

  2. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Guozhe; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 5919 hypertensive adults (2892 men and 3027 women) aged 35 years or older, was recruited from rural areas of China. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations. The self-reported information was collected by trained personnel. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. The logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had significantly higher prevalences of all cardiometabolic risk factors than those without the HTGW phenotype (P < 0.001). Compared with the normal waist normal triglyceride (NWNT) group, hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had much higher possibilities to have all cardiometabolic risk factors, especially for 8.35 times more likely of having ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.92–11.79], 6.14 times more likely of having low HDL cholesterol (95% CI 4.98–7.58), 5.49 times more likely of having hyperuricemia (95% CI 4.40–6.86), and 4.32 times more likely of having 1 to 2 cardiometabolic risk factors (95% CI 3.68–5.07) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities (P < 0.05). This study concluded that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. The HTGW phenotype showed to be an important tool for monitoring of hypertensive adults with metabolic abnormalities, which is low cost, simple, and useful in clinical practice, especially in primary health care in the rural area of China. PMID:27930589

  3. The Relationship of Knowledge and Breastfeeding Practice to Maternal BMI.

    PubMed

    Ozenoglu, Aliye; Sokulmez Kaya, Pinar; Asal Ulus, Canan; Alakus, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of breastfeeding on maternal BMI and evaluate mothers' knowledge of infant feeding in Samsun, Turkey. A total of 289 mothers who had children ranging from 0 to 2 years of age and applied to the Family Health Centers were included in the study. The mothers filled out a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge on infant feeding. The data was evaluated using the SPSS with the descriptive statistics, the Student t-test, the chi-square test, and multiple linear regression analyses. Most of the mothers, who did never breastfeed their children, were either overweight or obese. As a result of the multiple linear regression analysis, we concluded that maternal age, number of pregnancies, time of first breastfeeding ≥ 12 hours, and early introduction of complementary foods positively affect maternal BMI. Increased maternal BMI is thought to be negatively correlated with decreased breastfeeding of babies immediately after birth.

  4. [Relation between waist circumference and risk of male lung cancer incidence: a prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Xie, S H; Wang, G; Guo, L W; Chen, S H; Su, K; Li, F; Chang, S; Feng, X S; Lyu, Z Y; Chen, Y H; Ren, J S; Cui, H; Li, N; Wu, S L; Dai, M; He, J

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between waist circumference and risk of male lung cancer incidence. Methods: Since May 1, 2006, all the male employees including the retirees in Kailuan Group had been recruited into a Chinese Kailuan Male Cohort study. Information on anthropometries including body weight, height and waist circumference were collected at the baseline investigation, as well as information on newly-diagnosed lung cancer cases during the follow-up period. Waist circumference was grouped by quintiles of the population waist circumference distribution and categorized into the following five groups: <80, 80-, 85-, 90- and ≥95 cm, with the relevant normal group, the second quintile group (80-cm), serving as the referent category. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association between levels of waist circumference and risk of lung cancer. Results: A total of 105 386 males were recruited in the study, with 739 651.13 person-years of follow-up and an average follow-up period of 7.00 years. By the end of 2014, a total of 707 lung cancer cases were identified in the cohort study. Compared with males having the 80-cm of waist circumference, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer were 1.17(0.90-1.52), 0.96(0.74-1.23), 0.94(0.72-1.21) and 0.80(0.63-1.03) for the <80, 85-, 90- and ≥95 cm of waist circumference, after adjustment for potential confounding factors including age, education level, smoking status and pack-year amount, alcohol consumption, physical activities, environment for working place and the prevalence on diabetes. The inverse association existed in smokers (≥95 cm compared to 80-cm of waist circumference: HR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.48-0.99) and alcohol drinkers (≥95 cm compared to 80-cm of waist circumference: HR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.45-0.94) when analysis was conducted in subgroups stratified by smoking or alcohol drinking status. Conclusion: Waist circumference

  5. [Correlation between body fat percentage and general obesity indexes in middle aged and old people in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Jiang, C Q; Zhang, W S; Cheng, J J; Xu, L; Jin, Y L; Rao, S L; Zheng, H Q; Lam, D Q

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To examine the correlation between body fat percentage (BFP) and general obesity indexes, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) and calculate the corresponding BFP cutoff values in the middle aged and old people in Guangzhou. The corresponding cut-point of optimal body fat percentage for Guangzhou older population. Methods: Based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), 3 490 relatively healthy Guangzhou residents aged ≥50 years were selected and were randomly divided into 2 groups. The equations between BFP and BMI, WC, WHR were set up with Curve fitting analysis in one group. The multiple regression analysis was undertaken to establish predictive equations between BFP and BMI, WC, WHR with stepwise model for adding gender, age, physical activity, drinking and smoking. Then, the optimal cut-points of BFP corresponding to BMI, WC and WHR to reflect the degree of obesity were calculated. The equations were then validated with another group. Results: BFP increased with the increase of WHR, WC and BMI. BMI was a better predictor of body fat percentage than WC and WHR. The final regression equation was BFP=(-23.47 -8.87×sex) +2.94× (BMI) - 0.024 × (BMI)(2),the coefficient of determination was 0.805. Based on the equation, the BFP corresponding to overweight/obesity (24 kg/m(2)≤BMI<28 kg/m(2)) were 24.3% ≤BFP<31.1% in men and 33.2%≤BFP<40.0% in women, respectively. BMI had a better consistency with BFP in identify obesity compared with WC and WHR, obtained the area of ROC 0.909 in men and 0.919 in women respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 70.3% and 85.5% in men; and 75.2% and 93.0% in women respectively. Conclusion: BFP has a better correlation with BMI. The study results indicated that BFP for middle aged and old males and females in Guangzhou corresponding to overweight/obesity (BMI≥24 kg/m(2)) were <24.0% and <33.0% respectively.

  6. Determining BMI cut points based on excess percent body fat in US children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...

  7. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony; Cunningham, Everarda G

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410) for younger (n = 151) and older (n = 259) age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats) only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways. PMID:18412977

  8. Parental pre‐pregnancy BMI is a dominant early‐life risk factor influencing BMI of offspring in adulthood.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, S. R.; Marsh, J. A.; Newnham, J. P.; Zhu, K.; Atkinson, H. C.; Mountain, J.; Oddy, W. H.; Hughes, I. P.; Harris, M.; Leong, G. M.; Cotterill, A. M.; Sly, P. D.; Pennell, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective We examined parental and early‐life variables in order to identify risk factors for adulthood overweight and obesity in offspring. We report here on the longitudinal prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children born between 1989 and 1991 and followed from birth to age 22. Methods Data were analysed on 1355 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, with anthropometry collected during pregnancy, at birth, one year and at three yearly intervals thereafter. Multivariate analyses and cross‐sectional logistic regression quantified the timing and contribution of early‐life risk factors for overweight and obesity in young‐adulthood. Results At five years of age 12.6% of children were overweight and 5.2% were obese. By early adulthood, the prevalence of obesity had increased to 12.8%, whilst overweight remained relatively stable at 14.2% (range from early childhood to adulthood 11–16%). Parental pre‐pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was the strongest determinant of adult offspring BMI. Although rapid first year weight gain was associated with increased offspring BMI, the impact of first year weight‐gain diminished over childhood, whilst the impact of parental BMI increased over time. Conclusions Parental pre‐pregnancy BMI and rapid early‐life weight gain predispose offspring to obesity in adulthood. PMID:27812379

  9. Age at Menarche and Its Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: Results from the KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Doris; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Heier, Margit; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Kowall, Bernd; Stöckl, Heidi; Döring, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is a major public health challenge and identifies persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menarche and the metabolic syndrome (IDF and NCEP ATP III classification) and its components. Design 1536 women aged 32 to 81 years of the German population based KORA F4 study were investigated. Data was collected by standardized interviews, physical examinations, and whole blood and serum measurements. Results Young age at menarche was significantly associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), greater waist circumference, higher fasting glucose levels, and 2 hour glucose (oral glucose tolerance test), even after adjusting for the difference between current BMI and BMI at age 25. The significant effect on elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjustment for the BMI change. Age at menarche was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome adjusting for age (p-values: <0.001 IDF, 0.003 NCEP classification) and additional potential confounders including lifestyle and reproductive history factors (p-values: 0.001, 0.005). Associations remain significant when additionally controlling for recollected BMI at age 25 (p-values: 0.008, 0.033) or the BMI change since age 25 (p-values: 0.005, 0.022). Conclusion Young age at menarche might play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This association is only partially mediated by weight gain and increased BMI. A history of early menarche may help to identify women at risk for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22028807

  10. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    PubMed

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain.

  11. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  12. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; de Craen, Anton J M; Bis, Joshua C; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W K; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Jackson, Anne U; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A F; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L; Montasser, May E; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M; Ryan, Kathy A; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L; Wang, Sophie R; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S; de Geus, Eco J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew P; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M; Rice, Treva K; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarzynski, Mark A; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A; Scott, William R; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P Eline; Smit, Jan H; Sparsø, Thomas H; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Stringham, Heather M; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van Schoor, Natasja M; Asselbergs, Folkert W; de Bakker, Paul I W; Beckmann, Jacques S; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D; Moll, Frans L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Musk, Arthur W; Nieminen, Markku S; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Staessen, Jan A; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L M; Vermeulen, Sita H; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rao, D C; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C; McCarthy, Mark I; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; North, Kari E; Borecki, Ingrid B; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J F

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  13. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  14. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  15. Body Mass Index (BMI) Is Associated with Microalbuminuria in Chinese Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Yu; Chen, Youming; Li, Yongqiang; Shao, Xiaofei; Liang, Yan; Li, Bin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zhang, Guanjing; Zou, Hequn

    2015-01-01

    There is no general consensus on possible factors associated with microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients nor any reported study about this issue in Chinese patients. To examine this issues, 944 hypertensive patients were enrolled in a study based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in Southern China. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the factors related with the presence of microalbuminuria and urinary excretion of albumin. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive and non-diabetic hypertensive patients were 17.16% and 15.25%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI), but not waist circumference (WC), were independently associated with microalbuminuria and the values of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) based on multiple regression analyses, even after excluding diabetic patients and patients taking inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system from the analyses. Furthermore, patients with obesity (BMI ≥28) had higher levels of ACR, compared with those with normal weight (BMI <24 kg/m2) and overweight (24 kg/m2≤ BMI < 28). In conclusion, BMI, as a modifiable factor, is closely associated with microalbuminuria among Chinese hypertensive patients, which may provide a basis for future development of intervention approaches for these patients. PMID:25674785

  16. Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Early Childhood BMI

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Daniels, Julie L.; Poole, Charles; Olshan, Andrew F.; Hornung, Richard; Bernert, John T.; Khoury, Jane; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of childhood overweight body mass index (BMI). Less is known about the association between prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and childhood BMI. We followed 292 mother-child dyads from early pregnancy to 3 years of age. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was quantified using self-report and serum cotinine biomarkers. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between tobacco smoke exposure and BMI at birth, 4 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 years. During pregnancy, 15% of women reported SHS exposure and 12% reported active smoking, but 51% of women had cotinine levels consistent with SHS exposure and 10% had cotinine concentrations indicative of active smoking. After adjustment for confounders, children born to active smokers had higher BMI at 2 and 3 years of age (self-report or serum cotinine), compared to unexposed children. Children born to women with prenatal serum cotinine concentrations indicative of SHS exposure had higher BMI at 2 (Mean Difference [MD]:0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]:−0.1, 0.7) and 3 (MD:0.4; [0, 0.8]) years compared to unexposed children. Using self-reported prenatal exposure resulted in non-differential exposure misclassification of SHS exposures that attenuated the association between SHS exposure and BMI compared to serum cotinine concentrations. These findings suggest active and secondhand prenatal tobacco smoke exposure may be related to an important public health problem in childhood and later life. In addition, accurate quantification of prenatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposures is essential to obtaining valid estimates. PMID:20955230

  17. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Leonardo G.O.; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P.; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D.D.; Carmo, Bruno C.M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. PMID:26972616

  18. Lipid and lipoprotein profile in menopausal transition. Effects of hormones, age and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Mesch, V; Boero, L; Sayegh, F; Prada, M; Royer, M; Muzzio, M L; Schreier, L; Siseles, N; Benencia, H

    2004-04-01

    The behavior of lipoproteins during the menopausal transition and their relationship with sex hormones and body fat distribution is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate atherogenic IDL, LDL, Lp(a) and antiatherogenic HDL lipoproteins in four groups of women: premenopausal (n = 20), menopausal transition women with menstrual bleeding (n = 31), menopausal transition women with 3 to 6 months amenorrhea (n = 36), and postmenopausal women (n = 30). We also measured their FSH, LH and estradiol levels along with BMI and waist circumference. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal women showed higher values of waist circumference (p < 0.0032), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.002), IDL-cholesterol (p < 0.002) and apoprotein B (p < 0.0001) than premenopausal women. Total-cholesterol (p < 0.0001), triglycerides (p < 0.004), IDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) were higher in menopausal transition women with amenorrhea and in postmenopausal women in comparison with premenopausal women. After adjustment according to age and waist circumference, multiple regression analysis showed the increase in total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to be linearly associated to menopausal status and estradiol concentration, whereas Lp(a) was only related to menopausal status. Age was found to be an independent variable in relation to apoprotein B concentration changes. The effect of menopausal status on TG levels did not remain in the model when age, waist and BMI were included (beta = 0.05, p = 0.356). HDL-cholesterol levels were the same in all the groups. Menopause, age and the increase in abdominal fat distribution were three independent and significant factors impairing lipoprotein profiles from the beginning of the menopausal transition.

  19. Optimal cut points of waist circumference (WC) and visceral fat area (VFA) predicting for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in elderly population in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Kim, Jung Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; Kang, Seon Mee; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Ki Woong; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Hayley; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2012-01-01

    Optimal cut points of central obesity identifying subjects at risk for MetS were proposed ethnic-specifically, but have not been established yet. Of particular interest are the values for elderly persons, which have not been identified previously. We investigated the appropriate cut points of WC and VFA for elderly in a community-based cohort in Korea. We recruited 294 men and 313 women aged 65 or over who participated in the KLoSHA. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal cut points of WC and VFA indicative of MetS. The optimal cut points for predicting MetS were 87 cm for WC, 140 cm(2) for VFA in men, and 85 cm for WC, 100 cm(2) for VFA in women with the Youden index. Similar cut points were obtained with the closest-to-(0, 1) criterion except for VFA in men, which was 122 cm(2). When adjusted for age, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption, men with ≥122 cm(2) and women with ≥100 cm(2) of VFA had a higher risk of MetS than subjects with lower values. The cut points of VFA and WC at risk for MetS were higher in men than women. In this community-based elderly cohort, the optimal cut points of WC at risk for MetS were lower than the Western criteria. Compared with the cut points in middle-aged Koreans, the cut points for elderly were lower in men and similar in women.

  20. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the Gleason score of prostate biopsies in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jinxian; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Gang; Ping, Jigen; Lu, Yong; Hou, Jianquan; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the correlation between BMI and Gleason score in prostate biopsies in Chinese Population. In this retrospective study, we collected the Gleason score, PSA, BMI, age, race, and other related clinical data on 290 patients who had undergone prostatic biopsy. We then compared the prostate cancer detection rates and Gleason scores between the high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25; 143 cases) and low BMI group (< 25; 147 cases). Among the 137 patients in whom prostate cancer detected, 70 had high BMIs and 67 had normal BMIs, making the detection rates 48.95% and 45.58% respectively. Seventeen prostate cancer patients had low Gleason scores (Gleason score < 7), while 120 had high Gleason scores (≥ 7). Within the high BMI group, 44.76% had high Gleason scores, which was significantly greater than the 38.10% in the low BMI group (P = 0.027). These results indicate that while there was no effect of BMI on the rate of positive prostate cancer biopsies, the rate of high Gleason scores was greater in the high BMI group than the normal BMI group. PMID:27556510

  1. Aging, obesity, and post-therapy cognitive recovery in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhezhou; Zheng, Ying; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi

    2016-10-11

    Therapy-induced cognitive impairment is prevalent and long-lasting in cancer survivors, but factors affecting post-therapy cognitive recovery are unclear. We conducted this study to evaluate the associations of age, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and physical activity (PA) with post-therapy cognitive changes in a population-based breast cancer (BC) survivor cohort. We collected information on PA, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences of 1286 BC survivors aged 20-75. We assessed their cognitive functions, including immediate memory, delayed memory, verbal fluency, and attention, at 18 and 36 months after cancer diagnosis. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations of age, BMI, WHR and PA with mean changes in cognitive scores from 18- to 36-month follow-up interview. We found that the post-therapy cognitive changes differed by age and obesity status. Verbal fluency and attention improved in younger patients aged <60 and non-abdominally obese patients, but deteriorated in older patients aged ≥60 (i.e. verbal fluency and attention) and abdominally obese patients (i.e. verbal fluency). Memory improved in all patients, with a smaller improvement in obese patients compared with normal-weight patients. No significant association was found between PA and post-therapy cognitive change. Due to the novelty of our findings and the limitations of our study, further research, including intervention trials, is warranted to confirm the causal relationship between obesity and cognitive impairments.

  2. The association between waist circumference and risk of mortality considering body mass index in 65- to 74-year-olds: a meta-analysis of 29 cohorts involving more than 58 000 elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    de Hollander, Ellen L; Bemelmans, Wanda JE; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Friedrich, Nele; Wallaschofski, Henri; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Walter, Stefan; Zillikens, M Carola; Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren; Bassett, Julie K; Giles, Graham G; Orsini, Nicola; Heim, Noor; Visser, Marjolein; de Groot, Lisette CPGM; Rosengren, A.; Sundh, V.; Blair, S.; Lee, D.C.; Sui, X.; Woodward, M.; Welborn, T.; Dhaliwal, S.; Wannamethee, G.; Roure, E.; Castell, C.; Biggs, M.L.; Wolk, A.; Orsini, N.; Ducimetiere, P.; Verschuren, M.; Kaprio, J.; Menotti, A.; Lee, I.M.; Sesso, H.; Knekt, P.; Sääksjärvi, K.; Dekker, J.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.; Bandinelli, S.; Corsi, A.M.; Lauretani, F.; Visser, M.; Heim, N.; Seeman, T.; Ishii, S.; Giles, G.; Bassett, J.; Spiro, A.; Phillips, C.; Blazer, D.; Lind, L.; Zillikens, M.C.; Uitterlinden, A.; Hofman, A.; Walter, S.; Tiemeier, H.; de Groot, L.; Wallaschofski, H.; Friedrich, N.; Baumeister, S.; Guallar-Castillón, P.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F.; Lissner, L.; Sundh, V.; Skoog, I.; Wolk, A.; Orsini, N.; Woodward, M.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.; Shipley, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background For the elderly, the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality considering body mass index (BMI) remains unclear, and thereby also the evidence base for using these anthropometric measures in clinical practice. This meta-analysis examined the association between WC categories and (cause-specific) mortality within BMI categories. Furthermore, the association of continuous WC with lowest and increased mortality risks was examined. Methods Age- and smoking-adjusted relative risks (RRs) of mortality associated with WC–BMI categories and continuous WC (including WC and WC2) were calculated by the investigators and pooled by means of random-effects models. Results During a 5-year-follow-up of 32 678 men and 25 931 women, we ascertained 3318 and 1480 deaths, respectively. A large WC (men: ≥102 cm, women: ≥88 cm) was associated with increased all-cause mortality RRs for those in the ‘healthy’ weight {1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–2.2], 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3)}, overweight [1.1(95% CI: 1.0–1.3), 1.4 (95%: 1.1–1.7)] and obese [1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3–1.9)] BMI category compared with the ‘healthy’ weight (20–24.9 kg/m2) and a small WC (<94 cm, men; <80 cm, women) category. Underweight was associated with highest all-cause mortality RRs in men [2.2 (95% CI: 1.8–2.8)] and women [2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.1]. We found a J-shaped association for continuous WC with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) and cancer, and a U-shaped association with respiratory disease mortality (P < 0.05). An all-cause (CVD) mortality RR of 2.0 was associated with a WC of 132 cm (123 cm) in men and 116 cm (105 cm) in women. Conclusions Our results showed increased mortality risks for elderly people with an increased WC—even across BMI categories— and for those who were classified as ‘underweight’ using BMI. The results provide a solid basis for re-evaluation of WC cut-points in ageing populations

  3. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  4. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  5. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo; García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Hernández-López, Leonor Estela

    2015-01-01

    We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) and body mass indices (BMIs). Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b ± s.e. = -0.000003 ± 0.000001;  t 94 = -2.12, adjusted R (2) = -0.008,  P = 0.03). Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days.

  6. Correlation between BMI and PASI in patients affected by moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing biological therapy.

    PubMed

    Bardazzi, F; Balestri, R; Baldi, E; Antonucci, A; De Tommaso, S; Patrizi, A

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is common in psoriatic patients, and it has been shown to be important for many aspects of the condition. In particular, low-calorie diets can improve the symptoms and response to treatment in pustular psoriasis. The present study investigates the influence of body-weight alteration on the disease's clinical manifestations in moderate to severe psoriasis patients treated with biological drugs. Finally, the influence of a caloric restriction was assessed. This observational transversal study enrolled 33 patients attending our Severe Psoriasis Outpatient Clinic, who were treated with biological drugs. Body Mass Index (BMI) was used as a diagnostic indicator of being overweight and of obesity. Waist circumference was also measured. Body weight and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) index were measured at follow-up visits at 4 and 8 months. Nonparametric test of Mann-Whitney was used to detect the differences between patient groups. Fisher's exact test was performed to evaluate the different results depending on the therapeutic changes of BMI. There was a strong prevalence of overweight-obese individuals in the group with a mean BMI of 30.59 +/- 6.94. Waist circumference was also above normal in the majority of the patients. Obese patients had a PASI index higher than the average of the whole group (25.03 +/- 12.43), with grade III obese patients having an average PASI of 44 +/- 3.37. At the first and second follow-ups, patients who put on weight did not achieve PASI 50; patients who had a stable weight presented variable response to treatment, while patients who decreased their weight achieved PASI 90 or PASI 75 even when not responding at the first. Further studies are needed to understand if the poor response observed in heavier patients is due to biological drugs pharmacokinetics or because therapy should be BMI based rather than administered in fixed doses, posing then an ethical consideration.

  7. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  8. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  9. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  10. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  11. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  12. The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers.

    PubMed

    Son, Seungbum; Han, Kunho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Our aim was to evaluate the relationships between waist and mid-thigh circumference, used as proxy measures of trunk and lower limb strengths, respectively, and selected parameters of driver and putting performance in Korean college golfers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 103 college golfers (81 male, 20 to 27 years old). Measurements of body composition, waist and mid-thigh circumference, and grip strength, as well as assessment of golf performance, including driver distance, driver swing speed, putting accuracy, and putting consistency, were performed at the golf performance laboratory at Konkuk University in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea. Average round score was obtained from 10 rounds of golf completed during the study period. The relationships between strength measures and golf performance were evaluated by partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for age, golf experience, and body mass index. [Results] Waist circumference did not correlate with any of the performance variables in both males and females. Mid-thigh circumference correlated with putting consistency (r = 0.364) in males and with putting consistency (r = 0.490) and accuracy (r = 0.547) in females. No other significant correlations between waist and mid-thigh circumference and golf performance were identified. [Conclusion] Lower limb strength may be an important component of putting performance. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the contributions of trunk strength to performance.

