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Sample records for age body condition

  1. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares. PMID:9078493

  2. Early age thermal conditioning immediately reduces body temperature of broiler chicks in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    De Basilio, V; Requena, F; León, A; Vilariño, M; Picard, M

    2003-08-01

    Early age thermal conditioning (TC) durably improves resistance of broilers to heat stress and reduces body temperature (Tb). Three experiments on broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effects of TC at 5 d of age on Tb variation measured by thermometer between 4 and 7 d of age, under a tropical environment. Because manipulation of chickens to measure Tb with a thermometer may increase Tb, a preliminary experiment on 13 3-to-4-wk-old male broilers compared Tb measured by telemetry to Tb measured in the terminal colon during three successive periods at 22, 33, and 22 degrees C. During heat exposure, Tb rapidly increased by 0.9 degrees C and plateaued over 24 h. During the last period, seven of the broilers rapidly reduced Tb to a plateau lower than the initial Tb, although six broilers exhibited more variable Tb. Measurement by thermometer underestimated on average core Tb by 0.28 degrees C at 22 degrees C and by 0.57 degrees C at 33 degrees C, whereas Tb recorded by telemetry was not affected by manipulation of the chickens. TC reduced Tb 24 h later in the three experiments. Compared to unexposed control chicks (N), 12 h of TC at 40 degrees C did not significantly reduce Tb at 7 d of age, although 24 h did. TC at 38 and 40 degrees C over 24 h significantly reduced Tb variation from 4 to 7 d of age compared to N chicks, whereas 36 degrees C did not. Withdrawing feed from the chicks for 2 h prior to measurement did not significantly reduce Tb at 4 and 7 d of age, but Tb reduction due to TC was greater in fed chicks (0.28 degrees C) than in chicks without feed (0.05 degrees C). Early age thermal conditioning at 38 to 40 degrees C at 5 d of age for 24 h reduced body temperature of 7-d-old male broilers.

  3. Melatonin treatment in spring and reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score and age.

    PubMed

    Luridiana, S; Mura, M C; Daga, C; Farci, F; Di Stefano, M V; Zidda, F; Carcangiu, V

    2015-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the effect of melatonin treatment on the advanced reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score (BCS) and age, 800 ewes were selected from two farms. These ewes (3-6 years old, multiparous and with BCS 2.5-4.0) were subdivided into two Groups (200 M and 200 C), balanced on their BCS and age. On 20 March, Group M was treated with one melatonin implant (18 mg). Group C was untreated. Males were introduced to the groups 35 days after treatment. Gestation was diagnosed between day 45 and 90 after mating by transabdominal ultrasonography. From day 150 to 190 after rams introduction, lambing date and newborns' number were recorded. The average time in days between male introduction and lambing resulted shorter in treated than in control ewes (166.4 ± 0.48 vs. 172.5 ± 0.50) (P < 0.05). At day 160 and 170 from ram introduction the fertility rate was higher in Group M than in C (P < 0.05). The overall fertility at day 190 from rams introduction showed no differences between Group M and C (337 and 339, respectively). At day 170 from male introduction the number of the 5-6 years-old lambed ewes were 2-fold higher than the youngers (P < 0.05). The animals with a BCS 3.5-4.0 had a faster response to male effect, and a shorter mean distance in days from rams introduction to lambing, compared to those scored 2.5-3.0 (166.1 ± 0.48 vs. 174.8 ± 0.51) (P < 0.05). We concluded that the ewes with BCS 3.5-4.0 and aged 5-6 years showed a better response to melatonin treatment in spring. PMID:26220680

  4. Effect of age on fattening and body condition of draught oxen fed teff straw (Eragrostis teff) based diets.

    PubMed

    Osuji, P O; Capper, B

    1992-05-01

    Twenty-four Ethiopian Highland Zebu (Bos indicus) oxen were allocated to 6 groups of 4 animals each on the basis of liveweight, age and body condition according to a completely randomised block design. The animals were group-fed an experimental diet consisting of (g/kg) 551 g concentrate and 449 g teff straw, at the rate of 2.5 kg per 100 kg of liveweight for 18 weeks. They were weighed and condition scored weekly. Feeding levels were adjusted weekly. The daily liveweight gain of each animal was estimated using regression analysis and changes in condition score evaluated. Age significantly affected the liveweight gains and body condition score changes of the oxen. There was a significant (P < 0.001) linear effect of age on average liveweight gain. The average daily gains were 0.62, 0.51 and 0.41 kg/day for animals aged 4 to 5, 7 to 8 and 10 to 11 years respectively. Age exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) quadratic effect on body condition changes. The results are discussed in terms of benefits from traction and fattening and farm system implications of fattening younger animals for reproduction and improved feeding.

  5. Neighborhood conditions, diabetes, and risk of lower-body functional limitations among middle-aged African Americans: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between presence of diabetes and adverse neighborhood and housing conditions and their effect on functional decline is unclear. We examined the association of adverse neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with incidence of lower-body functional limitations among persons with and those without diabetes using a prospective population-based cohort study of 563 African Americans 49-65 years of age at their 2000-2001 baseline interviews. Methods Participants were randomly sampled African Americans living in the St. Louis area (response rate: 76%). Physician-diagnosed diabetes was self reported at baseline interview. Lower-body functional limitations were self reported based on the Nagi physical performance scale at baseline and the three-year follow-up interviews. The external appearance of the block the respondent lived on and five housing conditions were rated by study interviewers. All analyses were done using propensity score methods to control for confounders. Results 109 (19.4%) of subjects experienced incident lower-body functional limitations at three-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, persons with diabetes who lived on block faces rated as fair-poor on each of the five conditions had higher odds (7.79 [95% confidence interval: 1.36-37.55] to 144.6 [95% confidence interval: 4.45-775.53]) of developing lower-body functional limitations than the referent group of persons without diabetes who lived on block faces rated as good-excellent. At least 80 percent of incident lower-body functional limitations was attributable to the interaction between block face conditions and diabetes status. Conclusions Adverse neighborhood conditions appear to exacerbate the detrimental effects on lower-body functioning associated with diabetes. PMID:20507573

  6. Carotenoids in nestling Montagu's harriers: variations according to age, sex, body condition and evidence for diet-related limitations.

    PubMed

    Sternalski, Audrey; Mougeot, François; Eraud, Cyril; Gangloff, Benoît; Villers, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids are colored pigments forming the basis of many avian social traits. Before their utilization carotenoids must be acquired through diet and mobilized for specific uses. The relationships between carotenoid-based coloration, circulating carotenoids and body condition have been well studied in adult birds, but little is known in nestlings. Here, we investigated variations in carotenoid-based coloration in a raptor nestling, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), both in captivity and in natural conditions, and within a vole (poor-carotenoid source and cyclic prey) specialist population. We studied these variations according to nestling age and sex, and possible limitations in carotenoid availability by comparing years of contrasted prey abundance and using carotenoid supplementation experiments. Captive nestlings, fed only with mice, were strongly carotenoid limited. Wild nestlings were also carotenoid limited, especially in a year of high vole abundance. Nestlings were in better condition but less colored during a peak vole abundance year than during a low vole abundance year, when harriers targeted more alternative preys (birds, insects). Thus, variation in vole abundance resulted in a de-coupling of body condition and carotenoid-based coloration in this population. This suggested that the positive relation between the body condition and carotenoid-based traits, typically found in adult birds, could be restricted to adults or nestlings of species that feed on carotenoid-rich food. Our results should stimulate more work on the functions and mechanisms of carotenoid-based traits in nestlings, which deserve more attention and most likely differ from those of adult birds.

  7. Variation in body condition indices of crimson finches by sex, breeding stage, age, time of day, and year

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Weinstein, Nicole; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Body condition indices are increasingly applied in conservation to assess habitat quality, identify stressed populations before they decline, determine effects of disturbances, and understand mechanisms of declines. To employ condition indices in this manner, we need first to understand their baseline variability and sources of variation. Here, we used crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton), a tropical passerine, to describe the variation in seven commonly used condition indices by sex, age, breeding stage, time of day, and year. We found that packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total plasma protein, and scaled mass were all significantly affected by an interaction between sex and breeding stage. Furcular fat varied by sex and breeding stage and also trended by year, scaled mass showed a positive trend with age and varied by time of day, and haemoglobin additionally varied by year. Pectoral muscle scores varied and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio trended only by year. Year effects might reflect a response to annual variation in environmental conditions; therefore, those indices showing year effects may be especially worthy of further investigation of their potential for conservation applications. Pectoral muscle scores and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio may be particularly useful due to the lack of influence of other variables on them. For the other indices, the large variation that can be attributed to individual covariates, such as sex and breeding stage, suggests that one should not interpret the physiological condition of an individual as measured by these indices from their absolute value. Instead, the condition of an individual should be interpreted relative to conspecifics by sex, breeding stage, and possibly age. PMID:27293604

  8. Variation in body condition indices of crimson finches by sex, breeding stage, age, time of day, and year.

    PubMed

    Milenkaya, Olga; Weinstein, Nicole; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Body condition indices are increasingly applied in conservation to assess habitat quality, identify stressed populations before they decline, determine effects of disturbances, and understand mechanisms of declines. To employ condition indices in this manner, we need first to understand their baseline variability and sources of variation. Here, we used crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton), a tropical passerine, to describe the variation in seven commonly used condition indices by sex, age, breeding stage, time of day, and year. We found that packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total plasma protein, and scaled mass were all significantly affected by an interaction between sex and breeding stage. Furcular fat varied by sex and breeding stage and also trended by year, scaled mass showed a positive trend with age and varied by time of day, and haemoglobin additionally varied by year. Pectoral muscle scores varied and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio trended only by year. Year effects might reflect a response to annual variation in environmental conditions; therefore, those indices showing year effects may be especially worthy of further investigation of their potential for conservation applications. Pectoral muscle scores and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio may be particularly useful due to the lack of influence of other variables on them. For the other indices, the large variation that can be attributed to individual covariates, such as sex and breeding stage, suggests that one should not interpret the physiological condition of an individual as measured by these indices from their absolute value. Instead, the condition of an individual should be interpreted relative to conspecifics by sex, breeding stage, and possibly age.

  9. Feather corticosterone levels are related to age and future body condition, but not to subsequent fitness, in a declining migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Boves, Than J.; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Rushing, Clark S.; Buehler, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In migratory species, breeding and non-breeding locations are geographically separate, yet the effects of conditions from one stage may carry over to affect a subsequent stage. Ideally, to understand the mechanisms and implications of ‘carry-over effects’, one would need to follow individuals throughout the year, quantify potential environmental causal factors and physiological mediators during multiple life-history stages, and measure downstream fitness. Owing to current limitations of tracking technology, this is impossible for small, long-distance migrants, so indirect methods to characterize carry-over effects are required. Corticosterone (CORT) is a suspected physiological mediator of carry-over effects, but when collected from blood it provides only a physiological snapshot at that point in time. When extracted from feathers, however, feather corticosterone (CORTf) provides a measure of responses to stressors from previous, and longer, time periods. We collected feathers grown during two life-history stages (post-breeding and subsequent wintering) from individuals of two age classes of a rapidly declining migratory songbird, the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), on their breeding grounds and quantified CORTf concentrations. We then monitored reproduction and survival of individuals and analysed relationships among CORTf and age, body condition and future fitness. Compared with older males, second-year males had higher CORTf concentrations during both stages. When controlling for age and year, body condition at capture was positively related to CORTf concentrations from winter (especially for older birds). However, we found no relationships between CORTf and fitness (as defined by reproduction and survival). Thus, elevated CORT may represent a beneficial physiological response (e.g. hyperphagia prior to migration), particularly for certain life-history stages, and may mediate the condition in which individuals transition between stages. But for those

  10. Body composition in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, R N

    2000-05-01

    Health risks in elderly people cannot be evaluated simply in conventional terms of body fatness or fat distribution. Elderly people have less muscle and bone mass, expanded extracellular fluid volumes, and reduced body cell mass compared to younger adults. These nonfat components of body composition play critical roles, influencing cognitive and physical functional status, nutritional and endocrine status, quality of life, and comorbidity in elderly people. Different patterns of "disordered body composition" have different relationships to these outcomes and may require different, tailored approaches to treatment that combine various exercise regimens and dietary supplements with hormone replacement or appetite-stimulating drugs. Skeletal muscle atrophy, or "sarcopenia," is highly prevalent in the elderly population, increases with age, and is strongly associated with disability, independent of morbidity. Elders at greatest risk are those who are simultaneously sarcopenic and obese. The accurate identification of sarcopenic obesity requires precise methods of simultaneously measuring fat and lean components, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

  11. Sex- and age-related differences in the timing and body condition of migrating Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2010-05-01

    The migration strategies of birds may vary strongly between species and also between age and/or sex groups. We studied the autumn migration and body condition of molecularly sexed Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (211 and 208 ind., respectively) at a stopover site on Lake Druzno, Northern Poland, in 2008. Immature male Reed Warblers were caught significantly later than females (median dates 9 days later), but in the Sedge Warbler, both sexes of immatures migrated at about the same time. Adult males and females of both species did not differ in their time of migration. Adult and immature males of both species were larger (wing length and body mass) than females. In both species, fat reserves were similar in both sexes of both age classes. Adults of both sexes of Reed and Sedge Warbler were generally caught earlier than immatures. In both species, the body mass and fat reserves of immatures were generally less than in adults. The autumn protogyny of immature Reed Warblers may allow smaller females to limit competition with bigger males during migration and at the wintering grounds. In the Sedge Warbler, which tends to match its migration to peak of occurrence of superabundant food at stopover sites, both sexes gain an advantage from migrating at the same time. Since part of the measured wing length variation in both species was explained by sex differences, temporal trends in wing length recorded at stopover sites should be interpreted with caution.

  12. Trapping oestrid parasites of reindeer: the relative age, fat body content and gonotrophic conditions of Cephenemyia trompe and Hypoderma tarandi females caught in baited traps.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Nilssen, A C

    1996-10-01

    Dissection of flies caught in northern Norway revealed that only mated, gravid females of H.tarandi (L.) and larviparous C.trompe (Modeer) were caught in host-mimicking CO2-baited traps. Trapped females had the same gonotrophic and fat body (FB) conditions as females caught on and around reindeer. Most trapped females of both species were of middle to old age, having only one-half to no FB reserves left and only a few to moderate numbers of eggs or larvae remaining. Most young females trapped also had previously oviposited or larviposited at least once, and some newly eclosed, mated females were present throughout the fly season. Based on the known location of reindeer herds, it was evident that trapped flies that had recently oviposited or larviposited had dispersed into the trapping area from 25-100 km away. Declining FB reserves sustained wild-caught C.trompe females (and in utero larvae) in the laboratory for 14 days and H.tarandi females for 18 days. Reserve FB also was depleted during long flights. Females of both species that flew for the longest times (5.1-11.7 h) on a laboratory flight mill had low FB reserves, but nearly maximum numbers of eggs or larvae. Conversely, most females that flew for less than 5 h on the light mill had little or no FB remaining, and few eggs or larvae. The large FB reserves accumulated as larvae feed in the vertebrate host enable the non-feeding adults to survive and infect their hosts even after prolonged periods of flight-inhibiting climatic conditions. PMID:8994136

  13. Influence of age, body weight and body condition score before mating start date on the pubertal rate of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers and implications for subsequent cow performance and profitability.

    PubMed

    Archbold, H; Shalloo, L; Kennedy, E; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein-Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (≤ 2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ≥ 3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P < 0.05). Age was shown to have no practical implications on subsequent cow performance. BW at MSD was favourably associated with subsequent calving date (P < 0.05), subsequent cow BW (P < 0.001) and potential (305 days) milk fat plus protein yield (P < 0.001). BCS at MSD was found to be favourably associated with milk fat plus protein yield potential (P < 0.05) and BCS (P < 0.001) during lactation. The economic analysis undertaken indicated that larger, well-grown heifers will be more profitable because of superior production potential, all else being equal. However, because of the finding of poorer reproductive efficiency in heifers grown to more than 343 kg at MSD, heifers at ∼330 kg at MSD are deemed optimal. This will correspond

  14. Aging and the Body: A Review*

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Korotchenko, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the existing sociocultural research and theory concerned with the aging body. In particular, we review the body image and embodiment literatures and discuss what is known about how older adults perceive and experience their aging bodies. We analyse how body image is shaped by age, culture, ethnicity, gender, health status, sexual preference, and social class. Additionally, we critically elucidate the embodiment literature as it pertains to illness experiences, sexuality, the everyday management of the aging body, appearance work, and embodied identity. By outlining the key findings, theoretical debates, and substantive discrepancies within the body image and embodiment research and theory, we identify gaps in the literature and forecast future, much-needed avenues of investigation. PMID:24976674

  15. Body Type Attractiveness Preferences of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Enid J.

    A study explored the relationship between body types and four attraction dimensions (physical, social, task, and communication) as perceived by older adults (mean age 68). Subjects, 35 males and 73 females in private residences and senior citizen centers, were shown three same-sex body silhouettes representing the older ectomorph, mesomorph, and…

  16. Patterns of ectoparasitism in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus): Sex-biases, seasonality, age, and effects on male body condition

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Jesse E.H.; Neuhaus, Peter; Kutz, Susan J.; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E.

    2015-01-01

    Within many species, males are often more heavily parasitised than females. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including immunocompetence handicaps, sexual size dimorphism and behavioural differences. Here we set out to test the latter two hypotheses and make inferences about the former by assessing patterns of ectoparasitism across various life-history stages in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). We also conducted an ectoparasite removal experiment to investigate the effects of ectoparasites on male body condition. We found that males were more intensely parasitized than females, but only during the mating period. There was no difference in ectoparasite intensity between male and female juveniles at birth or at emergence, suggesting that ectoparasites do not exploit male red squirrels for longer-range natal dispersal. Male red squirrels in our population were slightly heavier than females, however we did not find any evidence that this dimorphism drives male-biased ectoparasitism. Finally, we could not detect an effect of ectoparasite removal on male body mass. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that ectoparasites exploit their male hosts for transmission and that male red squirrels are important for the transmission dynamics of ectoparasites in this population; however, the mechanisms (i.e., immunocompetence, testosterone) are not known. PMID:26236631

  17. Wear performance of neat and vitamin E blended highly cross-linked PE under severe conditions: The combined effect of accelerated ageing and third body particles during wear test.

    PubMed

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of third-body particles on the in vitro wear behaviour of three different sets of polyethylene acetabular cups after prolonged testing in a hip simulator and accelerated ageing. Vitamin E-blended, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE_VE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and conventional polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups were simulator tested for two million cycles under severe conditions (i.e. by adding third-body particles to the bovine calf serum lubricant). Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and crosslink density measurements were used to characterize the samples at a molecular level. The STD_PE cups had twice mass loss than the XLPE_VE components and four times than the XLPE samples; statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. The observed wear trend was justified on the basis of the differences in cross-link density among the samples (XLPE>XLPE_VE>STD_PE). FTIR crystallinity profiles, bulk DSC crystallinity and surface micro-Raman crystallinity seemed to have a similar behaviour upon testing: all of them (as well as the all-trans and ortho-trans contents) revealed the most significant changes in XLPE and XLPE_VE samples. The more severe third-body wear testing conditions determined more noticeable changes in all spectroscopic markers with respect to previous tests. Unexpectedly, traces of bulk oxidation were found in both STD_PE (unirradiated) and XLPE (remelting-stabilized), which were expected to be stable to oxidation; on the contrary, XLPE_VE demonstrated a high oxidative stability in the present, highly demanding conditions.

  18. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity.

  19. Being cool: how body temperature influences ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Keil, Gerald; Cummings, Elizabeth; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is a basic and essential property of any physical system, including living systems. Even modest variations in temperature can have profound effects on organisms, and it has long been thought that as metabolism increases at higher temperatures so should rates of ageing. Here, we review the literature on how temperature affects longevity, ageing and life history traits. From poikilotherms to homeotherms, there is a clear trend for lower temperature being associated with longer lifespans both in wild populations and in laboratory conditions. Many life-extending manipulations in rodents, such as caloric restriction, also decrease core body temperature. Nonetheless, an inverse relationship between temperature and lifespan can be obscured or reversed, especially when the range of body temperatures is small as in homeotherms. An example is observed in humans: women appear to have a slightly higher body temperature and yet live longer than men. The mechanisms involved in the relationship between temperature and longevity also appear to be less direct than once thought with neuroendocrine processes possibly mediating complex physiological responses to temperature changes. Lastly, we discuss species differences in longevity in mammals and how this relates to body temperature and argue that the low temperature of the long-lived naked mole-rat possibly contributes to its exceptional longevity. PMID:25832892

  20. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body. 482.12... § 482.12 Condition of participation: Governing body. The hospital must have an effective governing body... organized governing body, the persons legally responsible for the conduct of the hospital must carry out...

  1. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body. PMID:26445150

  2. Changes in the Body with Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... action, become more important as people age. Blood Production The amount of active bone marrow, where blood ... bone marrow is less able to increase its production of blood cells in response to the body’s ...

  3. Evolution of body condition-dependent dispersal in metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Bonte, D; De La Peña, E

    2009-06-01

    Body condition-dependent dispersal strategies are common in nature. Although it is obvious that environmental constraints may induce a positive relationship between body condition and dispersal, it is not clear whether positive body conditional dispersal strategies may evolve as a strategy in metapopulations. We have developed an individual-based simulation model to investigate how body condition-dispersal reaction norms evolve in metapopulations that are characterized by different levels of environmental stochasticity and dispersal mortality. In the model, body condition is related to fecundity and determined either by environmental conditions during juvenile development (adult dispersal) or by those experienced by the mother (natal dispersal). Evolutionarily stable reaction norms strongly depend on metapopulation conditions: positive body condition dependency of dispersal evolved in metapopulation conditions with low levels of dispersal mortality and high levels of environmental stochasticity. Negative body condition-dependent dispersal evolved in metapopulations with high dispersal mortality and low environmental stochasticity. The latter strategy is responsible for higher dispersal rates under kin competition when dispersal decisions are based on body condition reached at the adult life stage. The evolution of both positive and negative body condition-dependent dispersal strategies is consequently likely in metapopulations and depends on the prevalent environmental conditions.

  4. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  5. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  6. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  7. Evaluating indices of body condition in two cricket species

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clint D; Tawes, Brittany R; Worthington, Amy M

    2014-01-01

    Body mass components (dry mass, lean dry mass, water mass, fat mass) in each sex correlate strongly with body mass and pronotum length in Gryllus texensis and Acheta domesticus. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression underestimates the scaling relationship between body mass and structural size (i.e., pronotum length) in both cricket species compared with standard major axis (SMA) regression. Standardized mass components correlate more strongly with scaled mass index () than with residual body mass (R i). R i represents the residuals from an OLS regression of log body mass against log pronotum length. Neither condition index predicts energy stores (i.e., fat content) in G. texensis. R i is not correlated with energy stores in A. domesticus whereas is negatively correlated. A comparison of condition index methods using published data showed that neither sex nor diet quality affected body condition at adulthood in G. texensis when using the scaled mass index. However, the residual index suggested that sex had a significant effect on body condition. Further, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) suggested that diet quality significantly affects body mass while statistically controlling for body size (i.e., body condition). We conclude that the statistical assumptions of condition index methods must be met prior to use and urge caution when using methods that are based on least squares in the y -plane (i.e., residual index ANCOVA). PMID:25512844

  8. Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

  9. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Administration and governing body. 486... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS FOR COVERAGE OF SPECIALIZED SERVICES...: Administration and governing body. (a) While an OPO may have more than one board, the OPO must have an...

  10. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  11. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  12. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  13. Evaluating the validity of using unverified indices of body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Esler, Daniel; Flint, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Condition indices are commonly used in an attempt to link body condition of birds to ecological variables of interest, including demographic attributes such as survival and reproduction. Most indices are based on body mass adjusted for structural body size, calculated as simple ratios or residuals from regressions. However, condition indices are often applied without confirming their predictive value (i.e., without being validated against measured values of fat and protein), which we term 'unverified' use. We evaluated the ability of a number of unverified indices frequently found in the literature to predict absolute and proportional levels of fat and protein across five species of waterfowl. Among indices we considered, those accounting for body size never predicted absolute protein more precisely than body mass, however, some indices improved predictability of fat, although the form of the best index varied by species. Further, the gain in precision by using a condition index to predict either absolute or percent fat was minimal (rise in r2???0.13), and in many cases model fit was actually reduced. Our data agrees with previous assertions that the assumption that indices provide more precise indicators of body condition than body mass alone is often invalid. We strongly discourage the use of unverified indices, because subjectively selecting indices likely does little to improve precision and might in fact decrease predictability relative to using body mass alone. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  14. Evaluation of a fast, objective tool for assessing body condition of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Burton, E J; Newnham, R; Bailey, S J; Alexander, L G

    2014-04-01

    There is currently no suitable system available for the assessment of budgerigar body condition. A tool has been developed that uses an algorithmic decision tree of yes-no answers based on physical examination to objectively guide the assessor to a body condition score. The aim of this work was to evaluate the guide. Repeatability and reproducibility were measured by four assessors on three sequential days, using 38 budgerigars of mixed sex, age and weight. Data were analysed using a 3-factor anova, with Person and Bird as variable factors and occasion as a fixed factor. The association between body condition score and body fat was measured using three assessors and 63 dead budgerigars, which were chemically analysed for fat content after assessment. Data were statistically analysed to determine correlation using Spearman's Rank Coefficient. Occasion and person had no significant effect on body condition score (p = 0.988 and 0.347 respectively). Body condition score and percentage body fat were highly significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.768): percentage fat increased with increasing body condition score. The guide would appear to be a repeatable measure of body condition in budgerigars, suitable for use during physical examinations. PMID:23509997

  15. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40–50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. Methods The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60–90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20–25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. Results In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Conclusions Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae

  16. Density of fat-free body mass: relationship with race, age, and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Gallagher, D; Deurenberg, P; Wang, J; Pierson, R N; Heymsfield, S B

    1997-05-01

    The two-compartment body composition method assumes that fat-free body mass (FFM) has a density of 1.100 kg/l. This study tested the hypothesis that FFM density is independent of race, age, and body fatness. Subjects were 703 black and white subjects, ages 20-94 yr, with body mass index (BMI) 17-35 kg/m2. Body composition was assessed using a four-compartment model based on tritium dilution volume, body density by underwater weighing, bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body weight. No relationship was observed between FFM density and race or BMI. A tendency was observed for a lower FFM density only in older white women. The difference in percent body fat (delta fat) between the four-compartment model and underwater weighing was < 2% for all groups. Race, age, and BMI explained only 2.3 (women) and 1.4% (men) of the variance in delta fat, whereas the total body water fraction of FFM explained 77%. In contrast to current thinking, these results show that the assumption of constant FFM density is valid in black, elderly, and obese subjects.