  13. The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seungbum; Han, Kunho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Our aim was to evaluate the relationships between waist and mid-thigh circumference, used as proxy measures of trunk and lower limb strengths, respectively, and selected parameters of driver and putting performance in Korean college golfers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 103 college golfers (81 male, 20 to 27 years old). Measurements of body composition, waist and mid-thigh circumference, and grip strength, as well as assessment of golf performance, including driver distance, driver swing speed, putting accuracy, and putting consistency, were performed at the golf performance laboratory at Konkuk University in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea. Average round score was obtained from 10 rounds of golf completed during the study period. The relationships between strength measures and golf performance were evaluated by partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for age, golf experience, and body mass index. [Results] Waist circumference did not correlate with any of the performance variables in both males and females. Mid-thigh circumference correlated with putting consistency (r = 0.364) in males and with putting consistency (r = 0.490) and accuracy (r = 0.547) in females. No other significant correlations between waist and mid-thigh circumference and golf performance were identified. [Conclusion] Lower limb strength may be an important component of putting performance. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the contributions of trunk strength to performance. PMID:27134346

  14. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and

  15. Physical characteristics of the environment and BMI of young urban children and their mothers☆,☆ ☆

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Chambers, Earle C.; Rundle, Andrew; Must, Aviva

    2013-01-01

    The study examined whether characteristics of the urban physical environment are associated with child and maternal body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 3 year-old children and their mothers from 18 US cities (N=1997 dyads). BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Characteristics of the interior and exterior physical environment, assessed and rated by trained interviewers, were related to child BMI at age 3 and to their mother’s BMI. Negative aspects of the physical environment were more strongly related to maternal BMI among whites than among African–Americans or Hispanics. PMID:20729127

  16. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For years, doctors have used height and weight measurements to assess a child's physical growth in relation ... important to have your doctor do regular BMI measurements. That way, you'll know the number is ...

  17. Relationship between dietary sodium, potassium, and calcium, anthropometric indexes, and blood pressure in young and middle aged Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Kim, Jeongseon

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of the effects of dietary sodium, calcium, and potassium, and anthropometric indexes on blood pressure is still inconsistent. To investigate the relationship between dietary factors or anthropometric indexes and hypertension risk, we examined the association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with sodium, calcium, and potassium intakes and anthropometric indexes in 19~49-year-olds using data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) III. Total of 2,761 young and middle aged adults (574 aged 19~29 years and 2,187 aged 30~49 years) were selected from KNHANES III. General information, nutritional status, and anthropometric data were compared between two age groups (19~29 years old and 30~49 years old). The relevance of blood pressure and risk factors such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and the intakes of sodium, potassium, and calcium was determined by multiple regression analysis. Multiple regression models showed that waist circumference, weight, and BMI were positively associated with SBP and DBP in both age groups. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with either SBP or DBP. Among 30~49-year-olds, calcium was inversely associated with both SBP and DBP (P = 0.012 and 0.010, respectively). Our findings suggest that encouraging calcium consumption and weight control may play an important role in the primary prevention and management of hypertension in early adulthood.

  18. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany). Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients. PMID:22958330

  19. The BMI of men and not sperm parameters impact on embryo quality and the IVF outcome.

    PubMed

    Anifandis, G; Dafopoulos, K; Messini, C I; Polyzos, N; Messinis, I E

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that increased body mass index (BMI) of men influences fecundity but it is not clear if it impacts on sperm parameters. Whether or not BMI of men influence sperm parameters and subsequently in vitro fertilization (IVF) result remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was primarily to investigate the relationship between the BMI of men and sperm parameters (volume, concentration and motility) and whether or not it impacts on embryo quality and IVF outcome. Secondly, to investigate the impact of BMI of both men and women, in combination with their age, on IVF result. Three hundred and one couples were categorized according to their BMI. Group 1 (n = 64, both men and women had BMI l ≤ 25 kg/m(2) ), group 2 (n = 79, both men and women had BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ), group 3 (n = 142, men had BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and their wives had BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) ) and group 4 (n = 16, men had BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) and their wives had BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ). Overall (n = 301) BMI and age of men did not correlate with sperm parameters. Group 1 and group 4, regardless of the BMI of their women, demonstrated the highest quality of embryos and consequently the highest percentage of pregnancy. Furthermore, the score of the combination of both BMI and age of both men and women resulted in a threshold level of less than 800 with a relative high per cent of pregnancy. BMI of men does not correlate with sperm parameters, but influences the quality of produced embryos in such a way that impacts on pregnancy rate.

  20. Waist-to-height ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Caminha, Tainá C.S.; Ferreira, Haroldo S.; Costa, Narithania S.; Nakano, Ricardo P.; Carvalho, Renata Elyonara S.; Xavier, Antônio F.S.; Assunção, Monica L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The WHO recommends the use of some anthropometric parameters as a screening resource for individuals under cardiometabolic risk. However, in the validation of these indicators, Brazilian women were not included. These women have different anthropometric profile compared to women who integrated the samples of the validation studies. We aimed to verify the accuracy of anthropometric indicators as a resource for the screening of women with hypertension. A cross-sectional study, with a probability sample of 3143 women (20–49 years) from the state of Alagoas (northeast of Brazil), was carried out. Hypertension was identified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or regular use of antihypertensive drugs. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage, and conicity index. The accuracy definition of the indicators and the identification of best cut-off points were carried out on the basis of ROC curve analysis and Youden index, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.8%. All indicators used in hypertension identification had area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.5. The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 was the best performance indicator (AUC = 0.72; P < 0.05; sensitivity = 67%, specificity = 66%). The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 has constituted the most accurate indicator in the screening of women with hypertension. In the absence of specific studies and considering the largest ethnic proximity and environmental/epidemiological similarity, the findings now obtained can be extended to women of other Brazilian states, especially those in the Northeastern region. PMID:28079826

  1. Waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference for screening paediatric cardio-metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, K; Wong, M; Khalechelvam, P; Tam, W

    2016-12-01

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is superior to body mass index and waist circumference for measuring adult cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, there is no meta-analysis to evaluate its discriminatory power in children and adolescents. A meta-analysis was conducted using multiple databases, including Embase and Medline. Studies were included that utilized receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis and published area under the receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUC) for adiposity indicators with hyperglycaemia, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and other cardio-metabolic outcomes. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. AUC values were extracted and pooled using a random-effects model and were weighted using the inverse variance method. The mean AUC values for each index were greater than 0.6 for most outcomes including hypertension. The values were the highest when screening for metabolic syndrome (AUC > 0.8). WHtR did not have significantly better screening power than other two indexes in most outcomes, except for elevated triglycerides when compared with body mass index and high metabolic risk score when compared with waist circumference. Although not being superior in discriminatory power, WHtR is convenient in terms of measurement and interpretation, which is advantageous in practice and allows for the quick identification of children with cardio-metabolic risk factors at an early age.

  2. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and ‘decreasing /stable’ child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Methods: Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI ‘decreased or stayed the same.’ Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Results: Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of −0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a −0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Conclusions: Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success. PMID:26895374

  3. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  4. BMI is a Better Indicator of Cardiac Risk Factors, as against Elevated Blood Pressure in Apparently Healthy Female Adolescents and Young Adult Students: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study in Tripura

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measures are used as indicators of elevated blood pressure, but reported to have variable sensitivity among populations. This study was undertaken to identify the better indicator of Cardiac-risk factors by statistical comparison of BMI, Waist circumference, and Waist to Height (WtHr) ratio in apparently healthy adolescents and young adult female students of Tripura. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a resource limited setup on 210 apparently healthy female adolescents and young adult students in Tripura. Mean (±SD) of all parameters were compared (ANOVA) to recognize significant independent (anthropometric measures) and dependent factors (blood pressure indices and so on). Correlation (r) analysis was used to identify the better (p) indicator of blood pressure indices (dependent variable) and its impact was assessed by Multiple Regression analysis. Results: blood pressure indices are comparatively higher in obese and overweight participants with statistically significant (95.5% confidence) mean differences. Significant correlation with dependent factors is observed with BMI followed by WtHr and Waist Circumference. Impact of anthropometric measures with blood pressure Indices is most significant for BMI (P ≤ 0.020) followed by WtHr (P ≤ 0.500) and waist circumference (P ≤ 0.520). Conclusion: BMI is a superior indicator of blood pressure indices and can identify participants at risk even in apparently healthy adolescent and young adult females. PMID:27890980

  5. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-02-05

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

  6. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  7. The Massachusetts BMI letter: A qualitative study of responses from parents of obese children

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Lindsay J.; Carbone, Elena T.; Anliker, Jean A.; Goff, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Massachusetts (MA) public schools conduct mandated body-mass index (BMI) screening and until recently, communicated results in a letter to parents/caregivers, to encourage primary care visits and provide aggregate data to the state Department of Public Health. This study assessed the letter's readability and qualitatively explored parents’ responses to it. Methods Readability of the BMI letter was calculated. Audio-taped 1-h focus groups were conducted with parents/caregivers of 8- to 14-year-old obese (≥95th BMI-for-age percentile) children. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit responses. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on transcripts to identify emergent themes. Results Readability analysis showed higher grade levels than recommended. Eight focus groups consisting of two to six parents each were conducted (n = 29); 83% were female, mean age 41 ± 9 years, and 65% self-identified as Hispanic/Latino. Key themes identified included usefulness of the BMI letter, concerns about utility of BMI for screening, concerns about impacting self-esteem, and failure to understand the letter. Conclusions The MA BMI letter may not have been achieving its desired goal with some parents. Practice implications: Emergent themes from this study could be used to test effectiveness of similar BMI letters nationwide and develop strategies to improve communication to parents. PMID:24290240

  8. A Prospective Study of LINE-1DNA Methylation and Development of Adiposity in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Rozek, Laura S.; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5–12 years at baseline using pyrosequencing technology. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 months. We estimated mean change in three age-and sex-standardized indicators of adiposity: body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold thickness ratio Z-score according to quartiles of LINE-1 methylation using mixed effects regression models. We also examined associations with height-for-age Z-score. Results There were non-linear, inverse relations of LINE-1 methylation with BMI-for-age Z-score and the skinfold thickness ratio Z-score. After adjustment for baseline age and socioeconomic status, boys in the lowest quartile of LINE-1 methylation experienced annual gains in BMI-for-age Z-score and skinfold thickness ratio Z-score that were 0.06 Z/year (P = 0.04) and 0.07 Z/year (P = 0.03), respectively, higher than those in the upper three quartiles. The relation of LINE-1 methylation and annual change in waist circumference followed a decreasing monotonic trend across the four quartiles (P trend = 0.02). DNA methylation was not related to any of the adiposity indicators in girls. There were no associations between LINE-1 methylation and linear growth in either sex. Conclusions Lower LINE-1 DNA methylation is related to development of adiposity in boys. PMID:23638120

  9. Association of waist circumference with impaired six-minute walk in type 2 diabetes mellitus is independent of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Hong; Nolan, Mark; Negishi, Kazuaki; Burgess, John; Marwick, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction has been associated with impaired exercise capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this community-based study of 274 asymptomatic T2DM patients (71±4 years, 55% men) with preserved ejection fraction, a comprehensive resting echocardiogram was performed to gather sensitive systolic and diastolic function parameters (including speckle tracking echocardiography), and a standard six-minute walk test was performed. Tertiles of increasing waist circumference were associated with worsening walk distance. In this community-based study, we found an association of waist circumference with impaired exercise capacity, independent of age, gender, diabetes duration, insulin and angiotensin blockade, LV mass, systolic and diastolic function.

  10. Development of BMI values of German children and their healthcare costs.

    PubMed

    Batscheider, Ariane; Rzehak, Peter; Teuner, Christina M; Wolfenstetter, Silke B; Leidl, Reiner; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the association between different patterns of Body Mass Index (BMI) development from birth on and later healthcare utilisation and costs in children aged about 10 years based on two birth cohort studies: the GINIplus study (3287 respondents) and the LISAplus study (1762 respondents). Direct costs were estimated using information on healthcare utilisation given by parents in the 10-year follow-up. To meet this aim, we (i) estimate BMI-standard deviation score (BMIZ) trajectories using latent growth mixture models and (ii) examine the correlation between these trajectories and utilisation of healthcare services and resulting costs at the 10-year follow-up. We identified three BMI-trajectories: a normative BMIZ growth class (BMI development almost as in the WHO growth standards), a rapid BMIZ growth up to age 2 years class (with a higher BMI in the first two years of life as proposed by the WHO growth standards) and a persistent rapid BMIZ growth up to age 5 years class (with a higher BMI in the first five years of life as proposed by the WHO growth standards). Annual total direct medical costs of healthcare use are estimated to be on average €368 per child. These costs are doubled, i.e. on average €722 per child, in the group with the most pronounced growth (persistent rapid BMIZ growth up to age 5 years class).

  11. Relationship Between Adiposity and Pulmonary Function in School-Aged Canadian Children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sara; Little, Julian; Chen, Yue

    2014-09-01

    Reduced lung function has been observed in adults with excess adiposity; however, in children, the relationship between adiposity and lung function is not clearly understood. A sample of 1,583 children, less than 18 years of age, from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) was used to examine the associations of various anthropometric and skinfold measures with lung function parameters. The mean age of the sample was 12.15 (0.096). In normal weight boys, body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV0.75 and FEV1; while in overweight or obese boys, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio showed inverse correlations with pulmonary function measures. Similarly, in normal weight girls, BMI and WC had positive associations with lung function measures but no inverse effect of adiposity was observed in overweight or obese girls. Skinfold analysis showed that only triceps skinfold had a significant inverse association with FVC and borderline significant associations with FEV0.75 and FEV1 in normal weight boys; while in overweight or obese boys, all the skinfold indicators displayed inverse correlations with lung function. The best predictor of lung function was triceps skinfold with βstd=-0.3869 for FVC, -0.3496 for FEV0.75 and -0.3668 for FEV1. No inverse correlations between skinfolds and lung function were observed in girls. Adiposity had differing effects on respiratory function that were dependent on sex and BMI group with the most significant effect on the overweight or obese boys. The most important indicator of adiposity in boys with BMI <30 kg/m(2) was triceps skinfold. In girls, adiposity was not associated with poor lung function.

  12. The Polycomb group gene Bmi1 regulates antioxidant defenses in neurons by repressing p53 pro-oxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Chatoo, Wassim; Abdouh, Mohamed; David, Jocelyn; Champagne, Marie-Pier; Ferreira, José; Rodier, Francis; Bernier, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Aging may be determined by a genetic program and/or by the accumulation rate of molecular damages. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the mitochondrial metabolism have been postulated to be the central source of molecular damages and imbalance between levels of intracellular ROS and antioxidant defenses is a characteristic of the aging brain. How aging modifies free radicals concentrations and increases the risk to develop most neurodegenerative diseases is poorly understood, however. Here we show that the Polycomb group and oncogene Bmi1 is required in neurons to suppress apoptosis and the induction of a premature aging-like program characterized by reduced antioxidant defenses. Before weaning, Bmi1−/− mice display a progeroid-like ocular and brain phenotype while Bmi1+/− mice, although apparently normal, have reduced lifespan. Bmi1 deficiency in neurons results in increased p19Arf/p53 levels, abnormally high ROS concentrations and hypersensitivity to neurotoxic agents. Most Bmi1 functions on neurons oxidative metabolism are genetically linked to repression of p53 pro-oxidant activity, which also operates in physiological conditions. In Bmi1−/− neurons, p53 and co-repressors accumulate at antioxidant gene promoters, correlating with a repressed chromatin state and antioxidant genes downregulation. These findings provide a molecular mechanism explaining how Bmi1 regulates free radical concentrations and reveal the biological impact of Bmi1 deficiency on neuronal survival and aging. PMID:19144853

  13. Association of body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis with metabolic risk factor clustering among middle-aged Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linfeng; Wang, Zengwu; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Manlu

    2017-06-01

    Body composition monitor (BCM) based on the bioelectric impedance analysis is very convenient to use. However, whether percentage body fat (PBF) and visceral fat index (VFI) that acquired by BCM are superior to anthropometric measures is unknown. The study explored whether PBF and VFI are better than anthropometric indexes [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist circumference to height ratio(WHtR)] in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in a representive sample across China which included 9574 Chinese men and women that were investigated in 2009-2010. PBF and VFI were compared with the BMI, WC, and WHtR through the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression. The results showed that the AUC for VFI was higher than BMI and PBF but lower than WHtR and WC in both men and Women. The AUC for WHtR, WC, VFI, BMI and PBF was 0.710, 0.706, 0.700, 0.693, 0.656 in men and 0.705, 0.699, 0.698, 0.675, 0.657 in women, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) tended to increase with all the indexes. The curve of ORs for WHtR was steepest and the curve for PBF was flattest in both men and women; the curve for VFI was similar to WC in women, but flatter than WC in men. From the data we concluded that VFI seems better than BMI and PBF, but not superior to WC and WHtR in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in the middle-aged Chinese.

  14. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  15. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Adiposity Index, and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Two Populations in Brazil: General and Amerindian

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Mourao-Junior, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, José E.; Mill, José G.; Pereira, Alexandre C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design and methods A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor. Conclusion Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations. PMID:24937307

  16. BMI and cardiovascular function in children and adolescents of Mauritius Island.

    PubMed

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L; Joonas, Noorjehan; Joganah, Shashee; Larhubarbe, Jose; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2013-01-01

    Among countries which have undergone a rapid socio-economic and nutrition transition over the past few decades, the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius is among those with the greatest surge in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and CVD. The aim of the present study was to characterise the BMI and cardiovascular functions of children and adolescents of this at-risk population. Data were collected through measurements of anthropometry, resting heart rate and blood pressure in a nationally representative sample (n 2489) of children (5-10 years) and adolescents (11-18 years), and analysed according to sex and ethnic identity: South Asian Hindus and Muslims (both of Indian ancestry), Creole (of varying degrees of African ancestry) and Chinese (of mainland China ancestry). Based on standards of the WHO or International Obesity Task Force, one in six of these young individuals exhibit a high BMI-for-age. Analysis by ethnicity revealed that Creole males and females show higher BMI-for-age but also lower heart rate (P < 0·001) even after adjustment for BMI. Additionally, Chinese males and females show higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0·01), independently of BMI. None of these ethnic differences could be related to household income, diet type (vegetarian v. non-vegetarian) or to fruit consumption. This study in children and adolescents of this multi-ethnic at-risk population for CVD reveal ethnic differences in BMI-for-age as well as consistent BMI-independent ethnic differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These findings underscore the need to establish the BMI-fat % relationship across the various ethnic groups and for more detailed investigations about their differences in lifestyle and dietary habits that might explain their differential cardiovascular functions prior to adulthood.

  17. Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel: From Trends, to Associated Variables and Comorbidities, and to Medical Signatures.

    PubMed

    Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel.The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions.A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot.This study provides a reliable and in-depth view

  18. Adolescent BMI at Northern Israel: From Trends, to Associated Variables and Comorbidities, and to Medical Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel. The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions. A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot. This study provides a reliable and in

  19. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a more independent measure compared with waist circumference to predict arterial stiffness in subjects with type 2 diabetes - a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measurements are useful in clinical practice since they are non-invasive and cheap. Previous studies suggest that sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be a better measure of visceral fat depots. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore and compare how laboratory and anthropometric risk markers predicted subclinical organ damage in 255 patients, with type 2 diabetes, after four years. Methods Baseline investigations were performed in 2006 and were repeated at follow-up in 2010. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and at follow-up in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 55–65 years old. Results There were significant correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) (r = 0.144, p = 0.03), C - reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.172, p = 0.009) at baseline and IMT measured at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, treatment with statins and Hba1c, the associations remained statistically significant. HbA1c, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol did not correlate to IMT at follow-up. Baseline body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.130, p = 0.049), waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.147, p = 0.027) and sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) (r = 0.184, p = 0.007) correlated to PWV at follow-up. Challenged with sex, SBP and HbA1c, the association between SAD, not WC nor BMI, and PWV remained statistically significant (p = 0.036). In a stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV. Conclusions We conclude that apoB and CRP, but not LDL-cholesterol predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SAD was more independent in predicting arterial stiffness over time, compared with WC, in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23536999

  20. Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ong, Ken K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Duell, Eric J.; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04–1.69), 1.09 (0.90–1.31), 0.97 (0.86–1.10), and 0.85 (0.70–1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40–44, 45–49, and ≥55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50–54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02–1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01–1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23230098

  1. Fit-To-Fight: Waist vs Waist/Height Measurements to Determine an Individual’s Fitness Level - A Study in Statistical Regression and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Doll 0.3600 Female College Swimmer 0.4240 Male College Swimmer 0.4280 Body Builder 0.4580 Female at increased risk 0.4920 General... Female WAIST/HT Histogram ..................................................................... 49 Figure 13 – Male WAIST/HT Histogram...51 Figure 15 – (AFI 10-248) Female Waist Points Graph..................................................... 52 Figure 16

  2. Ancestry and BMI Influences on Facial Soft Tissue Depths for A Cohort of Chinese and Caucasoid Women in Dunedin, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Louisa J; Mirijali, Seyed Ali; Niven, Brian E; Blyth, Phil; Dias, George J

    2015-09-01

    This study measured and assessed facial soft tissue depths (FSTDs) in adult female Chinese and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans (Caucasoids). Ultrasound was used to obtain depths at nine landmarks on 108 healthy subjects (51 Chinese, 57 NZ European), erect positioned, of same age group (18-29 years). Height and weight were also recorded. Statistical analysis focused on comparison of tissue depth between the two ancestry groups and the influence of Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2). Results showed mean depth differences at Supra M2 and Infra M2 landmarks significantly greater for Chinese than Caucasoid women for all three BMI Classes (BMI<20, 20≤BMI<25, 25≤BMI<30), even BMI<20. For both groups BMI positively correlated with FSTD values at all landmarks except Labrale superius. This study enabled ancestry and BMI influence on FSTDs to be observed and compared for two distinct groups. Results add to knowledge about facial tissue depth variation.

  3. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  4. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Supplementation and BMI Change: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mora, N; Rieke, K; Plitcha, J; Segura, AJ; Leehey, D; DeShong, K; Kramer, H; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation on weight change remains controversial. The objective of this study was to summarize the effects of 25[OH]D supplementation (cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol) on BMI change through a meta-analysis of published clinical trials. We completed a systematic review of English articles, using MEDLINE (Ovid, Pubmed) from January 1, 1998 through January 1, 2013. The articles selected focused on 25[OH]D supplementation and body mass index (BMI) in randomized controlled trials (RCT’s). The association between 25[OH]D and mean BMI change was estimated utilizing a random effects model. A total of 30 studies were reviewed and 9 were included in the meta-analysis. Total participants included 1651 adults (82.6% women and mean age 47.9 years) and mean follow-up ranged between 6 to 196 weeks and mean daily 25[OH]D dose ranged from 200 IU to 1,110 IU. Five of the 9 studies included calcium supplementation in both groups. Average baseline BMI was 30.7 and 30.4 kg/m2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Five studies suggested a beneficial effect for 25[OH]D supplementation for BMI change whereas 3 studies showed no effect of 25[OH]D supplementation on BMI change, and one showed a non-perceptible change. Meta-analysis of BMI values at end of trial showed no statistically significant difference in BMI change by use of 25[OH]D supplementation. Based on existing published trials, oral 25[OH]D supplementation does not significantly impact BMI change. PMID:25632374

  5. The Effect of Incarceration on Adult Male BMI Trajectories, United States, 1981-2006.

    PubMed

    Houle, Brian

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is socially patterned, with higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities, and those with lower socio-economic status. Contextual factors also affect obesity risk. However, an omitted factor has been incarceration, particularly since it disproportionately affects minorities. This study examines the effects of incarceration on adult male body mass index (BMI) in the United States over the life course, and whether effects vary by race/ethnicity and education. BMI trajectories were analyzed over age using growth curve models of men ages 18-49 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel study. BMI was based on self-reported height/weight (kg/m(2)). Being currently incarcerated increased BMI, but the effect varied by race/ethnicity and education: blacks experienced the largest increases, while effects were lowered for men with more education than a high school diploma. Cumulative exposure to prison increased BMI for all groups. These results suggest a differential effect of incarceration on adult male BMI among some racial/ethnic-education minority groups. Particularly given that these groups are most commonly imprisoned, incarceration may help structure obesity disparities and disadvantage across the life course.

  6. Who gains? Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of BMI gain upon college entry in women.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lance O

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18-20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass.

  7. Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

  8. Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

  9. CEPC partial double ring scheme and crab-waist parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dou; Gao, Jie; Su, Feng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhai, Jiyuan; Wang, Yiwei; Bai, Sha; Geng, Huiping; Bian, Tianjian; Cui, Xiaohao; Wang, Na; Duan, Zhe; Guo, Yuanyuan; Qin, Qing

    2016-11-01

    In order to avoid the pretzel orbit, CEPC is proposed to use partial double ring scheme in CDR. In this paper, a general method of how to make an consistent machine parameter design of CEPC with crab-waist by using analytical expression of maximum beam-beam tune shift and beamstrahlung beam lifetime started from given IP vertical beta, beam power and other technical limitations were developed. FFS with crab sextupoles will be developed and the arc lattice will be redesigned to acheive the lower emittance for crab-waist scheme.

  10. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    PubMed

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age.

  11. A Prospective Study of Sedentary Behavior and Changes in the BMI Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Bottai, Matteo; Park, Yikyung; Marshall, Simon J.; Moore, Steven C.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine if baseline sedentary behavior was associated with changes in BMI over 9 years. Methods Participants were enrolled into the NIH-AARP Diet and Health study in 1995–1996 (median age 63) and BMI was reported at baseline and 9 years later (n=158,436). Sitting time (<3 [referent], 3–4, 5–6, 7–8 or ≥9 h/d), television viewing (None, <1, 1–2, 3–4, 5–6, 7–8, or ≥9 h/d) and the covariates (age, sex, race, education, smoking, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, caloric intake, and sleep duration) were reported at baseline. We used longitudinal quantile regression to model changes at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th BMI percentiles. Results More sitting at baseline was associated with additional increases in BMI over time and the association was stronger at the upper BMI percentiles (e.g. <3h/d [referent] vs. 5–6 h/d sitting additional increases: 50th percentile = 0.41 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.48 & 90th percentile = 0.85 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.98). Similar associations were observed between more television viewing at baseline and additional increases in BMI over time (e.g., no television [referent] vs. 3–4 h/d of television: 50th percentile= 1.96 kg/m2, 95% CI: 1.77, 2.15 & 90th percentile = 2.11 kg/m2, 95% CI: 1.49, 2.73). Conclusion Reducing sedentary behavior could help prevent an increase in BMI in adulthood, especially at the upper percentiles of the BMI distribution, and thereby reduce the prevalence of obesity. PMID:24781893

  12. The association of waist hip ratio and angiographically determined coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hartz, A; Grubb, B; Wild, R; Van Nort, J J; Kuhn, E; Freedman, D; Rimm, A

    1990-08-01

    Body fat distribution as measured by the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference (WHR) is now accepted as an important risk factor for a number of diseases. This study evaluated the association of WHR and coronary artery disease (CAD). Measurements included the subjects' height, weight, waist girth, hip girth, significant CAD on coronary angiography, and cholesterol levels. A history of myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes or hypertension was obtained from subject interviews. The subjects were analyzed in two age groups: younger than age 60 (88 men and 39 women) and age 60 or older (85 men and 63 women). For older women the relative odds of CAD comparing women at the 75th percentile of WHR to women at the 25th percentile was 3.67 (P = 0.003), with a 95 percent confidence interval of 1.57-8.57. The relative odds was reduced to 2.80 after adjusting for all other risk factors. WHR was significantly associated with angiographic evidence of CAD in all women combined after adjusting for age (P = 0.0004), but it was not significantly associated with CAD in younger women or in men. The results suggest that in older women the risk of CAD increases with a greater percentage of body fat in the abdomen.

  13. Effects of BMI, Fat Mass, and Lean Mass on Asthma in Childhood: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R.; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001) and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38–4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003). The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16–2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19–3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89–2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11–1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23–4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Conclusions Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see

  14. Early-childhood BMI trajectories: evidence from a prospective, nationally representative British cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B; Panico, L

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: By age 5, 20% of British children are classed as overweight or obese, suggesting that early childhood is crucial for lifelong body mass index (BMI) trajectories. In this paper, we identify latent trajectories of early-childhood BMI from ages 3 to 11 years. Given the current context of growing socio-economic inequalities in childhood and adult overweight and obesity, we examine the socio-economic characteristics and mechanisms during pregnancy and infancy which underscore these trajectories. Subject and Methods: We use a nationally representative, prospective cohort study of 9699 children born in 2000–2002, living in the United Kingdom shortly after birth, with complete information on height and weight (measured by an interviewer) at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11. Trajectories of BMI are calculated using latent growth mixture models. Multinomial models characterize these trajectories by their socio-economic profiles and mechanisms during pregnancy and infancy. Results: Four trajectories were identified: two separate trajectories where BMI remains within a normal range (85% of the sample), an overweight trajectory (14.4%), and an obese trajectory (3.1%). No ‘declining BMI' or late-onset groups were found. The obese group is already distinct from the other trajectories by age 3. The overweight group diverges from the normal groups around age 5. Strong socio-economic inequalities emerged; for the obese group, part of this disadvantage is mediated through early mechanisms such as pregnancy smoke and not initiating breastfeeding. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for the idea that childhood BMI trajectories develop early, especially for children who will follow an obese trajectory. Strong socio-economic patterns in these trajectories suggest that the observed trend in growing inequalities may be rooted in early life. Mediating mechanisms for the obese appear to be in the pregnancy and infant period, further research should explore

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Yundong; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biochemical or clinical changes of hyperandrogenism are important elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is currently no consensus on the definition and diagnostic criteria of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the complex symptoms of hyperandrogenic disorders and the correlations between metabolism and hyperandrogenism in patients with PCOS from an outpatient reproductive medicine clinic in China. We conducted a case control study of 125 PCOS patients and 130 controls to evaluate differences in body mass index (BMI), total testosterone (TT), modified Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free androgen index (FAI) between PCOS patients and controls and subgroups of PCOS. The prevalence of acne and hirsutism did not differ significantly between the hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic subgroup. Patients with signs of hyperandrogenism had significantly higher BMI (P < 0.05), but differences in TT, SHBG, FAI and waist/hip ratio were insignificant. The odds ratio of overweight was calculated for all PCOS patients. Our results suggest that PCOS patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess; therefore, BMI may be a strong predictor of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:27526961

  16. Neck and waist circumference biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in a cohort of predominantly African-American college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Thaddeus J; Schweitzer, Amy; Hoffman, Heather J; Onyewu, Chiatogu; Hurtado, Maria Eugenia; Hoffman, Eric P; Klein, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the value of measuring neck and waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in college students (18 to 25 years of age). Participants (n=109) were 92% black, 62.4% female, 45.9% overweight or obese, and 20.2% prehypertensive or hypertensive. Overall, 41 (37.6%) students had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Percent body fat, assessed using whole-body air-displacement plethysmography, was positively correlated (P<0.0001) with neck and waist circumference (as measured at the midpoint between the right lower rib and suprailiac crest; hereafter "midpoint"). Neck circumference correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P ≤ 0.02) and both neck circumference and waist circumference-midpoint correlated with insulin (P ≤ 0.001) and triglycerides (P ≤ 0.002). The best-fit cutoffs were ≥ 83 cm waist circumference-midpoint and ≥ 88 cm waist circumference measured at the suprailiac crest for percent body fat in men and ≥ 75 cm waist circumference-midpoint for metabolic syndrome in women. The proportion of overweight and prehypertensive individuals among self-described healthy students underscores the need for screening tools that identify those who might benefit most from health interventions. Waist circumference-midpoint provides a simple yet sensitive method for the estimation of percent body fat and metabolic syndrome risk in primarily African-American college students. The novel use of neck circumference should be further investigated.

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on BMI from late childhood to adolescence are modified by parental education.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-03-01

    To investigate how parental education modifies genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI during adolescence, self-reported BMI at 11-12, 14, and 17 years of age was collected from a population sample of 2,432 complete Finnish twin pairs born in 1983-1987. Based on parental report, twins were divided to those with high (both parents high school graduates), mixed level (one parent a graduate, the other not), and limited (neither parent a graduate) parental education. Genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI in different education classes were modeled using twin analysis. Heritability of BMI among 11-12-year-olds with high parental education was 85-87% whereas it was 61-68% if parental education was limited or mixed level. Common environmental effect, i.e., effect of environmental factors shared by family members, was found (17-22%) if parental education was limited or mixed level but not if it was high. With increasing parental education, common environmental variance in BMI decreased at age 14 among boys (from 22 to 3%) and girls (from 17 to 10%); heritability increased among boys from 63 to 78%, but did not change among girls. The common environmental component disappeared and heritability of BMI was larger at the age of 17 in all parental education classes. To conclude, common environment did not affect variation of adolescent BMI in high-educated families but did so in families with limited parental education. This suggests that intervention and prevention campaigns could effectively target families identified by limited parental education.

  18. Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI.

    PubMed

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18-73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15-43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions.

  19. Comparison of Body Composition Assessed by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and BMI in Current and Former U.S. Navy Service Members

    PubMed Central

    Gasier, Heath G.; Hughes, Linda M.; Young, Colin R.; Richardson, Annely M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known of the diagnostic accuracy of BMI in classifying obesity in active duty military personnel and those that previously served. Thus, the primary objectives were to determine the relationship between lean and fat mass, and body fat percentage (BF%) with BMI, and assess the agreement between BMI and BF% in defining obesity. Methods Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 462 males (20–91 years old) who currently or previously served in the U.S. Navy. A BMI of ≥ 30 kg/m2 and a BF% ≥ 25% were used for obesity classification. Results The mean BMI (± SD) and BF% were 28.8 ± 4.1 and 28.9 ± 6.6%, respectively, with BF% increasing with age. Lean mass, fat mass, and BF% were significantly correlated with BMI for all age groups. The exact agreement of obesity defined by BMI and BF% was fair (61%), however, 38% were misclassified by a BMI cut-off of 30 when obesity was defined by BF%. Conclusions From this data we determined that there is a good correlation between body composition and BMI, and fair agreement between BMI and BF% in classifying obesity in a group of current and former U.S. Navy service members. However, as observed in the general population, a significant proportion of individuals with excess fat are misclassified by BMI cutoffs. PMID:26197480

  20. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

  1. Study of 11 BMI-Associated Loci Identified in GWAS for Associations with Central Obesity in the Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yue; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Hou, Dongqing; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI)/generalized obesity. In this study, we aimed to examine the associations of identified SNPs with risk of central obesity in a child population from China. Methods We genotyped 11 SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, FAIM2 rs7138803, NPC1 rs1805081, SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102, PCSK1rs6235, KCTD15 rs29941, BAT2 rs2844479) in the Chinese children (N = 3502, age range 6–18 years) from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS). Based on the age- and sex- specific waist circumference (WC) standards generated in the BCAMS study, 1196 central obese cases and 2306 controls were identified. Results Of 11 studied SNPs, four SNPs and genetic risk score (GRS) based on them were statistically significantly associated with central obesity by WC criteria (FTO rs9939609: OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.10–1.50, p = 0.001; MC4R rs17782313: OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.12–1.44, p = 1.32×10−4; GNPDA2 rs10938397: OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.09–1.37, p = 4.09×10−4; BDNF rs6265: OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.08–1.34, p = 8.86×10−4; GRS: OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.16–1.34, p = 2.58×10−9) after adjustment for sex, age, pubertal stage, physical activity and family history of obesity. Similar observations were made using weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) criterion. However, other SNPs were not associated with central obesity by WC as well as WHtR criterion. Conclusions Our study replicates the statistically significant association of four SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265) with risk of central obesity in the Chinese children. PMID:23424664

  2. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  3. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo; García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Hernández-López, Leonor Estela

    2015-01-01

    We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) and body mass indices (BMIs). Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b ± s.e. = −0.000003 ± 0.000001;  t94 = −2.12, adjusted R2 = −0.008,  P = 0.03). Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days. PMID:26351453

  4. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  5. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  6. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference.

  7. Seasonal BMI Changes of Rural Women Living in Anatolia

    PubMed Central

    Sabbağ, Çiğdem

    2012-01-01

    Today, obesity is one of the most evident public health problems in many parts of the World and it is more common among women. Several factors are affecting women’s obesity, among these short term weight fluctuations, either gain or loss, cause severe health disorders, particularly in rural areas where seasonal activity differs significantly throughout the year. Since this case has not been studied in detail, our research focused on prevalence and probable causes of seasonal rural obesity among women in two rural areas of Turkey. The study was undertaken with 100 participants. One-way ANOVA and one-way repeated ANOVA tests were utilized for categorical, continuous and repeated variables as study contains groups with more than one and repeated variables. Overweight is more common in the 18–30 years and 50+ years groups, whereas the absence of obesity, except during winter of 2010 in the 50+ years of age group, is most probably due to the widespread occurrence of diabetes for this age group. The highest BMI values for all groups, which were 25.2 ± 3.39 for 2009 and 26.1 ± 3.40 for 2010, were determined in winter, because of minimum physical activity, while summer BMIs were 24.1 ± 3.39 in 2009 and 25.1 ± 3.35 in 2010. This decrease was most probably due to intense agricultural field work in both regions. The majority of the women claimed that their weight is balanced in summer but results revealed that participants did not lose all the weight which was gained during winter months although BMI showed a significant fall from spring to autumn. PMID:22690188

  8. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  9. Differences in the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat between Japanese and Australian-Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Uchida, Hayato; Binns, Colin W

    2006-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine ethnic and environmental influences on the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat, using a sample of 144 Japanese and 140 Australian-Caucasian men living in Australia, and eighty-eight Japanese men living in Japan. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry using standard international methods (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol). Body density was predicted using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) equation, and percentage body fat was calculated from Siri's (1961) equation. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in stature, body mass and BMI were observed between Japanese and Australian men, but no ethnic differences were observed in their percentage body fat and height-corrected sum of skinfold thicknesses. No differences were found in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship between the Japanese subjects living in Australia and in Japan. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship observed from a comparison between pooled Japanese men (aged 18-40 years, BMI range 16.6-32.8 kg/m2) and Australians (aged 18-39 years, BMI range 16.1-31.4 kg/m2) suggest that Japanese men are likely to have a greater percentage body fat than Australian men at any given BMI value. From the analyses, the Japanese men were estimated to have an equivalent amount of body fat to the Australian men at BMI values that were about 1.5 units lower than those of the Australians (23.5 kg/m2 and 28.2 kg/m2, respectively). It was concluded that Japanese men have greater body fat deposition than Australian-Caucasians at the same BMI value. Japanese men may therefore require lower BMI cut-off points to identify obese individuals compared with Australian-Caucasian men.

  10. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-02-21

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders.

  11. Community BMI Surveillance Using an Existing Immunization Registry in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Ratigan, Amanda R; Lindsay, Suzanne; Lemus, Hector; Chambers, Christina D; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Cronan, Terry A; Browner, Deirdre K; Wooten, Wilma J

    2016-11-11

    This study examines the demographic representativeness of the County of San Diego Body Mass Index (BMI) Surveillance System to determine if the BMI estimates being obtained from this convenience sample of individuals who visited their healthcare provider for outpatient services can be generalized to the general population of San Diego. Height and weight were transmitted from electronic health records systems to the San Diego Immunization Registry (SDIR). Age, gender, and race/ethnicity of this sample are compared to general population estimates by sub-regional area (SRA) (n = 41) to account for regional demographic differences. A < 10% difference (calculated as the ratio of the differences between the frequencies of a sub-group in this sample and general population estimates obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau) was used to determine representativeness. In 2011, the sample consisted of 352,924 residents aged 2-100 years. The younger age groups (2-11, 12-17 years) and the oldest age group (≥65 years) were representative in 90, 75, and 85% of SRAs, respectively. Furthermore, at least one of the five racial/ethnic groups was represented in 71% of SRAs. This BMI Surveillance System was found to demographically represent some SRAs well, suggesting that this registry-based surveillance system may be useful in estimating and monitoring neighborhood-level BMI data.

  12. International BMI Comparison of Children and Youth with Intellectual Disabilities Participating in Special Olympics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meghann; Temple, Viviene A.; Foley, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities by world region, gender and age. A total of 9678 children and youth records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database after data cleaning (6084 boys and 3594 girls). Children were defined as 8-11 year…

  13. Agreement and Diagnostic Performance of FITNESSGRAM®, International Obesity Task Force, and Hungarian National BMI Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Marton, Orsolya; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined agreement between all 3 standards (as well as relative diagnostic associations with metabolic syndrome) using a representative sample of youth from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study. Method: Body mass index (BMI) was assessed in a field sample of 2,352 adolescents (ages 10-18.5 years) and metabolic syndrome…

  14. Initiation of Oral Contraceptives and Changes in Blood Pressure and BMI in Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Parker, Emily D.; Sinaiko, Alan; Daley, Matthew F.; Margolis, Karen; Becker, Mary; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Magid, David; O’Connor, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI) associated with initiation and continued use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) in healthy adolescents. Study design This observational, matched cohort study was conducted in two large health systems. Utilizing claims and electronic medical records, we identified adolescents 14-17.9 years of age initiating medium-dose COCs (containing 30 or 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent and a progestin) between 7/1/07-12/31/09 with a baseline and at least one follow-up BP and BMI. COC-users were matched 1:2 by age, race/ethnicity and site to controls (COC-non-users). All BPs and BMIs recorded during outpatient visits starting 1 month prior to COC initiation (index date for controls), through 12/31/2010 were collected. Mixed model linear regression with random intercepts and slopes were then used to estimate changes in SBP, DBP and BMI over time. Results The 510 adolescent COC-users and 912 controls did not differ significantly by age, race/ethnicity, insurance, baseline SBP, DBP or BMI. After adjusting for baseline values, over a median of 18 months follow-up, COC-users had an decrease in SBP of 0.07 mmHG/month, and controls had an increase of 0.02 mmHG/month (p=.65). Similarly, DBP decreased by 0.007 mmHG/month in COC-users versus 0.006 mmHG/month in controls (p=.99). BMI increased by 0.04 (kg/m2)/month in COC-users versus 0.025(kg/m2)/month in controls (p=.09). Conclusions These data should provide reassurance to patients and providers regarding the lack of significant associations between COC-use and BMI or BP changes in adolescents. PMID:25189822

  15. Gender Expression Associated With BMI in a Prospective Cohort Study of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S. Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Kennedy, Grace A.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Haines, Jess; Scherer, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between gender expression (GE) and BMI in adolescence. Methods Repeated measures of weight-related behaviors and BMI were collected 1996-2011 via annual/biennial self-report surveys from youth ages 10 to 23 years (6,693 females, 2,978 males) in the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study. GE (very conforming [referent], mostly conforming, nonconforming) was assessed in 2010/11. Sex-stratified, multivariable linear models estimated GE group differences in BMI and the contribution of sexual orientation and weight-related exposures to group differences. Models for males included interaction terms for GE with age. Results In females, mostly conforming youth had 0.53 kg/m2 and nonconforming had 1.23 kg/m2 higher BMI; when adding adjustment for sexual orientation and weight-related exposures, GE-group estimates were attenuated up to 8% and remained statistically significant. In males, mostly conforming youth had −0.67 kg/m2 and nonconforming had −1.99 kg/m2 lower BMI (age [in years] interactions were between −0.09 to −0.14 kg/m2; when adding adjustment for sexual orientation and weight-related exposures, GE-group estimates were attenuated up to 11% and remained statistically significant. Conclusions GE is a strong independent predictor of BMI in adolescence. Obesity prevention and treatment interventions with youth must address ways that gender norms may reinforce or undermine healthful behaviors. PMID:26813530

  16. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Body Mass Index in Children Up To 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has been associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. However, epidemiologic studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are limited despite animal studies indicating PBDEs’ potential role as an obesogen. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal concentrations of BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and ΣPBDEs during pregnancy were associated with anthropometric measures in children aged 1–8 years. Methods: We examined 318 mother–child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a birth cohort enrolled from 2003 through 2006 (Cincinnati, OH). Serum PBDEs were measured at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation. We measured child height (1–8 years), weight (1–8 years), body mass index (BMI) (2–8 years), waist circumference (4–8 years), and body fat (8 years). To account for repeated measures, we used linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between maternal PBDEs and child anthropometric measures. Results: We found no statistically significant associations between prenatal PBDEs and height or weight z-score. A 10-fold increase in maternal serum BDE-153 was associated with lower BMI z-score (β = –0.36; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.13) at 2–8 years, smaller waist circumference (β = –1.81 cm; 95% CI: –3.13, –0.50) at 4–8 years, and lower percent body fat (β = –2.37%; 95% CI: –4.21, –0.53) at 8 years. A decrease in waist circumference at 4–8 years was observed with a 10-fold increase in BDE-100 (β = –1.50 cm; 95% CI: –2.93, –0.08) and ΣPBDEs (β = –1.57 cm; 95% CI: –3.11, –0.02). Conclusions: Reverse causality may have resulted in prenatal PBDEs, particularly BDE-153, and decreased BMI, waist circumference, and body fat. Citation: Vuong AM, Braun JM, Sjödin A, Webster GM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A. 2016. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and body mass index in children up to 8 years of age