  17. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  18. Body condition dependent dispersal in a heterogeneous environment.

    PubMed

    Gyllenberg, Mats; Kisdi, Éva; Utz, Margarete

    2011-06-01

    We find the evolutionarily stable dispersal behaviour of a population that inhabits a heterogeneous environment where patches differ in safety (the probability that a juvenile individual survives until reproduction) and productivity (the total competitive weight of offspring produced by the local individual), assuming that these characteristics do not change over time. The body condition of clonally produced offspring varies within and between families. Offspring compete for patches in a weighted lottery, and dispersal is driven by kin competition. Survival during dispersal may depend on body condition, and competitive ability increases with increasing body condition. The evolutionarily stable strategy predicts that families abandon patches which are too unsafe or do not produce enough successful dispersers. From families that invest in retaining their natal patches, individuals stay in the patch that are less suitable for dispersal whereas the better dispersers disperse. However, this clear within-family pattern is often not reflected in the population-wide body condition distribution of dispersers or non-dispersers. This may be an explanation why empirical data do not show any general relationship between body condition and dispersal. When all individuals are equally good dispersers, then there exist equivalence classes defined by the competitive weight that remains in a patch. An equivalence class consists of infinitely many dispersal strategies that are selectively neutral. This provides an explanation why very diverse patterns found in body condition dependent dispersal data can all be equally evolutionarily stable.

  19. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  20. In vivo animal models of body composition in aging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumura, S. |; Jones, K.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Wielopolski, L.; Ren, X.; Glaros, D.; Xatzikonstantinou, Y. |

    1992-12-31

    We developed several techniques that provide data on body elemental composition from in vivo measurements in rats. These methods include total body potassium by whole-body counting of endogenous {sup 40}K; total body calcium (TBCa), sodium and chloride by in vivo neutron activation analysis and total body phosphorus (TBP) and nitrogen (TBN) by photon activation analysis. These elements provide information on total body fat, total body protein and skeletal mass. Measurements were made in 6-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. TBN Increased slightly between 6 and 12 months but was significantly lower by 24 months, indicating a substantial loss in total body protein. Working at the National Synchrotron light Source, we studied rat femurs by computed microtomography (CMT), and the elemental profile of the femur cortex by synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). Although there were no significant changes in TBCA and TBP, indices of skeletal mass, CMT revealed a marked increase in the size and number of cavities in the endosteal region of the femur cortex with increasing age. The SRIXE analysis of this cortical bone revealed a parallel decrease in the endosteal Ca/P ratio. Thus, there are major alterations in bone morphology and regional elemental composition despite only modest changes in total skeletal mass.

  1. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

  2. Psammoma bodies - friends or foes of the aging choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Sladjana; Vasović, Ljiljana; Petrović, Dragan; Cekić, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    Psammoma bodies are structures classified in the group of dystrophic calcifications, which occur in some kind of tumors and in choroid plexus during the aging process. Despite early discovery of their presence in choroid plexus stroma, mechanisms responsible for their formation remained unclear. Their presence in some kind of tumors was even more extensively studied, but significant breakthrough in the field of their etiology was not attained, too. However, till today correlation between their presence in tumors and aging is not established. Also, there are not any data about structural differences between ones found in tumors and ones found in choroid plexus. This might points to the assumption that besides the aging, some other causes might be involved in their formation in choroid plexus. Furthermore, it is contradictory that forms, like psammoma bodies, present in such malignant formations as tumors, represent quite benign phenomenon in choroid plexus. Literature data and the results of our previous researches revealed that there might be connections between, these, on the first sight quite different processes. Firstly, psammoma bodies are present in stroma of tumors with predominantly papillomatous morphology, which is present in choroid plexus, too. Initial forms of psammoma bodies might be formed in fibrovascular core of choroid plexus villi, similarly like in tumors papillae of papillary thyroid cancer. Their further growth leads to the progressive destruction of both tumors papillae and choroidal villi. Choroid plexus stroma is characterized by the fenestrated blood vessels presence, which are similar to newly formed vessels in tumors. This makes it vulnerable to the noxious agents from circulation. It can contain lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and myofibroblasts in cases with psammoma bodies, similarly to tumors stroma which is in activated, proinflammatory state. So, all these facts can suggest that similar processes can lead to psammoma

  3. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    For a three-body system, a quantum wave function {Psi}{sub m}{sup {ell}} with definite {ell} and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} which is a function of three internal coordinates. This article provides necessary and sufficient constraints on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} to ensure that the external wave function {Psi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} is analytic. These constraints effectively amount to boundary conditions on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} and its derivatives at the boundary of the internal space. Such conditions find similarities in the (planar) two-body problem where the wave function (to lowest order) has the form r{sup |m|} at the origin. We expect the boundary conditions to prove useful for constructing singularity free three-body basis sets for the case of nonvanishing angular momentum.

  4. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  5. Body condition predicts energy stores in apex predatory sharks

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Austin J.; Wagner, Dominique N.; Irschick, Duncan J.; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Animal condition typically reflects the accumulation of energy stores (e.g. fatty acids), which can influence an individual's decision to undertake challenging life-history events, such as migration and reproduction. Accordingly, researchers often use measures of animal body size and/or weight as an index of condition. However, values of condition, such as fatty acid levels, may not always reflect the physiological state of animals accurately. While the relationships between condition indices and energy stores have been explored in some species (e.g. birds), they have yet to be examined in top predatory fishes, which often undertake extensive and energetically expensive migrations. We used an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier, the tiger shark) as a model species to evaluate the relationship between triglycerides (energy metabolite) and a metric of overall body condition. We captured, blood sampled, measured and released 28 sharks (size range 125–303 cm pre-caudal length). In the laboratory, we assayed each plasma sample for triglyceride values. We detected a positive and significant relationship between condition and triglyceride values (P < 0.02). This result may have conservation implications if the largest and highest-condition sharks are exploited in fisheries, because these individuals are likely to have the highest potential for successful reproduction. Our results suggest that researchers may use either plasma triglyceride values or an appropriate measure of body condition for assessing health in large sharks. PMID:27293643

  6. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  7. Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals.

  8. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  9. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator

    PubMed Central

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Martínez-Garza, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention), or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention), and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest) and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze). We predicted (1) better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2) better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration. PMID:26226363

  10. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator.

    PubMed

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Martínez-Garza, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention), or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention), and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest) and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze). We predicted (1) better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2) better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration.

  11. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  12. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Wells, Melanie R; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.

  13. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Wells, Melanie R; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  14. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-09-22

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we compared age trajectories of body mass (BM) in wild and captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) using longitudinal data (853 individuals followed through adulthood). We found evidence of non-random mortality in both settings. In captivity, the oldest animals showed senescence in their ability to regain lost BM, whereas no evidence of FS was found in the wild. Overall, captive animals lived longer, but a reversed sex bias in lifespan was observed between wild and captive populations. We suggest that even moderately condition-dependent EM may lead to negligible FS in the wild. While high EM may act to reduce the average lifespan, this evolutionary process may be counteracted by the increased fitness of the long-lived, high-quality individuals. PMID:25100693

  15. A conditioned visual orientation requires the ellipsoid body in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm based on a flight simulator in which a stationary flying fly could control the rotation of a visual object. By coupling aversive heat shocks to a fly's orientation toward one side of the visual object, we found that the fly could be conditioned to orientate toward the left or right side of the frontal visual object and retain this conditioned visual orientation. The lower and upper visual fields have different roles in conditioned visual orientation. Transfer experiments showed that conditioned visual orientation could generalize between visual targets of different sizes, compactness, or vertical positions, but not of contour orientation. Rut-Type I adenylyl cyclase and Dnc-phosphodiesterase were dispensable for visual orientation conditioning. Normal activity and scb signaling in R3/R4d neurons of the ellipsoid body were required for visual orientation conditioning. Our studies established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm and examined the behavioral properties and neural circuitry of visual orientation, an important component of the insect's spatial navigation.

  16. Aging of beryllium bronze under programmed loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, P.P.; Kaplun, Yu.A.

    1987-07-01

    Results are provided from a study of different aging methods for beryllium bronze BrBNT1.9Mg under tensile stress conditions created by an applied load. Aging, both in the original hardened condition and after low-temperature treatment, is found to lead to an increase in yield strength and elastic limit. Ultimate breaking strength, hardness, and ductility do not change. An increase in deformation resistance after aging is connected with oriented precipitation of gamma-phase particles.

  17. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  18. Dominance rank is associated with body condition in outdoor-living domestic horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Sarah L.; Nicol, Christine J.; Harris, Patricia A.; Rands, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the association between dominance rank and body condition in outdoor group-living domestic horses, Equus caballus. Social interactions were recorded using a video camera during a feeding test, applied to 203 horses in 42 herds. Dominance rank was assigned to 194 individuals. The outcome variable body condition score (BCS) was recorded using a 9-point scale. The variables age and height were recorded and considered as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results were analysed using multivariable linear and logistic regression techniques, controlling for herd group as a random effect. More dominant (p = 0.001) individuals generally had a higher body condition score (p = 0.001) and this association was entirely independent of age and height. In addition, a greater proportion of dominant individuals fell into the obese category (BCS ≥ 7/9, p = 0.005). There were more displacement encounters and a greater level of interactivity in herds that had less variation in age and height, lending strength to the hypothesis that phenotypic variation may aid cohesion in group-living species. In addition there was a strong quadratic relationship between age and dominance rank (p < 0.001), where middle-aged individuals were most likely to be dominant. These results are the first to link behavioural predictors to body condition and obesity status in horses and should prompt the future consideration of behavioural and social factors when evaluating clinical disease risk in group-living animals. PMID:25937683

  19. Moose body mass variation revisited: disentangling effects of environmental conditions and genetics.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Solberg, Erling J; Røed, Knut H; Høgda, Kjell Arild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-02-01

    Large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits within species is often correlated to local environmental conditions and population density. Such phenotypic variation has recently been shown to also be influenced by genetic structuring of populations. In ungulates, large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits, such as body mass, has been related to environmental conditions and population density, but little is known about the genetic influences. Research on the genetic structure of moose suggests two distinct genetic lineages in Norway, structured along a north-south gradient. This corresponds with many environmental gradients, thus genetic structuring provides an additional factor affecting geographical phenotypic variation in Norwegian moose. We investigated if genetic structure explained geographical variation in body mass in Norwegian moose while accounting for environmental conditions, age and sex, and if it captured some of the variance in body mass that previously was attributed to environmental factors. Genetic structuring of moose was the most important variable in explaining the geographic variation in body mass within age and sex classes. Several environmental variables also had strong explanatory power, related to habitat diversity, environmental seasonality and winter harshness. The results suggest that environmental conditions, landscape characteristics, and genetic structure should be evaluated together when explaining large-scale patterns in phenotypic characters or life history traits. However, to better understand the role of genetic and environmental effects on phenotypic traits in moose, an extended individual-based study of variation in fitness-related characters is needed, preferably in an area of convergence between different genetic lineages.

  20. Applying twisted boundary conditions for few-body nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körber, Christopher; Luu, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twist angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length L ≈8 -14 fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogs of "i-periodic" twist angles that eliminate the leading-order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  1. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  2. PML-nuclear bodies decrease with age and their stress response is impaired in aged individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) have been depicted as structures which are involved in processing cell damages and DNA double-strand break repairs. The study was designed to evaluate differences in patients’ PML-NBs response to stress factors like a cancerous disease and ionizing radiation exposure dependent on age. Methods In order to clarify the role of PML-NBs in the aging process, we examined peripheral blood monocytes of 134 cancer patients and 41 healthy individuals between 22 and 92 years of age, both before and after in vitro irradiation. Additionally, we analyzed the samples of the cancer patients after in vivo irradiation. Cells were immunostained and about 1600 cells per individual were analyzed for the presence of PML- and γH2AX foci. Results The number of existing PML-NBs per nucleus declined with age, while the number of γH2AX foci increased with age. There was a non-significant trend that in vivo irradiation increased the number of PML-NBs in cells of young study participants, while in older individuals PML-NBs tended to decrease. It can be assumed that PML-NBs decrease in number during the process of aging. Conclusion The findings suggest that there is a dysfunctional PML-NBs stress response in aged cells. PMID:24694011

  3. A visual system for scoring body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wijeyamohan, Shanmugasundaram; Treiber, Kibby; Schmitt, Dennis; Santiapillai, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A body condition score (BCS) may provide information on the health or production potential of an animal; it may also reflect the suitability of the environment to maintain an animal population. Thus assessing the BCS of Asian elephants is important for their management. There is a need for a robust BCS applicable to both wild and captive elephants of all age categories based on the minimum and maximum possible subcutaneous body fat and muscle deposits. The visually based system for scoring the body condition of elephants presented here satisfies these criteria and is quick, inexpensive, non-invasive and user-friendly in the field. The BCS scale correlates (P < 0.05) with morphometric indices such as weight, girth, and skin fold measures.

  4. A visual system for scoring body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wijeyamohan, Shanmugasundaram; Treiber, Kibby; Schmitt, Dennis; Santiapillai, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A body condition score (BCS) may provide information on the health or production potential of an animal; it may also reflect the suitability of the environment to maintain an animal population. Thus assessing the BCS of Asian elephants is important for their management. There is a need for a robust BCS applicable to both wild and captive elephants of all age categories based on the minimum and maximum possible subcutaneous body fat and muscle deposits. The visually based system for scoring the body condition of elephants presented here satisfies these criteria and is quick, inexpensive, non-invasive and user-friendly in the field. The BCS scale correlates (P < 0.05) with morphometric indices such as weight, girth, and skin fold measures. PMID:25323789

  5. Contributions of body fat and effort in the 5K run: age and body weight handicap.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Laubach, Lloyd L

    2008-09-01

    The 5K handicap (5KH), designed to eliminate the body weight (BW) and age biases inherent in the 5K run time (RT), yields an adjusted RT (RTadj) that can be compared between runners of different BW and age. As hypothesized in a validation study, however, not all BW bias may be removed, because of the influences of body fatness (BF) and effort (run speed; essentially the inverse as measured by rating of perceived exertion (RPE)). This study's purpose was to determine the effects of BF and RPE on BW bias in the 5KH. For 99 male runners in a regional 5K race (age = 43.9 +/- 12.1 years; BW = 83.4 +/- 12.9 kg), BF was determined via sum of three skinfolds just before the race. RPE, on the 20-point Borg scale, was used to assess overall race effort on race completion. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop a new adjusted RT (NRTadj, the RTadj corrected for BF and RPE), which was computed for each runner and then correlated with BW to determine bias. Indicative of slight bias, BW was correlated with RTadj (r = 0.220, p = 0.029). Both BF (p = 0.00002) and RPE (p = 0.0005) were significant, independent predictors of RTadj. NRTadj was not significantly correlated with BW (r = 0.051, p = 0.61), but BF explained 90%, and RPE explained only 6%, of the remaining BW bias evidenced in the 5KH. The previous finding that the 5KH does not remove all BW bias is apparently accounted for by BF and not RPE. Because no handicap should be awarded for higher BF, this finding suggests that the 5KH, for men, appropriately adjusts for the age and BW vs. RT biases previously noted.

  6. Influence of support conditions on vertical whole-body vibration of the seated human body.

    PubMed

    M-Pranesh, Anand; Rakheja, Subhash; Demont, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The vibration transmission to the lumbar and thoracic segments of seated human subjects exposed to whole body vibration of a vehicular nature have been mostly characterised without the back and hand supports, which is not representative of general driving conditions. This non-invasive experimental study investigated the transmission of vertical seat vibration to selected vertebrae and the head along the vertical and fore-aft axes of twelve male human subjects seated on a rigid seat and exposed to random vertical excitation in the 0.5-20 Hz range. The measurements were performed under four different sitting postures involving combinations of back support conditions and hands positions, and three difference magnitudes of vertical vibration (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2) rms acceleration). The results showed significant errors induced by sensor misalignment and skin effects, which required appropriate correction methodologies. The averaged corrected responses revealed that the back support attenuates vibration in the vertical axis to all the body locations while increasing the fore-aft transmissibility at the C7 and T5. The hands position generally has a relatively smaller effect, showing some influences on the C7 and L5 vibration. Sitting without a back support resulted in very low magnitude fore-aft vibration at T5, which was substantially higher with a back support, suggestive of a probable change in the body's vibration mode. The effect of back support was observed to be very small on the horizontal vibration of the lower thoracic and lumbar regions. The results suggest that distinctly different target body-segment biodynamic functions need to be defined for different support conditions in order to represent the unique contribution of the specific support condition. These datasets may then be useful for the development of biodynamic models.

  7. Development of an automatic cow body condition scoring using body shape signature and Fourier descriptors.

    PubMed

    Bercovich, A; Edan, Y; Alchanatis, V; Moallem, U; Parmet, Y; Honig, H; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Halachmi, I

    2013-01-01

    Body condition evaluation is a common tool to assess energy reserves of dairy cows and to estimate their fatness or thinness. This study presents a computer-vision tool that automatically estimates cow's body condition score. Top-view images of 151 cows were collected on an Israeli research dairy farm using a digital still camera located at the entrance to the milking parlor. The cow's tailhead area and its contour were segmented and extracted automatically. Two types of features of the tailhead contour were extracted: (1) the angles and distances between 5 anatomical points; and (2) the cow signature, which is a 1-dimensional vector of the Euclidean distances from each point in the normalized tailhead contour to the shape center. Two methods were applied to describe the cow's signature and to reduce its dimension: (1) partial least squares regression, and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow signature. Three prediction models were compared with manual scores of an expert. Results indicate that (1) it is possible to automatically extract and predict body condition from color images without any manual interference; and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow's signature result in improved performance (R(2)=0.77). PMID:24094536

  8. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  9. Handwriting, Visuomotor Integration, and Neurological Condition at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Peters, Lieke H. J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The study investigated the relationships between handwriting, visuomotor integration, and neurological condition. We paid particular attention to the presence of minor neurological dysfunction (MND). Method : Participants were 200 children (131 males, 69 females; age range 8-13y) of whom 118 received mainstream education (mean age 10y 5mo, SD…

  10. The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da LUZ, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, André Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antônio Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  11. The correlation between age, body weight and testicular parameters in Murrah buffalo bulls raised in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, André Mendes; de Assis Neto, Antônio Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  12. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.; Gotfredsen, A.; Knudsen, F.U.

    1988-11-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry using /sup 153/Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation.

  13. "If I Had Lots of Money...I'd Have a Body Makeover:" Managing the Aging Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevin, Kathleen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a feminist framework to explore embodied aging by analyzing indepth formal interviews with 57 men and women in their 60s, 70s and 80s. Emphasizing intersectionality, I focus on the interpretations and strategies these men and women use to make sense of their aging bodies. Their aging corporeal experiences allow me to examine…

  14. Body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Ankney, C.D.; Roster, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    We studied body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) using drainwater evaporation ponds in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Levels of body fat and protein were similar by sex but varied by age (adults greater than immatures). Masses of breast and leg muscle protein were greatest in adult males and lowest in immature males, but similar in adult and immature females. Fat and protein levels in late-wintering ruddy ducks were independent of their body size. We detected no differences among sex-age classes in the proportion of animal foods consumed. Aquatic invertebrates composed 85% of the diet; midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) were the principal taxa consumed. Molt score by feather region and overall molt score did not vary by sex or age. Light to moderate molt (25 to 50% molting feathers) was recorded in all feather regions. High levels of body fat and protein were attributed to premigratory hyperphagia and consumption of foods with a high protein:energy ratio.

  15. Experiences with physical conditioning programs in middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.; Stanley, E.

    1969-01-01

    Long term effects of physical exercise and conditioning in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease are studied. Some aspects of the problem are outlined and difficulties encountered in a group of middle aged business executives using a carefully prescribed, but non-regimented and loosely supervised conditioning program employing commonly used forms of exercise (bicycling and jogging), are described.

  16. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Cattet, Marc R. L.; Darimont, Chris T.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Janz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  17. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  18. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  19. Improving initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V.; Pinto, Philip A.

    2016-10-01

    In cosmological N-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete `macroparticles' suppresses the growth of structure, such that simulations no longer reproduce linear theory on small scales near kNyquist. Marcos et al. demonstrate that this is due to sparse sampling of modes near kNyquist and that the often-assumed continuum growing modes are not proper growing modes of the particle system. We develop initial conditions (ICs) that respect the particle linear theory growing modes and then rescale the mode amplitudes to account for growth suppression. These ICs also allow us to take advantage of our very accurate N-body code ABACUS to implement second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) in configuration space. The combination of 2LPT and rescaling improves the accuracy of the late-time power spectra, halo mass functions, and halo clustering. In particular, we achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the power spectrum down to kNyquist, versus kNyquist/4 without rescaling or kNyquist/13 without 2LPT, relative to an oversampled reference simulation. We anticipate that our 2LPT will be useful for large simulations where fast Fourier transforms are expensive and that rescaling will be useful for suites of medium-resolution simulations used in cosmic emulators and galaxy survey mock catalogues. Code to generate ICs is available at https://github.com/lgarrison/zeldovich-PLT.

  20. Body condition and response to pesticides in woodcocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Dodge, W.E.; Sheldon, W.G.; DeWitt, J.B.; Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    Response of woodcocks (Philohela minor) to heptachlor dosage was closely related to the physical condition of the birds, as reflected by body weight and by body weight in relation to capture weight: in a series of tests with underweight birds, nearly all woodcocks died at dosage levels well below those at which nearly all the birds in a normal-weight series lived. Heptachlor residues in tissues were determined and their loss with time was estimated. Dieldrin proved more toxic than heptachlor to birds of similar weight. Birds in good weight survived massive doses of DDT; some succumbed to smaller spaced serial doses, but only when these were accompanied by starvation rations. When birds were placed in foil-lined boxes after doses of heptachlor added to butter oil or corn oil, it became evident that they passed quantities of oil in about 3 hours, thus very likely ridding themselves of a large part of the heptachlor dose. It was concluded that other methods than dosage with encapsulated chemicals would be needed for appraisal of field effects of toxicants on woodcocks.

  1. Growth and body composition of preterm, small-for-gestational-age infants at a postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks.

    PubMed

    Yau, K I; Chang, M H

    1993-06-01

    In order to understand the nutritional status of preterm, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in the early postnatal period, the growth and body composition of preterm, SGA infants was followed prospectively from birth to the postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks. The infants were stratified into different groups by gestational age, clinical condition and body proportionality. In each subgroup, the growth and changes in body composition of SGA infants were compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants of a comparable postmenstrual age. At birth, the SGA infants of both the 31-33 and 34-36 week gestational-age groups were smaller than AGA infants in all body measurements, including arm area (AA), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA). When the preterm SGA infants had grown to the postmenstrual age of 37-40 weeks, the amount of fat they had accumulated was as much as, or more than that in term AGA infants. Yet, they had less muscle mass and their body weight, body length and head circumference were less than those in term AGA infants. This pattern of growth and the changes in body composition had been persistently observed in SGA infants of different gestational-age groups, different clinical status and different body proportionality. Differences between postnatal enteral nutrition and placental nutrition, or different energy utilization, in preterm SGA infants are hypothesized to account for these observations. The growth of less mature (31-33 weeks gestation) SGA infants and those preterm SGA infants with an eventful clinical course was suboptimal as compared with other SGA infants in the same subgroup. In this study, the weight to length ratio (WLR) was used to define the status of nutrition in preterm SGA infants: WLR < or = 2 S.D. or > 2 S.D. off the reference mean. Infants in both groups showed some catch-up growth in body weight. Yet, at near-term their body weight were still more than 2 S.D. below the mean of term AGA. In each gestational-age

  2. Eyeblink classical conditioning differentiates normal aging from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Woodruff-Pak, D S

    2001-01-01

    Eyeblink classical conditioning is a useful paradigm for the study of the neurobiology of learning, memory, and aging, which also has application in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases expressed in advancing age. Converging evidence from studies of eyeblink conditioning in neurological patients and brain imaging in normal adults document parallels in the neural substrates of this form of associative learning in humans and non-human mammals. Age differences in the short-delay procedure (400 ms CS-US interval) appear in middle age in humans and may be caused at least in part by cerebellar cortical changes such as loss of Purkinje cells. Whereas the hippocampus is not essential for conditioning in the delay procedure, disruption of hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission impairs acquisition and slows the rate of learning. Alzheimer's disease (AD) profoundly disrupts the hippocampaL cholinergic system, and patients with AD consistently perform poorly in eyeblink conditioning. We hypothesize that disruption of hippocampal cholinergic pathways in AD in addition to age-associated Purkinje cell loss results in severely impaired eyeblink conditioning. The earliest pathology in AD occurs in entorhinal cortical input to hippocampus, and eyeblink conditioning may detect this early disruption before declarative learning and memory circuits become impaired. A case study is presented in which eyeblink conditioning detected impending dementia six years before changes on other screening tests indicated impairment. Because eyeblink conditioning is simple, non-threatening, and non-invasive, it may become a useful addition to test batteries designed to differentiate normal aging from mild cognitive impairment that progresses to AD and AD from other types of dementia.

  3. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Silva, S R

    2013-08-01

    Several methods have been developed to monitor body fat reserves of farm animals and body condition scoring (BCS) is generally assumed to be the most practical. Objective methods, such as real time ultrasonography (RTU), are accepted methods for measuring fat reserves in several farm species but there is no published information about the use of RTU to monitor body fat reserves in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between RTU measurements and BCS in female donkeys (jennies) (n=16) with a BCS of 3-7 on a 9 point scale. Ultrasound images were captured using an Aloka 500-V scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz probe and subcutaneous fat (SF, range: 1.0-14.0mm) and thoracic wall tissue (TD, range: 5.6-21.4mm) depths measurements were determined. A significant correlation was found between BCS and all RTU measurements (0.65

  4. Body temperature as a conditional response measure for pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Godsil, B P; Quinn, J J; Fanselow, M S

    2000-01-01

    On six days rats were exposed to each of two contexts. They received an electric shock in one context and nothing in the other. Rats were tested later in each environment without shock. The rats froze and defecated more often in the shock-paired environment; they also exhibited a significantly larger elevation in rectal temperature in that environment. The rats discriminated between each context, and we suggest that the elevation in temperature is the consequence of associative learning. Thus, body temperature can be used as a conditional response measure in Pavlovian fear conditioning experiments that use footshock as the unconditional stimulus.

  5. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... § 483.410 Condition of participation: Governing body and management. (a) Standard: Governing body. The facility must identify an individual or individuals to constitute the governing body of the facility....

  6. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... § 483.410 Condition of participation: Governing body and management. (a) Standard: Governing body. The facility must identify an individual or individuals to constitute the governing body of the facility....

  7. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... Intellectual Disabilities § 483.410 Condition of participation: Governing body and management. (a) Standard: Governing body. The facility must identify an individual or individuals to constitute the governing body...

  8. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  9. Performance of bolted closure joint elastomers under cask aging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Verst, C.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-23

    The bolted closure joint of a bare spent fuel cask is susceptible to age-related degradation and potential loss of confinement function under long-term storage conditions. Elastomeric seals, a component of the joint typically used to facilitate leak testing of the primary seal that includes the metallic seal and bolting, is susceptible to degradation over time by several mechanisms, principally via thermo-oxidation, stress-relaxation, and radiolytic degradation under time and temperature condition. Irradiation and thermal exposure testing and evaluation of an ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomeric seal material similar to that used in the CASTOR® V/21 cask for a matrix of temperature and radiation exposure conditions relevant to the cask extended storage conditions, and development of semiempirical predictive models for loss of sealing force is in progress. A special insert was developed to allow Compressive Stress Relaxation (CSR) measurements before and after the irradiation and/or thermal exposure without unloading the elastomer. A condition of the loss of sealing force for the onset of leakage was suggested. The experimentation and modeling being performed could enable acquisition of extensive coupled aging data as well as an estimation of the timeframe when loss of sealing function under aging (temperature/radiation) conditions may occur.

  10. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  11. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION... Condition of participation: Governing body and administration. The facility must have a governing body...

  12. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  13. Objective estimation of body condition score by modeling cow body shape from digital images.

    PubMed

    Azzaro, G; Caccamo, M; Ferguson, J D; Battiato, S; Farinella, G M; Guarnera, G C; Puglisi, G; Petriglieri, R; Licitra, G

    2011-04-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is considered an important tool for management of dairy cattle. The feasibility of estimating the BCS from digital images has been demonstrated in recent work. Regression machines have been successfully employed for automatic BCS estimation, taking into account information of the overall shape or information extracted on anatomical points of the shape. Despite the progress in this research area, such studies have not addressed the problem of modeling the shape of cows to build a robust descriptor for automatic BCS estimation. Moreover, a benchmark data set of images meant as a point of reference for quantitative evaluation and comparison of different automatic estimation methods for BCS is lacking. The main objective of this study was to develop a technique that was able to describe the body shape of cows in a reconstructive way. Images, used to build a benchmark data set for developing an automatic system for BCS, were taken using a camera placed above an exit gate from the milking robot. The camera was positioned at 3 m from the ground and in such a position to capture images of the rear, dorsal pelvic, and loin area of cows. The BCS of each cow was estimated on site by 2 technicians and associated to the cow images. The benchmark data set contained 286 images with associated BCS, anatomical points, and shapes. It was used for quantitative evaluation. A set of example cow body shapes was created. Linear and polynomial kernel principal component analysis was used to reconstruct shapes of cows using a linear combination of basic shapes constructed from the example database. In this manner, a cow's body shape was described by considering her variability from the average shape. The method produced a compact description of the shape to be used for automatic estimation of BCS. Model validation showed that the polynomial model proposed in this study performs better (error=0.31) than other state-of-the-art methods in estimating BCS even at the

  14. Managed care implications of age-related ocular conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, William J; Smith, Roderick A

    2013-05-01

    The economic costs of age-related ocular diseases and vision loss are increasing rapidly as our society ages. In addition to the direct costs of treating age-related eye diseases, elderly persons with vision loss are at significantly increased risk for falls and fractures, experiencing social isolation, and suffering from an array of comorbid medical conditions compared with individuals with normal vision. Recent studies estimate the total economic burden (direct and indirect costs) of adult vision impairment in the United States at $51.4 billion. This figure is expected to increase as the baby boomer generation continues to age. While a number of highly effective new therapies have caused a paradigm shift in the management of several major age-related ocular diseases in recent years, these treatments come at a substantial cost. This article reviews the economic burdens and treatment-related costs of 4 major ocular diseases of aging-glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and dry eye disease-and the implications for managed care.

  15. Prevalence of Elevated Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in a Rural School-Aged Population: Implications for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Carol Ann; Meadows, Beth Bender; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight in students and adolescents has become a matter of national concern and is linked to a rise in chronic health conditions in students who previously had low prevalence rates, such as cardiovascular disease. This study examined the relationships between age, ethnicity, race, body mass index (BMI), and elevated…

  16. The influence of diet on nestling body condition of an apex predator: a multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Parés, Francesc; Moleón, Marcos; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2016-04-01

    Animal body condition refers to the health and physiological state of individuals, and multiple parameters have been proposed to quantify this key concept. Food intake is one of the main determinants of individual body condition and much debate has been generated on how diet relates to body condition. We investigated this relationship in free-living Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) nestlings sampled at two geographically distant populations in Spain. Nestlings' main prey consumption was estimated by isotopic analyses. A multi-biomarker approach, including morphometric and blood biochemical measures (i.e. hematocrit, plasma biochemistry and oxidative stress biomarkers), enabled us to integrate all the body condition measures taken. A greater consumption of a preferred prey [i.e. the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)] improved nestling body condition, as indicated by lower levels of cholesterol in plasma, greater activity of enzymes mediating in protein catabolism, higher levels of tocopherol and glutathione, and less glutathione peroxidase activity, which also suggested lower degree of oxidative stress. On the other hand, increased diet diversity was positively correlated with higher levels of oxidized glutathione, which suggests that these nestlings had poorer body condition than those with a higher frequency of preferred prey consumption. Several factors other than diet [i.e. altitude of nesting areas, nestling sex and age, sampling time (before or after midday) and recent food ingestion] had an effect on certain body condition measures. Our study reveals a measurable effect of diet on a predator's body condition and demonstrates the importance of considering the potential influence of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors when assessing animal body condition. PMID:26857272

  17. The influence of diet on nestling body condition of an apex predator: a multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Parés, Francesc; Moleón, Marcos; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2016-04-01

    Animal body condition refers to the health and physiological state of individuals, and multiple parameters have been proposed to quantify this key concept. Food intake is one of the main determinants of individual body condition and much debate has been generated on how diet relates to body condition. We investigated this relationship in free-living Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) nestlings sampled at two geographically distant populations in Spain. Nestlings' main prey consumption was estimated by isotopic analyses. A multi-biomarker approach, including morphometric and blood biochemical measures (i.e. hematocrit, plasma biochemistry and oxidative stress biomarkers), enabled us to integrate all the body condition measures taken. A greater consumption of a preferred prey [i.e. the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)] improved nestling body condition, as indicated by lower levels of cholesterol in plasma, greater activity of enzymes mediating in protein catabolism, higher levels of tocopherol and glutathione, and less glutathione peroxidase activity, which also suggested lower degree of oxidative stress. On the other hand, increased diet diversity was positively correlated with higher levels of oxidized glutathione, which suggests that these nestlings had poorer body condition than those with a higher frequency of preferred prey consumption. Several factors other than diet [i.e. altitude of nesting areas, nestling sex and age, sampling time (before or after midday) and recent food ingestion] had an effect on certain body condition measures. Our study reveals a measurable effect of diet on a predator's body condition and demonstrates the importance of considering the potential influence of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors when assessing animal body condition.

  18. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  19. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  20. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  1. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  2. Changes in menarcheal age in girls exposed to war conditions.

    PubMed

    Prebeg, Zivka; Bralic, Irena

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in mean menarcheal age of girls in the city of Sibenik in the period from mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. Sibenik is a Dalmatian town which was exposed to hard war conditions in 1991-1995. Menarcheal status of Sibenik girls was surveyed three times, in 1981, 1985, and 1996, and included 720, 1,207, and 1,680 girls, respectively, ages 9.5-16.5 years. Mean menarcheal age was estimated by the status quo method and application of probit analysis. Results show a slight decrease in menarcheal age from 1981 to 1985 (from 12.97 +/- 0.06 years to 12.87 +/- 0.05), and then a significant increase from 12.87 +/- 0.05 years in 1985 to 13.13 +/- 0.10 years in 1996. The increase in mean menarcheal age occurred in all socioeconomic groups based on parental occupation and number of siblings. In the group of girls whose homes were damaged during war, menarche occurred at an average of 13.53 +/- 0.14 years, while those who lost a family member experienced menarche at an older mean age, 13.76 +/- 0.27 years. However, when the girls who experienced personal tragedies were excluded the onset of menarche was still later than in girls surveyed in the earlier periods. The results suggest that the general reversal in the secular trend of menarcheal age in Sibenik girls can be attributed to persistent psychological pressures and uncertainties associated with conditions of war. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:503-508, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534042

  3. Sensitivity to cocaine conditioned reward depends on sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Elena; Wade, Dean; Izenwasser, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Human and animal laboratory studies show that females and males respond differently to drugs and that drug administration during adolescence leads to different behavioral effects than during adulthood. Adult female rats are more sensitive to the behavioral effects of cocaine than adult males, but it is not known if the same effect of sex exists during adolescence. In the present study, sensitivity to the conditioned reward of cocaine was evaluated using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm where adolescent (PND 34) and adult (PND 66) male and female rats were trained and tested for the development of CPP to multiple doses of cocaine. Female rats developed CPP at lower doses than males, regardless of age. In addition, adolescent male and female rats established a CPP at lower doses of cocaine than adult male and female rats, respectively. Thus, both age and sex altered cocaine conditioned reward with the order of sensitivity being adolescent females > adult females > adolescent males > adult males. These data show that adolescents are more sensitive to the conditioned rewarding properties of cocaine than adults and that females respond to lower doses of cocaine compared to males regardless of age. PMID:19032962

  4. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  5. The Thin-Youth Ideal: Should We Talk About Aging Anxiety in Relation to Body Image?

    PubMed

    Gendron, Tracey L; Lydecker, Janet

    2016-04-01

    College students' attitudes about the pervasive thin ideal have been well-studied, but the relationship between the thin ideal and youth ideal in young adults forming life-long health attitudes is understudied. This cross-sectional study examined body image, aging anxiety, ageism, and gender in a sample of 485 undergraduate students. Results from this study demonstrate associations among components of objectified body consciousness (surveillance, shame, and control), body image avoidance, aging anxiety (fear of older people, psychological concerns, physical appearance, and fear of losses), ageism, and gender. Educational efforts that address body image in relation to aging anxiety and ageism are discussed. PMID:27076487

  6. Larval Competition Reduces Body Condition in the Female Seed Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Schade, Daynika J.; Vamosi, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Early body condition may be important for adult behavior and fitness, and is impacted by a number of environmental conditions and biotic interactions. Reduced fecundity of adult females exposed to larval competition may be caused by reduced body condition or shifts in relative body composition, yet these mechanisms have not been well researched. Here, body mass, body size, scaled body mass index, and two body components (water content and lean dry mass) of adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) females exposed to larval competition or reared alone were examined. Experimental females emerged at significantly smaller body mass and body size than control females. Additionally, scaled body mass index and water content, but not lean dry mass, were significantly reduced in experimental females. To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate a potential mechanism for previously documented direct effects of competition on fecundity in female bruchine beetles. PMID:22954282

  7. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk: evidence for predation risk effects?

    PubMed

    White, P J; Garrott, Robert A; Hamlin, Kenneth L; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Cunningham, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    S. Creel et al. reported a negative correlation between fecal progesterone concentrations and elk:wolf ratios in greater Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) herds and interpreted this correlation as evidence that pregnancy rates of elk decreased substantially in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Apparently, the hypothesized mechanism is that decreased forage intake reduces body condition and either results in elk failing to conceive during the autumn rut or elk losing the fetus during winter. We tested this hypothesis by comparing age-specific body condition (percentage ingesta-free body fat) and pregnancy rates for northern Yellowstone elk, one of the herds sampled by Creel et al., before (1962-1968) and after (2000-2006) wolf restoration using indices developed and calibrated for Rocky Mountain elk. Mean age-adjusted percentage body fat of female elk was similarly high in both periods (9.0%-0.9% pre-wolf; 8.9%-0.8% post-wolf). Estimated pregnancy rates (proportion of females that were pregnant) were 0.91 pre-wolf and 0.87 post-wolf for 4-9 year-old elk (95% CI on difference = -0.15 to 0.03, P = 0.46) and 0.64 pre-wolf and 0.78 post-wolf for elk > 9 years old (95% CI on difference = -0.01 to 0.27, P = 0.06). Thus, there was little evidence in these data to support strong effects of wolf presence on elk pregnancy. We caution that multiple lines of evidence and/or strong validation should be brought to bear before relying on indirect measures of how predators affect pregnancy rates. PMID:21516883

  8. Heritability of electronically recorded daily body weight and correlations with yield, dry matter intake, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Toshniwal, J K; Dechow, C D; Cassell, B G; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Varga, G A

    2008-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate heritability for daily body weight (BW) and genetic correlations of daily BW with daily milk yield (MY), body condition score (BCS), dry matter intake, fat yield, and protein yield. The Afiweigh cow body weighing system records BW of every cow exiting the milking parlor. The Afiweigh system was installed at the Pennsylvania State University dairy herd in August 2001 and in July 2004 at the Virginia Tech dairy herd. The edited data included 202,143 daily BW and 290,930 daily MY observations from 575 Pennsylvania State University and 120 Virginia Tech Holstein cows. Data were initially analyzed with a series of 4-trait animal models, followed by random regression models. The models included fixed effects for age within lactation group, week of lactation, and herd-date. Random effects included animal, permanent environment, and error. The order of the polynomials for random animal and permanent environmental effects with the random regression model for daily BW was 4 and 6, respectively. Heritability estimates for daily BW ranged from 0.48 to 0.57 and were largest between 200 and 230 and smallest at 305 d of lactation. Genetic correlations were large between BW and BCS (0.60). The genetic correlation between daily BW and MY was -0.14 but was positive (0.24) after adjusting for BCS. Electronically recorded daily BW is highly heritable, and genetic evaluations of daily BW and BW change across the lactation could be used to select for less early lactation BW loss.

  9. Cosmic-Ray-Exposure Ages of Diogenites and the Collisional History of the HED Parent Body or Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; vanderBorg, K.; Loeken, T.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-exposure ages of meteorites provide information on the collisional history of their parent bodies and the delivery mechanism of meteorites to Earth. The exposure-age distributions of ordinary chondrites show distinct patterns for H, L, and LL types, consistent with their origin on different parent bodies. The exposure-age distributions of howardites, eucrites. and diogenites (HEDS) show a common pattern with major peaks at 22 Ma and 38 Ma This provides additional evidence for a common origin of the HED meteorites, possibly 4 Vesta, although orbital dynamics calculations showed that the delivery of meteorites from Vesta to Earth is difficult. However, the discovery of several kilometer-sized Vesta-like asteroids in the region between Vesta and the 3:1 resonance suggested that these seem more likely parent bodies of the HEDs than Vesta itself. This implies that the exposure-age clusters may represent samples of several parent bodies. Therefore, the near-absence of diogenites with ages <20 Ma might be of interest for the composition of these kilometer-sized fragments of Vesta. Here we present cosmic-ray-exposure ages of 20 diogenites, including 9 new meteorites. In addition, we calculate the probability for each peak to occur by chance, assuming a constant production rate of HED fragments.

  10. Peer victimization among school-aged children with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Mariane; Arnaud, Catherine; Gavin, Aoife; Molcho, Michal; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among school-aged children, and those with chronic conditions are at an increased risk. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to explore the increased risk of peer victimization among children with chronic conditions compared with others, considering a variety of chronic conditions; and to assess intervention programs designed to reduce negative attitudes or peer victimization at school toward children with chronic conditions. Various data sources were used (PubMed, ERIC, PsycINFO, Web of Science), and 59 studies published between 1991 and 2011 and mainly carried out in North American and European countries were included in the review. A higher level of peer victimization among children with chronic conditions was shown for each type of condition explored in this review (psychiatric diagnoses, learning difficulties, physical and motor impairments, chronic illnesses, and overweight). Despite a substantial number of studies having shown a significant association between chronic conditions and peer victimization, intervention studies aiming to reduce bullying among these children were rarely evaluated. The findings of this review suggest a growing need to develop and implement specific interventions targeted at reducing peer victimization among children with chronic conditions.

  11. Contribution of chronic conditions to aggregate changes in old-age functioning.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, V A; Martin, L G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored the role of various chronic conditions in explaining recent improvements in functioning among older Americans. METHODS: We used the Supplements on Aging to the 1984 and 1994 National Health Interview Surveys to examine changes among Americans 70 years and older in reports of chronic conditions and functional limitations. We decomposed functioning changes into condition-related components, controlling for demographic shifts. RESULTS: The percentage of older Americans with upper- and lower-body limitations declined from 5.1% and 34.2%, respectively, in 1984 to 4.3% and 28.5% in 1995, and the average number of lower body limitations decreased. During the same period, reports of 8 of 9 chronic conditions increased, but many of these conditions had less debilitating effects on functioning. Reductions in the debilitating effects of various chronic conditions--particularly arthritis--are important in explaining declines in limitations experienced by older Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier diagnosis and improved treatment and management of chronic conditions, rather than prevention, may be important contributing factors to improvements in upper- and lower-body functioning among older Americans. PMID:11076245

  12. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... Condition of participation: Governing body and administration. The facility must have a governing body that... disclose certain information about ownership and control. (b) Standard: Administrator. The governing...

  13. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... Condition of participation: Governing body and administration. The facility must have a governing body that... disclose certain information about ownership and control. (b) Standard: Administrator. The governing...

  14. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  15. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  16. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF CABLE AGING USING CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    GROVE,E.; LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; HSU,F.

    2000-04-06

    Electric cables in nuclear power plants suffer degradation during service as a result of the thermal and radiation environments in which they are installed. Instrumentation and control cables are one type of cable that provide an important role in reactor safety. Should the polymeric cable insulation material become embrittled and cracked during service, or during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and when steam and high radiation conditions are anticipated, failure could occur and prevent the cables from fulfilling their intended safety function(s). A research program is being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate condition monitoring (CM) techniques for estimating the amount of cable degradation experienced during in-plant service. The objectives of this program are to assess the ability of the cables to perform under a simulated LOCA without losing their ability to function effectively, and to identify CM techniques which may be used to determine the effective lifetime of cables. The cable insulation materials tested include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Accelerated aging (thermal and radiation) to the equivalent of 40 years of service was performed, followed by exposure to simulated LOCA conditions. The effectiveness of chemical, electrical, and mechanical condition monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Results indicate that several of these methods can detect changes in material parameters with increasing age. However, each has its limitations, and a combination of methods may provide an effective means for trending cable degradation in order to assess the remaining life of cables.

  18. Body composition and body hydration in old age estimated by means of skinfold thickness and deuterium dilution.

    PubMed

    Virgili, F; D'Amicis, A; Ferro-Luzzi, A

    1992-01-01

    In this study a group of 30 women and 30 men aged 60-90 years was examined. Body density was predicted from the sum of four skinfold thickness (SFT) as described by Durnin and Womersley (1974). Body composition, expressed as a percentage of total body weight as fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) was calculated by means of Siri's formula (Siri 1961). Total body water (TBW) was measured from the dilution of an oral deuterium dose and FFM calculated assuming a hydration of 73.2%. The FM% predicted from SFT showed a slight but not significant decreasing age trend from 28.3% to 25.4% in men, and from 40.3% to 37.8% in women. Body hydration (about 50% of body weight in men and 44% in women) remained constant throughout the age range. FFM obtained from TBW assuming a constant hydration of FFM, was found to be unchanged with age. FM% predicted from SFT was correlated with values obtained from TBW on an individual basis (R2 = 0.38; p less than 0.0001 in men and R2 = 0.31; p less than 0.002 in women), but the scatter was large. The Bland and Altman statistical analysis (Bland and Altman 1986) suggests that the discrepancy between the two estimates tends to be significantly more positive with increasing fatness of the subject. The assumption of a constant hydration of FFM between individuals and with advancing age was tested. The hydration of FFM was calculated as the ratio between TBW (from deuterium dilution) and FFM (estimated from SFT). The wide range of values (50% to 90%) suggests large inter-individual differences. The mean values were lower than commonly reported, and differed with age and sex. In men, FFM hydration steadily decreases with age from the 7th decade (70.2 +/- 7.7%) to the 10th decade (65.9 +/- 8.2%). Women showed higher average figures than those of men and a lower age-associated decline (72.5% and 68.5% respectively). Our results suggest that FFM hydration decreases with age, and this indicates the need to develop age-related correction factors in

  19. Temporal evolution of age data under transient pumping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, S.; de Dreuzy, J.-R.; Aquilina, L.; Vergnaud-Ayraud, V.; Labasque, T.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.

    2014-04-01

    While most age data derived from tracers have been analyzed in steady-state flow conditions, we determine their temporal evolution when starting a pumping. Our study is based on a model made up of a shallowly dipping aquifer overlain by a less permeable aquitard characteristic of the crystalline aquifer of Plœmeur (Brittany, France). Under a pseudo transient flow assumption (instantaneous shift between two steady-state flow fields), we solve the transport equation with a backward particle-tracking method and determine the temporal evolution of the concentrations at the pumping well of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6. Apparent ages evolve because of the modifications of the flow pattern and because of the non-linear evolution of the tracer atmospheric concentrations. To identify the respective role of these two causes, we propose two successive analyses. We first convolute residence time distributions initially arising at different times at the same sampling time. We secondly convolute one residence time distribution at various sampling times. We show that flow pattern modifications control the apparent ages evolution in the first pumping year when the residence time distribution is modified from a piston-like distribution to a much broader distribution. In the first pumping year, the apparent age evolution contains transient information that can be used to better constrain hydrogeological systems and slightly compensate for the small number of tracers. Later, the residence time distribution hardly evolves and apparent ages only evolve because of the tracer atmospheric concentrations. In this phase, apparent age time-series do not reflect any evolution in the flow pattern.

  20. Temporal evolution of age data under transient pumping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, S.; De Dreuzy, J.; Aquilina, L.; Vergnaud, V.; Labasque, T.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.

    2013-12-01

    While most age data derived from tracers have been analyzed in steady-state flow conditions, we determine their temporal evolution under transient pumping conditions. Starting pumping in a well modifies the natural flow patterns induced by the topographical gradient to a mainly convergent flow to the well. Our study is based on a set of models made up of a shallowly dipping aquifer overlain by a less permeable aquitard. These settings are characteristic of the crystalline aquifer of Plœmeur (Brittany, France) located in a highly fractured zone at the contact between a granite and micaschists. Under a pseudo steady-state flow assumption (instantaneous shift between two steady-state flow fields), we solve the transport equation with a backward particle-tracking method and determine the temporal evolution of the concentrations at the pumping well of the four atmospheric tracers CFC 11, CFC 12, CFC 113 and SF6. We show that apparent ages deduced from these concentrations evolve both because of the flow patterns modifications and because of the non-linear evolution of the atmospheric tracer concentrations. Flow patterns modifications only intervene just after the start of pumping, when the initially piston-like residence time distribution is transformed to a broader distribution mixing residence times from a wide variety of flow lines. Later, while flow patterns and the supplying volume of the pumping well still evolve, the residence time distributions are hardly modified and apparent ages are solely altered by the non-linear atmospheric tracer concentrations that progressively modifies the weighting of the residence time distribution. These results are confirmed by the observations at the site of Plœmeur in the pumping area. First, long term chloride observations confirm the quick evolution of the flow patterns after the start of pumping. Second, posterior and more recent evolutions of apparent ages derived from CFCs are consistent with the modeling results revealing

  1. Body condition of Morelet’s Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.

  2. Age at menarche: the influence of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, E.; Shalev, C.; Dalal, I.; Sod-Moriah, U. A.