  17. Hair cortisol and adiposity in a population‐based sample of 2,527 men and women aged 54 to 87 years

    PubMed Central

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cortisol exposure is hypothesized to contribute to obesity. This study examined associations between hair cortisol concentrations, a novel indicator of long‐term cortisol exposure, and adiposity in a large population‐based sample. Methods Data were from 2,527 men and women aged 54 and older (98% white British) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp‐nearest 2 cm hair segment, and height, weight, and waist circumference were objectively measured. Covariates included age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status, diabetes, and arthritis. Results In cross‐sectional analyses, hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with weight (r = 0.102, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.101, P < 0.001), and waist circumference (r = 0.082, P = 0.001) and were significantly elevated in participants with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) (F = 6.58, P = 0.001) and raised waist circumference (≥102 cm in men, ≥88 cm in women) (F = 4.87, P = 0.027). Hair cortisol levels were also positively associated with the persistence of obesity (F = 12.70, P < 0.001), evaluated in retrospect over 4 years. Conclusions Chronic exposure to elevated cortisol concentrations, assessed in hair, is associated with markers of adiposity and with the persistence of obesity over time. PMID:28229550

  18. An FTO Gene Variant Moderates the Association between Parental Restriction and Child BMI

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Alison; Emond, Jennifer A.; Hennessy, Erin; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to explore whether a common variant in the FTO gene moderates the relationship between parental restriction and child BMI. Methods This study reports on baseline data from 178 parent-child (ages 9–10 years) dyads. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and reported on socio-demographic characteristics. Each child’s height, weight and FTO rs9939609 genotype was assessed. Ordinary least squares regression was used to fit the child’s BMI-percentile on parental restriction and the child’s FTO genotype, adjusted for covariates. A likelihood ratio test was used to compare a model with and without a multiplicative interaction term between restriction and genotype. Results Most participants (93.3%) were white, non-Hispanic. Twenty-three percent of children were overweight/obese and FTO genotype was associated with weight status. Mean parental restriction was statistically higher among overweight/obese vs. normal weight children: 3.3 (SD 0.8) vs. 2.8 (SD 1.0); t-test p-value = 0.002. Parental restriction was positively associated with child BMI-percentile and BMI-z only among children with two copies of the high-risk FTO allele (p for interaction = 0.02), where each one-point increase in parental restriction was associated with a 14.7 increase in the child’s BMI-percentile or a 0.56-point increase in the child’s BMI z-score. Conclusion For only the children with two high-risk alleles, parental restriction was positively associated with child BMI-percentile. PMID:27196523

  19. The Genome-Wide Influence on Human BMI Depends on Physical Activity, Life Course, and Historical Period.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang; Liu, Hexuan; Wang, Ling; Shen, Haipeng; Hu, Wen

    2015-10-01

    In this analysis, guided by an evolutionary framework, we investigate how the human genome as a whole interacts with historical period, age, and physical activity to influence body mass index (BMI). The genomic influence is estimated by (1) heritability or the proportion of variance in BMI explained by genome-wide genotype data, and (2) the random effects or the best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data on BMI. Data were used from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) in the United States. The study was initiated in 1948, and the obesity data were collected repeatedly over the subsequent decades. The analyses draw analysis samples from a pool of >8,000 individuals in the FHS. The hypothesis testing based on Pitman test, permutation Pitman test, F test, and permutation F test produces three sets of significant findings. First, the genomic influence on BMI is substantially larger after the mid-1980s than in the few decades before the mid-1980s within each age group of 21-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60. Second, the genomic influence on BMI weakens as one ages across the life course, or the genomic influence on BMI tends to be more important during reproductive ages than after reproductive ages within each of the two historical periods. Third, within the age group of 21-50 and not in the age group of >50, the genomic influence on BMI among physically active individuals is substantially smaller than the influence on those who are not physically active. In summary, this study provides evidence that the influence of human genome as a whole on obesity depends on historical period, age, and level of physical activity.

  20. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI among U.S. adolescents and young adults in three race/ethnicity groups.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  1. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  2. Influence of BMI, Gender, and Hispanic Ethnicity on Physical Activity in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kynna N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This community-based participatory research study examined the association between overweight status and activity among Hispanic urban, school-age children. Design and Methods In a sample of 140 children, activities were assessed using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey’s questions about physical activity and team sports. Results Thirty-nine percent were overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) > 85%). Normal-weight children had higher levels of physical activity and team sports. Females had lower levels of physical activity and team sports. Significant associations included BMI and sports team participation, and BMI and Hispanic ethnicity. Practice Implications Nurses should be aware that Hispanic urban children are at risk for lower activity. PMID:21438999

  3. Effect of BMI on knee joint torques in ergometer rowing.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18-25), 10 overweight (BMI 25-30 kg·m⁻²), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m⁻²) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.

  4. The Validity of Administrative BMI Data in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edmund C; Son, Min-Sun; Mossad, David; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A; Gonzalez, Mark H; Meller, Menachem M

    2015-10-01

    Identifying BMI via administrative data is a useful way to evaluate outcomes in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for varying degrees of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance between BMI coding in administrative claims data and actual clinical BMI measurements in the medical record for patients undergoing TJA. Clinical BMI value was shown to be a significant determinant of whether ICD-9 codes were used to report the patient's obesity status (P<0.01). Although a higher clinical BMI strongly increased the likelihood of having either of the ICD-9 diagnosis codes used to identify obesity status, only the accuracy of the V85 code increased with increasing levels of BMI.

  5. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  6. Determining the waist radius of a focused Gaussian laser beam using a millimeter-scale ruler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pao-Keng; Liu, Jian-You

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive method for determining the waist radius of a focused Gaussian laser beam. This method is motivated by the fact that if you focus the laser beam using a lens, the distance from the lens to the waist will vary slightly as the lens is moved along the beam-propagating direction. We show how the waist radius can be calculated from four large longitudinal lengths, measurable using a conventional millimeter-scale ruler. Analyzing the dependence of the calculated waist radius on these four measured lengths numerically shows that the accuracy of the calculated waist radius is mainly affected by the error in the relative shift in the distance from the lens to the waist position. The calculated waist radius for a real HeNe laser is close to the one measured directly using a commercial beam profiler with an error within 7%.

  7. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement.

  8. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M.; El-Baiomy, Azza A.; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement. PMID:24616825

  9. Comparisons of Waist Circumference Measurements at Five Different Anatomical Sites in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaoran

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the waist circumference (WC) measurements of Chinese children at different sites to determine the relationship between WC measurements and body fat. WC was measured at five sites in 255 subjects aged 9–19 years: immediately below the lowest rib (WC1), at the narrowest waist (WC2), the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WC3), 1 cm above the umbilicus (WC4), and immediately above the iliac crest (WC5). Body fat mass (FM), body fat percentage (% BF), body fat mass in the trunk (FM in the trunk), and fat percentage in the trunk (% BF in the trunk) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The WCs were then compared through ANOVA with repeated measurement. The relationship of WC of each site with FM, % BF, FM in the trunk, and % BF in the trunk was examined through partial correlation. The WCs exhibited the following pattern: WC2 < WC1 < WC3 < WC4 < WC5 (p < 0.001) in males and WC2 < WC1 < WC4, WC3 < WC5 (p < 0.001) in females. The measured WCs were strongly correlated with FM, % BF, FM in the trunk, and % BF in the trunk. The WC measurements at five commonly used sites among Chinese children are different from one another. Results indicate that standardizing the anatomic point for the WC measurements is necessary. PMID:28261614

  10. Serum Chemerin Levels are Associated with Visceral Adiposity, Independent of Waist Circumference, in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Dae Young; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Seong Jin; Ihm, Sung Hee; Lee, Eun Jig; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chemerin has been suggested to be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between visceral adiposity and chemerin levels remains unclear in subjects with T2DM. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and visceral adiposity. Materials and Methods This study included 102 subjects newly diagnosed with T2DM. The relationships between serum chemerin levels and clinical and biochemical parameters were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the predictable factors of serum chemerin levels. Results Serum chemerin levels showed significant positive correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin levels, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and levels of triglycerides (log-transformed) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, while showing significant negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjusting for BMI and WC, VFT showed a significant relationship with serum chemerin levels (r=0.222, p=0.027). Moreover, VFT was an independent predictive factor of serum chemerin levels (β=0.242, p=0.041). Conclusion We demonstrated that chemerin is linked to metabolic syndrome components. Moreover, serum chemerin levels were associated significantly with obesity, especially visceral adipose tissue, in subjects with T2DM. PMID:28120562

  11. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  12. The Association of Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype with Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Sex Difference: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Urban Chinese Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Yao, Yao; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of this study was to explore the association of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its sex difference in an urban Chinese elderly population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 2102 participants aged 60–95 years were recruited and classified into four phenotypes: normal waist-normal triglyceride (NWNT), normal waist-elevated triglycerides (NWET), elevated waist-normal triglycerides (EWNT), and HTGW. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations of interest. Results: Total prevalence of CKD was 12.6%, and the CKD prevalence in participants with EWNT and HTGW was higher than with NWNT and NWET without regard to sex. Compared to NWNT phenotype, the adjusted OR for CKD was 1.95 (95% CI: 1.32–2.88) in HTGW groups. In contrast with the null findings (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 0.94–2.94) in women after additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, the OR with HTGW remained strong (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.04–3.39) in men. Similar findings appeared with the EWNT phenotype. Conclusions: The HTGW phenotype is positively associated with CKD among Chinese community elderly and may have a greater impact on men. More attention should be paid to the association between triglycerides and waist circumference in clinical practice and to the further identification this uncertain sex-related association. PMID:27983610

  13. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Influence of Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Singh Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. We combined 42 adiposity-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) into four scores indicating genetic predisposition to BMI, WC and WHRBMI, or all three traits combined. Linear regression was used to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D and ΔBW or ΔWC, SNP-score × 25(OH)D interactions were examined, and results from the individual cohorts were meta-analyzed. In the meta-analyses, we found no evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and ΔBW (-9.4 gram/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -23.0, +4.3; P = 0.18]) or ΔWC (-0.06 mm/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -0.17, +0.06; P = 0.33]). Furthermore, we found no statistically significant interactions between the four SNP-scores and 25(OH)D in relation to ΔBW or ΔWC. Thus, in view of the narrow CIs, our results suggest that an association between 25(OH)D and changes in measures of adiposity is absent or marginal. Similarly, the study provided evidence that there is either no or very limited dependence on genetic predisposition to adiposity. PMID:27077659

  14. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-03-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47-0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43-0.50 in boys and 0.43-0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between

  15. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10–19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010–2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013–2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47–0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43–0.50 in boys and 0.43–0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant

  16. Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek, J.; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

    2006-08-16

    The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

  17. Pregnancy rhinitis in Turkish women: Do gestational week, BMI and parity affect nasal congestion?

    PubMed Central

    Ulkumen, Burak; Ulkumen, Burcu Artunc; Pala, Halil Gursoy; Celik, Onur; Sahin, Nevin; Karaca, Gizem; Demirdag, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cumulative incidence of pregnancy rhinitis along with prevalence in different trimesters and to find out whether gestational age, BMI and parity have any effect on pregnancy related nasal congestion. Methods: In the prospective protocol at the obstetrics outpatient clinic, 167 pregnant women were enrolled consecutively. According to exclusion criteria, 67 of them were excluded. Visual-Analogue-Scale (VAS), Nasal-Obstructive-Symptom-Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Discharge-Inflammation-Polyps/Oedema (DIP) scoring were utilized for diagnosis of pregnancy rhinitis. Besides, weight, length, age, parity and week of pregnancy were recorded. Results: Total prevalence of pregnancy rhinitis was 17.17% and cumulative incidence was 38.89%. Our study revealed significant relation of NOSE score with both gestational week (r=0.474, p=0.001) and BMI (r=0.301, p=0.003). VAS score was significantly related with gestational week (r=0.409, p=0.001) and BMI (r=0.270, p=0.007). DIP score was found to be correlated only with gestational week (r=0.375, p=0.001). Conclusion: Cumulative incidence of pregnancy rhinitis was 38.89%. Nasal congestion was significantly associated with BMI and gestational week. Patients should be informed about unfavorable fetal and maternal outcomes of pregnancy related nasal congestion which is triggered by obesity and excessive weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:27648046

  18. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.

  19. Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Daiji; Imamura, Haruki; Sato, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ban, Noriko; Kawana, Hidetoshi; Ohira, Masahiro; Saiki, Atsuhito; Shirai, Kohji; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI). Subjects and methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2) who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis. Results Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile) identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval): 0.804 (0.720–0.899)], older age [15.6 (14.0–17.4)], male gender [2.26 (2.03–2.51)], hypertension [2.28 (2.06–2.54)], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01–1.37)], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669–1.06)] as independent factors. Conclusion We demonstrated an inverse relationship between CAVI and BMI in healthy Japanese subjects, suggesting that systemic accumulation of adipose tissue per se may lead to a linear decrease of arterial stiffness in nonobese and obese subjects without metabolic disorders. PMID:28053538

  20. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  1. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School…

  2. Inhibition of BMI1 induces autophagy-mediated necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anindya; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Saha, Sounik; Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Shailendra; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Bhattacharya, Resham

    2016-01-01

    The clonal self-renewal property conferred by BMI1 is instrumental in maintenance of not only normal stem cells but also cancer-initiating cells from several different malignancies that represent a major challenge to chemotherapy. Realizing the immense pathological significance, PTC-209, a small molecule inhibitor of BMI1 transcription has recently been described. While targeting BMI1 in various systems significantly decreases clonal growth, the mechanisms differ, are context-dependent, and somewhat unclear. We report here that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of BMI1 significantly impacts clonal growth without altering CDKN2A/INK4/ARF or CCNG2 and induces autophagy in ovarian cancer (OvCa) cells through ATP depletion. While autophagy can promote survival or induce cell death, targeting BMI1 engages the PINK1-PARK2-dependent mitochondrial pathway and induces a novel mode of nonapoptotic, necroptosis-mediated cell death. In OvCa, necroptosis is potentiated by activation of the RIPK1-RIPK3 complex that phosphorylates its downstream substrate, MLKL. Importantly, genetic or pharmacological inhibitors of autophagy or RIPK3 rescue clonal growth in BMI1 depleted cells. Thus, we have established a novel molecular link between BMI1, clonal growth, autophagy and necroptosis. In chemoresistant OvCa where apoptotic pathways are frequently impaired, necroptotic cell death modalities provide an important alternate strategy that leverage overexpression of BMI1.

  3. Intrauterine Adiposity and BMI in 4- to 5-Year-Old Offspring from Diabetic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Nurah M.; de Valk, Harold W.; Biesma, Douwe H.; Visser, Gerhard H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes are associated with disproportionate intrauterine growth that subsequently may lead to pediatric adiposity. Objectives We investigated whether disproportionate intrauterine growth leads to differences in BMI in 4- to 5-year-old offspring from pregnancies complicated by type 1 (ODM1), type 2 (ODM2), or gestational diabetes (OGDM). Methods Ultrasound data of fetal head-to-abdominal circumference (HC/AC) ratio obtained between 32 and 36 weeks of gestational age were related to offspring anthropometrics that were retrieved from infant welfare centers. Results Data from 27 ODM1, 22 ODM2, and 24 OGDM were obtained. Ultrasound measurements for the HC/AC ratio were performed at a mean of 33-34 weeks, with a mean Z-score of the HC/AC ratio of -0.801, -0.879, and 0.017 in ODM1, ODM2, and OGDM. Mean BMI SDS was highest in ODM2 as compared to ODM1 and OGDM. In ODM1 there was a negative correlation between HC/AC ratio and BMI SDS at the ages of 4 and 5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. The birth weight Z-score was positively correlated to BMI SDS in ODM2 and OGDM. Conclusion Disproportionate intrauterine growth, expressed as the HC/AC ratio, was inversely related with BMI SDS in ODM1 at the ages of 4-5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. Weight and maybe obesity in ODM1 offspring are likely to be related to intrauterine adiposity, whereas overweight in ODM2 and OGDM offspring seems more related to other factors such as birth weight centile, maternal obesity, and altered lifestyle factors during childhood. PMID:27788515

  4. Relationship between BMI and Postoperative Complications with Free Flap in Anterolateral Craniofacial Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Shunjiro; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Takanari, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nishio, Naoki; Fujii, Masazumi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Kamei, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although we have seen tremendous advancement in microsurgery over the last 2 decades and free tissue transfer has become standard for head and neck reconstruction, surgeons still struggle to prevent postoperative complications. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and postoperative complications in patients undergoing rectus abdominis free flap transfer after anterolateral craniofacial resection. Methods: This was a retrospective review of reconstructive surgery using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap in patients with locally advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma from 2003 to 2014 (n = 35, 27 men and 8 women; average age, 60.9 ± 7.8 years). All patients underwent craniofacial reconstruction after anterior and middle cranial fossa skull base resection and maxillectomy (class IV, subtype a) with palatal resection. Patients were categorized based on sex, BMI, and other parameters. Results: Recipient-site infection occurred in 11 patients (31.4%), cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 6 (17.1%), partial flap necrosis in 2 (5.7%), total flap necrosis in 1 (2.9%), and facial fistula in 4 (11.4%). Women showed partial flap necrosis significantly more frequently (P = 0.047), probably owing to poor vascular supply of the subcutaneous fat layer. Patients with low BMI (<20 kg/m2) showed recipient-site infection (P = 0.02) and facial fistula (P = 0.01) significantly more frequently owing to insufficient tissue volume and poor vascular supply. Conclusion: Postoperative recipient-site infection and facial fistula occurred mainly in low-BMI patients. Surgeons should take care to achieve sufficient donor tissue on low-BMI patients. Using a prosthetic obturator in low-BMI patients for craniofacial reconstruction can be a good alternative option to reduce postoperative complications due to insufficient donor tissue volume. PMID:27257566

  5. Positioning Commercial Pedometers to Measure Activity of Older Adults with Slow Gait: At the Wrist or at the Waist?

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Weber, Chloe; Lovis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is a major risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality in aging. Measuring people activity through devices such as pedometers is a recognized intervention to motivate them for more physical activity. However, the feedback provided by these devices must be accurate in order to avoid overtraining and keep users' motivation alive. If the accuracy of pedometers has been validated for healthy people, their lack of accuracy for elderly people walking at slower pace has been reported in several studies. The emergence on the consumer's market of new devices that can be worn indifferently at the wrist or at the waist raises once more this concern. In order to evaluate whether pedometers' location influences their accuracy, we have tested three pedometers at different locations, and for several paces in a comparative study. Beyond confirming the decrease of pedometers' accuracy with speed reduction, our study reveals that pedometers should be worn at the waist rather than at the wrist. This leads us to recommend wearing pedometers at the waist when monitoring population with reduced mobility.

  6. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Champagne, Catherine M; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentariness (Sed) in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9-11 years). Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = -0.02 ± 0.002) and BMI (β = -0.005 ± 0.002). Sleep time is related to Sed (β = -0.42 ± 0.04), while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13), biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07), media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08) and healthy (β = -0.09 ± 0.03) and unhealthy (β = -0.07 ± 0.04) diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = -0.97 ± 0.25), playground equipment (β = -0.67 ± 0.20) and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08) were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children's traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  7. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentariness (Sed) in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years). Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002) and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002). Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04), while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13), biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07), media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08) and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03) and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04) diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25), playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20) and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08) were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented. PMID:26193311

  8. A pilot study on the usefulness of body mass index and waist hip ratio as a predictive tool for gestational diabetes in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anju; Beena Kumari, R; Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2008-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common public health issue of pregnancy and women who have had GDM are at high risk for developing of diabetes mellitus Type-2. The aim of this study was to find the association between various clinical and biochemical parameters and GDM. One hundred and six consecutive patients who attended the out patient unit of department of gynecology, Kottayam Medical College, were enrolled in the study and followed up through the whole antenatal, intra-partum and post-partum periods to identify the obstetric outcome. We found that the prevalence of GDM was seven times higher in those with higher waist-hip ratio (WHR > 0.85) compared with those having a lower WHR (p < 0.001).Those with higher WHR gained more weight than other group (10.6 kg vs. 8.1 kg; p < 0.001). Obesity (BMI > or =23) and higher WHR were associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes (BMI > or =23: OR = 7.5, CI 95% = (1.61-34.31), p = 0.013; WHR > 0.85: OR = 12.05, CI 95% = (1.82-77.43), p = 0.007). We found that a WHR of 0.849 has the optimal sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of GDM. A waist circumference of 85.5 cm (with sensitivity of 75%, specificity 81.4%) and a BMI of 24.3 kg/m(2) (sensitivity 75%, specificity 86.5%) had the best predictive value. In conclusion, we found that maternal obesity has a strong correlation with obstetric complications. We found WHR is more important risk determinant for GDM in overweight/obese women than women with normal weight/lean.

  9. BMI and metabolic profile in patients with prolactinoma before and after treatment with dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Silva, Cintia M; Barbosa, Flavia R P; Lima, Giovanna A B; Warszawski, Leila; Fontes, Rosita; Domingues, Romeu C; Gadelha, Mõnica R

    2011-04-01

    Hyperprolactinemia might be related to weight gain, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance (IR). Treatment with dopamine agonist (DA) has been shown to reduce body weight and improve metabolic parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight, MS, and IR in patients with prolactinoma before and after therapy with DA and to evaluate the relation between prolactin (PRL), body weight, fat distribution, leptin levels, IR, and lipid profile before treatment. In addition, we investigated the correlation of the reduction in PRL levels with weight loss and metabolic profile improvement. Twenty-two patients with prolactinoma completed 6 months of treatment with DA. These patients were submitted to clinical (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP)), laboratory evaluation (leptin, glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) before and after treatment. The statistical analyses were done by nonparametric tests. At the beginning of the study, the prevalence of obesity, overweight, MS, and IR was 45, 27, 27, and 18%, respectively. After 6 months of treatment with DA, PRL levels normalized, but no significant difference in BMI was observed. However, there was a significant decrease on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index, glucose, LDL-cholesterol, and TG levels. This study suggests a possible involvement of prolactinoma on the prevalence of obesity. We should consider that DA may be effective on improving metabolic parameters, and we speculate that a period longer than 6 months of treatment is necessary to conclude whether this drug can interfere in the body weight of patients with prolactinoma.

  10. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity.