    1988-03-01

    Age at menarche was studied by the recollection method in two groups of Causasian Jewish high school girls, inhabitants of two towns in Israel, Safad and Elat. The two towns differ mainly in climatic conditions. The age at menarche was found to be significantly lower ( P<0.02) in the hot town of Elat than in the temperate town of Safad: 13.30±1.21 and 13.58±0.9 years, respectively (mean ±SD). A significant association was found between the age at menarche and the town in which the girls lived. Accordingly, in the hot town of Elat, the percentage of girls who had their first menstrual cycle by the age of 12 years and earlier, was more than double that of the girls in Safad (17.9% and 7.1%, respectively). It is concluded that the environmental temperature, with or without any possible interaction of humidity, is probably responsible for the tendency for an earlier onset of menarche in girls living in the hot town of Elat.

  3. The adolescent body image satisfaction scale for males: exploratory factor analysis and implications for strength and conditioning professionals.

    PubMed

    Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.

  4. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  5. Dispersal depends on body condition and predation risk in the semi-aquatic insect, Notonecta undulata

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Celina B; McCauley, Shannon J; Rowe, Locke

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal is the movement of organisms across space, which has important implications for ecological and evolutionary processes, including community composition and gene flow. Previous studies have demonstrated that dispersal is influenced by body condition; however, few studies have been able to separate the effects of body condition from correlated variables such as body size. Moreover, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with respect to the direction of the relationship between condition and dispersal. We examined whether body condition influences dispersal in backswimmers (Notonecta undulata). We also tested whether an interaction between body condition and predation risk (another proximate factor that influences dispersal) could contribute to the previously observed inconsistent relationship between condition and dispersal. We imposed diet treatments on backswimmers in the laboratory, and measured the effects of food availability on body condition and dispersal in the field. We found that dispersal was a positive function of body condition, which may have important consequences for population characteristics such as the rate of gene flow and population growth. However, the effects of body condition and predation risk were additive, not interactive, and therefore, our data do not support the hypothesis that the interaction between condition and predation risk contributes to the inconsistency in the results of previous condition-dependent dispersal studies. PMID:26120421

  6. Feather corticosterone content in predatory birds in relation to body condition and hepatic metal concentration.

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca J; Pereira, M Glória; Shore, Richard F; Henrys, Peter A; Pottinger, Tom G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring corticosterone in feathers from cryo-archived raptor specimens, in order to provide a retrospective assessment of the activity of the stress axis in relation to contaminant burden. Feather samples were taken from sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, kestrel Falco tinnunculus, buzzard Buteo buteo, barn owl Tyto alba, and tawny owl Strix aluco and the variation in feather CORT concentrations with respect to species, age, sex, feather position, and body condition was assessed. In sparrowhawks only, variation in feather CORT content was compared with hepatic metal concentrations. For individuals, CORT concentration (pgmm(-1)) in adjacent primary flight feathers (P5 and P6), and left and right wing primaries (P5), was statistically indistinguishable. The lowest concentrations of CORT were found in sparrowhawk feathers and CORT concentrations did not vary systematically with age or sex for any species. Significant relationships between feather CORT content and condition were observed in only tawny owl and kestrel. In sparrowhawks, feather CORT concentration was found to be positively related to the hepatic concentrations of five metals (Cd, Mn, Co, Cu, Mo) and the metalloid As. There was also a negative relationship between measures of condition and total hepatic metal concentration in males. The results suggest that some factors affecting CORT uptake by feathers remain to be resolved but feather CORT content from archived specimens has the potential to provide a simple effects biomarker for exposure to environmental contaminants.

  7. Feather corticosterone content in predatory birds in relation to body condition and hepatic metal concentration.

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca J; Pereira, M Glória; Shore, Richard F; Henrys, Peter A; Pottinger, Tom G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring corticosterone in feathers from cryo-archived raptor specimens, in order to provide a retrospective assessment of the activity of the stress axis in relation to contaminant burden. Feather samples were taken from sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, kestrel Falco tinnunculus, buzzard Buteo buteo, barn owl Tyto alba, and tawny owl Strix aluco and the variation in feather CORT concentrations with respect to species, age, sex, feather position, and body condition was assessed. In sparrowhawks only, variation in feather CORT content was compared with hepatic metal concentrations. For individuals, CORT concentration (pgmm(-1)) in adjacent primary flight feathers (P5 and P6), and left and right wing primaries (P5), was statistically indistinguishable. The lowest concentrations of CORT were found in sparrowhawk feathers and CORT concentrations did not vary systematically with age or sex for any species. Significant relationships between feather CORT content and condition were observed in only tawny owl and kestrel. In sparrowhawks, feather CORT concentration was found to be positively related to the hepatic concentrations of five metals (Cd, Mn, Co, Cu, Mo) and the metalloid As. There was also a negative relationship between measures of condition and total hepatic metal concentration in males. The results suggest that some factors affecting CORT uptake by feathers remain to be resolved but feather CORT content from archived specimens has the potential to provide a simple effects biomarker for exposure to environmental contaminants. PMID:25776461

  8. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  9. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population - Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Ličina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O. leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of

  10. Endoparasites in a Norwegian moose (Alces alces) population - Faunal diversity, abundance and body condition.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Ličina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O. leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of

  11. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... service area that have facilities for organ donation. (3) Systematic efforts, including professional... hospitals in establishing and implementing protocols for making routine inquiries about organ donations by... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage:...

  12. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... service area that have facilities for organ donation. (3) Systematic efforts, including professional... hospitals in establishing and implementing protocols for making routine inquiries about organ donations by... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage:...

  13. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of this part. (7) Transportation of organs to transplant hospitals. (8) Coordination of activities... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.324...

  14. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of this part. (7) Transportation of organs to transplant hospitals. (8) Coordination of activities... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.324...

  15. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Thorup, V M; Edwards, D; Friggens, N C

    2012-04-01

    Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to monitor health, reproduction, and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EB(inout)), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity, growth, and pregnancy). Except for milk yield, direct measurements of the other sources are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates contain considerable error sources, limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EB(body)) using body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). Automated weighing systems exist and new technology performing semi-automated body condition scoring has emerged, so frequent automated BW and BCS measurements are feasible. We present a method to derive individual EB(body) estimates from frequently measured BW and BCS and evaluate the performance of the estimated EB(body) against the traditional EB(inout) method. From 76 Danish Holstein and Jersey cows, parity 1 or 2+, on a glycerol-rich or a whole grain-rich total mixed ration, BW was measured automatically at each milking. The BW was corrected for the weight of milk produced and for gutfill. Changes in BW and BCS were used to calculate changes in body protein, body lipid, and EB(body) during the first 150 d in milk. The EB(body) was compared with the traditional EB(inout) by isolating the term within EB(inout) associated with most uncertainty; that is, feed energy content (FEC); FEC=(EB(body)+EMilk+EMaintenance+Eactivity)/dry matter intake, where the energy requirements are for milk produced (EMilk), maintenance (EMaintenance), and activity (EActivity). Estimated FEC agreed well with FEC values derived from tables (the mean estimate was 0.21 MJ of effective energy/kg of dry matter or 2.2% higher than the mean table value). Further, the FEC profile did not suggest systematic bias in EB(body) with stage of lactation. The EB(body

  16. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Thorup, V M; Edwards, D; Friggens, N C

    2012-04-01

    Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to monitor health, reproduction, and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EB(inout)), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity, growth, and pregnancy). Except for milk yield, direct measurements of the other sources are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates contain considerable error sources, limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EB(body)) using body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). Automated weighing systems exist and new technology performing semi-automated body condition scoring has emerged, so frequent automated BW and BCS measurements are feasible. We present a method to derive individual EB(body) estimates from frequently measured BW and BCS and evaluate the performance of the estimated EB(body) against the traditional EB(inout) method. From 76 Danish Holstein and Jersey cows, parity 1 or 2+, on a glycerol-rich or a whole grain-rich total mixed ration, BW was measured automatically at each milking. The BW was corrected for the weight of milk produced and for gutfill. Changes in BW and BCS were used to calculate changes in body protein, body lipid, and EB(body) during the first 150 d in milk. The EB(body) was compared with the traditional EB(inout) by isolating the term within EB(inout) associated with most uncertainty; that is, feed energy content (FEC); FEC=(EB(body)+EMilk+EMaintenance+Eactivity)/dry matter intake, where the energy requirements are for milk produced (EMilk), maintenance (EMaintenance), and activity (EActivity). Estimated FEC agreed well with FEC values derived from tables (the mean estimate was 0.21 MJ of effective energy/kg of dry matter or 2.2% higher than the mean table value). Further, the FEC profile did not suggest systematic bias in EB(body) with stage of lactation. The EB(body

  17. Reconciling Hf-W Model Ages of IVB Parent Body with Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, W.; Breuer, D.; Kleine, T.; Kruijer, T.

    2016-08-01

    We calculated the differentiation of the parent body of IVB iron meteorites comparing its evolution to the metal separation data. Our models are consistent with the separation ages inferred from the Hf-W chronology.

  18. Adverse Housing and Neighborhood Conditions and Inflammatory Markers among Middle-Aged African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Morley, John E.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse housing and neighborhood conditions are independently associated with an increased risk of various diseases and conditions. One possible explanation relates to systemic inflammation, which is associated with these adverse health outcomes. The authors investigated the association between housing and neighborhood conditions with inflammatory markers using data about 352 persons aged 49–65 years from the African American Health study. Participants were identified by a multistage random selection process in 2000 to 2001(response rate, 76%). Blood was analyzed for soluble cytokine receptors (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α), C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. Neighborhood and housing characteristics consisted of five observed block face conditions (external appearance of the block on which the subject lived), four perceived neighborhood conditions, four observed housing conditions (home assessment by the interviewers rating the interior and exterior of the subject’s building), and census-tract level poverty rate from the 2000 census. Differences in some inflammatory markers were found by age, gender, chronic conditions, and body mass index (all Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.0034). There was no association between any of the housing/neighborhood conditions and the pro-inflammatory markers and potential associations between some housing/neighborhood conditions and adiponectin (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-adjusted p > 0.0034). Inflammation does not appear to be a mediator of the association between poor housing/neighborhood conditions and adverse health outcomes in middle-aged African Americans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-009-9426-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20186494

  19. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  20. Experimental cooling during incubation leads to reduced innate immunity and body condition in nestling tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Ardia, Daniel R; Pérez, Jonathan H; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-06-22

    Nest microclimate can have strong effects that can carry over to later life-history stages. We experimentally cooled the nests of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Females incubating in cooled nests reduced incubation time and allowed egg temperatures to drop, leading to extended incubation periods. We partially cross-fostered nestlings to test carry-over effects of cooling during incubation on nestling innate constitutive immunity, assessed through bacteria killing ability (BKA) of blood. Nestlings that had been cooled as eggs showed a lower ability to kill bacteria than control nestlings, regardless of the treatment of their foster mother. However, there was no effect of treatment of rearing females on nestling BKA in control nestlings, even though cooled females made significantly fewer feeding visits than did control females. This suggests that the effect of cooling occurred during incubation and was not due to carry-over effects on nestling condition. Nestlings that were exposed to experimental cooling as embryos had lower residual body mass and absolute body mass at all four ages measured. Our results indicate that environmental conditions and trade-offs experienced during one stage of development can have important carry-over effects on later life-history stages.

  1. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups. PMID:24264145

  2. Age-related body mass and reproductive measurements of gray wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Based on 65 free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) of known age and 25 of estimated age examined during summers of 1970-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, body mass of both males and females peaked at 5 or 6 years of age, with mean masses of 40.8 kg and 31.2 kg, respectively. Testis size varied as a function of age and month through at least 8 years of age, with length plus width ranging from 1.9 to 7.8 cm. Most females aged 4-9 years bred based on assessment of nipple sizes; those that had not bred had average lower body mass than those that had. This is the 1st report of such data from known-aged wolves.

  3. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  4. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  5. Complexity in caring for an ageing heart failure population: concomitant chronic conditions and age related impairments.

    PubMed

    De Geest, Sabina; Steeman, Els; Leventhal, Marcia E; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Hengartner-Kopp, Beatrice; Conca, Antoinette; Bernasconi, Arlette T; Petry, Heidi; Brunner-La Rocca, Hanspeter

    2004-12-01

    The complexity of caring for the ageing heart failure (HF) population is further complicated by concomitant chronic conditions (i.e., polypharmacy, depression), age related impairments (i.e., hearing, visual and cognitive impairments, impairments in activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), and other issues (e.g., health illiteracy, lack of social support). This paper provides an overview of these risk factors, outlines how they individually and in interplay endanger favourable outcome by putting patients at risk for poor self-management. Moreover, suggestions are made on how these issues could be addressed and integrated in heart failure management by applying gerontological care principles in caring for the ageing heart failure population.

  6. Standard biobanking conditions prevent evaporation of body fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Eline A J; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J A; Durieux-Lu, Sisi; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2015-03-10

    Pre-analytical variation in biobanking procedures, e.g., long-term storage, could confound biomarker outcomes. We investigated evaporation in various body fluids at different storage temperatures and storage durations. Biobank sample tubes (Sarstedt 72.694.007) filled with water in different volumes (50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500μl) were stored at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, room temperature (RT)) for 4.5years and weighed at regular intervals. Next, saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF were stored in different volumes (50, 250, 500, 1000μl) at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, RT) for 2years. An extra set of CSF was stored in tubes with safe-lock cap (Eppendorf 0030 120.086) instead of a screw cap with o-ring. No evaporation of water stored in biobanking tubes at -80°C or -20°C occurred over 4.5years. Storage of saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF at -80°C or -20°C, monitored over 2years, protected these samples from evaporation too. At 4°C, evaporation was minor, approximately 1.5% (50μl) or 0% (1ml) yearly, where at RT it ranged from 38% (50μl) to 2% (1ml). Differences were observed neither between different body fluids, nor between tube caps. Our data provide support for long-term biobanking conform current biobanking guidelines, encouraging retrospective use of clinical cohorts. PMID:25661086

  7. Standard biobanking conditions prevent evaporation of body fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Eline A J; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J A; Durieux-Lu, Sisi; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2015-03-10

    Pre-analytical variation in biobanking procedures, e.g., long-term storage, could confound biomarker outcomes. We investigated evaporation in various body fluids at different storage temperatures and storage durations. Biobank sample tubes (Sarstedt 72.694.007) filled with water in different volumes (50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500μl) were stored at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, room temperature (RT)) for 4.5years and weighed at regular intervals. Next, saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF were stored in different volumes (50, 250, 500, 1000μl) at different temperatures (-80°C, -20°C, 4°C, RT) for 2years. An extra set of CSF was stored in tubes with safe-lock cap (Eppendorf 0030 120.086) instead of a screw cap with o-ring. No evaporation of water stored in biobanking tubes at -80°C or -20°C occurred over 4.5years. Storage of saliva, serum, plasma, and CSF at -80°C or -20°C, monitored over 2years, protected these samples from evaporation too. At 4°C, evaporation was minor, approximately 1.5% (50μl) or 0% (1ml) yearly, where at RT it ranged from 38% (50μl) to 2% (1ml). Differences were observed neither between different body fluids, nor between tube caps. Our data provide support for long-term biobanking conform current biobanking guidelines, encouraging retrospective use of clinical cohorts.

  8. The histories of ordinary chondrite parent bodies - U, Th-He age distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, J.T.; Wang, Sichao Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing )

    1991-06-01

    Age patterns observed in meteorite groups reflect the different thermal or impact histories experienced by their parent bodies. To assess the number of ordinary chondrite (OC) parent bodies, rare-gas data in the Schultz and Kruse (1989) data base were used to calculate U, Th-He gas-retention ages. Most H- and LL-chondrite ages are high; about 81 percent are greater than 2.2 Ga. In contrast, most L-chondrite ages are low; about 69 percent are not greater than 2.2 Ga, and about 35 percent are not greater than 0.9 Ga. The latter fraction is substantially lower than the value of 44 percent given by Heymann (1967). The difference is attributed to the preferential inclusion of shocked L chondrites in early studies. Broad age peaks in the H and LL groups near 3.4 Ga probably reflect thermal loss during metamorphism, but in the H distribution there is a hint of minor outgassing 'events' near 1 Ga. The L/LL chondrites have chemical properties intermediate between and unresolvable from L and LL chondrites. The high ages of most L/LL chondrites are evidence against these originating on the L parent body; the L/LL age distribution is consistent with an origin on the LL parent body or on an independent body. 22 refs.

  9. The histories of ordinary chondrite parent bodies - U, Th-He age distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Wang, Sichao

    1991-06-01

    Age patterns observed in meteorite groups reflect the different thermal or impact histories experienced by their parent bodies. To assess the number of ordinary chondrite (OC) parent bodies, rare-gas data in the Schultz and Kruse (1989) data base were used to calculate U, Th-He gas-retention ages. Most H- and LL-chondrite ages are high; about 81 percent are greater than 2.2 Ga. In contrast, most L-chondrite ages are low; about 69 percent are not greater than 2.2 Ga, and about 35 percent are not greater than 0.9 Ga. The latter fraction is substantially lower than the value of 44 percent given by Heymann (1967). The difference is attributed to the preferential inclusion of shocked L chondrites in early studies. Broad age peaks in the H and LL groups near 3.4 Ga probably reflect thermal loss during metamorphism, but in the H distribution there is a hint of minor outgassing "events" near 1 Ga. The L/LL chondrites have chemical properties intermediate between and unresolvable from L and LL chondrites. The high ages of most L/LL chondrites are evidence against these originating on the L parent body; the L/LL age distribution is consistent with an origin on the LL parent body or on an independent body.

  10. [A portable impedance meter for monitoring liquid compartments of human body under space flight conditions].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nikolaev, D V; Tuĭkin, S A; Kozharinov, V I; Grachev, V A

    2007-01-01

    A portable two-frequency tetrapolar impedance meter was developed to study the state of liquid compartments of human body under zero-gravity conditions. The portable impedance meter makes it possible to monitor the hydration state of human body under conditions of long-term space flight on board international space station.

  11. 42 CFR 483.410 - Condition of participation: Governing body and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Governing body and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM... Intellectual Disabilities § 483.410 Condition of participation: Governing body and management. (a)...

  12. Body conditions and stomach contents of subadult trout during fall and winter in three Wyoming tailwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebdon, J.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied three tailwaters in Wyoming from October 1997 through February 1998 to determine whether body conditions of stocked, subadult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarki declined from fall through winter and to assess whether lack of food in stomachs might be related to any declines. Body conditions of rainbow trout in two tailwaters remained high through the winter. Body conditions of cutthroat trout in a third tailwater declined between October and February but not to levels anticipated to affect the overwinter survival of the fish. Trout with substantial amounts of food in their stomachs were found throughout the fall and winter in all three tailwaters. In no subadult trout in any of the three tailwaters did we observe rapid declines in body conditions during fall or continuous declines in body conditions to very low levels by the end of winter in association with low biomass of food in stomachs.

  13. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  14. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  15. Protein nutrition mediates lean body mass homeostasis in the aging warfighter1–3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demographics shift of the average age in the United States and worldwide mandates that careful attention should be paid to the nutritional and health needs of all segments of our older adult population. Well defined changes in body composition occur in aging animals and humans. Characteristic of...

  16. Body mass index, ageing and differential reported morbidity in rural Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Strickland, S S; Ulijaszek, S J

    1993-01-01

    Classifications of adult low energy nutritional status based on the Quetelet or body mass index (weight/height2) have often assumed independence of age and sex. This paper reports findings of a study of 447 men and 564 women aged over 18 years and belonging to the Iban tribe of central Sarawak, East Malaysia. BMI and fat-free mass fell markedly in both sexes, and fat mass in women but not men, after about 40 years of age. In men over age 40, and women aged 18-40, BMI was sensitive to reported morbidity. For subjects aged over 40 years, BMI was related to morbidity independently of age effects in men, and to age alone in women. These findings suggest that the functional significance of low BMI differs between the sexes and with age. PMID:8422876

  17. Age and Embodied Masculinities: Mid-Life Gay and Heterosexual Men Talk about their Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Amy C.; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40–60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women’s, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men’s embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexual men. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men’s well-being. PMID:23849420

  18. Influence of animal age on body concentrations of minerals in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sales, J; Skřivan, M; Englmaierová, M

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical modelling of the relationships between mineral inputs and outputs would enable the prediction of mineral requirements of poultry under a wide range of conditions. To establish the feasibility of possible modelling of mineral requirements, the current study aimed to describe the individual mineral concentrations of whole bodies of quail over the life cycle from hatching to 70 days of age. Quail were reared indoors without any restrictions that could limit growth. Sampling of birds (n = 6-18) was carried out at 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49 and 70 days after hatching. Freeze-dried samples of whole bodies (digestive contents removed) were analysed for ash, and macrominerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium) and microminerals (copper, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, zinc). Ash concentration followed a curvilinear trend, with a maximum of 101.7 g/kg dry matter at 32.77 days. Individual mineral concentrations, expressed as a proportion of ash, were fluctuating over time, with the most prominent changes at 3 days and again at either 14 or 21 days. Dissimilar patterns in individual mineral concentrations resulted that ratios between minerals followed inconsistent patterns over time. Although mineral contents in absolute quantities can be described through modelling over the entire life cycle of the bird, it can be concluded that variable concentrations of individual minerals could complicate further model development.

  19. Body fat is associated with reduced aortic stiffness until middle age.

    PubMed

    Corden, Ben; Keenan, Niall G; de Marvao, Antonio S M; Dawes, Timothy J W; Decesare, Alain; Diamond, Tamara; Durighel, Giuliana; Hughes, Alun D; Cook, Stuart A; O'Regan, Declan P

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, but the effect of body composition on vascular aging and arterial stiffness remains uncertain. We investigated relationships among body composition, blood pressure, age, and aortic pulse wave velocity in healthy individuals. Pulse wave velocity in the thoracic aorta, an indicator of central arterial stiffness, was measured in 221 volunteers (range, 18-72 years; mean, 40.3±13 years) who had no history of cardiovascular disease using cardiovascular MRI. In univariate analyses, age (r=0.78; P<0.001) and blood pressure (r=0.41; P<0.001) showed a strong positive association with pulse wave velocity. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, and mean arterial blood pressure, elevated body fat% was associated with reduced aortic stiffness until the age of 50 years, thereafter adiposity had an increasingly positive association with aortic stiffness (β=0.16; P<0.001). Body fat% was positively associated with cardiac output when age, sex, height, and absolute lean mass were adjusted for (β=0.23; P=0.002). These findings suggest that the cardiovascular system of young adults may be capable of adapting to the state of obesity and that an adverse association between body fat and aortic stiffness is only apparent in later life.

  20. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  1. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum age conditions and time of participation... Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General rule. A plan is... excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an age specified by the...

  2. Influence of body condition on reproductive output in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction is expensive. Substantial body reserves (i.e. high body condition) are usually required for females to undertake offspring production. In many vertebrates, maternal body condition positively influences reproductive output, and emaciated individuals skip reproduction. However, the impact of extremely high body condition, more specifically obesity, on animal reproductive performance remains poorly understood and research has generated contradictory results. For instance, obesity negatively affects fertility in women, but does not influence reproductive capacity or reproductive output in laboratory rodents. We examined the influence of high body condition on reproductive status and reproductive output in the guinea pig. In captivity, when fed ad libitum, guinea pigs store large amounts of fat tissues and exhibit a tendency for obesity. Our results show that obesity negatively affected reproduction in this species: both the proportion of fertile females and litter size were lower in the fattest females. Therefore, guinea pigs may represent suitable organisms to better understand the negative effect of obesity on reproduction.

  3. Age-related differences in heat loss capacity occur under both dry and humid heat stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larose, Joanie; Boulay, Pierre; Wright-Beatty, Heather E.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Hardcastle, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the progression of impairments in heat dissipation as a function of age and environmental conditions. Sixty men (n = 12 per group; 20–30, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, and 55–70 yr) performed four intermittent exercise/recovery cycles for a duration of 2 h in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid (35°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. Evaporative heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss during the sessions. Evaporative heat loss was reduced during exercise in the humid vs. dry condition in age groups 20–30 (−17%), 40–44 (−18%), 45–49 (−21%), 50–54 (−25%), and 55–70 yr (−20%). HE fell short of being significantly different between groups in the dry condition, but was greater in age group 20–30 yr (279 ± 10 W) compared with age groups 45–49 (248 ± 8 W), 50–54 (242 ± 6 W), and 55–70 yr (240 ± 7 W) in the humid condition. As a result of a reduced rate of heat dissipation predominantly during exercise, age groups 40–70 yr stored between 60–85 and 13–38% more heat than age group 20–30 yr in the dry and humid conditions, respectively. These age-related differences in heat dissipation and heat storage were not paralleled by significant differences in local sweating and skin blood flow, or by differences in core temperature between groups. From a whole body perspective, combined heat and humidity impeded heat dissipation to a similar extent across age groups, but, more importantly, intermittent exercise in dry and humid heat stress conditions created a greater thermoregulatory challenge for middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24812643

  4. Age-related differences in heat loss capacity occur under both dry and humid heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Larose, Joanie; Boulay, Pierre; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Sigal, Ronald J; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the progression of impairments in heat dissipation as a function of age and environmental conditions. Sixty men (n = 12 per group; 20-30, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, and 55-70 yr) performed four intermittent exercise/recovery cycles for a duration of 2 h in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid (35°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. Evaporative heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss during the sessions. Evaporative heat loss was reduced during exercise in the humid vs. dry condition in age groups 20-30 (-17%), 40-44 (-18%), 45-49 (-21%), 50-54 (-25%), and 55-70 yr (-20%). HE fell short of being significantly different between groups in the dry condition, but was greater in age group 20-30 yr (279 ± 10 W) compared with age groups 45-49 (248 ± 8 W), 50-54 (242 ± 6 W), and 55-70 yr (240 ± 7 W) in the humid condition. As a result of a reduced rate of heat dissipation predominantly during exercise, age groups 40-70 yr stored between 60-85 and 13-38% more heat than age group 20-30 yr in the dry and humid conditions, respectively. These age-related differences in heat dissipation and heat storage were not paralleled by significant differences in local sweating and skin blood flow, or by differences in core temperature between groups. From a whole body perspective, combined heat and humidity impeded heat dissipation to a similar extent across age groups, but, more importantly, intermittent exercise in dry and humid heat stress conditions created a greater thermoregulatory challenge for middle-aged and older adults.

  5. Carboxylic Acids as Indicators of Parent Body Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, N. R.

    1995-09-01

    Alpha-hydroxy and alpha-amino carboxylic acids found on the Murchison meteorite are deuterium enriched [1]. It is postulated that they arose from a common interstellar source: the reaction of carbonyl compounds in an aqueous mixture containing HCN and NH3. Carbonyl compounds react with HCN to form alph-hydroxy nitriles, RR'CO + HCN <--> RR'C(OH)CN. If ammonia is also present, the alpha-hydroxy nitriles will exist in equilibirum with the alpha-amino nitriles, RR'C(OH)CN +NH3 .<--> RRCNH2CN + H2O. Both nitriles are hydrolyzed by water to form carboxylic acids: RR'C(OH)CN + H2O --> RR'C(OH)CO2H and RR'C(NH2)CN + H2O --> RR'C(NH2)CO2H. Carbonyl compounds observed in the interstellar medium have been shown to be deuterium enriched [2]. The combined alpha-amino acids found on Murchison have deltaD = +1751 o/oo while the combined alpha-hydroxy acids have deltaD = +573. o/oo [1]. This large discrepancy in deltaD values does not preclude common precursors for the alpha-amino acids and the alpha-hydroxy acids. Different relative amounts of specific alpha-amino and alpha-hydroxy acids could lead to quite different combined D/H ratios. If the alpha-hydroxy acids lose significantly more deuterium during synthesis than the alpha-amino acids or if they have a higher rate of H/D exchange with liquid water than alpha-amino acids, the alpha-hydroxy acids would be isotopically lighter than the alpha-amino acids, because the water responsible for the aqueous alteration of the Murchison parent body was deuterium depleted with deltaD = -100. o/oo [3]. To determine between these alternative mechanisms we measured the rates of hydrogen-deuterium exchange of glycolic acid (the alpha-hydroxy analog of glycine), lactic acid (the alpha-hydroxy analog of alanine), and alpha-hydroxy isobutyric acid have been measured in D2O as a function of pH, temperature and the presence of Allende or Murchison minerals. No detectable H/D exchange was observed. Glycine subjected to similar conditons exchanged

  6. Previous success and current body condition determine breeding propensity in Lesser Scaup: evidence for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Williams, Tony D.; Koons, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The decision to breed influences an individual's current and future reproduction, and the proportion of individuals that breed is an important determinant of population dynamics. Age, experience, individual quality, and environmental conditions have all been demonstrated to influence breeding propensity. To elucidate which of these factors exerts the greatest influence on breeding propensity in a temperate waterfowl, we studied female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) breeding in southwestern Montana. Females were captured during the breeding seasons of 2007–2009, and breeding status was determined on the basis of (1) presence of an egg in the oviduct or (2) blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Presence on the study site in the previous year, a proxy for adult female success, was determined with stable isotope signatures of a primary feather collected at capture. Overall, 57% of females had evidence of breeding at the time of capture; this increased to 86% for females captured on or after peak nest initiation. Capture date and size-adjusted body condition positively influenced breeding propensity, with a declining body-condition threshold through the breeding season. We did not detect an influence of age on breeding propensity. Drought conditions negatively affected breeding propensity, reducing the proportion of breeding females to 0.85 (SE = 0.05) from 0.94 (SE = 0.03) during normal-water years. A female that was present in the previous breeding season was 5% more likely to breed than a female that was not present then. The positive correlation between age and experience makes it difficult to differentiate the roles of age, experience, and individual quality in reproductive success in vertebrates. Our results indicate that individual quality, as expressed by previous success and current body condition, may be among the most important determinants of breeding propensity in female Lesser Scaup, providing further support for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis.

  7. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  8. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  9. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  10. The effect of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Yümin, Eylem Tütün; Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Sertel, Meral; Ankaralı, Handan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effects of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and three healthy female volunteers over the age of 20 were included in the study. The statistical analyses were performed by considering the age and body mass index values of the individuals. The individuals were divided according to their ages and body mass index values. Foot pain was measured with a visual analogue scale and plantar cutaneous sensation using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. [Results] Fifty-six (27.5%) of the participants had normal weights, 67 (33%) were overweight, and 80 (39%) were obese. Statistical analysis revealed that as age and body mass index values increased, plantar sensitivity decreased and the frequency and severity of pain increased. [Conclusion] It is possible that healthy women may experience a decrease in foot plantar sensation with increasing weight and age. If women do not have any health problems, proprioception and sensory training must be focused on in order to prevent balance and falling problems. PMID:27799700

  11. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  12. Anorexic effect of peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK) varies with age and body composition (short communication).

    PubMed

    Balaskó, Márta; Soós, Sz; Párniczky, A; Koncsecskó-Gáspár, M; Székely, M; Pétervári, E

    2012-06-01

    Obesity of middle-aged mammals is followed at old age by anorexia and cachexia leading to sarcopenia. Complex age- and body composition-related alterations in the regulation of energy homeostasis may be assumed in the background. We aimed to test the possible contribution of age- and body composition-related changes of satiety responses to catabolic brain-gut-axis peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) to these alterations in energy balance during aging. Male Wistar rats (6-8 animals/group) aged 2 months (juvenile), 3 months (young adult), 6 or 12 months (early or late middle-aged), and 24 months (old) were injected intraperitoneally with 5 μg CCK-8 prior to re-feeding after 48-h food-deprivation. CCK suppressed re-feeding in young adult (26.8%), early middle-aged (35.5%), and old (31.4%) animals, but not in juvenile or late middle-aged rats (one-way ANOVA). CCK-resistance of 12 months old rats was prevented by life-long calorie-restriction: CCK suppressed their re-feeding by 46.8%. Conversely, in highfat diet-induced obese 6 months old rats CCK failed to suppress re-feeding. In conclusion, age-related changes in satiety responsiveness to CCK may contribute to the age-related obesity of middle-aged as well as to the anorexia of old animals. CCK-responsiveness is also influenced by body composition: calorie-restriction prevents the resistance to CCK, pre-existing obesity enhances it.

  13. Implications of body condition on the unsustainable predation rates of endangered mountain caribou.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Michelle L; Serrouya, Robert; McLellan, Bruce N; Furk, Kelsey; Heard, Doug C; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2012-07-01

    Both top-down and bottom-up processes influence herbivore populations, and identifying dominant limiting factors is essential for applying effective conservation actions. Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) that have been declining, and unsustainable predation has been identified as the proximate cause. To investigate the role of poor nutrition, we examined the influence of sex, season, age class, and available suitable habitat (i.e., old-growth forest>140 years) per caribou on bone marrow fat content of caribou that died (n = 79). Sex was the only strong predictor of marrow fat. Males that died during and post rut had lower marrow fat than females or males at other times of year. Old-growth abundance per caribou, season, and age class did not predict marrow fat. Caribou killed by predators did not have less marrow fat than those that died in accidents, suggesting that nutritionally stressed caribou were not foraging in less secure habitats or that predators selected nutritionally stressed individuals. Marrow fat in endangered and declining populations of mountain caribou was similar to caribou in other, more viable populations. Our results support previous research suggesting that observed population declines of mountain caribou are due to excessive predation that is not linked to body condition.

  14. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  15. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  16. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  17. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07–8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  18. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  19. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an...

  20. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3 - Minimum age and service conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum age and service conditions. 1.410(a)-3...(a)-3 Minimum age and service conditions. (a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) or (c... of— (1) Age 25. The date on which the employee attains the age of 25; or (2) One year of service....

  1. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an...

  2. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an...

  3. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3 - Minimum age and service conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions. 1.410(a)-3...(a)-3 Minimum age and service conditions. (a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) or (c... of— (1) Age 25. The date on which the employee attains the age of 25; or (2) One year of service....

  4. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3 - Minimum age and service conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions. 1.410(a)-3...(a)-3 Minimum age and service conditions. (a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) or (c... of— (1) Age 25. The date on which the employee attains the age of 25; or (2) One year of service....

  5. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3 - Minimum age and service conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions. 1.410(a)-3...(a)-3 Minimum age and service conditions. (a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) or (c... of— (1) Age 25. The date on which the employee attains the age of 25; or (2) One year of service....

  6. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  7. Relating body condition to inorganic contaminant concentrations of diving ducks wintering in coastal California.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, J Y; Wainwright-De La Cruz, S E; Hothem, R L; Yee, J

    2002-01-01

    In wild waterfowl, poor winter body condition may negatively affect migration, survival, and reproduction. Environmental contaminants have been shown to adversely affect the body condition of captive birds, but few field studies have examined body condition and contaminants in wild birds during the winter. We assessed the body condition of carcasses from a collection of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) and lesser (A. affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila) wintering in coastal California. We used Akaike information criterion (AIC) to select the model with the best balance of parsimony and goodness of fit that related indices of body condition with concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn. Total ash-free protein in canvasbacks decreased with increasing Se concentrations, and pancreas mass decreased with increasing Hg. We combined the closely related lesser and greater scaup in analyses and found that total carcass fat, pancreas mass, and carcass mass decreased with increasing Zn concentrations, and pancreas mass decreased with increasing Hg. Our AIC analysis indicated that some indices of body condition in diving ducks were inversely related to some environmental contaminants in this collection, but additional AIC analyses should be conducted across a wider range of contaminant concentrations to corroborate our findings. PMID:11706369

  8. The effect of body condition on ovarian activity of free ranging tropical jennies (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Lemma, A; Bekana, M; Schwartz, H J; Hildebrandt, T

    2006-02-01

    Serial ultrasonography was performed on seven jennies to study the effect of seasonally fluctuating body condition on ovarian activity during the dry, short rainy and long rainy seasons. Kendall Tau correlations and differences of least square mean values were compared. A distinct seasonal pattern was observed both in body condition and ovarian activity. The mean (+/-SD) Body Condition Score (BCS) was lowest during the dry season 2.6 +/- 0.45 when compared with 3.5 +/- 0.52 and 3.9 +/- 0.58 during the short and long rainy seasons, respectively. The mean (+/-SD) number of total follicles was also proportionally low 7.3 +/- 1.6 during the dry season compared with 9.6 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 3.3 found during the short and the long rainy seasons, respectively. The BCS was positively correlated to the total number of follicles and the diameter of the largest follicle during all seasons. Periods of increasing BCS and transition between seasons with both increasing and decreasing body conditions were strongly correlated to the number and size of ovarian follicles. Seasonal fluctuation in the body condition was found to be the result of variation in feed resource and ovarian activity was also closely following this seasonal pattern. The improvement in body condition has generally, a positive impact on emergence of small growing follicles there by having influence on the total count of ovarian follicles. PMID:16411899

  9. Relating body condition to inorganic contaminant concentrations of diving ducks wintering in coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Wainwright-De La Cruz, S.E.; Hothem, R.L.; Yee, J.

    2002-01-01

    In wild waterfowl, poor winter body condition may negatively affect migration, survival, and reproduction. Environmental contaminants have been shown to adversely affect the body condition of captive birds, but few field studies have examined body condition and contaminants in wild birds during the winter. We assessed the body condition of carcasses from a collection of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) and lesser (A. affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila) wintering in coastal California. We used Akaike information criterion (AIC) to select the model with the best balance of parsimony and goodness of fit that related indices of body condition with concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn. Total ash-free protein in canvasbacks decreased with increasing Se concentrations, and pancreas mass decreased with increasing Hg. We combined the closely related lesser and greater scaup in analyses and found that total carcass fat, pancreas mass, and carcass mass decreased with increasing Zn concentrations, and pancreas mass decreased with increasing Hg. Our AIC analysis indicated that some indices of body condition in diving ducks were inversely related to some environmental contaminants in this collection, but additional AIC analyses should be conducted across a wider range of contaminant concentrations to corroborate our findings.

  10. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.

  11. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  12. Can Body Condition and Somatic Indices be Used to Evaluate Metal-Induced Stress in Wild Small Mammals?

    PubMed Central

    Tête, Nicolas; Fritsch, Clémentine; Afonso, Eve; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Lambert, Jean-Claude; Giraudoux, Patrick; Scheifler, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife is exposed to natural (e.g., food availability and quality, parasitism) and anthropogenic stressors (e.g., habitat fragmentation, toxicants). Individual variables (e.g., age, gender) affect behaviour and physiology of animals. Together, these parameters can create both great inter-individual variations in health indicators and interpretation difficulties. We investigated the relevance of body condition and somatic indices (liver, kidneys) as indicators of health status in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, n = 560) captured along a metal pollution gradient in four landscape types (30 sampling squares 500-m sided). The indices were calculated using a recently proposed standard major axis regression instead of an ordinary least square regression. After considering age and gender for the body condition index, no landscape type influence was detected in the indices. However, important index variability was observed between sampling squares; this effect was included as a random effect in linear models. After integrating all individual and environmental variables that may affect the indices, cadmium (Cd) concentrations in both the liver and kidneys were negatively related to body condition and liver indices only for individuals from highly contaminated sites. Lead in the liver was negatively related to the liver index, and Cd in kidneys was positively linked to the kidney index, potentially suggesting metal-induced stress. However, interpretation of these indices as a wildlife ecotoxicology tool should be performed with caution due to the sensitivity of potentially confounding variables (e.g., individual factors and environmental parameters). PMID:23824591

  13. Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

  14. Body Fatness at Young Ages and Risk of Breast Cancer Throughout Life

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Heather J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Body fatness at young ages may be related to breast cancer risk independently of adult adiposity. The authors conducted a prospective analysis among 188,860 women (7,582 breast cancer cases) in the Nurses’ Health Study (1988–2004) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1989–2005) who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 years using a 9-level pictogram (level 1: most lean; level 9: most overweight). Body fatness at young ages was inversely associated with risk of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (per 1-unit increase in adolescent body fatness, relative risk (RR) = 0.88 and RR = 0.91, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among all women, the RR for adolescent body fatness of level 6.5 or higher versus level 1 was 0.57 (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.90; Ptrend < 0.0001) and was unaffected by adjustment for current body mass index. The association was stronger for women with birth weights under 8.5 pounds (<3.9 kg) than for women with birth weights of 8.5 pounds or more (≥3.9 kg) (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.89 and RR = 0.94, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.04) and stronger for estrogen receptor-negative tumors than for estrogen receptor-positive tumors (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.86 and RR = 0.92, respectively; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). Body fatness at young ages has a strong and independent inverse relation to breast cancer risk throughout life. PMID:20460303

  15. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  16. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress. PMID:16243367

  17. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  18. Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, H.S.; Owen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.

  19. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.

  20. Body girth as an alternative to body mass for establishing condition indexes in field studies: a validation in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre; Criscuolo, François; Le Vaillant, Maryline; Saraux, Claire; Pardonnet, Sylvia; Gineste, Benoit; Kauffmann, Marion; Prud'homme, Onésime; Handrich, Yves; Massemin, Sylvie; Groscolas, René; Robin, Jean-Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Body mass and body condition are often tightly linked to animal health and fitness in the wild and thus are key measures for ecophysiologists and behavioral ecologists. In some animals, such as large seabird species, obtaining indexes of structural size is relatively easy, whereas measuring body mass under specific field circumstances may be more of a challenge. Here, we suggest an alternative, easily measurable, and reliable surrogate of body mass in field studies, that is, body girth. Using 234 free-living king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at various stages of molt and breeding, we measured body girth under the flippers, body mass, and bill and flipper length. We found that body girth was strongly and positively related to body mass in both molting (R(2) = 0.91) and breeding (R(2) = 0.73) birds, with the mean error around our predictions being 6.4%. Body girth appeared to be a reliable proxy measure of body mass because the relationship did not vary according to year and experimenter, bird sex, or stage within breeding groups. Body girth was, however, a weak proxy of body mass in birds at the end of molt, probably because most of those birds had reached a critical depletion of energy stores. Body condition indexes established from ordinary least squares regressions of either body girth or body mass on structural size were highly correlated (r(s) = 0.91), suggesting that body girth was as good as body mass in establishing body condition indexes in king penguins. Body girth may prove a useful proxy to body mass for estimating body condition in field investigations and could likely provide similar information in other penguins and large animals that may be complicated to weigh in the wild. PMID:22902382

  1. What`s normal?: Body condition in Great Lakes herring gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the usefulness of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. However, the effects of environmental contaminants on gulls are difficult to distinguish from the effects of other anthropogenic stressors such as the introduction of exotic species, overfishing and habitat loss. To understand the relative importance of these factors in regulating the success of individual gulls and, hence, gull populations, the authors must first have a better understanding of what constitutes a ``normal`` bird. Improving the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal birds is crucial in any health assessment of Great Lakes gulls. Body condition has been shown to be an important measure of a bird`s ability to provide energy for egg production, migration etc. Numerous approaches have been used to assess condition, most of which required that the bird be sacrificed. In this study, the authors describe a nonlethal technique to quantify body condition in herring gulls. Multivariate statistics are used to quantify body size, relate body size to total mass and from that, determine relative body condition. Initially, body condition is assessed in gulls from a reference colony where reproductive success is normal and anthropogenic influences are limited. This reference population is then used as a baseline against which other gull populations are compared.

  2. Asynchronous vegetation phenology enhances winter body condition of a large mobile herbivore.

    PubMed

    Searle, Kate R; Rice, Mindy B; Anderson, Charles R; Bishop, Chad; Hobbs, N T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how spatial and temporal heterogeneity influence ecological processes forms a central challenge in ecology. Individual responses to heterogeneity shape population dynamics, therefore understanding these responses is central to sustainable population management. Emerging evidence has shown that herbivores track heterogeneity in nutritional quality of vegetation by responding to phenological differences in plants. We quantified the benefits mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) accrue from accessing habitats with asynchronous plant phenology in northwest Colorado over 3 years. Our analysis examined both the direct physiological and indirect environmental effects of weather and vegetation phenology on mule deer winter body condition. We identified several important effects of annual weather patterns and topographical variables on vegetation phenology in the home ranges of mule deer. Crucially, temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were linked with differences in body condition, with deer tending to show poorer body condition in areas with less asynchronous vegetation green-up and later vegetation onset. The direct physiological effect of previous winter precipitation on mule deer body condition was much less important than the indirect effect mediated by vegetation phenology. Additionally, the influence of vegetation phenology on body fat was much stronger than that of overall vegetation productivity. In summary, changing annual weather patterns, particularly in relation to seasonal precipitation, have the potential to alter body condition of this important ungulate species during the critical winter period. This finding highlights the importance of maintaining large contiguous areas of spatially and temporally variable resources to allow animals to compensate behaviourally for changing climate-driven resource patterns. PMID:26009244

  3. Asynchronous vegetation phenology enhances winter body condition of a large mobile herbivore.

    PubMed

    Searle, Kate R; Rice, Mindy B; Anderson, Charles R; Bishop, Chad; Hobbs, N T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how spatial and temporal heterogeneity influence ecological processes forms a central challenge in ecology. Individual responses to heterogeneity shape population dynamics, therefore understanding these responses is central to sustainable population management. Emerging evidence has shown that herbivores track heterogeneity in nutritional quality of vegetation by responding to phenological differences in plants. We quantified the benefits mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) accrue from accessing habitats with asynchronous plant phenology in northwest Colorado over 3 years. Our analysis examined both the direct physiological and indirect environmental effects of weather and vegetation phenology on mule deer winter body condition. We identified several important effects of annual weather patterns and topographical variables on vegetation phenology in the home ranges of mule deer. Crucially, temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were linked with differences in body condition, with deer tending to show poorer body condition in areas with less asynchronous vegetation green-up and later vegetation onset. The direct physiological effect of previous winter precipitation on mule deer body condition was much less important than the indirect effect mediated by vegetation phenology. Additionally, the influence of vegetation phenology on body fat was much stronger than that of overall vegetation productivity. In summary, changing annual weather patterns, particularly in relation to seasonal precipitation, have the potential to alter body condition of this important ungulate species during the critical winter period. This finding highlights the importance of maintaining large contiguous areas of spatially and temporally variable resources to allow animals to compensate behaviourally for changing climate-driven resource patterns.

  4. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  5. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  6. Age modifies effect of body size on fecundity in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecundity of mosquitoes can vary with many factors, and can have a strong effect on population growth. This study reports the effects of body size, blood meal size and age on reproductive output of nulliparous Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of arboviruses and other pathogens. Mated adult female m...

  7. Influence of training, sex, age and body mass on the energy cost of running.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, M; Pastene, J; Germain, M; Lacour, J R

    1993-01-01

    To highlight the influences of age, sex, body mass (mb) and running training on the energy cost of running (Cr) young basketball players [38 boys (BB) and 14 girls (BG), aged 14.2 (SD 0.3) and 12.2 (SD 1.9) years, respectively] were selected to be compared to middle-distance runners [27 men (MR) and 14 women (FR) aged 23.7 (SD 3.4) and 23.9 (SD 4.1) years, respectively]. The Cr was measured during a maximal treadmill test. In each group Cr and body mass (mb) and body height were negatively and significantly correlated. A stepwise regression showed that among both the body dimensions measured, mb was the most important factor in determining the variations of Cr. For the whole group (n = 93) the correlation coefficient was 0.72 (P < 0.0001). For a given mb, there was no significant difference between the Cr of BG, BB and MR: this result would support the hypothesis that the differences in Cr currently attributed to age, running training or sex differences are mainly related to mb. On the other hand, for a given mb, FR showed a significantly lower Cr than the basketball players (P < 0.01 for BG and BB) and than MR (P < 0.05), thus suggesting that women decrease their Cr as a response to running training more efficiently than do men.

  8. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  9. Proximate body composition and energy content of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) in relation to the condition factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costopoulos, C. G.; Fonds, M.

    Length, wet weight, dry weight, and the content of lipid, ash and protein of young plaice were determined. The energy content of the fish was estimated by multiplying lipid and protein content by the commonly used calorific equivalents. The data were sorted from low to high condition factor of the fish and grouped according to condition factor (K = 100·W·L -3) into 8 condition groups. Mean values of percentage body composition and energy content were calculated for each condition group. Equations giving the best fit between condition factor and the parameters of body composition and energy content are presented. From the decrease in condition factor in fasting fish the relative losses of lipid and protein energy are calculated. The accuracy of equations for the calculation of energy content of plaice from condition factor is discussed.

  10. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  11. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  12. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  13. Age differences and structural validity for the Greek version of the Body Cathexis Scale.

    PubMed

    Theodorakis, Y; Doganis, G; Bagiatis, K

    1991-02-01

    To examine age differences and the internal structure of the Greek version of the Body Cathexis Scale, 152 women 18 to 45 yr. of age and participating in physical fitness programs took the scale. High internal consistency was evident: in item analysis rs ranged from .29 to .68, split-half r was .89, and Cronbach alpha .92. Factor analysis yielded six factors: (1) Physical Fitness, (2) Total Appearance, (3) Health and Skills, (4) Face, (5) Ears and Chin, and (6) Extremities. These explained 52.5% of the total variance. The higher body satisfaction was observed on the factors, Health and Skills, Ears and Chin, and Extremities. Multivariate analysis of variance of body satisfaction across factors indicated no differences. PMID:2034776

  14. Analysis of Lower Body Kinematic and Kinetic: Differences Between Age and Handicap in Golfers of Various Ages and Skill Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilensky, Alexander

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide a preliminary analysis of lower body golf swing biomechanics. Fourteen golfers of various ages and handicaps performed 10 swings off a tee with their driver. This study focused on a number of dependent variables including lead knee joint flexion angles, internal/external rotations, valgus/varus angles, as well as ground reaction forces normalized to body weight (%BW), X-Factor angle and club head velocity. Dependent variables were analyzed at four specifically defined events (start, initiation of downswing, contact and swing termination). Simple linear regressions were performed using age and handicap as independent variables to see if patterns could be determined at any of the events. No significant trends or results were reported within our sample. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then used to examine the effect of event on specific dependent variables. A number of differences were reported within each of the variables across the four events. This study hoped to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the movement patterns occurring at the lower body with special focus on the lead knee.

  15. Whether age of menarche is influenced by body mass index and lipoproteins profile? a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Maryam; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Menarche, a milestone in the reproductive life span of a woman, is influenced by several genetics and environmental factors. There is no consensus regarding the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles on the age of menarche, as the results of various studies demonstrate. Objective: To investigate the correlation between age of menarche and BMI/lipoprotein profile in a community sample of Iranian girls. Materials and Methods: In the study, 370 girls, aged 10-16 years, who began their menarche within six months prior to the study, were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) population. Information was documented regarding their body composition, including height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference were collected and their lipid profiles were assessed after a 12-hour fast. Results: In this study, the mean±SD of age of menarche and BMI were 12.6±1.1 years and 21.7±3.9 kg/m2, respectively. There were statistically significant relationships between age of menarche and height, BMI, waist circumference, and the maternal educational level. The relationship between age of menarche and the weight and lipid profiles of subjects was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Age at menarche is not influenced by lipid profiles but it is influenced by BMI. PMID:25246895

  16. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  17. Age and body size influence male sperm capacity of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Harrington, Laura C

    2007-05-01

    Understanding mosquito mating biology is essential for studies of mosquito behavior, gene flow, population structure, and genetic control. In the current study, we examine the effect of age and body size on spermatozoa number in two laboratory strains of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), Thailand and Rockefeller (ROCK), and in wild-collected mosquitoes from Thailand. Body size was a major predictor of total spermatozoa number, with significantly greater sperm numbers in large (2.27-mm wing length) versus small males (1.85-mm wing length) within the same age group. Total sperm capacity also varied by male age. Spermatozoa numbers in virgin Ae. aegypti males increased significantly up to 10 d after emergence and then leveled off until 20 d. Significant variations in sperm number were detected among Ae. aegypti strains, with wild-collected mosquitoes having the greatest total number of sperm. Our study provides the first evidence of spermatogenesis in adult mosquitoes and indicates high rates of spermatogenesis in male mosquitoes up to 10 d of age (3.3 degree-days). Our results emphasize the potential role of body size and age on the mating capacity of this important vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses.