  11. Association between body mass index (BMI) and duration of pregnancy in women referred to Shariati Hospital in Bandar Abbas

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Arefeh; Dabiri, Fatemeh; Kamjoo, Azita; Yabandeh, Asieh Pormehr; Khademi, Zahra; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged pregnancy is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications. The role of body mass index (BMI) is not completely identified in the risk of occurrence of prolonged pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the association between BMI and duration of pregnancy in woman referred to the Shariati Maternity Hospital in Bandar Abbas (Hormozgan Province, Iran). Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 1100 pregnant women referred to the Shariati Hospital in Bandar Abbas in 2015. Gestational age determined by last menstrual period (LMP) or first-trimester ultra-sonography. The women were divided into two groups of less than 40 weeks of gestation and more than 40 weeks of gestation. The women were divided based on their BMI at the first trimester of pregnancy into four groups, including less than normal, normal, overweight, and excess weight. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Mann–Whitney test, and chi-square test by SPSS version 16.0. Results The average age of mothers studied was 23 ± 4.30 years. Average of gestational age was 39 ± 1.85 weeks. Among the study participants 1020 (92.7%) had term pregnancies, 53 (4.8%) had preterm pregnancies, and 27 (2.5%) had post-term pregnancies. Also among the study participants, 40% had a BMI less than 19.8 kg/m2, 45.9% had BMI between 19.8 and 26 kg/m2, and 9.8% had BMI between 26.1 and 29 kg/m2, and 4.3% had BMI less than 29 kg/m2. Mean BMI was 20.95 ± 4.02 for women with gestational age of equal to or less than 40 weeks and 23.34 ± 4.52 for women with gestational age of more than 40 weeks. Duration of pregnancy was significantly higher in women with higher BMI at the first trimester (p<0.00006). Conclusion High BMI of a mother in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with prolonged pregnancy and may increase the risk of post-term pregnancy. Women are recommended to reach an ideal weight before pregnancy to decrease the risk of the pregnancy complications. PMID

  12. Performance of laser inter-satellite links with dynamic beam waist adjustment.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianyu; Wang, Qian; Wu, Ming-Wei; Kam, Pooi-Yuen

    2016-05-30

    In this paper, we propose the idea of dynamic beam waist adjustment for laser inter-satellite communications, and study the performance of this dynamic-beam scheme. The beam waist adjustment is based on continuous detection of the instantaneous pointing error angle, which is performed at the transmitter side. Using a square to approximate the circular detector region, we obtain a closed-form expression for calculating the proportion of power that can be collected by the receiver aperture, and derive a simple algebraic solution for the optimum dynamic beam waist. Due to its simple form, the dynamic beam waist value can be computed in real time at the transmitter, and therefore, the adjustment is practically implementable. It is shown that the performance of laser inter-satellite links with dynamic beam waist is better than that with fixed beam waist.

  13. A Novel Method to Describe Early Offspring Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories and to Study Its Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Carles, Sophie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Forhan, Anne; Slama, Rémy; Heude, Barbara; Botton, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately characterizing children’s body mass index (BMI) trajectories and studying their determinants is a statistical challenge. There is a need to identify early public health measures for obesity prevention. We describe a method that allows studies of the determinants of height, weight and BMI growth up to five years of age. We illustrated this method using maternal smoking during pregnancy as one of the early-life factors that is potentially involved in prenatal programming of obesity. Methods Individual height and weight trajectories were fitted using the Jenss-Bayley model on 28,381 and 30,515 measurements, respectively, from 1,666 children to deduce BMI trajectories. We assessed global associations between smoking and growth trajectories and cross-sectional associations at specific ages. Results Children exposed in late pregnancy had a 0.24 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 0.07, 0.41) higher BMI at 5 years of age compared with non-exposed children. Although the BMIs of children exposed during late pregnancy became significantly higher compared with those of non-exposed children from 2 years onwards, the trajectories began to diverge during the first weeks of life. Conclusion Our method is relevant for studies on the relationships between individual-level exposures and the dynamics and shapes of BMI growth during childhood, including key features such as instantaneous growth velocities and the age or BMI value at the BMI infancy peak that benefit from the monotonic pattern of height and weight growth. PMID:27327164

  14. Behavioural measures of child's eating temperament and their link with BMI.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, Valérie; Trinchera, Laura; Darcel, Nicolas; Rigal, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self-regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p-value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children.

  15. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-19

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  16. Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Golley, Rebecca K; Smithers, Lisa G; Mittinty, Murthy N; Emmett, Pauline; Northstone, Kate; Lynch, John W

    2013-10-01

    Whereas the influence of pregnancy diet and milk feeding on children's health and development is well characterized, the role of early food intake and eating behaviors is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines was associated with dietary, obesity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes at 7-8 y of age. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age to calculate a Complementary Feeding Utility Index score. Regression analysis was used to explore associations between the index score and dietary patterns derived via principal component analysis (n = 4326), body-mass index (BMI) (n = 4801), waist circumference (n = 4798), blood pressure (n = 4685), and lipids (n = 3232) measured at age 7 y; and intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at age 8 y (n = 4429) after adjustment for covariates. The index score was negatively associated with a "processed" dietary pattern (β = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.13; P < 0.001) but positively associated with a "health conscious" dietary pattern [β = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.21); P < 0.001]. A higher index score was also positively associated with total, verbal, and performance IQ scores at 8 y of age [β = 1.92 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.47); P < 0.001 for total IQ). The index score was weakly associated with waist circumference [β = -0.15 (95%CI: -0.31, -0.002); P = 0.046] and diastolic blood pressure [β = -0.24 (95%CI: -0.47, -0.01); P = 0.043] at 7 y of age but was not associated with BMI or other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that adherence to current complementary feeding guidelines may have implications for some, but not all, health and development outcomes in childhood.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and its components among obese (BMI ≥95th) Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, Maria Lola; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia; Quintana-Vargas, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in obese Mexican adolescents and to compare the clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics between patients with and without MS by sex. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 110 obese adolescents (boys and girls) from 8 to 16 years old (BMI ≥95th percentile), who were recruited in the pediatric obesity clinic of a third-level care hospital. A frequency analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of MS and its components, and the assessments were compared between the sexes and between the groups with and without MS using the Kruskal–Wallis test. The prevalence of MS was 62%. In order of prevalence, the following components of MS were observed in the sample: abdominal obesity (88%), high triglycerides (TG) (85%), low HDL-C (60%), hypertension (35%), and hyperglycemia (5%). In the groups with MS, hypertension (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.003), and TG (P=0.012) were significantly higher, and HDL-C (P<0.001) was significantly lower. In conclusion the prevalence of MS and its components is high among obese Mexican-Hispanic children. These findings show the importance of preventing and treating obesity in the early stages of life in order to decrease the incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24145615

  18. Zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and e are associated with obesity, inflammation, lipid profile and insulin resistance in Mexican school-aged children.

    PubMed

    García, Olga Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; del Carmen Caamaño, María; Martínez, Guadalupe; Camacho, Mariela; López, Viridiana; Rosado, Jorge L

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  19. Who Gains? Genetic and Neurophysiological Correlates of BMI Gain Upon College Entry in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18–20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass. PMID:25049133

  20. Bmi1 limits dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure by inhibiting cardiac senescence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Valdes, I; Hidalgo, I; Bujarrabal, A; Lara-Pezzi, E; Padron-Barthe, L; Garcia-Pavia, P; Gómez-del Arco, P; Gomez, P; Redondo, J M; Ruiz-Cabello, J M; Jimenez-Borreguero, L J; Enriquez, J A; de la Pompa, J L; Hidalgo, A; Gonzalez, S

    2015-03-09

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most frequent cause of heart failure and the leading indication for heart transplantation. Here we show that epigenetic regulator and central transcriptional instructor in adult stem cells, Bmi1, protects against DCM by repressing cardiac senescence. Cardiac-specific Bmi1 deletion induces the development of DCM, which progresses to lung congestion and heart failure. In contrast, Bmi1 overexpression in the heart protects from hypertrophic stimuli. Transcriptome analysis of mouse and human DCM samples indicates that p16(INK4a) derepression, accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), is linked to severely impaired ventricular dimensions and contractility. Genetic reduction of p16(INK4a) levels reverses the pathology of Bmi1-deficient hearts. In parabiosis assays, the paracrine senescence response underlying the DCM phenotype does not transmit to healthy mice. As senescence is implicated in tissue repair and the loss of regenerative potential in aging tissues, these findings suggest a source for cardiac rejuvenation.

  1. The Different Effects of BMI and WC on Organ Damage in Patients from a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program after Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhao, Hui; Qiu, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Hongqiang; Cai, Zekun; Lin, Wan-Hua; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    One of the purposes of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is to monitor and control weight of the patient. Our study is to compare the different obesity indexes, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), through one well-designed CR program (CRP) with ACS in Guangzhou city of Guangdong Province, China, in order to identify different effects of BMI and WC on organ damage. In our work, sixty-one patients between October 2013 and January 2014 fulfilled our study. We collected the vital signs by medical records, the clinical variables of body-metabolic status by fasting blood test, and the organ damage variables by submaximal exercise treadmill test (ETT) and ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) both on our inpatient and four-to-five weeks of outpatient part of CRP after ACS. We mainly used two-tailed Pearson's test and liner regression to evaluate the relationship of BMI/WC and organ damage. Our results confirmed that WC could be more accurate than BMI to evaluate the cardiac function through the changes of left ventricular structure on the CRP after ACS cases. It makes sense of early diagnosis, valid evaluation, and proper adjustment to ACS in CRP of the obesity individuals in the future. PMID:26247035

  2. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-12-14

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1.00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 0.8) mmHg (P= 0.04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0.05 (95% CI 0.02, 0.08) mmol/l (P= 0.001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.04) mmol/l (both P< 0.05), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance by 0.10 (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) points (P= 0.001) compared with the control diet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference increased 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.7) cm (P< 0.001), but BMI z-score remained unaffected. Complete-case analyses and analyses adjusted for household educational level, pubertal status and physical activity confirmed the results. In conclusion, the school meals did not affect the MetS score in 8-11-year-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL

  3. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Samaghabadi, Razieh O; Hughes, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology.

  4. Accelerated postmenopausal cognitive decline is restricted to women with normal BMI: longitudinal evidence from the Betula project.

    PubMed

    Thilers, Petra P; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2010-05-01

    In order to determine whether cognitive performance is influenced by the menopausal transition, we tested cognitive performance at three time points, sampled women in earlier as well as later stages of the menopausal transition (40-65 years of age), and assessed the moderating influence of body mass index (BMI) on rate of change. Multilevel analyses were used to model change in cognitive performance as a function of number of years post menopause over and above chronological age. We investigated change in the menopausal transition for 10 cognitive outcomes in 193 women who were postmenopausal during the last test wave. The model, controlling for age and education, showed that postmenopausal women within the normal range of BMI (BMI 18.5-25) displayed more rapid decline than women with BMI above 25 for measures of visuospatial ability and episodic memory. In addition, there was an accelerated rate of change post menopause for all women on verbal fluency. The results support the notion that the diminished postmenopausal production of endogenous estrogen may have a slight negative influence on cognitive abilities, but mainly for women within a normal BMI range.

  5. Attendance, weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lisa; O'Shea, Marie-Claire; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation and weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. A prospective observational study was conducted between January and September 2011 involving three private practice dietitians who provided services at 11 medical centres in south-east Queensland. All patients with T2D who were referred by their general practitioner (GP) to one of the dietitians as part of their team care arrangements were asked to participate. Participants' attendance at consultations was recorded for the study duration. The dietitian collected weight and waist circumference measures at each consultation. In all, 129 participants (mean age 58.9 ± 15.7 years; mean body mass index 32.2 ± 5.6 kgm⁻²) were included in the study. The most frequent number of consultations allocated to a dietitian was two. Small, but significant reductions in bodyweight (1.9 ± 2.9 kg; P ≤ 0.05) and waist circumference (2.0 ± 4.8 cm; P ≤ 0.05) were observed from the initial to final consultation. Participants who attended more than two consultations lost significantly more weight than those who attended two consultations only (3.7 ± 4.2 vs 1.1 ± 1.6 kg, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). Almost one-third of participants (n=38; 29%) did not complete the allocated number of consultations available through their referral. Modest weight and waist circumference reductions are achievable for patients with T2D receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. The clinical significance of these reductions requires further investigation. Patients who attend more consultations with a dietitian may experience further improvements in weight and waist circumference outcomes. However, many patients do not complete the number of consultations allocated. Further research is required to explore the determinants of attendance at consultations in order to maximise potential improvements in

  6. Emotional Appetite Questionnaire. Construct validity and relationship with BMI.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Laurence J; Halperin, Lindsay B; Geliebter, Allan

    2010-04-01

    The Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) comprises ratings of tendency to eat in response to both positive and negative, emotions and situations. To assess construct validity, the responses of 232 male and female participants to the EMAQ subscales were correlated with the subscales of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which has been extensively validated. In addition, the EMAQ scores were correlated with BMI. Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between the negative emotions and situations scores of the EMAQ and the emotional eating subscale score of the DEBQ (DEBQ-E). Moreover, discriminant validity was demonstrated by low correlations of EMAQ positive emotions and situations scores with the DEBQ-E score. For the study sample, the EMAQ negative scores were significantly positively correlated with BMI, and the EMAQ positive scores were significantly inversely correlated with BMI. As BMI increased so did reported negative emotional and situational eating whereas as BMI decreased, reported positive emotional and situational eating increased. Although causality cannot be inferred from correlations, eating more under negative emotions may contribute to being overweight whereas eating less may contribute to being underweight. The EMAQ was shown to have construct validity, and emotional eating was significantly correlated with BMI.

  7. Effect of BMI and urinary pH on urolithiasis and its composition.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Qazi; Masood, Imran; Bhaskar, Neeru; Kaur, Harnam; Singh, Jasbir; Pandey, Rajesh; Sodhi, K S; Prasad, Suvarna; Ishaq, Sheikh; Mahajan, Ruhi

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common urological disease predominantly affecting males. The lifetime risk of urolithiasis varies from 1% to 5% in Asia, 5% to 9% in Europe, 10% to 15% in the USA and 20% to 25% in the middle-east; lowest prevalence is reported from Greenland and Japan. Such differences have been explained on the basis of race, diet and climate factors. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical as well as the physical composition of the calculi. The aim of our study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and urine pH in patients with urolithiasis and the influence of body size, as reflected by the BMI, on the composition. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, on urolithiatic patients. The data included patient's age, sex, BMI, urine pH, serum calcium, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and stone composition. Data from 100 patients, 70 men (70%) and 30 women (30%), were analyzed, with 28 patients having normal weight, 38 patients being overweight and 34 patients being obese. The mean age of the patients was 36.58 ± 9.91 years in group I, 40.47 ± 14.48 years in group II and 37.85 ± 12.46 years in group III (P > 0.05). The stone composition was calcium oxalate (CaOx) in 66 patients, calcium phosphate (CaP) in 60 patients, uric acid (UA) in 38 patients, combined calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in 28 patients and three stones in 10 patients. The urinary pH levels (mean ± SD) were 7.78 ± 1.49 in group I, 7.15 ± 1.11 in group II and 6.29 ± 1.14 in group III patients (P = 0.0001). Urine pH showed a stepwise decrease with increasing BMI (inverse correlation). Urine pH is inversely related to BMI among patients with urolithiasis, as is the occurrence of urate, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate

  8. A Novel Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Prognostic System for Patients with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Combination of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Body Mass Index (COR-BMI)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiqi; Yang, Ankui; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Background Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a head and neck cancer type. In this study, we introduced a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, referred to as COR-BMI (Combination of red blood cell distribution width and body mass index), for LSCC patients. Methods A total of 807 LSCC patients (784 male and 23 female, 22–87 y of age) who underwent surgery were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were stratified by COR-BMI into three groups: COR-BMI (0) (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI ≥ 25); COR-BMI (1) (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI < 18.5 or 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25; RDW > 13.1 and 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 or BMI ≥ 25); or COR-BMI (2) (RDW > 13.1 and BMI < 18.5). Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between COR-BMI and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate among LSCC patients. Results The 5-y, 10-y, and 15-y CSS rates were 71.6%, 60.1%, and 55.4%, respectively. There were significant differences among the COR-BMI groups in age (< 60 versus ≥ 60 y; P = 0.005) and T stage (T1, T2, T3, or T4; P = 0.013). Based on the results, COR-BMI (1 versus 0: HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 0.98–3.15; 2 versus 0: HR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.53–5.54, P = 0.001) was a significant independent predictor of CSS. Conclusion COR-BMI is a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, which could predict long-term survival in LSCC patients who underwent surgery. PMID:27658208

  9. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  10. Association between family divorce and children's BMI and meal patterns: the GENDAI Study.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Hatzopoulou, Ioanna; Efstathiou, Eleftheria; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Dedoussis, George V

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the associations between family factors, including divorce, and children's overweight as well as eating and physical activity patterns in a population-based sample of healthy school-aged children. In this cross-sectional study, 1,138 children (53% girls; age: 11.2 +/- 0.7 years) from elementary schools in the Attica region participated. Their parents provided sociodemographic information, including their marital status. Overweight status classification was based on weight and height measurements and BMI evaluation. Children completed a physical activity checklist and a questionnaire on meal patterns and eating behaviors. The Eating Style score was calculated: the higher the score, the more frequent a child was engaged in less-structured feeding practices promoting food intake for reasons other than hunger. Analysis revealed significant association between family divorce and children's overweight: compared with children of married parents, those of divorced had significantly higher BMI levels (20.0 +/- 3.6 kg/m(2) vs. 21.3 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2), respectively, P = 0.007). Controlling for socioeconomic and physical activity factors, divorce remains a significant predictor of a higher BMI, along with older age, higher father's and mother's BMI, less children in the family, and more minutes of daily screen time. Children who had experienced a divorce in their family also reported higher Eating Style score, even after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, in this sample of fifth and sixth graders, unfavorable family circumstances have been associated with children's overweight, as well as with aspects of their eating behavior, namely eating style in relation to conditions around food consumption and hunger, independent of other socioeconomic factors.

  11. Waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in the Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    So, Eun Sun; Yoo, Kwang Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim is to determine the appropriate cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean elderly population. We analyzed the WC cutoff values of four groups divided according to sex and age with a total of 2,224 elderly participants aged 65 years old and above from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using the receiver operating characteristic curve and multiple logistic regression. The WC cutoff values associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome were 89.6 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women for those who were 65 to 74 years old, and 89.9 cm for men and 87.9 cm for women for those who were 75 years old or older. WC cutoff points for estimating metabolic risk are similar in elderly men and women. Age-specific optimal WC cutoff points should be considered especially for elderly women in screening for metabolic syndrome.

  12. The Association between Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration during Gestation and Early Childhood Cardio-metabolic Outcomes: Is There Interaction with Pre-Pregnancy BMI?

    PubMed Central

    Hrudey, E. Jessica; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J. J. M.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Both maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25OHD) status and pre-pregnancy BMI(pBMI) may influence offspring cardio-metabolic outcomes. Lower 25OHD concentrations have been observed in women with both low and high pBMIs, but the combined influence of pBMI and 25OHD on offspring cardio-metabolic outcomes is unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the role of pBMI in the association between maternal 25OHD concentration and cardio-metabolic outcomes in 5-6 year old children. Data were obtained from the ABCD cohort study and 1882 mother-child pairs were included. The offspring outcomes investigated were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, BMI, body fat percentage(%BF), waist-to-height ratio, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, C-peptide, and insulin resistance(HOMA2-IR). 62% of the C-peptide samples were below the detection limit and were thus imputed using survival analysis. Models were corrected for maternal and offspring covariates and tested for interaction with pBMI. Interaction with pBMI was observed in the associations with insulin resistance markers: in offspring of overweight mothers(≥25.0kg/m2), a 10 nmol/L increase in maternal 25OHD was associated with a 0.007(99%CI:-0.01,-0.001) nmol/L decrease in C-peptide and a 0.02(99%CI:-0.03,-0.004) decrease in HOMA2-IR. When only non-imputed data were analyzed, there was a trend for interaction in the relationship but the results lost significance. Interaction with pBMI was not observed for the other outcomes. A 10 nmol/L increase in maternal 25OHD was significantly associated with a 0.13%(99%CI:-0.3,-0.003) decrease in %BF after correction for maternal and child covariates. Thus, intrauterine exposure to both low 25OHD and maternal overweight may be associated with increased insulin resistance in offspring, while exposure to low 25OHD in utero may be associated with increased offspring %BF with no interactive effects from pBMI. Due to the limitations of this study

  13. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.01). Additionally, children of mothers with greater acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P < 0.0001) and had higher BMI percentiles (P < 0.04). However, mothers with greater Hispanic acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P < 0.0001). In the Puerto Rican subgroup of mothers, Puerto Rican mothers with greater acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P < 0.0001), but there was no association between acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.01) compared with non-Puerto Rican mothers, and this may have negated the effect of noncore food consumption on BMI percentile. These data suggest a complex relation between acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican

  14. The impact of cash transfers to poor women in Colombia on BMI and obesity: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Ian; Chandola, Tarani; Garcia, Sandra; Marmot, Michael G.; Attanasio, Orazio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of obesity is rising in Latin America, is increasingly affecting socially disadvantaged groups, particularly women. Conditional cash transfers are recently established welfare interventions in the region. One, Familias en Accion, transfers ~20% of average monthly income to women in Colombia’s poorest families. Previous work has found that families buy more food as a result. We tested the hypothesis that participation in Familias would be associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) in participating women Methods Women from participating areas and control areas (matched on environmental and socioeconomic criteria) were surveyed in 2002 and 2006. Pregnant, breast-feeding or women aged<18 or with BMI<18.5kg/m2 were excluded. The sample comprises 835 women from control and 1238 from treatment areas. Because some treatment areas started Familias shortly before baseline data collection, a dummy variable was created that identified exposure independent of time-point or area. Follow-up was 61.5%. BMI was measured by trained personnel using standardized techniques. Overweight was defined as BMI>25kg/m2 and obesity as >30kg/m2. The effect of Familias was estimated using linear regression (or logistic regression for dichotomous outcomes) in a double-difference technique, controlling for several individual, household and area characteristics, including parity and baseline BMI, using robust standard-errors clustered at area-level in an intention-to-treat analysis. Results At baseline, women’s mean age was 33.3 years and mean BMI 25.3kg/m2; 12.3% women were obese. After adjustment, exposure to Familias was significantly associated with increased BMI (β=0.25, 95% CI 0.03, 0.47; p=0.03). Age (β=0.09; 95%CI 0.06, 0.13; p<0.001) and household wealth (β=0.78; 95%CI 0.41, 1.15; p<0.001) were also positively associated with BMI. Familias was also associated with increased odds of obesity (O.R.=1.27 95%CI 1.03, 1.57; p=0.03), as was age (O.R.=1.04; 95

  15. Is Casting for Non-Displaced Simple Scaphoid Waist Fracture Effective? A CT Based Assessment of Union

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Ruby; Suh, Nina; MacDermid, Joy C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the union rate and time to union for acute non-displaced scaphoid waist fractures treated with a short arm thumb spica cast. Methods: A database was searched (2006-2013) to identify acute undisplaced scaphoid waist fractures. Cases that were not given a trial of casting were excluded (n=33). X-rays, CT scans and health records for each patient were reviewed to extract data. Results: 172 patients met inclusion criteria. There were 138 males, 34 females, the mean age was 30 ± 16 years. The union rate was 99.4% (1 nonunion/172 subjects). The mean time to union was approximately 7.5 weeks (53 ± 37 days). Energy of injury, age or gender did not affect union rates or time to union. Cysts did not affect the union rate (p=0.73) but patients with cystic resorption along the fracture line required approximately 10 weeks for union (69 ± 60 days) compared to 7 weeks (51 ± 34 days) for those without cysts (p=0.05). Diabetes did not affect the union rate (p=0.81) but was found to increase the risk of delayed union (p=0.05). There was a weak, but statistically significant correlation between the number of days before the fracture was casted and the length of time needed to achieve union (r=0.27, p=0.001). Conclusion: Non-displaced scaphoid waist fractures have a high healing rate with appropriate identification and immobilization. Follow-up CT scans to assess healing can identify union within a shorter time frame (~7 weeks) than previously reported in the literature. PMID:27708739

  16. The effectiveness of BMI, calf circumference and mid-arm circumference in predicting subsequent mortality risk in elderly Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2011-01-01

    BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC) and calf circumference (CC) are anthropometric indicators often included in geriatric health measurement scales. However, their relative effectiveness in predicting long-term mortality risk has not been extensively examined. The present study aimed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of these anthropometrics in predicting long-term mortality risk in older adults. The study prospectively analysed the ability of these indicators in predicting 4-year follow-up mortality risk of a population-representative sample of 4191 men and women, 53 years of age or older in the 'Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan'. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of follow-up mortality risk with low ( < 21 kg/m2) or high ( ≥ 27 kg/m2) BMI, low MAC ( < 23·5/22 cm for men/women) and low CC ( < 30/27 cm) respectively, according to Taiwanese-specific cut-off points. Results showed that low CC and low MAC were more effective than low BMI in predicting follow-up mortality risk in 65-74-year-old elderly. But low CC and low BMI were more effective than low MAC in ≥ 75-year-old elderly, and low BMI was more effective than low MAC or low CC in 53-64-year-old persons. High BMI was not effective in predicting mortality risk in any of these age ranges. These results suggest that in elderly adults, CC is more effective than BMI in predicting long-term mortality risk. Thus, more consideration to CC and MAC in designing geriatric health or nutritional measurement scales is recommended.