  18. Effect of Age on Body Wall Cuticle Morphology of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt females

    PubMed Central

    Cordero C., D. A.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure of the body wall cuticle of Heterodera schachtii is compared with respect to age and body region of the female. The cuticle is more complex than previously reported. In newly molted females only layers A, B, and C are present, but 4 weeks after the final molt a thin D layer is present between the midbody and base of the cone. This D layer is absent in the cone of H. schachtii, regardless of age. As females age, an additional layer E is produced and includes zones E₁ and E₂. Zone El apparently is unique to H. schachtii, whereas E₂ is likely to be homologous with a similar layer in Atalodera. In the cone of old females (ca. 8 weeks after the final molt) of H. schachtii, the two zones become irregular in shape and comprise bullae. The presence of a thin D layer in Heterodera strengthens the previous hypothesis of a single ancestor of cyst nematodes. PMID:19287732

  19. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  20. Using time-dependent models to investigate body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, P.S.; Wylie, G.D.; Halstead, B.J.; Casazza, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying links between phenotypic attributes and fitness is a primary goal of reproductive ecology. Differences in within-year patterns of body condition between sexes of gartersnakes in relation to reproduction and growth are not fully understood. We conducted an 11-year field study of body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake Thamnophis gigas across 13 study areas in the Central Valley of California, USA. We developed a priori mixed effects models of body condition index (BCI), which included covariates of time, sex and snout-vent length and reported the best-approximating models using an information theoretic approach. Also, we developed models of growth rate index (GRI) using covariates of sex and periods based on reproductive behavior. The largest difference in BCI between sexes, as predicted by a non-linear (cubic) time model, occurred during the mating period when female body condition (0.014??0.001 se) was substantially greater than males (-0.027??0.002 se). Males likely allocated energy to search for mates, while females likely stored energy for embryonic development. We also provided evidence that males use more body energy reserves than females during hibernation, perhaps because of different body temperatures between sexes. We found GRI of male snakes was substantially lower during the mating period than during a non-mating period, which indicated that a trade-off existed between searching for mates and growth. These findings contribute to our understanding of snake ecology in a Mediterranean climate. ?? 2009 The Zoological Society of London.

  1. Body and carcass composition of Angus and Charolais steers as affected by age and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Evans, B C; Guenther, J J

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a low vs moderate rate of gain during the growing phase on empty body and carcass composition during finishing of Angus and Charolais steers of two ages. Forty-eight Angus and 48 Charolais steers that were either spring-born (OLDER) or fall-born (YOUNGER) were fed two diets (alfalfa pellets [CON] or cubed grass-alfalfa hay, wheat straw, cottonseed hulls, and soybean meal [RES]) for a growing period followed by a conventional feedlot period. The feedlot period started when the YOUNGER-CON steers weighed the same as the OLDER-RES steers. At that time, an interaction of age x diet occurred in empty body fat content (P < .10), whereas breed and age x diet affected carcass fat content (P < .01). OLDER-CON steers were larger (average 378 kg empty BW) and fatter than the other, smaller groups (average 222 kg). Angus carcasses were fatter than Charolais carcasses (P < .01). At the end of the finishing phase, compensating steers (OLDER-RES) had fatter carcasses than OLDER-CON steers. Empty body fat content was affected by a breed x age x diet interaction (P < .10). Allometric regressions (Y = aXb) of fat on empty BW indicated that empty body fat accretion was greater in Angus than in Charolais and in YOUNGER than in OLDER steers. A breed x age x diet interaction (P < .10) indicated that OLDER-Angus had higher fat accretive rates than YOUNGER-Angus, whereas OLDER-CON-Charolais steers deposited fat more slowly than the remaining groups. These data suggest that steers receiving feedlot diets at light weights, whether young in age or previously restricted, accumulate fat more rapidly than do larger steers. This feeding strategy may be an advantage in late-maturing types, but moderate growth through approximately 75% of slaughter weight is recommended for early-maturing types.

  2. Patterns of growth and body condition in sea otters from the Aleutian archipelago before and after the recent population decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laidre, K.L.; Estes, J.A.; Tinker, M.T.; Bodkin, J.; Monson, D.; Schneider, K.

    2006-01-01

    3In addition to larger asymptotic values for mass and length, the rate of growth towards asymptotic values was more rapid in the 1990s than in the 1960s/70s: sea otters reached 95% of asymptotic body mass and body length 1–2 years earlier in the 1990s.4Body condition (as measured by the log mass/log length ratio) was significantly greater in males than in females. There was also an increasing trend from the 1960s/70s through 2004 despite much year-to-year variation.5Population age structures differed significantly between the 1960s/70s and the 1990s with the latter distribution skewed toward younger age classes (indicating an altered lxfunction) suggesting almost complete relaxation of age-dependent mortality patterns (i.e. those typical of food-limited populations).6This study spanned a period of time over which the population status of sea otters in the Aleutian archipelago declined precipitously from levels at or near equilibrium densities at some islands in the 1960s/70s to < 5% of estimated carrying capacity by the late 1990s. The results of this study indicate an improved overall health of sea otters over the period of decline and suggest that limited nutritional resources were not the cause of the observed reduced population abundance. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the decline was caused by increased killer whale predation.

  3. Effects of immunocontraception on population, longevity and body condition in wild mares (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Turner, A; Kirkpatrick, J F

    2002-01-01

    Contraception is becoming a common approach for the management of captive and wild ungulates yet there are few data for contraceptive effects on entire populations. Management-level treatment of mares with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine resulted in zero population growth of the Assateague Island wild horse population within 1 year of initiation of treatment. Contraceptive efficacy was 90% for mares treated twice in the first year and annually thereafter. For mares given a single initial inoculation, contraceptive efficacy was 78%. The effort required to achieve zero population growth decreased, as 95, 83 and 84% of all adult mares were treated in each of the first 3 years, compared with 59 and 52% during the last 2 years. Mortality rates for mares and foals after the initiation of management-level treatments decreased below historic and pretreatment mortality rates of approximately 5%. Two new age classes have appeared among treated animals (21-25 years and > 25 years), indicating an increase in longevity among treated animals. Body condition scores for all horses, all adult mares and non-lactating mares increased significantly between summer 1989 and autumn 1999 but did not change significantly in lactating mares. These results provide reliable data for the construction of realistic models for contraceptive management of free-roaming or captive ungulate populations.

  4. Herbivore Body Condition Response in Altered Environments: Mule Deer and Habitat Management

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Eric J.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bishop, Chad J.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Banulis, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF), assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3), and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥1.5 years old) female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas — a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis) - Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area than in the reference study area , although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change. PMID:25184410

  5. Herbivore body condition response in altered environments: mule deer and habitat management.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric J; Doherty, Paul F; Bishop, Chad J; Wolfe, Lisa L; Banulis, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF), assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3), and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥ 1.5 years old) female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas--a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis)--Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area [Formula: see text] than in the reference study area [Formula: see text], although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change.

  6. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters.

  7. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  8. Heritability of shoulder ulcers and genetic correlations with mean piglet weight and sow body condition.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, H; Zumbach, B; Lundeheim, N; Grandinson, K; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the heritability for shoulder ulcers and the genetic correlations between shoulder ulcers, mean piglet weight and sow body condition. The analyses were based on information on 5549 Norwegian Landrace sows and their 7614 purebred litters. The genetic analysis was performed using the Gibbs sampling method. Shoulder ulcers were analyzed as a threshold trait. Sow body condition and mean piglet weight were analyzed as linear traits. The heritability of shoulder ulcers was estimated at 0.25 (s.d. = 0.03). The heritability for sow body condition was estimated at 0.14 (s.d. = 0.02) and that for mean piglet weight at 0.23 (s.d. = 0.02). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and sow body condition was negative (-0.59, s.d. = 0.09). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and mean piglet weight was positive (0.23, s.d. = 0.10) and the genetic correlation between sow body condition and mean piglet weight was negative (-0.24, s.d. = 0.10).

  9. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS<2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the

  10. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  11. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  12. [Dynamics of the body composition, neurohumoral and psychophysiological status of humans in the conditions of 105-day isolation and confinement].

    PubMed

    Nichiporuk, I A; Vasil'eva, G Iu; Noskov, V B; Morukov, B V

    2011-01-01

    Before, in and after the experiment with 105-day isolation and confinement, 6 male volunteers from 25 to 40 years of age rationed NaCl and performed integral impedancimetric, psychological and hormonal investigations. Every 30 days blood collection for hormonal measurements was combined with filling of Cattell's 16 personal factor questionnaire. Parameters of total body fluid, body mass, basic exchange, specific hydration and basic exchange were determined. The results showed that the experimental conditions did not affect significantly body composition, metabolism or neurohumoral regulation; the metabolic variations were largely associated with motivation for and value orientation in accommodation, to the permissible extent, of the controlled diet and work/rest schedule to personal needs. In addition, it was found that evolution of the psychophysiological status of humans in isolation and confinement is governed primnarily by personality characteristics and, to a less degree, specifics and length of exposure to the artificial environment; thus, in the opinion of the volunteers normoxic, normobaric and slightly hypercapnic (0.15-0.65% CO2) atmosphere was comfortable and harmless to health. Analysis of the whole data array verified the expressed interrelation of neuroendocrine and psychophysiological parameters as well as shifts in body basic exchange and mass, salt intake and hydration rate in the conditions of isolation and confinement.

  13. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  14. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  15. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  16. Effect of body mass index and age on in vitro fertilization in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Kalem, Ziya; Sarı, Tamer; Ateş, Can; Gürgan, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate age-related variations in the effect of body mass index (BMI) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Material and Methods This was a cohort study conducted by retrospectively investigating the IVF cycles of 653 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients under the age of 40 years who were diagnosed based on the Rotterdam criteria in a private IVF clinic between 2005 and 2015. The study included data from 653 IVF cycles of PCOS patients. The patients were classified into three groups based on their BMI, i.e., normal weight (n=299), overweight (n=208), and obese (n=146). The patients were also grouped by age: 562 patients were under the age of 35 years and 91 patients were above the age of 35 years. Then, BMI- and age-related variations in the IVF cycle parameters and clinical pregnancy rates of patients with PCOS were investigated. The Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square statistical assessment method was used to determine whether the effect of BMI on IVF outcomes varies with age. Results Variations in cycle variables with BMI and age showed that IVF cycles were negatively affected by increases in obesity and age. Clinical pregnancy rates were found to be lower in the obese group than in the other groups, particularly in the age group above 35 years; however, this difference could not be proven statistically. Conclusion The present study evaluated obesity and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF cycles in PCOS patients according to age groups, and particularly in the obese group, the clinical pregnancy rates were observed to be lower in the age group ≥35 years than in the other BMI groups; however, this difference was found to be statistically insignificant. PMID:27403074

  17. The Relationship between Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index Depends on Age

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Schopfer, Elizabeth A.; Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Jackson, Nicholas; Malhotra, Atul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sleep duration is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disease. It is unclear, though, how these relationship differs across age groups. METHODS Data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used, including respondents aged 16+ with complete data (N=5,607). Sleep duration and age were evaluated by self-report and body mass index (BMI) was assessed objectively. Sleep duration was evaluated continuously and categorically [very short (≤4h), short (5–6h), and long (≥9h) versus average (7–8h)]. Age was also evaluated continuously and categorically [adolescent (16–17yrs), young adult (18–29yrs), early middle age (30–49 yrs), late middle age (50–6 4yrs), and older adult (≥65 yrs)]. RESULTS There was a significant interaction with age for both continuous (Pinteraction=0.014) and categorical (Pinteraction=0.035) sleep duration. A pseudo-linear relationship is seen among the youngest respondents, with the highest BMI associated with the shortest sleepers and the lowest BMI associated with the longest sleepers. This relationship becomes U-shaped in middle-age, and less of a relationship is seen among the oldest respondents. CONCLUSIONS These findings may provide insights for clinical recommendations and could help to guide mechanistic research regarding the sleep-obesity relationship. PMID:26727118

  18. How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through 'effective age' of your body and organs.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2016-01-01

    In communicating chronic risks, there is increasing use of a metaphor that can be termed 'effective-age': the age of a 'healthy' person who has the same risk profile as the individual in question. Popular measures include 'real-age', 'heart-age', 'lung-age' and so on.Here we formally define this concept, and illustrate its use in a variety of areas. We explore conditions under which the years lost or gained that are associated with exposure to risk factors depends neither on current chronological age, nor the period over which the risk is defined. These conditions generally hold for all-cause adult mortality, which enables a simple and vivid translation from hazard-ratios to years lost or gained off chronological age. Finally we consider the attractiveness and impact of this concept.Under reasonable assumptions, the risks associated with specific behaviours can be expressed in terms of years gained or lost off your effective age. The idea of effective age appears a useful and attractive metaphor to vividly communicate risks to individuals. PMID:27496144

  19. How old are you, really? Communicating chronic risk through 'effective age' of your body and organs.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalter, David

    2016-08-05

    In communicating chronic risks, there is increasing use of a metaphor that can be termed 'effective-age': the age of a 'healthy' person who has the same risk profile as the individual in question. Popular measures include 'real-age', 'heart-age', 'lung-age' and so on.Here we formally define this concept, and illustrate its use in a variety of areas. We explore conditions under which the years lost or gained that are associated with exposure to risk factors depends neither on current chronological age, nor the period over which the risk is defined. These conditions generally hold for all-cause adult mortality, which enables a simple and vivid translation from hazard-ratios to years lost or gained off chronological age. Finally we consider the attractiveness and impact of this concept.Under reasonable assumptions, the risks associated with specific behaviours can be expressed in terms of years gained or lost off your effective age. The idea of effective age appears a useful and attractive metaphor to vividly communicate risks to individuals.

  20. Neonatal body condition, immune responsiveness, and hematocrit predict longevity in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Christine J.; Forsman, Anna M.; Vogel, Laura A.; Masters, Brian S.; Johnson, Bonnie G. P.; Johnson, L. Scott; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Measures of body condition, immune function, and hematological health are widely used in ecological studies of vertebrate populations, predicated on the assumption that these traits are linked to fitness. However, compelling evidence that these traits actually predict long-term survival and reproductive success among individuals in the wild is lacking. Here, we show that body condition (i.e., size-adjusted body mass) and cutaneous immune responsiveness to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection among neonates positively predict recruitment and subsequent longevity in a wild, migratory population of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon). However, neonates with intermediate hematocrit had the highest recruitment and longevity. Neonates with the highest PHA responsiveness and intermediate hematocrit prior to independence eventually produced the most offspring during their lifetime breeding on the study site. Importantly, the effects of PHA responsiveness and hematocrit were revealed while controlling for variation in body condition, sex, and environmental variation. Thus, our data demonstrate that body condition, cutaneous immune responsiveness, and hematocrit as a neonate are associated with individual fitness. Although hematocrit's effect is more complex than traditionally thought, our results suggest a previously underappreciated role for this trait in influencing survival in the wild. PMID:25505800

  1. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications.

  2. A tale of two polar bear populations: Ice habitat, harvest, and body condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, K.D.; Peacock, E.; Taylor, M.; Stirling, I.; Born, E.W.; Laidre, K.L.; Wiig, O.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms by which sea ice loss is expected to affect polar bears is via reduced body condition and growth resulting from reduced access to prey. To date, negative effects of sea ice loss have been documented for two of 19 recognized populations. Effects of sea ice loss on other polar bear populations that differ in harvest rate, population density, and/or feeding ecology have been assumed, but empirical support, especially quantitative data on population size, demography, and/or body condition spanning two or more decades, have been lacking. We examined trends in body condition metrics of captured bears and relationships with summertime ice concentration between 1977 and 2010 for the Baffin Bay (BB) and Davis Strait (DS) polar bear populations. Polar bears in these regions occupy areas with annual sea ice that has decreased markedly starting in the 1990s. Despite differences in harvest rate, population density, sea ice concentration, and prey base, polar bears in both populations exhibited positive relationships between body condition and summertime sea ice cover during the recent period of sea ice decline. Furthermore, females and cubs exhibited relationships with sea ice that were not apparent during the earlier period (1977-1990s) when sea ice loss did not occur. We suggest that declining body condition in BB may be a result of recent declines in sea ice habitat. In DS, high population density and/or sea ice loss, may be responsible for the declines in body condition. ?? 2011 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  3. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  4. Individual and demographic consequences of reduced body condition following repeated exposure to high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janet L; Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J; Clayton, Mark; Peters, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Although the lethal consequences of extreme heat are increasingly reported in the literature, the fitness costs of exposure to sublethal high air temperatures, typically identified in the 30-40 degrees C range, are poorly understood. We examine the effect of high (> or = 35 degrees C) daily maxima on body condition of a semiarid population of White-plumed Honeyeaters, Ptilotula penicillatus, monitored between 1986 and 2012. During this 26-yr period, temperature has risen, on average, by 0.06 degrees C each year at the site, the frequency of days with thermal maxima > or = 35 degrees C has increased and rainfall has declined. Exposure to high temperatures affected body condition of White-plumed Honeyeaters, but only in low-rainfall conditions. There was no effect of a single day of exposure to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C but repeated exposure was associated with reduced body condition: 3.0% reduction in body mass per day of exposure. Rainfall in the previous 30 d ameliorated these effects, with reduced condition evident only in dry conditions. Heat-exposed males with reduced body condition were less likely to be recaptured at the start of the following spring; they presumably died. Heat-exposed females, regardless of body condition, showed lower survival than exposed males, possibly due to their smaller body mass. The higher mortality of females and smaller males exposed to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C may have contributed to the increase in mean body size of this population over 23 years. Annual survival declined across time concomitant with increasing frequency of days > or = 35 degrees C and decreasing rainfall. Our study is one of few to identify a proximate cause of climate change related mortality, and associated long-term demographic consequence. Our results have broad implications for avian communities living in arid and semiarid regions of Australia, and other mid-latitudes regions where daily maximum temperatures already approach physiological

  5. Investigation on the choice of boundary conditions and shape functions for flexible multi-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ke-Qi; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine the correctness and efficiency of the choice of boundary conditions when using assumed mode approach to simulate flexible multi-body systems. The displacement field due to deformation is approximated by the Rayleigh-Ritz assumed modes in floating frame of reference (FFR) formulation. The deformations obtained by the absolute nodal coordinate (ANC) formulation which are transformed by two sets of reference coordinates are introduced as a criterion to verify the accuracy of the simulation results by using the FFR formulation. The relationship between the deformations obtained from different boundary conditions is revealed. Numerical simulation examples demonstrate that the assumed modes with cantilevered-free, simply-supported and free-free boundary conditions without inclusion of rigid body modes are suitable for simulation of flexible multi-body system with large over all motion, and the same physical deformation can be obtained using those mode functions, differ only by a coordinate transformation. It is also shown that when using mode shapes with statically indeterminate boundary conditions, significant error may occur. Furthermore, the slider crank mechanism with rigid crank is accurate enough for investigating boundary condition problem of flexible multi-body system, which cost significant less simulating time. The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10872126) and the Research Fund of the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20100073110007).

  6. Mitochondrial inclusion bodies (intracytoplasmic acidophilic droplets) in neurons of chicken spinal cords increase with age.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, O; Maruo, Y

    2012-03-01

    We studied the pathologic features of neurons that contain intracytoplasmic acidophilic droplets (IADs) in chicken spinal cords. The IADs were lustrous spheroid bodies scattered in the cytoplasm of neurons, variable in size, and protein-rich bodies stained eosinophilic with hematoxylin-eosin, acidophilic with Azan, blue indigo with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, and yellow-green with Elastica van Gieson stain histopathologically. Ultrastructurally, almost all IADs were observed as homogeneous highly electron-dense spheroid bodies enclosed by double-limited membranes. Small IADs were observed in mitochondria. Anatomically, IAD-CNs were observed only in the ventral horn of the spinal cord between the fourth sacral and third lumbal vertebrae, and they were particularly frequent in the third sacral vertebrae. Their appearance and accumulative amount were likely to increase with age, while the clinical and pathologic significances of IAD-CNs remain unclear.

  7. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  8. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed Central

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants. PMID:27782098

  9. Age and body size of captive hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development.

    PubMed

    Kawazu, Isao; Kino, Masakatsu; Maeda, Konomi; Teruya, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to record the age and body size of 23 captive female hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development. The age, straight carapace length (SCL), and body mass (BM) of the turtles were recorded between 2006 and 2014 at follicular development (determined via ultrasonography) these parameters were 17.7 ± 1.7 years (range: 13-20 years), 77.7 ± 3.3 cm (73.3-83.5 cm), and 61.1 ± 8.0 kg (48.2-76.1 kg), respectively. When the year of the onset of follicular development was designated year 0, the increase in SCL in years -7-0 and 0-3 averaged 2.2 cm and 1.0 cm, respectively. Correspondingly, the increase in BM in years -7-0 and 0-3 averaged 5.0 kg and 2.2 kg, respectively. This is the first study to report the age and body size of captive female hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development, which indicates the beginning of sexual maturation. The reduction in growth after follicular development suggests that at the onset of sexual maturation, female hawksbills may utilize energy for follicular development rather than growth.

  10. Everybody Has a Body: Science from Head to Toe. Activities Book for Teachers of Children Ages 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

    This science activity book contains age-appropriate activities that will enable children ages 3-6 to explore one of the first environments they encounter, their own body. The knowledge gained in these activities can be interspersed with pre-science skills, health information, literature, self-concept development, and body awareness. Each chapter…

  11. Low body temperature affects associative processes in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion.

    PubMed

    Misanin, J R; Wilson, H A; Schwarz, P R; Tuschak, J B; Hinderliter, C F

    1998-12-01

    A series of experiments examined the effect of low body temperature on the associative process in long-trace conditioned flavor aversion. Experiment 1 demonstrated that maintaining a low body temperature between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) administration facilitates the associative process and allows a flavor aversion to be conditioned in young rats over an interval that would normally not support conditioning. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this was due neither to lingering systemic saccharin serving as a CS nor to a cold induced enhancement of US intensity. Experiment 4 demonstrated that inducing hypothermia at various times during a 3-h CS-US interval results in an apparent delay of reinforcement gradient. We propose that a cold induced decrease in metabolic rate slows the internal clock that governs the perception of time and that the CS-US association depends upon perceived contiguity rather than upon an external clock-referenced contiguity.

  12. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of

  13. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    PubMed

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of

  14. Methods of body orientation in space in the absence of support under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeremin, A. V.; Stepantsov, V. I.; Chekidra, I. F.; Borisenko, I. P.; Kolosov, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    The experience accumulated in training subjects in methods of body orientation in space indicates the necessity of clear planning of the training process. After theoretical familiarization with the principles of body orientation in space and reviewing training films, practical mastery of the body orientation methods begins with working out of the individual elements on the Zhukovskiy stool. Then, the correctness and sequence of movements are carefully mastered in water, and the motor skills are then reinforced under time deficit conditions, on the vaulting bars, trampolines, and, in the concluding stage of training, the methods of orienting the body in space in weightlessness are worked out in laboratory-aircraft, with and without the spacesuit and with and without a load.

  15. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD. PMID:27348529

  16. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD.

  17. What drives seasonal fluctuations of body condition in a semelparous income breeder octopus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; Valls, Maria

    2011-09-01

    The vast majority of modern cephalopods is single-season breeders, or semelparous in the strict sense, that die soon after the reproduction takes place. Individual body condition in these marine invertebrates is expected to be highly affected by reproduction because: 1) the gonad weight of females, which represents <1% of body weight when immature, increases up to 20-50% during maturation; and 2) octopus females reduce or even cease their food intake during breeding. Based on this expectation, we analysed the interrelationship between condition and reproduction in the temperate octopus Eledone cirrhosa. Results from a previous work using biochemical analyses showed that reproduction in this species is not fuelled by stored reserves (capital breeder), but by food intakes (income breeder). Since income breeders depend strongly on food resources, the effect of several environmental variables related to food availability such as primary production, sea temperature (ST) and river discharges were also analysed. Condition showed a marked intrannual cycle independently of the sex and, noteworthy, the maturity stage. Given that immature individuals are not expected to display seasonal fluctuations in body condition related to maturation, these results preclude reproduction as a driving factor for the observed circannual cycle. Condition was significantly correlated with all the environmental variables analysed, except with ST at the depths where the species lives. Although this last result also precludes concurrent ST as a driving factor of body condition, those correlations suggest that condition might display an intrinsic seasonal cycle, as many other life-history traits in most species such as reproduction, migration or moulting. Finally, there also remains the possibility that condition in this octopus species is determined genetically, as has been reported in recent studies across different taxonomical groups.

  18. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-10-01

    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes.

  19. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-10-01

    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes. PMID:26001604

  20. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  1. Determination of the observation conditions of celestial bodies with the aid of the DISPO system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazakov, R. K.; Krivov, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive system for determining the observation conditions of celestial bodies is described. A system of programs was created containing a part of the DISPO Display Interative System of Orbit Planning. The system was used for calculating the observatiion characteristics of Halley's comet during its approach to Earth in 1985-86.

  2. Age-related changes in skin blood flow at four anatomic sites of the body in males studied by xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Y.

    1990-04-01

    The normal skin blood flow in healthy subjects consisting of 28 males whose ages ranged from 20 to 72 years was measured by the xenon-133 clearance method at four different sites of the body to determine the presence of any age-related changes. The following results were obtained: Significant age-related changes were observed in the skin blood flow of the deltoid region, anterior chest, dorsum of the hand, and dorsum of the foot. Normal skin blood flow was demonstrated to be highly dependent on age and to significantly decrease with age. Average skin blood flow at these four regions of those 70 years of age decreased by 30 to 40 percent when compared to that of those 20 years of age. The skin blood flow at the deltoid region of healthy subjects was higher by 6.3 ml/100 gm per minute than that of patients in poor condition with cancer of the head and neck.

  3. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  4. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n = 206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, USA: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (μg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48.70 in avocets (geometric mean ± standard error, 7.92 ± 0.64), 2.28 to 41.10 in stilts (5.29 ± 0.38), 3.73 to 14.50 in Forster's terns (7.13 ± 0.38), and 4.77 to 14.40 in Caspian terns (6.73 ± 0.78). Avocets had higher Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay, whereas stilt Se concentrations were similar between these regions and Forster's terns had lower Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay. Female avocets had higher Se concentrations than male avocets, but this was not the case for stilts and Forster's terns. Of the factors assessed, reproductive stage had the most consistent effect among species. Prebreeding birds tended to have higher liver Se concentrations than breeding birds, but this trend was statistically significant only for Forster's terns. Forster's tern chicks had lower Se concentrations than Forster's tern adults, whereas avocet and stilt adults and chicks were similar. Additionally, body condition was negatively related to liver Se concentrations in Forster's tern adults but not in avocet, stilt, or Caspian tern adults and chicks. These variable results illustrate the complexity of Se bioaccumulation and highlight the need to sample multiple species and examine several factors to assess the impact of Se on wildlife.

  5. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    PubMed

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  6. Eating attitudes and body shape perceptions among elite rowers: effects of age, gender and weight category.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Waite, J

    1996-03-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and weight category upon measures associated with eating disorders. Elite rowers (N = 124) participating in the 1994 Great Britain National Squad trials, completed the Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Subjects were grouped according to whether they competed in the Lightweight (Female: < 59 kg, N = 31; Male: < 72.5 kg, N = 31) or Heavyweight (Female: N = 31; Male: N = 31) category. Results revealed significantly higher EAT and BSQ scores among the Lightweight group, 16.2% of whom showed EAT scores above the threshold associated with eating disorders. Females showed significantly higher BSQ scores than males. The interaction effect was significant for BSQ, indicating a much greater increase in scores from heavyweight to lightweight for females than for males. EAT and BSQ scores were inversely correlated with age. These results suggest that the risk of eating disorders among elite rowers is mediated by age, gender and weight category.

  7. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  8. Blood pressure percentiles by age and body mass index for adults

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Fayaz, Mohammad; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Rafei, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Since no comprehensive study has been conducted on blood pressure (BP) percentiles established upon nationally representative sample population of adults, the present study aimed to construct the blood pressure percentiles by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) of the subjects. Analyses were based on data collected in 2011 from 8,425 adults aged 25 to 69 years old. Data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure was recorded for each subject. Linear Regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted relationship of age-sex-specific standard deviation scores of BMI, height, and weight with blood pressure. Four separate models for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of men and women were constructed for BP percentiles according to age and BMI. Blood pressure increased with the rise in BMI and weight, but showed a negative correlation with height. SBP and DBP rose steadily with increasing age, but the rise in SBP was greater than DBP. Overweight and obese population, seem to fall into the category of hypertensive. The findings of present study show that BP percentiles are steadily increased by age and BMI. In addition, most obese or overweight adults are hypertensive. PMID:26417366

  9. A persistently high body mass index increases the risk of atopic asthma at school age

    PubMed Central

    Loid, Petra; Goksör, Emma; Alm, Bernt; Pettersson, Rolf; Möllborg, Per; Erdes, Laslo; Åberg, Nils; Wennergren, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Aim Being overweight has been associated with the risk of developing childhood asthma, but studies have produced conflicting results, for example with regard to possible links to allergic diseases. This study aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and school-age asthma. Methods Data were obtained from a prospective, longitudinal study of 5044 children born in western Sweden. The parents answered questionnaires at six months and one, four-and-a-half and eight years of age. The response rate to the final questionnaire at the age of eight was just over 80%. BMI was adjusted for age and gender, and a high BMI was defined as the 85th percentile and above. Results A multivariate analysis showed an independently increased risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma among children with a persistently high BMI, both in infancy and at school age, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.9 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.3–6.4. In addition, persistently high BMI was associated with an increased risk of atopic asthma (aOR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.0). Conclusion A persistently high BMI during childhood increased the risk of doctor-diagnosed asthma at school age. The increased risk of atopic asthma suggests an effect mediated via the immune system. PMID:25818987

  10. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves

    PubMed Central

    Alapati, Anitha; Jeepalyam, Suresh; Rangappa, Srinivasa Moorthy Patrapalle; Yemireddy, Kotilinga Reddy

    2010-01-01

    The body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals to provide better understanding of biological relationships between body fat, milk production and reproduction. This method helps in adopting the optimum management practices to derive maximum production and maintain optimum health of the livestock. In this study, a new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by studying the anatomical features and amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned from 1 to 5 based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. A score of 1 represents least and 5 represents most amount of fat. The skeletal check points identified were ordered based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare a preliminary BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by eliminating the skeletal check points at which the fat reserves were less evident on palpation in most of the buffaloes and a new BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. The new BCS system developed was tested for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that as the BCS increased, the amount of fat reserves also increased (p < 0.01), indicating that the BCS adequately reflected the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (r = 0.860) with the carcass fat reserves as well as the ultrasonographic fat reserves (r = 0.854). PMID:20195058

  11. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Anitha; Kapa, Sarjan Rao; Jeepalyam, Suresh; Rangappa, Srinivasa Moorthy; Yemireddy, Kotilinga Reddy

    2010-03-01

    The body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals to provide better understanding of biological relationships between body fat, milk production and reproduction. This method helps in adopting the optimum management practices to derive maximum production and maintain optimum health of the livestock. In this study, a new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by studying the anatomical features and amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned from 1 to 5 based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. A score of 1 represents least and 5 represents most amount of fat. The skeletal check points identified were ordered based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare a preliminary BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by eliminating the skeletal check points at which the fat reserves were less evident on palpation in most of the buffaloes and a new BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. The new BCS system developed was tested for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that as the BCS increased, the amount of fat reserves also increased (p < 0.01), indicating that the BCS adequately reflected the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (r = 0.860) with the carcass fat reserves as well as the ultrasonographic fat reserves (r = 0.854). PMID:20195058

  12. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J.; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctena quinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence (insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  13. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  14. Body condition and habitat use by Hermann's tortoises in burnt and intact habitats

    PubMed Central

    Lecq, S.; Ballouard, J.-M.; Caron, S.; Livoreil, B.; Seynaeve, V.; Matthieu, L.-A.; Bonnet, X.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions, fires threaten terrestrial tortoises. Nevertheless, varying proportions of adults survive fire; these surviving individuals can play a central role for population recovery. The regions devastated by fire often include important habitat of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni hermanni), so assessing the ability of survivors to persist is essential for conserving the species. Body-condition indices provide an integrative estimate of how well individuals cope with environmental variations and impacts, including fires. Between 2002 and 2009, we monitored Hermann's tortoises in intact and burnt habitats in southeastern France. In summer 2003, a strong fire ravaged half of the surveyed zone, providing an opportunity to compare body condition of tortoises between intact and burnt areas over time. Six years later, the impact of fire on vegetation was still marked; large trees were abundant in the intact area, whereas open shrub vegetation prevailed in the burnt area. In both areas, the mean body condition of tortoises fluctuated over time; however, there were no differences between the two areas. A radio-tracking experiment demonstrated that individuals from each area were residents, and not vagrants commuting between areas. We also assessed changes in body condition and microhabitat use in radio-tracked individuals. We found no significant differences between the tortoises living in the burnt and intact areas, despite subtle differences in habitat use. In conclusion: (i) surviving tortoises in an area ravaged by fire can maintain their body condition like individuals living in an intact area, and thus, individuals from burnt areas should not be translocated to supposedly better areas; and (ii) depopulated burnt areas are likely to be appropriate for population-augmentation programmes. PMID:27293640

  15. Differences between body condition scores and body weight changes in postpartum dairy cows in relation to parity and reproductive indices

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Weekly changes in body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were compared in relation to parity and the timing of postpartum reproductive events. To eliminate the effect of frame size, the BW loss (%) was used for analysis using 26 primiparous and 24 multiparous Holstein cows. Compared with primiparous cows, multiparous cows showed significantly lower BCS and greater BW, but had the same BW loss. Recovery from the BW nadir initiated earlier than that from the BCS nadir and was independent of parity. For the 50 cows, those showing early occurrences of first ovulation, estrus, and insemination, or conception expressed the same BCS as those showing late occurrences. However, those cows that were late in ovulating, showing estrus and being inseminated showed a more severe decline in the BW than did those that were early; there was no significant difference between early and late conceiving cows. These results suggest that the BW loss (%) could be a parity-independent indicator of certain reproductive indices. PMID:19721786

  16. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  17. The influence of body condition on the fasting energy metabolism of nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Birnie, J W; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of cow body condition score on fasting heat production. Twelve nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows were selected from within the dairy herd at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. Six of these animals (group A) had condition scores > or = 4.5, and the remainder (group B) had condition scores <2. All cows were offered dried grass pellets at estimated maintenance energy level (0.58 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg(0.75)) for a minimum of 21 d. The diet also supplied 2.5 times the metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance. Following this, each cow underwent a 5-d fast in open circuit respiration calorimeters during which fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. On completion of measurement, group A was fed to reduce condition score (CS) below 2, while group B was fed to raise each individual condition score above 4.5. When the appropriate condition scores were achieved, dried grass pellets were again offered at maintenance for a minimum of 21 d, and fasting heat production was measured. It was observed that fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was significantly higher for cows with low body condition (<2; ultrasonic fat depth < or = 2.9 mm) compared with cows displaying high body condition (> or = 4.5; ultrasonic fat depth > or = 8.2 mm). A linear relationship between condition score and fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was defined by regression analysis as; FHP (MJ/kg(0.75)) = 0.501(SE 0.0121) - 0.030CS (SE 0.0035). PMID:10877386

  18. Role of body fat distribution in the decline in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with age.

    PubMed

    Coon, P J; Rogus, E M; Drinkwater, D; Muller, D C; Goldberg, A P

    1992-10-01

    The relationships of body composition and physical fitness [maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max)] to the decline in insulin sensitivity with age were examined in healthy older (47-73 yr; n = 36) and young (19-36 yr; n = 13) men. In 18 older men with normal glucose tolerance (OGTT), glucose disposal rates (M) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps correlated negatively with the waist to hip ratio (WHR; r = -0.77; P < .001) and percent body fat (r = -0.46; P < 0.05) and positively with VO2max (r = 0.54; P < 0.05), but not with age. Similar relationships existed in the 36 older men with a spectrum of OGTT responses; however, only WHR was independently related to M (r2 = 0.32; P < 0.01). In the older men with normal OGTT, M (mean +/- SEM, 7.88 +/- 0.43 mg/kg fat-free mass.min) was not different from that in the young men (8.56 +/- 0.47; P = NS). Furthermore, in older and young men with normal OGTT matched for WHR, percent fat, or VO2max, glucose disposal was comparable at sequential 15-min intervals during the clamp and in its relationship to insulin concentrations at the tissue level (multicompartmental analysis). In contrast, despite higher steady state plasma insulin levels during the clamp, M was significantly lower in the older men with a higher WHR, greater percent fat, lower VO2max, or impaired OGTT. Thus, in healthy older men up to the age of 73 yr, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance are affected primarily by the regional body fat distribution, not age, obesity, or VO2max.

  19. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Harding, Ann M A; Welcker, Jorg; Steen, Harald; Hamer, Keith C; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Fort, Jérôme; Talbot, Sandra L; Cornick, Leslie A; Karnovsky, Nina J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Grémillet, David

    2011-09-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species.

  20. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. The effects of testosterone manipulation on the body condition of captive male yellow-legged gulls.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Ferrer, Miguel; Figuerola, Jordi; Veira, José A R; Estepa, Julio; Torres, Luis M

    2002-02-01

    Persistently high testosterone levels are believed to be costly to males due to their negative effect on body condition. However, this assumption could not be validated when we analysed birds isolated from all social interactions. The hypothesis was tested on birds kept in isolation in order to analyse the effects of testosterone per se, and thereby exclude the influence of social interactions. Adult male yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans) were captured, and after a period of adjustment, some individuals were subcutaneously implanted with testosterone, while the rest were used as controls. The gulls received ad libitum food for 10 days and were then fasted for 4 days. Thyroid hormones, body-mass change, daily food intake, hematocrit and several plasma biochemical parameters were analysed. Treated (T)-males maintained constant levels of plasma total protein throughout the experiment, whilst control (C)-males showed a decrease. We did not find any other differences between groups for the other variables analysed. Since the implanted birds sustained high testosterone levels for a number of days, any cost to body condition would have been revealed if these costs levels were actually important. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a reduction in body condition can be directly produced by plasma testosterone, although total protein changes do suggest different anabolic patterns in testosterone-treated gulls. PMID:11818219

  2. Body Mass Index at Age 20 and Subsequent Childbearing: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Synnøve F.; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Some epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies suggest that underweight and obesity impact fertility. Methods This is cross-sectional study of 33,159 North American Adventist women, who were nulliparous at age 20 years and who, as a group, have a healthy lifestyle. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess how body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) at age 20 was related to never becoming pregnant, never giving birth to a living child, or not giving birth to a second or third child. Results A total of 4954 (15%) of the women reported never becoming pregnant (nulligravidity) and 7461 (23%) women remained nulliparous. Underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) at age 20 was associated with approximately 13% increased risk of nulligravidity or nulliparity. Women with BMI≥32.5 kg/m2 when aged 20 had 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0, 3.1) times increased odds of nulliparity compared to women with BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2. Increased risk was found for all groups of overweight women (BMI≥25 kg/m2). However, if the women gave birth to one live child after age 20, BMI≥32.5 kg/m2 at age 20 had less impact (OR 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2, 2.2]) on the likelihood of not delivering a second child. In women who delivered two living children, obesity at age 20 had no bearing on the odds of having a third child. Conclusions Obesity and, to a lesser extent, underweight at age 20 increases the nulliparity rate. The results underscore the importance of a healthy weight in young women. PMID:23611121

  3. Frail bodies: geriatric medicine and the constitution of the fourth age.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Clinical discourses of frailty are central both to the construction of the social category of the fourth age and to the role and identity of hospital geriatric medicine. However, the influence of such clinical discourses is not just from science to the social sphere and nor do these discourses have their source in a putative truth of the old body but emerge from an interplay between physiological facts, discourses of governmentality, productive processes associated with late modern capitalism and the professional ambitions of geriatric medicine. The article explores this interplay in the two key discourses of frailty that have emerged in the clinical literature during the past 15 years, that of the phenotype and the accumulation of deficits, respectively. Outlining the development of the discourse of senescence from its origins to the more recent emergence of a nosological category of frailty the article explores how these key discourses capture the older body according to particular sets of norms. These norms link physiological understanding with broader discourses of governmentality, including the professional project of geriatric medicine. In particular, metaphorical representations in the discourses of frailty convey key cultural and clinical assumptions concerning both older bodies and old age more generally.

  4. Frail bodies: geriatric medicine and the constitution of the fourth age.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Clinical discourses of frailty are central both to the construction of the social category of the fourth age and to the role and identity of hospital geriatric medicine. However, the influence of such clinical discourses is not just from science to the social sphere and nor do these discourses have their source in a putative truth of the old body but emerge from an interplay between physiological facts, discourses of governmentality, productive processes associated with late modern capitalism and the professional ambitions of geriatric medicine. The article explores this interplay in the two key discourses of frailty that have emerged in the clinical literature during the past 15 years, that of the phenotype and the accumulation of deficits, respectively. Outlining the development of the discourse of senescence from its origins to the more recent emergence of a nosological category of frailty the article explores how these key discourses capture the older body according to particular sets of norms. These norms link physiological understanding with broader discourses of governmentality, including the professional project of geriatric medicine. In particular, metaphorical representations in the discourses of frailty convey key cultural and clinical assumptions concerning both older bodies and old age more generally. PMID:25650444

  5. Estimating resource acquisition and at-sea body condition of a marine predator

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Robert S; New, Leslie F; Thomas, Len; Costa, Daniel P; Hindell, Mark A; McMahon, Clive R; Robinson, Patrick W; Simmons, Samantha E; Thums, Michele; Harwood, John; Clark, James S

    2013-01-01

    Body condition plays a fundamental role in many ecological and evolutionary processes at a variety of scales and across a broad range of animal taxa. An understanding of how body condition changes at fine spatial and temporal scales as a result of interaction with the environment provides necessary information about how animals acquire resources. However, comparatively little is known about intra- and interindividual variation of condition in marine systems. Where condition has been studied, changes typically are recorded at relatively coarse time-scales. By quantifying how fine-scale interaction with the environment influences condition, we can broaden our understanding of how animals acquire resources and allocate them to body stores. Here we used a hierarchical Bayesian state-space model to estimate the body condition as measured by the size of an animal's lipid store in two closely related species of marine predator that occupy different hemispheres: northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). The observation model linked drift dives to lipid stores. The process model quantified daily changes in lipid stores as a function of the physiological condition of the seal (lipid:lean tissue ratio, departure lipid and departure mass), its foraging location, two measures of behaviour and environmental covariates. We found that physiological condition significantly impacted lipid gain at two time-scales – daily and at departure from the colony – that foraging location was significantly associated with lipid gain in both species of elephant seals and that long-term behavioural phase was associated with positive lipid gain in northern and southern elephant seals. In northern elephant seals, the occurrence of short-term behavioural states assumed to represent foraging were correlated with lipid gain. Lipid gain was a function of covariates in both species. Southern elephant seals performed fewer drift dives than

  6. Estimating resource acquisition and at-sea body condition of a marine predator.

    PubMed

    Schick, Robert S; New, Leslie F; Thomas, Len; Costa, Daniel P; Hindell, Mark A; McMahon, Clive R; Robinson, Patrick W; Simmons, Samantha E; Thums, Michele; Harwood, John; Clark, James S

    2013-11-01

    1. Body condition plays a fundamental role in many ecological and evolutionary processes at a variety of scales and across a broad range of animal taxa. An understanding of how body condition changes at fine spatial and temporal scales as a result of interaction with the environment provides necessary information about how animals acquire resources. 2. However, comparatively little is known about intra- and interindividual variation of condition in marine systems. Where condition has been studied, changes typically are recorded at relatively coarse time-scales. By quantifying how fine-scale interaction with the environment influences condition, we can broaden our understanding of how animals acquire resources and allocate them to body stores. 3. Here we used a hierarchical Bayesian state-space model to estimate the body condition as measured by the size of an animal's lipid store in two closely related species of marine predator that occupy different hemispheres: northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). The observation model linked drift dives to lipid stores. The process model quantified daily changes in lipid stores as a function of the physiological condition of the seal (lipid:lean tissue ratio, departure lipid and departure mass), its foraging location, two measures of behaviour and environmental covariates. 4. We found that physiological condition significantly impacted lipid gain at two time-scales - daily and at departure from the colony - that foraging location was significantly associated with lipid gain in both species of elephant seals and that long-term behavioural phase was associated with positive lipid gain in northern and southern elephant seals. In northern elephant seals, the occurrence of short-term behavioural states assumed to represent foraging were correlated with lipid gain. Lipid gain was a function of covariates in both species. Southern elephant seals performed fewer drift dives

  7. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, John R; Kay, Jane K; Friggens, Nic C; Loor, Juan J; Berry, Donagh P

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of a cow's body fat (and muscle) reserves, with low values reflecting emaciation and high values equating to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. The BCS at which a cow calves, her nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS lost after calving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Genetics, peripartum nutrition, and management are factors that likely interact with BCS to determine the risk of health disorders.

  8. Successful second autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation conditioned with total body irradiation for progressive neuroblastoma after recurrence.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Yokomori, Kinji; Hosoya, Ryohta

    2006-12-01

    A girl with recurrent neuroblastoma was successfully treated with second autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI). This patient was diagnosed as stage IV neuroblastoma at the age of 18 months. Pathological finding was stroma-poor unfavorable histology and amplification of MYCN gene was extremely high (153 copies). In spite of autologous SCT with non-TBI regimen in the status of disease-free, neuroblastoma relapsed at the primary site 6 months later. Second autologous SCT conditioned with TBI and melphalan was performed although the tumor was progressive. Over 3 years after second SCT, she has been well with no evidence of further recurrence of neuroblastoma, but she was complicated with permanent atrophy of left kidney. TBI might be effective for relapsed neuroblastoma who previously received SCT with non-TBI regimen.

  9. Individual Consistency and Phenotypic Plasticity in Rockhopper Penguins: Female but Not Male Body Mass Links Environmental Conditions to Reproductive Investment

    PubMed Central

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment. PMID:26030824

  10. Individual consistency and phenotypic plasticity in rockhopper penguins: female but not male body mass links environmental conditions to reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment.

  11. Heart rate as an indicator of oxygen consumption: influence of body condition in the king penguin.

    PubMed

    Froget, G; Butler, P J; Handrich, Y; Woakes, A J

    2001-06-01

    The use of heart rate to estimate field metabolic rate has become a more widely used technique. However, this method also has some limitations, among which is the possible impact that several variables such as sex, body condition (i.e. body fat stores) and/or inactivity might have on the relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption. In the present study, we investigate the extent to which body condition can affect the use of heart rate as an indicator of the rate of oxygen consumption. Twenty-two breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were exercised on a variable-speed treadmill. These birds were allocated to four groups according to their sex and whether or not they had been fasting. Linear regression equations were used to describe the relationship between heart rate and the rate of oxygen consumption for each group. There were significant differences between the regression equations for the four groups. Good relationships were obtained between resting and active oxygen pulses and an index of the body condition of the birds. Validation experiments on six courting king penguins showed that the use of a combination of resting oxygen pulse and active oxygen pulse gave the best estimate of the rate of oxygen consumption V(O2). The mean percentage error between predicted and measured V(O2) was only +0.81% for the six birds. We conclude that heart rate can be used to estimate rate of oxygen consumption in free-ranging king penguins even over a small time scale (30 min). However, (i) the type of activity of the bird must be known and (ii) the body condition of the bird must be accurately determined. More investigations on the impact of fasting and/or inactivity on this relationship are required to refine these estimates further. PMID:11441055

  12. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  13. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  14. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  15. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for...

  16. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3 - Minimum age and service conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions. 1.410(a)-3... age and service conditions. (a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) or (c) of this... of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan extending beyond the later of— (1)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for plan with...

  18. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for...

  19. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for plan with...

  20. Classical Conditioning and Retention of the Infant's Eyelid Response: Effects of Age and Interstimulus Interval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Arlene H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports that lengthy interstimulus interval facilitates classical conditioning in very young infants. Infants trained in a single session at 20 days of age exhibited reliable retention of the conditioned eyelid reflex 10 days later, but infants 10 days of age did not. (Author)

  1. The association between night eating and body mass depends on age.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina

    2014-12-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Originally, NES was described as an eating pattern among obese individuals.However, subsequent studies showed that NES also occurs among non-obese individuals, who appear to be younger than obese individuals with NES. Thus, it has been proposed that NES may lead to future weight gain,which may explain inconsistent findings about associations between NES and body mass. The current study investigated the relationships between age, body mass index (BMI), and night eating severity in a representative sample of German adults (n = 2317). It was found that age moderated the relationship between night eating severity and BMI. Specifically, night eating was positively associated with BMI in participants who were between 31 and 60 years old, but not in younger (<31 years) or older (>60 years) participants. Results indicate that age may indeed play an important role when examining the relationship between night eating and obesity. That is, weight gain may only occur after longer periods of engaging in night eating and, thus, no or only small relationships can be found in younger samples such as students. The positive association between night eating and BMI disappears in older individuals, which may be related to onset of illness associated with wasting.

  2. Bodies, technologies, and aging in Japan: thinking about old people and their silver products.

    PubMed

    Long, Susan O

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary Japan is known both for its high tech culture and its rapidly aging population, with 22 % of people currently 65 years and older. Yet there has been little attention to the material culture of the elderly. This paper explores the way aging bodies, official ideology, and consumption of what are called "assistive devices" and "life technologies" come together in the experience of frail old people who depend not only on human caregivers but on "things" such as walkers, kidney dialysis machines, and electric massage chairs. It begins to consider the questions: What technology to aid failing bodies is available, and to whom? How does the advocacy of independence create new forms of consumption? How do "things" mediate ideological change regarding elder care and help to create new understandings of self and one's relation to others? Data come from interviews conducted in 2003-2007 as part of a study of elder care in Japan under the public long term care insurance system that began in 2000. These interviews point both to acceptance of the technology as a way to avoid over-dependence on caregivers, and to resistance to the limitations of aging and to its 21st century definition by the state. PMID:22566111

  3. Aged bodies and kinship matters: The ethical field of kidney transplant

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Sharon R.; Russ, Ann J.; Shim, Janet K.