  17. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Change in BMI Accurately Predicted by Social Exposure to Acquaintances

    PubMed Central

    Oloritun, Rahman O.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Moturu, Sai; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex (Sandy); Khayal, Inas

    2013-01-01

    Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001) of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as close friends. PMID

  19. Comparison of BMI and percentage of body fat of Indian and German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Janewa, Vanessa Schönfeld; Ghosh, Arnab; Scheffler, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Today, serious health problems as overweight and obesity are not just constricted to the developed world, but also increase in the developing countries (Prentice 2006, Ramachandram et al. 2002). Focusing on this issue, BMI and percentage of body fat were compared in 2094 schoolchildren from two cross-sectional studies from India and Germany investigated in 2008 and 2009. The German children are in all age groups significantly taller, whereas the Indian children show higher values in BMI (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 22 kg/m2; German: around 19 kg/m2) and in the percentage of body fat (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 27%; German: around 18-20%) in most of the investigated age groups. The Indian children have significantly higher BMI between 10 and 13 (boys) respectively 14 years (girls). Indian children showed significant higher percentage of body fat between 10 and 15 years (boys) and between 8 and 16 years (girls). The difference in overweight between Indian and German children was strongest at 11 (boys) and 12 (girls) years: 70% of the Indian but 20% of the German children were classified as overweight. In countries such as India that undergo nutritional transition, a rapid increase in obesity and overweight is observed. In contrast to the industrialized countries, the risk of overweight in developing countries is associated with high socioeconomic status. Other reasons of the rapid increase of overweight in the developing countries caused by different environmental or genetic factors are discussed.

  20. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  1. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  2. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children’s BMI – A Chinese Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Baomin; Liang, Xiong; Adair, Linda; Thompson, Amanda; Zhang, Jianduan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS) alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months) with infant body mass index (BMI) in the first two years of life. Methods A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z) were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006). Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), mixed feeding (MF), and formula feeding (FF). General linear models (GLM) were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children’s BMI-Z. Results No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05). For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB) mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW) mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers. Conclusions Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children’s BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity. PMID:26641272

  3. Screening for osteoporosis using easily obtainable biometrical data: diagnostic accuracy of measured, self-reported and recalled BMI, and related costs of bone mineral density measurements.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, D J; Brandon, S; Dinant, G J; van Wersch, J W

    2000-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of objectively measured, self-reported and recalled body mass index (BMI) for osteoporosis and osteopenia; to determine the diagnostic costs, in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, per osteoporotic or osteopenic patient detected, using different BMI tests; and to determine the extent to which the results can be used within the framework of the current screening program for breast cancer in The Netherlands. Within the framework of a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of osteoporosis in the south of The Netherlands, 1155 postmenopausal women aged 50-80 years were asked for their present height and their weight at age 20-30 years. Subsequently their actual weight, height and BMD of the lumbar spine (DXA) were measured. The BMD cutoff was 0.800 g/cm2 for osteoporosis and 0.970 g/cm2 for low BMD (osteoporosis + osteopenia). After receiver operating characteristic analysis, age was cut off at 60 years and BMI at 27 kg/m2. Diagnostic accuracies of objectively measured, self-reported and recalled BMI were evaluated using predictive values (PV) and odds ratios. The resulting 'true positive' and 'false positive' rates were used to calculate diagnostic costs (i.e., DXA) for each osteoporotic patient or low-BMD patient detected. The prevalence of osteoporosis in the study population was 25%, that of low BMD 65%. Only the age-BMI tests 'age > or = 60, BMI < or = 27' showed PVs for osteoporosis (31-41%) and for low BMD (71-81%) that were higher than the prior probabilities for these conditions. Related odds ratios were 2.14-3.18 (osteoporosis) and 1.87-3.04 (low BMD). The objective BMI test detected 50% of the osteoporotic patients. Using the self-reported BMI test and the recalled BMI test, detection rates increased to 55% and 69%, respectively. Concomitant costs per osteoporotic patient detected rose by 24%. Detection of patients with a low BMD increased from 38% for objective BMI and

  4. Cardiovascular regulation profile predicts developmental trajectory of BMI and pediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the role of cardiovascular regulation in predicting pediatric obesity. Participants for this study included 268 children (141 girls) obtained from a larger ongoing longitudinal study. To assess cardiac vagal regulation, resting measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change (vagal withdrawal) to three cognitively challenging tasks were derived when children were 5.5 years of age. Heart period (HP) and HP change (heart rate (HR) acceleration) were also examined. Height and weight measures were collected when children were 5.5, 7.5, and 10.5 years of age. Results indicated that physiological regulation at age 5.5 was predictive of both normal variations in BMI development and pediatric obesity at age 10.5. Specifically, children with a cardiovascular regulation profile characterized by lower levels of RSA suppression and HP change experienced significantly greater levels of BMI growth and were more likely to be classified as overweight/at-risk for overweight at age 10.5 compared to children with a cardiovascular regulation profile characterized by high levels of RSA suppression and HP change. However, a significant interaction with racial status was found suggesting that the association between cardiovascular regulation profile and BMI growth and pediatric obesity was only significant for African-American children. An autonomic cardiovascular regulation profile consisting of low parasympathetic activity represents a significant individual risk factor for the development of pediatric obesity, but only for African-American children. Mechanisms by which early physiological regulation difficulties may contribute to the development of pediatric obesity are discussed.

  5. Crab Waist collision scheme: a novel approach for particle colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, M.; DAΦNE Team

    2016-09-01

    A new concept of nonlinear focusing of colliding bunches, called Crab Waist (CW) collision scheme, has been proposed at LNF INFN. It has been successfully tested at the Italian lepton collider DAΦNE in operational conditions providing luminosity for two different experimental detectors, SIDDHARTA and KLOE-2. Considering a high efficiency of the scheme for increasing collision luminosity and its relative simplicity for implementation several new collider projects have been proposed and are under development at present. These are the SuperKEKB B-factory ready to start commissioning in 2016 in Japan, the SuperC-Tau factory proposed in Novosibirsk and entered in the short list of Russian mega-science projects, the new 100-km electron-positron Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) under design study at CERN and some others. In this paper we describe the CW collision scheme, discuss its advantages and report principal results achieved at the electron-positron Φ-factory DAΦNE.

  6. The sensitivity of waist-to-height ratio in identifying children with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Motswagole, B S; Kruger, H S; Faber, M; van Rooyen, J M; de Ridder, J H

    2011-01-01

    We determined the sensitivity of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as a marker for high blood pressure in children aged nine to 15 years (n = 1 131), from schools in the North West province, South Africa. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHtR to identify children with high blood pressure were evaluated. At a cut-off value of 0.5, 7.9% of the girls and 3.4% of the boys had central adiposity. Thirteen per cent of the children were hypertensive. The optimal WHtR cut-off value to identify children with hypertension was 0.41 in both boys and girls. Positive correlations were observed between anthropometric indices. Using linear regression analyses, age and body mass index were significant predictors of high blood pressure in boys, while for girls it was height and weight. Results suggest that adopting a WHtR cut-off value < 0.5 could enhance the use of WHtR as a marker for high blood pressure in children.

  7. Increased BMI correlates with higher risk of disease relapse and differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with the AIDA protocols.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Mazzarella, Luca; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Disalvatore, Davide; Loglisci, Giuseppina; Cimino, Giuseppe; Testi, Anna Maria; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Minotti, Clara; Latagliata, Roberto; Foà, Robin; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2012-01-05

    We investigated whether body mass index (BMI) correlates with distinct outcomes in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The study population included 144 patients with newly diagnosed and genetically confirmed APL consecutively treated at a single institution. All patients received All-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin according to the GIMEMA protocols AIDA-0493 and AIDA-2000. Outcome estimates according to the BMI were carried out together with multivariable analysis for the risk of relapse and differentiation syndrome. Fifty-four (37.5%) were under/normal weight (BMI < 25), whereas 90 (62.5%) patients were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25). An increased BMI was associated with older age (P < .0001) and male sex (P = .02). BMI was the most powerful predictor of differentiation syndrome in multivariable analysis (odds ratio = 7.24; 95% CI, 1.50-34; P = .014). After a median follow-up of 6 years, the estimated cumulative incidence of relapse at 5 years was 31.6% (95% CI, 22.7%-43.8%) in overweight/obese and 11.2% (95% CI, 5.3%-23.8%) in underweight/normal weight patients (P = .029). Multivariable analysis showed that BMI was an independent predictor of relapse (hazard ratio = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.00-5.99, in overweight/obese vs under/normal weight patients, P = .049). An increased BMI at diagnosis is associated with a higher risk of developing differentiation syndrome and disease relapse in APL patients treated with AIDA protocols.

  8. Plasma Levels of Acylation-Stimulating Protein Are Strongly Predicted by Waist/Hip Ratio and Correlate with Decreased LDL Size in Men

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Jumana; Wahab, Rabab A.; Farhan, Hatem; Al-Amri, Issa; Cianflone, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The association of abdominal obesity with cardiovascular risk is often linked to altered secretion of adipose-derived factors and an abnormal lipid profile including formation of atherogenic small dense low density lipoprotein particles (sdLDL). Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipose-derived hormone that exhibits potent lipogenic effects. Plasma ASP levels increase in obesity; however, the association of ASP levels with body fat distribution is not yet established, and no study to date has investigated the association of ASP with LDL size. In this study, we examined the association of ASP levels with abdominal obesity measures and the lipid profile including LDL size in 83 men with a wide range of abdominal girths. Regression analysis showed that waist/hip ratio was the main predictor of ASP levels (β = 0.52, P < 0.0001), significantly followed by decreased LDL size. BMI and TG levels, although positively correlated with ASP levels, were excluded as significant predictors in regression analysis. No correlation was found with LDL-C or apoB levels. ASP levels were 62.5% higher in abdominally obese compared to nonobese men. Waist/hip ratio presenting as the main predictor of ASP levels, suggests increased ASP production by abdominal fat which, as proposed previously, may result from resistance to ASP function causing delayed TG clearance and subsequent formation of atherogenic sdLDL. PMID:24533222

  9. Mother’s Pre-pregnancy BMI is an Important Determinant of Adverse Cardiometabolic Risk in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hong Chang; Roberts, James; Catov, Janet; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Shypailo, Roman; Bacha, Fida

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal adiposity is associated with poor offspring cardiometabolic health. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on the BMI, body composition and cardiometabolic characteristics of the offspring. Methods Forty offspring of overweight/obese mothers (O-OW) and 28 offspring of normal weight mothers (O-NW) underwent evaluation of body composition, abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure measurement, fasting lipids and an oral glucose tolerance test. The anthropometric and cardiometabolic characteristics of O-OW were compared to those of O-NW, and the relationship to maternal BMI was evaluated. Results Subjects (mean age 12.6±0.4, Female 52.9%) had similar gestational age, birth weight, age, gender, and Tanner stage. However, O-OW had a significantly higher BMI (24.4±1.2 vs. 19.7±0.8 kg/m2p=0.001), % body fat (31.7± 1.6 vs. 24.6±1.1 %, p<0.001), visceral fat (41.9±4.7 vs. 26.1±3.9 cm2p=0.012) with no difference in lean body mass compared with O-NW. O-OW had lower whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) with an adverse cardiovascular disease risk profile (higher BP, triglycerides to HDL ratio, hs-CRP and lower HDL). In addition to offspring’s %body fat (β=−0.60, p<0.001), maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (β= −0.19, p=0.046) contributed significantly and independently to the offspring’s WBISI (R2=0.55, p<0.001). Conclusions High pre-pregnancy BMI is an important contributor to excess adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disease risk in the offspring during childhood. PMID:25800542

  10. Anthropometry of the Human Scaphoid Waist by Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer; Hofmeister, Eric P; Renninger, Christopher; Kroonen, Leo T

    2015-01-01

    Published measurements for the scaphoid are scarce. The purpose of this study is to define anthropometric norms for the waist of the scaphoid to assist in optimizing bone graft quantity and implant use. Computed tomography images of the wrist were reviewed by three surgeons. Anthropometric data were gathered, including the scaphoid waist diameter in two dimensions and the scaphoid waist volume. Each study was measured twice, allowing for determination of inter- and intraobserver reliability. Forty-three studies were examined (23 female and 20 male). Average measurements of the scaphoid waist were 11.28 ± 0.26 mm in the sagittal plane and 8.70 ± 0.17 mm in the coronal plane, and the waist volume was 715 ± 33.0 mm3. Specific measures of the narrowest portion of the scaphoid are provided by this study. Measurements of the scaphoid waist through the use of three-dimensional imaging are an accurate method with good inter- and intraobserver reliability. The measurements obtained from this study can be applied to guide graft and implant selection for treatment of scaphoid waist fractures and nonunions.

  11. Homocysteine levels in morbidly obese patients: its association with waist circumference and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; de la Fuente, Miguel; Solá, Eva; Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, R; Laiz, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The association between morbid obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia (HH) remains controversial and the nature of this relationship needs to be clarified as several metabolic, lipidic, inflammatory and anthropometric alterations that accompany morbid obesity may be involved. In 66 morbidly obese patients, 47 women and 19 men aged 41 ± 12 years and 66 normo-weight subjects, 43 women and 23 men, aged 45 ± 11 years, we determined homocysteine (Hcy) levels along with lipidic, anthropometric, inflammatory and insulin resistance markers. In addition, we investigated the effect of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its components on Hcy levels. Obese patients had statistically higher Hcy levels than controls: 12.76 ± 5.30 μM vs. 10.67 ± 2.50 μM; p = 0.006. Moreover, morbidly obese subjects showed higher waist circumference, glucose, insulin, HOMA, leptin, triglycerides, fibrinogen, C reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001, respectively), and lower vitamin B12 (p = 0.002), folic acid and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate regression analysis, waist circumference, glucose, leptin and folic acid levels were independent predictors for Hcy values (p < 0.050). When obese patients were classified as having MS or not, no differences in Hcy levels were found between the two groups (p = 0.752). Yet when we analysed separately each MS component, only abdominal obesity was associated with Hcy levels (p = 0.031). Moreover when considering glucose >110 mg/dL (NCEP-ATPIII criteria) instead of glucose intolerance >100 mg/dl (updated ATPIII criteria), it also was associated with HH (p = 0.042). These results were confirmed in the logistic regression analysis where abdominal obesity and glucose >115 mg/dL constitute independent predictors for HH (OR = 3.2; CI: 1.23-13.2; p = 0.032, OR: 4.6; CI: 1.7-22.2; p = 0.016, respectively). The results of our study indicate that increased Hcy levels are related mostly with abdominal obesity and with insulin resistance. Thus, HH may

  12. Neck circumference as an effective measure for identifying cardio-metabolic syndrome: a comparison with waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Shen, Yun; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Zhang, Xueli; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-03-01

    Neck circumference is a new anthropometric index for estimating obesity. We aimed to determine the relationship between neck circumference and body fat content and distribution as well as the efficacy of neck circumference for identifying visceral adiposity and metabolic disorders. A total of 1943 subjects (783 men, 1160 women) with a mean age of 58 ± 7 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the standard in the 2013 China Guideline. Analyses were conducted to determine optimal neck circumference cutoff points for visceral adiposity quantified by magnetic resonance imaging, and to compare the performance of neck circumference with that of waist circumference in identifying abdominal obesity and metabolic disorders. Visceral fat content was independently correlated with neck circumference. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve for the ability of neck circumference to determine visceral adiposity was 0.781 for men and 0.777 for women. Moreover, in men a neck circumference value of 38.5 cm had a sensitivity of 56.1 % and specificity of 83.5 %, and in women, a neck circumference value of 34.5 cm had a sensitivity of 58.1 % and specificity of 82.5 %. These values were the optimal cutoffs for identifying visceral obesity. There were no statistically significant differences between the proportions of metabolic syndrome and its components identified by an increased neck circumference and waist circumference. Neck circumference has the same power as waist circumference for identifying metabolic disorders in a Chinese population.

  13. Different associations of premorbid intelligence vs. current cognition with BMI, insulin and diabetes in the homebound elderly

    PubMed Central

    Mwamburi, Mkaya; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Premorbid intelligence does not decline through life even at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, other cognitive measures such as Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) decline with aging and severely with dementia. In this study, we examine the associations of premorbid intelligence vs. current cognition with body mass index (BMI), insulin and diabetes in elderly adults. Using a cross-sectional, population-based study, we assessed BMI, plasma insulin and the evidence of diabetes in homebound elders. The North American Adult Reading Test (NAART) and MMSE were conducted. Associations were assessed by T-test, linear correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Subjects were divided into four subgroups: 1) BMI <25; 2) 25 < BMI <30; 3) 30 < BMI <35 and 4) BMI >35. Lower verbal IQ, assessed by NAART, was associated with higher BMI (β=−0.28; P<0.01), elevated insulin (β= −0.02, P=0.02), and diabetes (β=− 3.18, P<0.01). Multivariate regression analyses showed that all three clinical conditions – obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and diabetes – were associated with lower premorbid intelligence assessed by verbal IQ, but only diabetes was associated with current cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. These relationships persisted after adjustment for education. Premorbid intelligence is associated with diabetes precursors – obesity and high insulin – and diabetes itself, but cognitive impairment is related to diabetes only. Understanding the mechanisms that link verbal IQ to diabetes precursors might suggest targeted interventions for the prevention of diabetes and cognitive decline caused by diabetes. PMID:27642517

  14. Comparison of waist-to-hip ratio and other obesity indices as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in people with type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study from ADVANCE

    PubMed Central

    Czernichow, Sébastien; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Huxley, Rachel R.; Batty, G David; de Galan, Bastiaan; Grobbee, Diederick; Pillai, Avinesh; Zoungas, Sophia; Marre, Michel; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; Chalmers, John

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare the strength of associations and discrimination capability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with type-2-diabetes. Methods and results 11,140 men and women were followed for a mean of 4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for one standard deviation (SD) increase in baseline BMI (SD: 5 kg/m2), WC (SD: 13 cm) and WHR (SD: 0.08) with cardiovascular disease risk. After adjustment, HR (95% CI) for WC were 1.10 (1.03-1.18) for cardiovascular events, 1.13 (1.03-1.24) for coronary events, and 1.08 (0.98-1.19) for cardiovascular deaths. Estimates for WHR were 1.12 (1.05-1.19), 1.17 (1.08-1.28) and 1.19 (1.09-1.31). BMI was not related to any of these outcomes. While the receiver operating characteristic curve could not differentiate between anthropometric variables (p-values ≥ 0.24), the relative integrated discrimination improvement statistic showed an enhancement in the discrimination capabilities of models using WHR for cardiovascular outcomes, except for cerebrovascular events. Conclusion Strengths of associations and discrimination statistics suggested that WHR was the best predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type-2-diabetes and BMI the worst. PMID:20628304

  15. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin-Yan; Jia, Li-Chao; Wang, Chen; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  16. The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, Goguladinne Naga Deepthi; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Jyothi, Velagapudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The hormonal fingerprint is the ratio between 2nd and 4th digit lengths. It was evidenced in the medical scenario that it can be used as an indirect marker in many diseases like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and metabolic syndromes. As far as dentistry is concerned very few studies in the literature have been done to evaluate the influence of hormonal fingerprint on oral health, thus provoking us to formulate new method for predicting dental caries and malocclusion and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI). Aim The purpose of this retrospective study was to highlight the role of new biological marker–Hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of malocclusion, caries, the influence of BMI on malocclusion and caries. We also attempted to study the correlation of BMI with hormonal fingerprints. Materials and Methods A total of 300 children were randomly selected from both sexes of age group 10-15 years. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measures (weight in kilograms and height in metres) for the calculation of BMI were recorded. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and Community Periodontal Index probes. DMFT index was followed for assessment of caries according to the WHO assessment form, 1997. Occlusal characteristics of the children evaluated were molar relation, anterior and posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, lower anterior crowding. All the factors were recorded by two investigators. Results The results of the study showed that majority of the children among study population were having 2D:4D <1. The rate of occurrence of malocclusion was increasing with increase in the value of 2D:4D ratio with a statistically significant p-value of <0.001. Higher BMI values were associated with normal occlusal conditions (p= 0.041) and lower 2D:4D ratio (p= 0.037). High caries experience was noticed in children with

  17. BMI in Japanese children since 1948: no evidence of a major rise in the prevalence of obesity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, Michael; Molinari, Luciano; Satake, Takashi

    2007-09-01

    The dramatic world-wide trend towards increasing body weight seems to be less obvious in the Japanese population. The aim of this study is to extract potentially useful information regarding childhood and adolescence obesity in Japan from series of mean height and mean body mass index between 1948 and 2003. Mean values for height and weight of Japanese boys and girls aged 5+ to 17+ years were obtained from the "Reports on School Health Survey", Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, comprising approximately 4.5% of all children and adolescents in Japan between 1948 and 2003. The data were fitted by the Preece and Baines model (Preece & Baines 1978) in order to obtain estimates of the age of peak height velocity (APHV) and final height. Isochrones for height and BMI were calculated based upon measurements that were obtained at the same chronological ages at different historic epochs. The APHV as estimated by Preece & Baines (1978) has decreased from 14.07 to 12.03 years in Japanese boys, and from 11.80 to 9.92 years in Japanese girls, indicating that the tempo of child and adolescent maturation (maturational tempo) has accelerated. Body height increased by 10.1 cm in near adult 17+ year old Japanese males and by 5.7 cm in 17+ year old Japanese females since 1948. Due to the acceleration and the earlier attainment of adult stature, isochrones for height tend to diverge for prepubertal ages and to converge for postpubertal ages. The same is true for weight. Body weight has increased by 11.8 kg in near adult males, and by 4.4 kg in near adult females. Also BMI has increased since 1948. But in contrast to height and weight, the rise in BMI only reflects the acceleration of the maturational tempo. Tempo-conditioned isochrones for BMI are almost horizontal, and even tended to temporarily decrease during the 60ies and the 70's. The BMI of Japanese children and adolescents dramatically contrasts the recent and historic BMI changes in the Western

  18. The influence of BMI on the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Guang-Ming; Soliman, Ghada A; Meza, Jane L; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-04-14

    Overweight and obese individuals have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome because of subsequent chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which the antioxidant nutrient lycopene can reduce. However, studies indicate that different BMI statuses can alter the positive effects of lycopene. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how BMI influences the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. The tertile rank method was used to divide 13 196 participants, aged 20 years and older, into three groups according to serum concentrations of lycopene. The associations between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were analysed separately for normal-weight, overweight and obese participants. Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first tertile group (OR 38·6%; 95% CI 36·9, 40·3) compared with the second tertile group (OR 29·3%; 95% CI 27·5, 31·1) and the third tertile group (OR 26·6%; 95% CI 24·9, 28·3). However, the associations between lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were only significant for normal-weight and overweight participants (P0·05), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. In conclusion, BMI appears to strongly influence the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Usual energy intake mediates the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Roemmich, James N

    2012-09-01

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is positively associated with energy consumed and overweight status. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. Using a sample of two hundred fifty-two adults of varying weight and BMI levels, results showed that usual energy intake mediated the relationship between RRV(food) and BMI (estimated indirect effect = 0.0027, bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.0002-0.0068, effect ratio = 0.34), controlling for age, sex, minority status, education, and reinforcing value of reading (RRV(reading)). Laboratory and usual energy intake were correlated (r = 0.24, P < 0.001), indicating that laboratory energy intake could provide an index of eating behavior in the natural environment. The mediational relationship observed suggests that increasing or decreasing food reinforcement could influence body weight by altering food consumption. Research is needed to develop methods of modifying RRV(food) to determine experimentally whether manipulating food reinforcement would result in changes in body weight.

  20. Associations between maternal BMI as well as glucose tolerance and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Ying; Ye, Su-Qi; Zhong, Zhuo-Hui; Xu, Qiong; Mai, Wei-Bi; Yin, Cai-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Qin; He, Xiao-Qian; Xiao, Qing

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective, cohort study examined the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), independent of glucose tolerance and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), for which there are few previous studies. Medical records from 2012 to 2015 at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, China were reviewed for women previously diagnosed with PCOS with normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results (n = 1249). The separate and joint effects of maternal BMI and glucose levels on pregnancy outcomes were assessed. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45), preterm birth (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17), and large for gestational age (LGA) (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16-2.20). Elevated fasting glucose and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI were jointly associated with increased risks of HDP, preterm birth, and LGA. Therefore, among women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is an independent risk factor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. The effect of standardized food intake on the association between BMI and 1H-NMR metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Bianca A. M.; van den Akker, Erik B.; Deelen, Joris; van de Rest, Ondine; van Heemst, Diana; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P. Eline

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that levels of 1H-NMR metabolites are associated with disease and risk factors of disease such as BMI. While most previous investigations have been performed in fasting samples, meta-analysis often includes both cohorts with fasting and non-fasting blood samples. In the present study comprising 153 participants (mean age 63 years; mean BMI 27 kg/m2) we analyzed the effect of a standardized liquid meal (SLM) on metabolite levels and how the SLM influenced the association between metabolites and BMI. We observed that many metabolites, including glycolysis related metabolites, multiple amino acids, LDL diameter, VLDL and HDL lipid concentration changed within 35 minutes after a standardized liquid meal (SLM), similarly for all individuals. Remarkable, however, is that the correlations of metabolite levels with BMI remained highly similar before and after the SLM. Hence, as exemplified with the disease risk factor BMI, our results suggest that the applicability of 1H-NMR metabolites as disease biomarkers depends on the standardization of the fasting status rather than on the fasting status itself. Future studies are required to investigate the dependency of metabolite biomarkers for other disease risk factors on the fasting status. PMID:27966583

  2. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. Methods: A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. Results: The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Conclusions: Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. PMID:25294689

  3. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n = 120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n = 30). These patients were significantly older (p = 0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.036), cholesterol (p < 0.012) and triglyceride concentration (p < 0.01) as well as body mass index (p = 0.004), waist circumference (p = 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.01) than the group without metabolic syndrome. Also their c-HDL is lower (p < 0.01). A value of 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist

  4. Dopamine Depletion Reduces Food-Related Reward Activity Independent of BMI.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sabine; Veit, Ralf; Sauer, Helene; Enck, Paul; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Unholzer, Theresa; Bauer, Ute-Maria; Linder, Katarzyna; Heni, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and possible alterations in the dopaminergic-reward system are associated with obesity. We therefore aimed to investigate the influence of dopamine depletion on food-reward processing. We investigated 34 female subjects in a randomized placebo-controlled, within-subject design (body mass index (BMI)=27.0 kg/m(2) ±4.79 SD; age=28 years ±4.97 SD) using an acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion drink representing dopamine depletion and a balanced amino acid drink as the control condition. Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a 'wanting' and 'liking' rating of food items. Eating behavior-related traits and states were assessed on the basis of questionnaires. Dopamine depletion resulted in reduced activation in the striatum and higher activation in the superior frontal gyrus independent of BMI. Brain activity during the wanting task activated a more distributed network than during the liking task. This network included gustatory, memory, visual, reward, and frontal regions. An interaction effect of dopamine depletion and the wanting/liking task was observed in the hippocampus. The interaction with the covariate BMI was significant in motor and control regions but not in the striatum. Our results support the notion of altered brain activity in the reward and prefrontal network with blunted dopaminergic action during food-reward processing. This effect is, however, independent of BMI, which contradicts the reward-deficiency hypothesis. This hints to the hypothesis suggesting a different or more complex mechanism underlying the dopaminergic reward function in obesity.

  5. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders.

  6. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  7. Bmi1 Loss in the Organ of Corti Results in p16ink4a Upregulation and Reduced Cell Proliferation of Otic Progenitors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Aurélie; Avci, Hasan X.; Löwenheim, Hubert; Müller, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The mature mammalian organ of Corti does not regenerate spontaneously after injury, mainly due to the absence of cell proliferation and the depletion of otic progenitors with age. The polycomb gene B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1) promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression in several stem cell populations. The cell cycle inhibitor p16ink4a has been previously identified as a downstream target of Bmi1. In this study, we show that Bmi1 is expressed in the developing inner ear. In the organ of Corti, Bmi1 expression is temporally regulated during embryonic and postnatal development. In contrast, p16ink4a expression is not detectable during the same period. Bmi1-deficient mice were used to investigate the role of Bmi1 in cochlear development and otosphere generation. In the absence of Bmi1, the postnatal organ of Corti displayed normal morphology at least until the end of the first postnatal week, suggesting that Bmi1 is not required for the embryonic or early postnatal development of the organ of Corti. However, Bmi1 loss resulted in the reduced sphere-forming capacity of the organ of Corti, accompanied by the decreased cell proliferation of otic progenitors in otosphere cultures. This reduced proliferative capacity was associated with the upregulation of p16ink4a in vitro. Viral vector-mediated overexpression of p16ink4a in wildtype otosphere cultures significantly reduced the number of generated otospheres in vitro. The findings strongly suggest a role for Bmi1 as a promoter of cell proliferation in otic progenitor cells, potentially through the repression of p16ink4a. PMID:27755610

  8. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate.

  9. Quercetin attenuates doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by modulating Bmi-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qinghua; Chen, Long; Lu, Qunwei; Sharma, Sherven; Li, Lei; Morimoto, Sachio; Wang, Guanyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy induces cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. We previously reported the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin on the expression of Bmi-1, a protein regulating mitochondrial function and ROS generation, as a mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Experimental Approach Effects of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated using H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice. Changes in apoptosis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and related signalling were evaluated in H9c2 cells. Cardiac function, serum enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured in mice after a single injection of doxorubicin with or without quercetin pre-treatment. Key Results In H9c2 cells, quercetin reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS generation and DNA double-strand breaks. The quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin toxicity was characterized by decreased expression of Bid, p53 and oxidase (p47 and Nox1) and by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1. Bmi-1 siRNA abolished the protective effect of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, quercetin protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction that was accompanied by reduced ROS levels and lipid peroxidation, but enhanced the expression of Bmi-1 and anti-oxidative superoxide dismutase. Conclusions and Implications Our results demonstrate that quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by reducing oxidative stress by up-regulation of Bmi-1 expression. The findings presented in this study have potential applications in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:24902966

  10. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  11. Waist circumference percentile thresholds for identifying adolescents with insulin resistance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Woolford, Susan J; Gurney, James G

    2009-08-01

    We formally evaluated waist circumference (WC) percentile cutoffs for predicting insulin resistance (IR) and whether different cutoffs should be used for adolescents of different race/ethnicities. Analysis was performed for 1575 adolescents aged 12-18 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Adolescents were classified as having IR if they had a homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, a validated measure of IR, of >4.39, and WC percentile was classified according to previously published universal (all races combined) and race/ethnicity-specific WC percentile cutoffs. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting IR were constructed comparing the race/ethnicity-specific vs. universal WC percentile cutoffs, and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Comparing universal with race/ethnicity-specific WC percentiles, there were no significant differences in AUC for Black, Mexican-American, or White adolescents. Because race/ethnicity-specific thresholds did not discriminate better than universal WC thresholds, universal WC thresholds may be used effectively to identify adolescents with IR in primary care practices. A WC > or =75th or > or =90th percentile for all race/ethnicities combined would be appropriate to apply in clinical practice for identification of adolescents with IR, a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Preferred women's waist-to-hip ratio variation over the last 2,500 years.

    PubMed

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men's mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men's preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed.

  13. Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Dana H. (Inventor); Gunter, William D. (Inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

  14. Design and Optimization of a Hybrid-Driven Waist Rehabilitation Robot

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Bin; Yin, Guangcai; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a waist rehabilitation robot driven by cables and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) has been conceptualized and designed. In the process of mechanism design, the human body structure, the waist movement characteristics, and the actuators’ driving characteristics are the main considerable factors to make the hybrid-driven waist rehabilitation robot (HWRR) cost-effective, safe, flexible, and well-adapted. A variety of sensors are chosen to measure the position and orientation of the recovery patient to ensure patient safety at the same time as the structure design. According to the structure specialty and function, the HWRR is divided into two independent parallel robots: the waist twist device and the lower limb traction device. Then these two devices are analyzed and evaluated, respectively. Considering the characters of the human body in the HWRR, the inverse kinematics and statics are studied when the waist and the lower limb are considered as a spring and link, respectively. Based on the inverse kinematics and statics, the effect of the contraction parameter of the PAM is considered in the optimization of the waist twist device, and the lower limb traction device is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to minimize the global conditioning number over the feasible workspace. As a result of the optimization, an optimal rehabilitation robot design is obtained and the condition number of the Jacobian matrix over the feasible workspace is also calculated. PMID:27983626

  15. Design and Optimization of a Hybrid-Driven Waist Rehabilitation Robot.

    PubMed

    Zi, Bin; Yin, Guangcai; Zhang, Dan

    2016-12-14

    In this paper a waist rehabilitation robot driven by cables and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) has been conceptualized and designed. In the process of mechanism design, the human body structure, the waist movement characteristics, and the actuators' driving characteristics are the main considerable factors to make the hybrid-driven waist rehabilitation robot (HWRR) cost-effective, safe, flexible, and well-adapted. A variety of sensors are chosen to measure the position and orientation of the recovery patient to ensure patient safety at the same time as the structure design. According to the structure specialty and function, the HWRR is divided into two independent parallel robots: the waist twist device and the lower limb traction device. Then these two devices are analyzed and evaluated, respectively. Considering the characters of the human body in the HWRR, the inverse kinematics and statics are studied when the waist and the lower limb are considered as a spring and link, respectively. Based on the inverse kinematics and statics, the effect of the contraction parameter of the PAM is considered in the optimization of the waist twist device, and the lower limb traction device is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to minimize the global conditioning number over the feasible workspace. As a result of the optimization, an optimal rehabilitation robot design is obtained and the condition number of the Jacobian matrix over the feasible workspace is also calculated.

  16. Should waist circumference be replaced by index of central obesity (ICO) in definition of metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Parikh, R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S

    2012-01-01

    Waist circumference has been widely used as the parameter of central obesity in defining metabolic syndrome. Global consensus definition of metabolic syndrome has suggested various race- and gender-specific cutoffs of waist circumference for quantifying central obesity. We have earlier proposed that using index of central obesity (ICO), the need for race- and gender-specific cutoffs may be obviated. We propose that waist circumference be supplanted with index of central obesity in all definitions of metabolic syndrome. Using index of central obesity a common cutoff of 0.5 applicable across races and genders might be obtained. Moreover, it will enhance the sensitivity of definition by diagnosing subjects who are shorter than general population. Among 258 male and 242 female diabetic patients, subjects with metabolic syndrome (defined as per gender-specific waist circumference cutoffs), were found to have a common lower range of index of central obesity suggesting that a common cutoff of waist circumference may be obtained. In another study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database, replacing index of central obesity with waist circumference was found to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of definition of metabolic syndrome.

  17. An outbreak of body weight dissatisfaction associated with self-perceived BMI and dieting among female pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Bazylak, Grzegorz

    2009-11-01

    Some reports indicate that in various groups of society living in the highly developed countries a body weight perception and weight satisfaction tend to be inappropriate when compared with body mass index (BMI) calculated from estimated actual weight and height. Thus in present studies a relationship between body weight perceptions, measured actual BMI, gender, and dieting practices in a sample population of pharmacy students in Poland were examined to verify hypothesis that their incorrect self-perception would provoke occasional, seasonal and permanent eating disorders. Height and weight data of 178 pharmacy students (mean age 22.6+/-2.4 years) in Bydgoszcz, Poland, were collected and validated by completed self-reported questionnaire assessing their self-perceived body weight, desired body weight and past/current dieting practices. Only 34.4% of female and 37.1% of male pharmacy students was satisfied with their current body weight. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in estimated BMI status (chi(2)=28.5; p=0.0001), desired body weight (chi(2)=15.6; p=0.0004) and past dieting (chi(2)=7.6; p=0.0050) by gender. In the male sub-group of students (n=27) unclear association (chi(2)=6.1; p=0.046) between measured actual BMI status and self-perceived body weight have been presented. Moreover, in male students a significant relationship (chi(2)=4.9; p=0.0261) between actual BMI status and both past as well as current weight control behavior in the form of dieting practices was exhibited. In case of a sub-group of female students (n=151) a diffuse association of actual BMI and self-perception of their body weight (chi(2)=69.5; p=0.0001) was obtained. However, a close relation (chi(2)=16.9; p=0.0007) between actual BMI and only past dieting practices was observed in females. Furthermore, in this last sub-group of students the significant relationship (chi(2)=53.9; p=0.0001) between measured actual BMI and desired body weight was also demonstrated. The

  18. The influence of BMI and predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction on postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia F; Silva, Elsa; Gomes, A Rui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare eating behaviors, body satisfaction, exercise, and life satisfaction between normal-weight and overweight postmenopausal women and to examine the predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction among postmenopausal women (n = 294). The overweight group had more eating disordered behavior, more body dissatisfaction, and lower physical quality of life. The increase of age predicted less disordered eating. Higher BMI, the perception of an ideal weight lower than the current one, lower body satisfaction, and physical quality of life predicted disordered eating. Higher body satisfaction, less psychosocial discomfort, and a greater degree of sexual symptom discomfort predicted life satisfaction.

  19. Association of Obesity, BMI, and Hispanic Ethnicity on Ambulatory Status in Children with Spinal Dysraphism followed near the California-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Michelle L.; Huang, Andy; Proudfoot, James A.; Le, Joan T.; Chiang, George J.; Bush, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), overweight status (OW), or obesity (OB) and ambulatory status in a predominantly Hispanic population of children with spinal dysraphism (SD). Methods Retrospective data were extracted from records of 272 children and youth aged 0–24 years with a diagnosis of SD. Body mass index (BMI) and OW/OB rates were calculated for children 0–3 years, 4–11 years, and adolescents older than 11. Results Ethnicity was predominantly Hispanic (65.4%). No difference in mean BMI or OW/OB rate was found between ambulation groups (p=.20; p=.72). Mean BMI and OW/OB rate increased with increasing age in all groups (p<.001; p=.02). Forty-four percent of patients were OW/OB, which was greater among Hispanics (48.2%) compared with non-Hispanics [(35.2%), p=.03]. Female gender was a risk factor for increased BMI among Hispanics (p=.00). Conclusion Despite no difference in ambulatory status, increasing BMI and OW/OB are associated with Hispanic ethnicity and increasing age. PMID:27818449

  20. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    BMI, waist circumference , history of enlarged prostate, education and current smoking status, were all considered as possible confounders. Results: We...interviewers during in person computer assisted interviews and with self-administered 18 questionnaires. Heights, weight, and waist circumference were measured...logistic models were run including as potential confounders age, race, BMI, waist circumference , current smoking status, history of enlarged prostate and

  1. Impact of food craving and calorie intake on body mass index (BMI) changes during an 18-month behavioral weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Rybak, Tiffany M; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Murphy, James G; Raynor, Hollie A

    2017-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between food craving, caloric intake, and body mass index (BMI) changes over the course of an 18-month weight loss trial. Two-hundred two obese adults (mean BMI = 34.9 kg/m(2); mean age = 51.30 years, 92.2% White; 57.8% female) who participated in a behavioral weight loss trial completed measures of food craving, caloric intake, and BMI at baseline, 6 and 18 months. From baseline to 6 months, higher initial food cravings were associated with more gradual and less steep reductions in BMI. Additionally, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes varied by levels of change in caloric intake, such that BMI change and change in food cravings were positively associated at low levels of change in caloric intake, but were unrelated at average and high levels of change in caloric intake. Similarly, from baseline to 6 months and from 6 to 18 months, the relation between changes in food craving and BMI changes also varied by initial levels of caloric intake. Explicit clinical targeting of food craving management may be beneficial for individuals beginning weight loss programs, especially for those who report higher levels of food craving at baseline. Baseline caloric intake and change in calorie intake over time may serve as moderators of the relation between food cravings and BMI.

  2. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  3. Evaluation of Hip/HeightP Ratio as an Index for Adiposity and Metabolic Complications in Obese Children: Comparison with Waist-related Indices

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nagahara, Keiko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether body adiposity index (BAI; hip/height1.5–18), pediatric BAI (BAIp; hip/height0.8–38), and other hip/heightP ratios are useful in obese children. Method: Ninety obese Japanese children, 55 boys and 35 girls, who visited our University Clinic, were enrolled. The age was 9.92 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD) years, and the percentage overweight (POW) was 51.6 ± 18.8%. We set the power value of the hip/heightP 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.5, and 2 and studied the association with overweight indices, biochemical data, and fat area measured by computed tomography. Waist, waist/height ratio, and waist/hip ratio were also evaluated. Results: Hip/height and hip/height0.8 (BAIp) were more closely correlated with POW, body mass index percentile, and percentage body fat than hip/height1.5 (BAI). The correlation coefficient of hip/height with POW (r = 0.855) was the highest among the studied hip/heightP indices. The approximate line to predict POW was 411 × hip/height−207. The waist/height was also highly correlated with POW (r = 0.879). Hip and hip/height0.5 were more closely correlated with visceral fat area than hip/height, BAIp, and hip/height1.5. Hip and hip/height0.5 were significantly correlated with insulin. Only hip was also significantly associated with dyslipidemia. All hip/heightP indices were not significantly correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Waist was significantly correlated with serum lipids, ALT, and insulin. Conclusion: Hip/height and BAIp are better markers for overweight (adiposity) in obese children than BAI. However, hip/height, BAIp, and BAI are not useful to predict metabolic complications. Waist appears to be the best index for obese children overall at this time. PMID:27298049

  4. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  5. Peer effects in adolescent BMI: evidence from Spain.

    PubMed

    Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan

    2013-05-01

    This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences.

  6. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  7. Heart-Health Screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... old, your healthcare provider may ask for your waist circumference or use your body weight to calculate your ... BMI) During your regular healthcare visit Age 20 Waist circumference As needed to help evaluate cardiovascular risk. This ...

  8. Does the brain shrink as the waist expands?

    PubMed

    Willette, Auriel A; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that being overweight or obese is related to worse cognitive performance, particularly executive function. Obesity may also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in whether adiposity is related to gray or white matter (GM, WM) atrophy. In this review, we identified and critically evaluated studies assessing obesity and GM or WM volumes either globally or in specific regions of interest (ROIs). Across all ages, higher adiposity was consistently associated with frontal GM atrophy, particularly in prefrontal cortex. In children and adults <40 years of age, most studies found no relationship between adiposity and occipital or parietal GM volumes, whereas findings for temporal lobe were mixed. In middle-aged and aged adults, a majority of studies found that higher adiposity is associated with parietal and temporal GM atrophy, whereas results for precuneus, posterior cingulate, and hippocampus were mixed. Higher adiposity had no clear association with global or regional WM in any age group. We conclude that higher adiposity may be associated with frontal GM atrophy across all ages and parietal and temporal GM atrophy in middle and old age.

  9. BMI1 inhibits senescence and enhances the immunomodulatory properties of human mesenchymal stem cells via the direct suppression of MKP-1/DUSP1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kang, Insung; Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Byung-Chul; Choi, Soon Won; Shin, Ji-Hee; Seo, Yoojin; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2016-01-01

    For the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as clinical therapeutics, the regulation of cellular aging is important to protect hMSCs from an age-associated decline in their function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of hypoxia on cellular senescence and the immunomodulatory abilities of hUCB-MSCs. Hypoxic-cultured hUCB-MSCs showed enhanced proliferation and had increased immunosuppressive effects on mitogen-induced mononuclear cell proliferation. We found that BMI1, a member of the polycomb repressive complex protein group, showed increased expression in hypoxic-cultured hUCB-MSCs, and the further knock-down of BMI1 in hypoxic cells induced decreased proliferative and immunomodulatory abilities in hUCB-MSCs, along with COX-2/PGE2 down-regulation. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated p38 MAP kinase increased in response to the over-expression of BMI1 in normoxic conditions, suggesting that BMI1 regulates the immunomodulatory properties of hUCB-MSCs via p38 MAP kinase-mediated COX-2 expression. More importantly, we identified BMI1 as a direct repressor of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1)/DUSP1, which suppresses p38 MAP kinase activity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that BMI1 plays a key role in the regulation of the immunomodulatory properties of hUCB-MSCs, and we suggest that these findings might provide a strategy to enhance the functionality of hUCB-MSCs for use in therapeutic applications. PMID:27454161

  10. Copper induces cellular senescence in human glioblastoma multiforme cells through downregulation of Bmi-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Hu, Jifan; Guan, Fangxia; Song, Laijun; Fan, Ruitai; Zhu, Huaijie; Hu, Xiang; Shen, Eileen; Yang, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Most human tumor cells, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells, have aberrant control of cell aging and apoptosis. Subcytotoxic concentrations of oxidative or stress‑causing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, may induce human cell senescence. Thus, induction of tumor cells into premature senescence may provide a useful in vitro model for developing novel therapeutic strategy to combat tumors. In the present study, we assessed the molecular mechanism(s) underlying senescence in GBM cells induced by copper sulfate. Following pretreatment with subcytotoxic concentrations of copper sulfate, U87-MG tumor cells showed typical aging characteristics, including reduced cell proliferation, cell enlargement, increased level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity, and overexpression of several senescence-associated genes, p16, p21, transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1), insulin growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and apolipoprotein J (ApoJ). We further demonstrated that the Bmi-1 pathway was downregulated in GBM cells in parallel with the induced senescence. The present study for the first time demonstrates the ability of copper to induce GBM cell senescence by downregulating Bmi-1.

  11. Dairy and milk consumption and child growth: Is BMI involved? An analysis of NHANES 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2010-01-01

    Humans are unique among mammals in that many consume cow's milk or other dairy products well beyond the traditional age of weaning. Milk provides various nutrients and bioactive molecules to support growth and development, and the question arises as to whether this dietary behavior influences growth parameters. There is evidence that milk makes positive contributions to growth in height, but its associations with other aspects of body size, such as body mass index (BMI), are not well-established. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and multivariate regression analysis were used to test the hypothesis that milk (g) or total dairy product consumption (kJ) is associated with higher BMI percentile among US White, Black, and Mexican-American children of age 2-4 years (n = 1,493) and 5-10 years (n = 2,526). Younger children in the highest quartile of dairy intake had higher BMIs (beta = 7.5-8.0; P < 0.01) than those in the lowest two quartiles. Controlling for energy intake eliminated differences between QIV and QI. Among children of 5-10 years of age dairy intake had no relationship to BMI. Young children in the highest quartile of milk intake had higher BMIs than all lower quartiles (beta = 7.1-12.8; beta = 6.3-11.8 in energy-controlled models; P < 0.05). Among children of 5-10 years of age, those in QIV for milk intake had higher BMIs than those in QII (beta = 8.3; beta = 7.1 in energy-controlled model; P < 0.01). Controlling for total protein or calcium did not change the results. Milk had more consistent positive associations with BMI than did dairy products, and these were strongest among children of 2-4 years of age.

  12. Stable isotope analysis challenges wasp-waist food web assumptions in an upwelling pelagic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Litvin, Steven Y; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as 'wasp-waist' ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007-2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations.

  13. Types of reproductive disorders in underweight and overweight young females and correlations of respective hormonal changes with BMI

    PubMed Central

    Aladashvili-Chikvaidze, Nutsa; Kristesashvili, Jenara; Gegechkori, Manana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Higher risks of reproductive problems have been found in underweight and overweight women with rapid weight gain or loss but evidence is inconsistent especially in relation to the effect of age of body weight changes. Objective: The aim of our study was to detect the peculiarities of menstrual function, prevalence of different types of reproductive disorders and correlations of respective hormonal changes with body mass index (BMI) in young female patients with thinness or obesity since childhood. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study 48 underweight and 55 overweight/obese young women with different reproductive problems underwent complete clinical and hormonal analyses. All 103 patients had weight problems since childhood. Results: Polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome was the most frequent in overweight and obese women, whilst non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ovarian dysfunction prevailed in underweight women (p˂0.001). No difference was determined according to the age of menarche (p=0.885) and types of menstrual disturbances (p=0.34) between the study groups. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was not found in young women who were lean since childhood. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (p=0.013) and sex hormone binging globulin (SHBG) (p˂0.001) levels were higher in women with low BMI, whilst free testosterone (FT) (p=0.019) and total testosterone (TT) (p=0.003) levels were higher in high BMI participants. BMI negatively correlated with FSH (p=0.009) and SHBG (p=0.001); and positively correlated with FT (p=0.001) and TT (p=0.002). Conclusion: Peculiarities of menstrual function and hormonal changes in young women with thinness or obesity since childhood are related to the types of reproductive disorders and their childhood BMI. PMID:26000003

  14. BMI and fracture risk in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study (MrOS).

    PubMed

    Nielson, Carrie M; Marshall, Lynn M; Adams, Annette L; LeBlanc, Erin S; Cawthon, Peggy M; Ensrud, Kristine; Stefanick, Marcia L; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2011-03-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for fracture, but little is known about the association between high BMI and fracture risk. We evaluated the association between BMI and fracture in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS), a cohort of 5995 US men 65 years of age and older. Standardized measures included weight, height, and hip bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); medical history; lifestyle; and physical performance. Only 6 men (0.1%) were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)); therefore, men in this category were excluded. Also, 27% of men had normal BMI (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 52% were overweight (25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)), 18% were obese I (30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)), and 3% were obese II (35 to 39.9 kg/m(2)). Overall, nonspine fracture incidence was 16.1 per 1000 person-years, and hip fracture incidence was 3.1 per 1000 person-years. In age-, race-, and BMD-adjusted models, compared with normal weight, the hazard ratio (HR) for nonspine fracture was 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.25] for overweight, 1.29 (95% CI 1.00-1.67) for obese I, and 1.94 (95% CI 1.25-3.02) for obese II. Associations were weaker and not statistically significant after adjustment for mobility limitations and walking pace (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.23, for overweight; HR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.46, for obese I, and HR = 1.44, 95% CI 0.90-2.28, for obese II). Obesity is common among older men, and when BMD is held constant, it is associated with an increased risk of fracture. This association is at least partially explained by worse physical function in obese men.

  15. Should a Patients BMI Status be Used to Restrict Access to Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty? Functional Outcomes of Arthroplasty Relative to BMI - Single Centre Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Lash, H.; Hooper, G.; Hooper, N.; Frampton, C.

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the experience of a dedicated orthopaedic elective service to determine whether we could establish a BMI group where arthroplasty was no longer effective as assessed by the patient’s functional outcome. This was a prospective observational study with retrospective analysis of data collected on 1439 total hip arthroplasty, 934 total knee arthroplasty and 326 unicompartment knee arthroplasty patients. Functional scores (WOMAC, Oxford hip and knee scores and HAAS) were obtained preoperatively and at 12 months post op. Patients had their BMI recorded at the preoperative assessment and were divided into BMI groups (BMI<25, BMI 25-30, BMI 30-35 and BMI > 35). Patients with a BMI of ≤ 30 had significantly better functional scores at 12 months post op compared to those with a BMI of > 35. The absolute gain in functional scores from pre op to 12 months post op did not differ significantly between BMI groups, the only significant difference we found for absolute gain showed patients with a BMI of > 35 have a greater increase in HAAS scores following total hip arthroplasty compared to patients with a BMI of 30 or less (p = 0.0435). Our patients with higher BMI’s had worse preoperative and post operative functional scores but their benefit from surgery measured by the change in functional scores showed no difference compared to patients with lower BMI. We could find no reason on the basis of the 12-month results to limit surgery to obese patients because of an expected poorer functional outcome. PMID:24155808

  16. Differential RNA Expression of Bmy1 During Late Seed Development in Wild and Cultivated Barley and the Association With ß-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four genotypes carrying different ß-amylase 1 (Bmy1) intron III alleles (Bmy1.a, Bmy1.b, Bmy1.c, and Bmy1.d) were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 DNA sequence, Bmy1 RNA expression, ß-amylase activity and protein, and total protein during late seed development. Wild barleys Ashqelon (Bmy1.c) and PI...

  17. Is Childhood Socioeconomic Status Independently Associated with Adult BMI after Accounting for Adult and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely associated with adult weight in high income countries. Whether the influence of childhood SES on adult weight is best described using a critical period model or an accumulation of risk model is not yet settled. This research tests whether childhood SES is associated with adult BMI and likelihood of obesity independent of adult socioeconomic status and neighborhood characteristics. Data on individual childhood and adult characteristics come from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 13,545). Data on neighborhood characteristics come from the 2000 Decennial Census and American Community Survey (2005–2009). In the fully adjusted models, perceived financial hardship before the age of sixteen and having a father who was unemployed are associated with higher BMI among males and, among females, paternal education remains associated with adult BMI. However, childhood SES is not associated with likelihood of obesity after fully adjusting for adult SES and neighborhood characteristics, suggesting that the direct effects of early childhood SES on BMI are small relative to the other factors associated with obesity in adulthood. PMID:28095430

  18. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  19. Relationship between the Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Bioelements in Aging Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Iwona; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Safranow, Krzysztof; Lubkowska, Anna; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals may exacerbate metabolic syndrome (MS) but abnormal serum concentrations of bioelements may also co-exist with MS. The primary aim of the study was to assess the relationship of blood heavy metal and bioelement concentrations and MS, in men aged 50–75 years. Heavy metals—lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), tungsten (W), Macroelements—magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), and microelements—iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se) and manganese (Mn), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), abdominal circumference (AC) and blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TCh), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment—Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The men with MS showed statistically significant higher Zn and lower Mg concentrations. Those with diabetes had higher Ca concentration and lower Mg concentration. Cr and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in obese men. The participants with hypertension had lower Mg concentration. We found statistically significant positive correlations (W-TCh, W-LDL, Mg-TCh, Mg-LDL, Ca-TCh, Ca-LDL, Ca-insulin, Ca-HOMAR-IR, Zn-TG, Zn-insulin, Zn-HOMA-IR, Cu-BP systolic, Mn-BMI, Mn-AC, Mn-WHR, Mn-insulin, Mn-HOMA-IR, Se-TCh, Se-LDL, Se-TG, Se-insulin, Se-HOMA-IR, Cr-TCh, Cr-HDL, Cr-LDL, Cr-TG) and negative correlations (Cd-insulin, Hg-WHR, W-insulin, W-HOMA-IR, Mg-BMI, Mg-AC, Mg-WHR, Mg-BP systolic, Mo-insulin, Mn-HDL). Tungsten may contribute to lipid disorders. Magnesium appears to play the protective role in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. Microelements Mn, Cr and Se may intensify MS. PMID:25867198

  20. Relationship between the concentrations of heavy metals and bioelements in aging men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Iwona; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Safranow, Krzysztof; Lubkowska, Anna; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2015-04-10

    Heavy metals may exacerbate metabolic syndrome (MS) but abnormal serum concentrations of bioelements may also co-exist with MS. The primary aim of the study was to assess the relationship of blood heavy metal and bioelement concentrations and MS, in men aged 50-75 years. Heavy metals-lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), tungsten (W), Macroelements-magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca), and microelements-iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se) and manganese (Mn), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), abdominal circumference (AC) and blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TCh), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The men with MS showed statistically significant higher Zn and lower Mg concentrations. Those with diabetes had higher Ca concentration and lower Mg concentration. Cr and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in obese men. The participants with hypertension had lower Mg concentration. We found statistically significant positive correlations (W-TCh, W-LDL, Mg-TCh, Mg-LDL, Ca-TCh, Ca-LDL, Ca-insulin, Ca-HOMAR-IR, Zn-TG, Zn-insulin, Zn-HOMA-IR, Cu-BP systolic, Mn-BMI, Mn-AC, Mn-WHR, Mn-insulin, Mn-HOMA-IR, Se-TCh, Se-LDL, Se-TG, Se-insulin, Se-HOMA-IR, Cr-TCh, Cr-HDL, Cr-LDL, Cr-TG) and negative correlations (Cd-insulin, Hg-WHR, W-insulin, W-HOMA-IR, Mg-BMI, Mg-AC, Mg-WHR, Mg-BP systolic, Mo-insulin, Mn-HDL). Tungsten may contribute to lipid disorders. Magnesium appears to play the protective role in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. Microelements Mn, Cr and Se may intensify MS.

  1. Individual variability in preference for energy-dense foods fails to predict child BMI percentile.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christina; Griggs, Rebecca L; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Many studies show that higher dietary energy density is associated with greater body weight. Here we explored two propositions: i) that child BMI percentile is associated with individual differences in children's relative preference for energy-dense foods, ii) that child BMI percentile is associated with the same individual differences between their parents. Child-parent dyads were recruited from a local interactive science center in Bristol (UK). Using computerized tasks, participants ranked their preference and rated their liking for a range of snack foods that varied in energy density. Children (aged 3-14years, N=110) and parents completed the tasks for themselves. Parents also completed two further tasks in which they ranked the foods in the order that they would prioritize for their child, and again, in the order that they thought their child would choose. Children preferred (t(109)=3.91, p<0.001) and better liked the taste of (t(109)=3.28, p=0.001) higher energy-dense foods, and parents correctly estimated this outcome (t(109)=7.18, p<0.001). Conversely, lower energy-dense foods were preferred (t(109)=-4.63, p<0.001), better liked (t(109)=-2.75, p=0.007) and served (t(109)=-15.06, p<0.001) by parents. However, we found no evidence that child BMI percentile was associated with child or parent preference for, or liking of, energy-dense foods. Therefore, we suggest that the observed relationship between dietary energy density and body weight is not explained by individual differences in preference for energy density.

  2. Bone mass in girls according to their BMI, VO2 max, hours and years of practice.

    PubMed

    Ubago-Guisado, Esther; Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Gallardo, Leonor; Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier

    2016-11-01

    The accumulation of bone mass during puberty is related with bone health in adulthood. This accumulation is influenced by diverse factors such as body mass index (BMI), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), hours of training and years of sport practice. For this reason, the objective of this study is to analyse the influence of these variables on bone mass in young female athletes. The sample is formed of 120 healthy girls with ages between 9 and 13 (11.32 ± 1.6 years old), divided into two groups depending on their BMI, VO2 max, hours of training and years of sport practice. The participants completed a series of tests to evaluate level of sexual development, body composition (fat mass, lean mass and bone mass) and physical condition. The results show higher values of total lean mass, total fat mass and percentage of body fat in the groups with higher BMI in prepubertal girls and pubertal girls (p < .05). In relation to VO2 max, in the prepubertal group, girls with lower VO2 max had higher values of total fat mass (p < .05) and percentage of body fat (p < .05). In the pubertal group, girls with lower VO2 max also showed a higher total fat mass (p < .05). The studied variables account for a 85% and 75.4% of the variance of total bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), respectively. In conclusion, the content and BMD are closely related with muscle mass and sports practice in young females. The amount of fat mass showed no association with bone mass and physical condition has an indirect relationship with bone development.

  3. Oxandrolone Improves Height Velocity and BMI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Varness, Todd; Seffrood, Erin E; Connor, Ellen L; Rock, Michael J; Allen, David B

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of oxandrolone in improving the nutritional status and linear growth of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods. Medical records of patients with CF treated with oxandrolone were reviewed for height z score, height velocity (HV), BMI z score, weight velocity (WV), Tanner stage, pulmonary function, liver enzyme levels, and any reported adverse events. Data were compared before (pre-Ox) and after (Ox) oxandrolone using a paired t-test. Results. 5 subjects (ages 8.5-14.5 years) were treated with oxandrolone 2.5 mg daily for 8-38 months. After 8-12 months of treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in HV (pre-Ox = 5.3 +/- 1.4 cm/yr, Ox = 8.3 +/- 1.2 cm/yr, P < .01) and BMI z score (pre-Ox = -0.61 +/- 1.04, Ox = -0.30 +/- 0.86, P = .02). Both height z score (pre-Ox = -1.64 +/- 0.63, Ox = -1.30 +/- 0.49, P = .057) and WV (pre-Ox = 4.2 +/- 3.7 kg/yr, Ox = 6.8 +/- 1.0 kg/yr, P = .072) showed beneficial trends that did not reach statistical significance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. In this brief clinical report, oxandrolone improved the HV and BMI z score in patients with CF. Larger studies are needed to determine if oxandrolone is an effective, safe, and affordable option to stimulate appetite, improve weight gain, and promote linear growth in patients with CF.

  4. Oxandrolone Improves Height Velocity and BMI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Varness, Todd; Seffrood, Erin E.; Connor, Ellen L.; Rock, Michael J.; Allen, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of oxandrolone in improving the nutritional status and linear growth of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods. Medical records of patients with CF treated with oxandrolone were reviewed for height z score, height velocity (HV), BMI z score, weight velocity (WV), Tanner stage, pulmonary function, liver enzyme levels, and any reported adverse events. Data were compared before (pre-Ox) and after (Ox) oxandrolone using a paired t-test. Results. 5 subjects (ages 8.5–14.5 years) were treated with oxandrolone 2.5 mg daily for 8–38 months. After 8–12 months of treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in HV (pre-Ox = 5.3 ± 1.4 cm/yr, Ox = 8.3 ± 1.2 cm/yr, P < .01) and BMI z score (pre-Ox = −0.61 ± 1.04, Ox = −0.30 ± 0.86, P = .02). Both height z score (pre-Ox = −1.64 ± 0.63, Ox = −1.30 ± 0.49, P = .057) and WV (pre-Ox = 4.2 ± 3.7 kg/yr, Ox = 6.8 ± 1.0 kg/yr, P = .072) showed beneficial trends that did not reach statistical significance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. In this brief clinical report, oxandrolone improved the HV and BMI z score in patients with CF. Larger studies are needed to determine if oxandrolone is an effective, safe, and affordable option to stimulate appetite, improve weight gain, and promote linear growth in patients with CF. PMID:20145725

  5. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  6. Photonic crystal waveguide cavity with waist design for efficient trapping and detection of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pin-Tso; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2014-03-24

    For manipulating nanometric particles, we propose a photonic crystal waveguide cavity design with a waist structure to enhance resonance characteristic of the cavity. For trapping a polystyrene particle of 50 nm radius on the lateral side of the waist, the optical force can reach 2308 pN/W with 24.7% signal transmission. Threshold power of only 0.32 mW is required for stable trapping. The total length of the device is relatively short with only ten photonic crystal periods, and the trapping can occur precisely and only at the waist. The designed cavity can also provide particle detection and surrounding medium sensing using the transmission spectrum with narrow linewidth. The simulated figure of merit of 110.6 is relatively high compared with those obtained from most plasmonic structures for sensing application. We anticipate this design with features of compact, efficient, and versatile in functionality will be beneficial for developing lab-on-chip in the future.

  7. Amerindians normalized waist circumference and obesity diagnosis standarized by biochemical and HLA data.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Areces, Cristina; Arribas, Ignacio; Coca, Carmen; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Abd-El-Fatah, Sedeka; Rey, Diego

    2012-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity are principal causes of morbidity all over the World, particularly for their association to cardiovascular risk. Amerindians are often living in countries and remote areas with unavailable sophisticated diagnoses methodologies. However, waist-circumference is a reliable and easy to record parameter of visceral obesity and MS. Waist circumference normal values are not yet established in Amerindians: South Asian and Japanese values have been recommended for Amerindian use. The purpose of this study is to objectively define for the first time the waist circumference measure cut-off points for Amerindians. A total of 303 unrelated Amerindian adults recently immigrated to Madrid were studied; they were healthy, since they were questioned and tested as appropriate for blood donation. Waist-circumference was measured in these voluntary blood donors after written consent. Chosen subjects for study had HLA quasi-specific Amerindian genes and not gained weight since their relatively short time living in Spain. Amerindians with Type I or II diabetes or family antecedents were removed from the study. The biochemical parameter used to define normality for MS was the reliable serum HDL-cholesterol levels, whose values are diet independent. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and to find out the optimal cut-off points of waist circumference normal values. Cut-off points were ≤88.5 cm in males and ≤82.5 cm in females; these values were close to the median values (88 and 82.2 cm, respectively). Obtained waist circumference values recorded here in normal Amerindians are different to those previously recommended indirectly (those of South Asian/Japanese populations). These parameters may be of great value for American countries health care in order to predict and control MS and its cardiovascular complications. Other countries having a heavy Amerindian immigration (i.e.: USA, Spain) may

  8. [Brain-machine interface (BMI) - application to neurological disorders].

    PubMed

    Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Hirata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) is a new technology to receive input from the brain which is translated to operate a computer or other external device in real time. After significant progress during the recent 10 years, this technology is now very close to the clinical use to restore neural functions of patients with severe neurologic impairment. This technology is also a strong tool to investigate the mode of neuro-signal processing in the brain and to understand the mechanism of neural dysfunction which leads to the development of novel neurotechnology for the treatment of various sorts of neurological disorders.

  9. The Design and Development of BMI Calc Android Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ali, Iliana; Samsudin, Nooraida

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index is a familiar term for those who are weight conscious. It is the term that let user know about the overall body composition in terms of fat.The available body mass index calculators whether online or on Play Store do not provide Malaysian meal suggestions. Hence, this paper proposes an application for body mass index calculator together with Malaysian meal suggestion. The objectives of the study are to design and develop BMI Calc android application for the purpose of calculating body mass index while embedding meal suggestion module. The design and methodology involve in the process are also presented.

  10. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  11. The body mass index (BMI) is significantly correlated with levels of cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Lind, Anne-Li; Gordh, Torsten; Bodolea, Constantin; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Thulin, Måns

    2015-12-01

    Cytokines and chemokines regulate many functions in the body including the brain. The interactions between adipose tissue and the central nervous system (CNS) are important for the regulation of energy balance. CNS function is also influenced by age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and age on cytokine and chemokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid samples (n=89) were collected from patients undergoing routine surgical procedures. The samples were analyzed using the multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) in which 92 different cytokines are measured simultaneously using minute sample volume. We found no significant correlations between age and cytokine levels for any of the studied markers. In contrast, at a false discovery rate of 10%, 19 markers were significantly associated with BMI (in decreasing significance: FGF-5, ADA, Beta-NGF, CD40, IL-10RB, CCL19, TGF-alpha, SIRT2, TWEAK, SCF, CSF-1, 4E-BP1, DNER, LIF-R, STAMPB, CXCL10, CXCL6, VEGF-A and CX3CL1). This study reveals a clear effect of BMI on cytokine and chemokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid.

  12. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John C; Elliott, Paul; Zabaneh, Delilah; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Yun; Froguel, Philippe; Balding, David; Scott, James; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2008-06-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (318,237 SNPs) for insulin resistance and related phenotypes in 2,684 Indian Asians, with further testing in 11,955 individuals of Indian Asian or European ancestry. We found associations of rs12970134 near MC4R with waist circumference (P = 1.7 x 10(-9)) and, independently, with insulin resistance. Homozygotes for the risk allele of rs12970134 have approximately 2 cm increased waist circumference. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with risk of adiposity and insulin resistance.

  13. Therapeutic Role of Bmi-1 Inhibitors in Eliminating Prostate Tumor Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    subsequently develop a new class of bioavailable small molecules that inhibit tumor growth by selectively reducing BMI-1 production. The following...central player in PCa progression as it controls growth signals10-15, regulates oncogenic microRNAs16, and induces metastasis markers 17. BMI-1 is...advanced PCa, and targeting BMI-1 is a comp