    2008-01-01

    The number of kidneys transplanted to people over age 70, both from living and cadaver donors, has increased steadily in the past two decades in the United States. Live kidney donation, on the rise for all age groups, opens up new dimensions of intergenerational relationship and medical responsibility when the transfer of organs is from younger to older people. There is little public knowledge or discussion of this phenomenon, in which the site of ethical judgment and activism about longevity and mortality is one’s regard for the body of another and the substance of the body itself is ground for moral consideration about how kinship is “done.” The clinic, patient, and patient’s family together shape a bond between biological identity and human worth, a demand for an old age marked by somatic pliability and renewability, and a claim of responsibility that merges the “right to live” and “making live.” Live kidney transplantation joins genetic, reproductive, and pharmacological forms of social participation as one more technique linking ethics to intervention and the understanding of the arc of human life to clinical opportunity and consumption. Significant in this example is the medicocultural scripting of transplant choice that becomes a high-stakes obligation in which the long-term impacts on generational relations cannot be foreseen. PMID:18461150

  4. Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

    2006-12-01

    The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions.

  5. Thin and fat cows, and the nonlinear genetic relationship between body condition score and fertility.

    PubMed

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Bittante, G

    2013-10-01

    Thin and fat cows are often credited for low fertility, but body condition score (BCS) has been traditionally treated as a linear trait when genetic correlations with reproductive performance have been estimated. The aims of this study were to assess genetic parameters for fertility, production, and body condition traits in the Brown Swiss population reared in the Alps (Bolzano-Bozen Province, Italy), and to investigate the possible nonlinearity among BCS and other traits by analyzing fat and thin cows. Records of BCS measured on a 5-point scale were preadjusted for year-season and days in milk at scoring, and were considered positive (1) for fat cows if they exceeded the value of 1 residual standard deviation or null (0) otherwise, whereas positive values for thin cows were imputed to records below -1 residual standard deviation. Fertility indicators measured on first- and second-parity cows were interval from parturition to first service, interval from first service to conception, interval from parturition to conception, number of inseminations to conception, conception at first service, and nonreturn rate at 56 d after first service. Production traits were peak milk yield, lactation milk yield, and lactation length. Data were from 1,413 herds and included 16,324 records of BCS, fertility, and production for first-parity, and 10,086 fertility records for second-parity cows. Animals calved from 2002 to 2007 and were progeny of 420 artificial insemination bulls. Genetic parameters for the aforementioned traits were obtained under univariate and bivariate threshold and censored linear sire models implemented in a Bayesian framework. Posterior means of heritabilities for BCS, fat cows, and thin cows were 0.141, 0.122, and 0.115, respectively. Genetic correlations of body condition traits with contemporary production were moderate to high and were between -0.556 and 0.623. Body condition score was moderately related to fertility in first (-0.280 to 0.497) and second

  6. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  7. Comparing the Relationship Between Age and Length of Disability Across Common Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jetha, Arif; Besen, Elyssa; Smith, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the association between age and disability length across common chronic conditions. Methods: Analysis of 39,915 nonwork-related disability claims with a diagnosis of arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, depression, low back pain, chronic pulmonary disease, or cancer. Ordinary least squares regression models examined age-length of disability association across chronic conditions. Results: Arthritis (76.6 days), depression (63.2 days), and cancer (64.9 days) were associated with longest mean disability lengths; hypertension was related to shortest disability lengths (41.5 days). Across chronic conditions, older age was significantly associated with longer work disability. The age–length of disability association was most significant for chronic pulmonary disease and cancer. The relationship between age and length of work disability was linear among most chronic conditions. Conclusions: Work disability prevention strategies should consider both employee age and chronic condition diagnosis. PMID:27164446

  8. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  9. The effective boundary conditions and their lifespan of the logistic diffusion equation on a coated body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huicong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Yanxia

    2014-11-01

    We consider the logistic diffusion equation on a bounded domain, which has two components with a thin coating surrounding a body. The diffusion tensor is isotropic on the body, and anisotropic on the coating. The size of the diffusion tensor on these components may be very different; within the coating, the diffusion rates in the normal and tangent directions may be in different scales. We find effective boundary conditions (EBCs) that are approximately satisfied by the solution of the diffusion equation on the boundary of the body. We also prove that the lifespan of each EBC, which measures how long the EBC remains effective, is infinite. The EBCs enable us to see clearly the effect of the coating and ease the difficult task of solving the PDE in a thin region with a small diffusion tensor. The motivation of the mathematics includes a nature reserve surrounded by a buffer zone.

  10. Conditional pair distributions in many-body systems: exact results for Poisson ensembles.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, René D; Zurbriggen, Ernesto

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a conditional pair distribution function (CPDF) which characterizes the probability density of finding an object (e.g., a particle in a fluid) to within a certain distance of each other, with each of these two having a nearest neighbor to a fixed but otherwise arbitrary distance. This function describes special four-body configurations, but also contains contributions due to the so-called mutual nearest neighbor (two-body) and shared neighbor (three-body) configurations. The CPDF is introduced to improve a Helmholtz free energy method based on space partitions. We derive exact expressions of the CPDF and various associated quantities for randomly distributed, noninteracting points at Euclidean spaces of one, two, and three dimensions. Results may be of interest in many diverse scientific fields, from fluid physics to social and biological sciences.

  11. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  12. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Wheatley, Courtney M; Behnia, Mehrdad; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  13. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  14. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Sue, Lucia I.; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A.; Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E.; Dugger, Brittany N.; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C.; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Belden, Christine M.; Long, Kathy E.; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J.; Gale, Lisa D.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Caselli, Richard J.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Rapscak, Steven Z.; Ahern, Geoffrey L.; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D.; Reiman, Eric M.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2015-01-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median postmortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than

  15. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program.

    PubMed

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Sue, Lucia I; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A; Walker, Douglas G; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E; Dugger, Brittany N; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N; Hentz, Joseph G; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A; Davis, Kathryn J; Belden, Christine M; Long, Kathy E; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Gale, Lisa D; Nicholson, Lisa R; Caselli, Richard J; Woodruff, Bryan K; Rapscak, Steven Z; Ahern, Geoffrey L; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D; Reiman, Eric M; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2015-08-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median post-mortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than 200

  16. Body build classes as a method for systematization of age-related anthropometric changes in girls aged 7-8 and 17-18 years.

    PubMed

    Kasmel, Jaan; Kaarma, Helje; Koskel, Säde; Tiit, Ene-Margit

    2004-03-01

    A total of 462 schoolgirls aged 7-8 and 17-18 years were examined anthropometrically (45 body measurements and 10 skinfolds) in a cross-sectional study. The data were processed in two age groups: 7-8-year-olds (n = 205) and 17-18-year-olds (n = 257). Relying on average height and weight in the groups, both groups were divided into five body build classes: small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous. In these classes, the differences in all other body measurements were compared, and in both age groups, analogous systematic differences were found in length, width and depth measurements and circumferences. This enabled us to compare proportional changes in body measurements during ten years, using for this ratios of averages of basic measurements and measurement groups in the same body build classes. Statistical analysis by the sign test revealed statistically significant differences between various body build classes in the growth of averages. Girls belonging to the small class differed from the girls of the large class by an essentially greater increase in their measurements. Our results suggest that the growth rate of body measurements of girls with different body build can be studied by the help of body build classification.

  17. The Impact of Initial Conditions in N-Body Simulations of Debris Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilliez, E.; Maddison, S. T.

    2015-10-01

    Numerical simulations are a crucial tool to understand the relationship between debris discs and planetary companions. As debris disc observations are now reaching unprecedented levels of precision over a wide range of wavelengths, an appropriate level of accuracy and consistency is required in numerical simulations to confidently interpret this new generation of observations. However, simulations throughout the literature have been conducted with various initial conditions often with little or no justification. In this paper, we aim to study the dependence on the initial conditions of N-body simulations modelling the interaction between a massive and eccentric planet on an exterior debris disc. To achieve this, we first classify three broad approaches used in the literature and provide some physical context for when each category should be used. We then run a series of N-body simulations, that include radiation forces acting on small grains, with varying initial conditions across the three categories. We test the influence of the initial parent body belt width, eccentricity, and alignment with the planet on the resulting debris disc structure and compare the final peak emission location, disc width and offset of synthetic disc images produced with a radiative transfer code. We also track the evolution of the forced eccentricity of the dust grains induced by the planet, as well as resonance dust trapping. We find that an initially broad parent body belt always results in a broader debris disc than an initially narrow parent body belt. While simulations with a parent body belt with low initial eccentricity (e ~ 0) and high initial eccentricity (0 < e < 0.3) resulted in similar broad discs, we find that purely secular forced initial conditions, where the initial disc eccentricity is set to the forced value and the disc is aligned with the planet, always result in a narrower disc. We conclude that broad debris discs can be modelled by using either a dynamically cold

  18. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8–10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail. PMID:25243007

  19. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8-10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail.

  20. Mortality according to age and burned body surface in the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cía, T; Mallén, J; Márquez, T; Portela, C; Lopez, I

    1999-06-01

    The application of updated clinical protocols for the treatment of burned patients is showing very good results. The mortality curves according to age and the percentage of burned body surface could be of great use for the comparison of clinical results between different burns units. The probability of survival in 1000 consecutive patients admitted to the Burns Unit of the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital between July, 1993 and August, 1997, is compared, by graphic analysis, with the mortality curves of other centers, obtaining similar results. We conclude that the results of medical attendance in our unit are in line with those considered as a reference.

  1. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  2. Role of body condition score and body weight in the control of seasonal reproduction in Blanca Andaluza goats.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Calvo, L; Gatica, M C; Guzmán, J L; Zarazaga, L A

    2014-12-30

    The reproductive activity of 84 female Blanca Andaluza goats was monitored over 17 months to determine the role of body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in its control. Following a 3×2 factorial experimental design, the animals were allocated to three groups: low BCS (≤2.50, n=24), medium BCS (BCS=2.75-3.00, n=31) and high BCS (≥3.25, n=29). The same animals, irrespective of the BCS group categorization, were also divided into two groups depending on BW: low BW (≤40kg, n=44) and high BW (>40kg, n=40). Oestrus was evaluated daily using vasectomised males. The ovulation rate was assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography after the identification of oestrus. Ovulations were determined by monitoring the plasma progesterone concentration weekly. The BCS and BW were recorded once a week and nutritional status adjusted to maintain the initial differences in BW and BCS between the groups. Both BCS and BW had a significant (at least P<0.05) influence on the onset, the end, and the duration of the breeding season, with longer periods of reproductive activity recorded in does with a BCS of ≥2.75 and BW of >40kg. No significant interaction between these variables was observed. Some (11.7%) of the does in the groups with animals of BCS≥2.75 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. None of the does with a BCS of ≤2.5 had ovulations during seasonal anoestrus. The ovulation rate of the first and last oestrus was influenced by BW (P<0.01). These results demonstrate that Blanca Andaluza goats show marked reproductive seasonality that is clearly and independently modulated by BCS and BW.

  3. Does supplementation of beef calves by creep feeding systems influence milk production and body condition of the dams?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sidnei Antônio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Valente, Ériton Egídio Lisboa; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Martins, Leandro Soares

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of beef calves' supplementation in creep feeding systems on milk yield, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) of their dams on tropical pastures using a meta-analytical approach. The database was obtained from 11 experiments conducted between 2009 and 2014 in Brazil, totaling 485 observations (cows). The database consisted of 273 Nellore and 212 crossbred (7/8 Nellore × 1/8 Holstein) cows. All experiments were carried out in the suckling phase (from 3 to 8 months of age of calves) during the transition phase between rainy and dry seasons from February to June of different years. The data were analyzed by a meta-analytical approach using mixed models and taking into account random variation among experiments. Calves' supplementation (P ≥ 0.59) and the calves' sex (P ≥ 0.48) did not affect milk yield of cows. The average fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield was 6.71 and 6.83 kg/day for cows that had their calves supplemented and not supplemented, respectively. Differences were observed (P < 0.0001) for milk yield due to the genetic group where crossbred cows presented greater FCM yield (7.37 kg/day) compared with Nellore cows (6.17 kg/day). There was no effect of the calves' supplementation on BW change (P ≥ 0.11) and BCS change (P ≥ 0.23) of the cows. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of beef calves using creep feeding systems in tropical pastures does not affect milk yield, body weight, or body condition of their dams. PMID:27193314

  4. Nuclear bodies in the rat adrenal glomerular zone in normal and experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, G P; Lafarga, M

    1979-01-01

    The presence of nuclear bodies in the glomerular zone of the rat adrenal cortex has been shown both in normal conditions and after the stimulus of low sodium diets causing an increase in their number. These results indicate that these organelles are a normal nuclear component of the cells of this zone, and that they can experience significant increases in quantity and complexity due to various functional stimuli.

  5. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    PubMed

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  6. Home range, body condition, and survival of rehabilitated raccoons (Procyon lotor) during their first winter.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Molly; Wilson, James A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of raccoon (Procyon lotor) rehabilitation on postrelease survivorship are unknown. Raccoon rehabilitation success was measured as differences in prewinter body condition, home range size, distance to manmade structures, and during-winter survival between raccoons in the wild and those who have been rehabilitated. Prewinter body condition did not differ between wild and rehabilitated raccoons, but there was a trend for rehabilitated raccoons to have better body conditions. There was no difference between wild and rehabilitated raccoon adaptive kernel (AK) home range for 95% and 90% AK home ranges, or for core (50% AK) use areas. There was no sex difference in distance traveled from the release site within rehabilitated raccoons. However, rehabilitated raccoons were found significantly closer (49.4 ± 4.7 m) to manmade structures than wild raccoons (92.2 ± 14.4 m), and female raccoons were found significantly closer (64.8 ± 4.5 m) to manmade structures than male raccoons (72.3 ± 17.6 m). The results of this study indicate that raccoons can be successfully rehabilitated, but they may occupy habitat closer to manmade structures than wild raccoons.

  7. Reversible cell cycle inhibition and premature aging features imposed by conditional expression of p16Ink4a

    PubMed Central

    Boquoi, Amelie; Arora, Sanjeevani; Chen, Tina; Litwin, Sam; Koh, James; Enders, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p16Ink4a (p16) is a canonical mediator of cellular senescence and accumulates in aging tissues, where it constrains proliferation of some progenitor cells. However, whether p16 induction in tissues is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation, mediate senescence, and/or impose aging features has remained unclear. To address these issues, we generated transgenic mice that permit conditional p16 expression. Broad induction at weaning inhibited proliferation of intestinal transit-amplifying and Lgr5+ stem cells and rapidly imposed features of aging, including hair loss, skin wrinkling, reduced body weight and subcutaneous fat, an increased myeloid fraction in peripheral blood, poor dentition, and cataracts. Aging features were observed with multiple combinations of p16 transgenes and transactivators and were largely abrogated by a germline Cdk4 R24C mutation, confirming that they reflect Cdk inhibition. Senescence markers were not found, and de-induction of p16, even after weeks of sustained expression, allowed rapid recovery of intestinal cell proliferation and reversal of aging features in most mice. These results suggest that p16-mediated inhibition of Cdk activity is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation and impose aging features in somatic tissues of mammals and that at least some of these aging features are reversible. PMID:25481981

  8. Reversible cell cycle inhibition and premature aging features imposed by conditional expression of p16Ink4a.

    PubMed

    Boquoi, Amelie; Arora, Sanjeevani; Chen, Tina; Litwin, Sam; Koh, James; Enders, Greg H

    2015-02-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p16(Ink4a) (p16) is a canonical mediator of cellular senescence and accumulates in aging tissues, where it constrains proliferation of some progenitor cells. However, whether p16 induction in tissues is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation, mediate senescence, and/or impose aging features has remained unclear. To address these issues, we generated transgenic mice that permit conditional p16 expression. Broad induction at weaning inhibited proliferation of intestinal transit-amplifying and Lgr5+ stem cells and rapidly imposed features of aging, including hair loss, skin wrinkling, reduced body weight and subcutaneous fat, an increased myeloid fraction in peripheral blood, poor dentition, and cataracts. Aging features were observed with multiple combinations of p16 transgenes and transactivators and were largely abrogated by a germline Cdk4 R24C mutation, confirming that they reflect Cdk inhibition. Senescence markers were not found, and de-induction of p16, even after weeks of sustained expression, allowed rapid recovery of intestinal cell proliferation and reversal of aging features in most mice. These results suggest that p16-mediated inhibition of Cdk activity is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation and impose aging features in somatic tissues of mammals and that at least some of these aging features are reversible. PMID:25481981

  9. Chronological progression of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in females 12 to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lauren E; Buckner, Ellen; Miller, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary study of cross-sectional data was to examine patterns of scores on the Eating Disorders Inventory in a healthy sample of female adolescents thought to have a high potential for risk. Data were obtained as part of a consultation to identify risk of developing eating disorders. The screening and subsequent group level analysis was carried out with 44 female dancers 12 to 17 years of age enrolled in grades 7 to 12 in a Magnet school. This secondary analysis examined three components of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3): body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia for the purpose of comparing group findings across ages and grades. Some level of body dissatisfaction was widespread in the population, body dissatisfaction increased beginning notably at age 14 and increased sharply at age 15, with further increases until age 16. The correlation between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness was shown to be statistically significant (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Awareness that body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness increase at ages 15 and 16 means disordered eating may begin at this time. If body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness begins early in life and markedly increases at ages 14 and 15, eating disorder prevention must begin in childhood and continue into adolescence. PMID:24757916

  10. Overwinter survival of juvenile lake herring in relation to body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Kinnunen, Ronald E.; Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior have exhibited high recruitment variability over the past three decades. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms which influence year-class strength, we conducted a 225-d laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration on the winter survival of age-0 lake herring. Small (total length (TL) range = 60–85 mm) and large (TL range = 86–110 mm) fish were maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size-class were maintained at two feeding treatments: brine shrimp Artemiaspp. ad libitum and no food. The mortality of large lake herring (fed, 3.8%; starved, 20.1%) was significantly less than that of small fish (fed, 11.7%; starved, 32.0%). Body condition and crude lipid content declined for all fish over the experiment; however, these variables were significantly greater for large fed (0.68% and 9.8%) and small fed (0.65% and 7.3%) fish than large starved (0.49% and 5.7%) and small starved (0.45% and 4.8%) individuals. Final crude protein and gross energy contents were also significantly greater in large fed lake herring (17.6% and 1,966 cal/g), followed by small fed (17.1% and 1,497 cal/g), large starved (15.4% and 1,125 cal/g), and small starved (13.2% and 799 cal/g) fish. Lake herring that died during the experiment had significantly lower body condition and energy stores relative to those of the surviving fish. These results suggest that the depletion of energy stores contributes to greater winter mortality of small lake herring with limited energy uptake and may partially explain the variability in recruitment observed in Lake Superior.

  11. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  12. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  13. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  14. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  15. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  16. Response of body size and developmental time of Tribolium castaneum to constant versus fluctuating thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Małek, D; Drobniak, S; Gozdek, A; Pawlik, K; Kramarz, P

    2015-07-01

    Temperature has profound effects on biological functions at all levels of organization. In ectotherms, body size is usually negatively correlated with ambient temperature during development, a phenomenon known as The Temperature-Size Rule (TSR). However, a growing number of studies have indicated that temperature fluctuations have a large influence on life history traits and the implications of such fluctuations for the TSR are unknown. Our study investigated the effect of different constant and fluctuating temperatures on the body mass and development time of red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum Herbst, 1797); we also examined whether the sexes differed in their responses to thermal conditions. We exposed the progeny of half-sib families of a T. castaneum laboratory strain to one of four temperature regimes: constant 30°C, constant 25°C, fluctuating with a daily mean of 30°C, or fluctuating with a daily mean of 25°C. Sex-specific development time and body mass at emergence were determined. Beetles developed the fastest and had the greatest body mass upon emergence when they were exposed to a constant temperature of 30°C. This pattern was reversed when beetles experienced a constant temperature of 25°C: slowest development and lowest body mass upon emergence were observed. Fluctuations changed those effects significantly - impact of temperature on development time was smaller, while differences in body mass disappeared completely. Our results do not fit TSR predictions. Furthermore, regardless of the temperature regime, females acquired more mass, while there were no differences between sexes in development time to eclosion. This finding fails to support one of the explanations for smaller male size: that selection favors the early emergence of males. We found no evidence of genotype × environment interactions for selected set of traits.

  17. Cold and warmth perception mapped for age, gender, and body area.

    PubMed

    Harju, Eva-Liz

    2002-01-01

    Reference data on cold and warmth perception at three different body areas are provided based on 24 young (20-30 years) and 24 elderly (55-65 years) healthy women and men. Perception thresholds (method of limits), perceived intensity (free-number magnitude estimation), and perceived quality (verbal descriptors) were assessed for cold and for warmth at thenar, the upper arm, the knee, and the foot. Inter-individual comparison of perceived-intensity scales for cold and warmth was achieved by a Master Scaling procedure utilizing thenar as a reference area. Perception thresholds showed gender difference for cold at thenar, and interaction effect of age and gender for heat-pain tolerance at the upper arm. In contrast, perceived intensity of cold and warmth showed multiple effects of age, gender, and specific body area (also for the nociceptive channels). For instance, at the knee, elderly women's perceived intensity for stimulation in the nociceptive range was elevated for both cold and warmth, as compared to young women and men, and to elderly men. Conversely, at the upper arm, elderly women's perceived intensity for the corresponding nociceptive range was lowered, as compared to young women and young men, and to elderly men. At the foot, both elderly women's and men's perceived intensity of cold and warmth was lowered, as compared to young women and men. Overall, the perceived quality of perceptions did not differ between groups. The present findings on age differences in perceived intensity of cold and warmth at the upper arm, knee and foot in healthy women and men provide reference data hitherto lacking for diagnostic work in patients with somatosensory dysfunctions and ongoing pain.

  18. Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ligouri, Gianna C.; Shoepe, Todd C.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18–22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. −0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women. PMID:23487489

  19. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    PubMed

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations. PMID:27656285

  20. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  1. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H.; Kappeler, Peter M.; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M.; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals’ general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  2. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H.; Kappeler, Peter M.; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M.; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals’ general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations. PMID:27656285

  3. Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, Wrist and Waist Circumferences to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Severity

    PubMed Central

    KOMURCU, Hatice Ferhan; KILIC, Selim; ANLAR, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18–35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36–64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

  4. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.; Jacobson, Debra J.; St. Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Ebbert, Jon O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults. We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012. We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67–2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74–3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59–1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend). Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood. PMID:26765446

  5. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

  6. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  7. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  8. Covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and body mass only under specific conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-03-01

    Identifying the factors that mediate covariation between an ornament and other phenotypic attributes is important to determine the signaling function of ornaments. Sign and magnitude of a covariation may vary across environments if the expression of the ornament or of its linked genes regulating correlated phenotypes is condition-dependent. I investigated in the barn owl Tyto alba whether sign and magnitude of covariation between body mass and two heritable melanin-based plumage ornaments change with food supply, along the reproductive cycle and from the morning to the evening. Using a dataset of 1,848 measurements of body mass in 336 breeding females, I found that females displaying large black spots were heavier than conspecifics with smaller spots in the afternoon (i.e., a long time after the last feeding) but not in the morning (i.e., a short time after the last feeding). This is consistent with the recently proposed hypothesis that eumelanin-based ornaments are associated with the ability to maintain energy balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Thus, covariation between melanin-based coloration and body mass can be detected only under specific conditions potentially explaining why it has been reported in only ten out of 28 vertebrate species. The proposition that ornamented individuals achieve a higher fitness than drab conspecifics only in specific environments should be tested for other ornaments.

  9. Environmental effects and individual body condition drive seasonal fecundity of rabbits: identifying acute and lagged processes.

    PubMed

    Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Cooke, Brian D; Mutze, Greg J; Prowse, Thomas A A; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-07-01

    The reproduction of many species is determined by seasonally-driven resource supply. But it is difficult to quantify whether the fecundity is sensitive to short- or long-term exposure to environmental conditions such as rainfall that drive resource supply. Using 25 years of data on individual fecundity of European female rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, from semiarid Australia, we investigate the role of individual body condition, rainfall and temperature as drivers of seasonal and long-term and population-level changes in fecundity (breeding probability, ovulation rate, embryo survival). We built distributed lag models in a hierarchical Bayesian framework to account for both immediate and time-lagged effects of climate and other environmental drivers, and possible shifts in reproduction over consecutive seasons. We show that rainfall during summer, when rabbits typically breed only rarely, increased breeding probability immediately and with time lags of up to 10 weeks. However, an earlier onset of the yearly breeding period did not result in more overall reproductive output. Better body condition was associated with an earlier onset of breeding and higher embryo survival. Breeding probability in the main breeding season declined with increased breeding activity in the preceding season and only individuals in good body condition were able to breed late in the season. Higher temperatures reduce breeding success across seasons. We conclude that a better understanding of seasonal dynamics and plasticity (and their interplay) in reproduction will provide crucial insights into how lagomorphs are likely to respond and potentially adapt to the influence of future climate and other environmental change. PMID:27028444

  10. A method of generating initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, M.; Levesque, D.; Marcos, B.

    2005-11-15

    We investigate the possibility of generating initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations by simulating a system whose correlations at thermal equilibrium approximate well those of cosmological density perturbations. The system is an appropriately modified version of the standard 'one component plasma' (OCP). We show first how a well-known semianalytic method can be used to determine the potential required to produce the desired correlations, and then verify our results for some cosmological type spectra with simulations of the full molecular dynamics. The advantage of the method, compared to the standard one, is that it gives by construction an accurate representation of both the real and reciprocal space correlation properties of the theoretical model. Furthermore the distributions are also statistically homogeneous and isotropic. We discuss briefly the modifications needed to implement the method to produce configurations appropriate for large N-body simulations in cosmology, and also the generation of initial velocities in this context.

  11. The Classical Conditioning of Attitudes: A Comparative Study of Ages 8 to 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, John M.; Brown, Mari J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Results of this study indicated that attitude conditioning increased with age and that the increase appeared to be a function of contingency awareness and perhaps also a function of the older subjects' having greater facility in transferring symbolic meaning. (Author)

  12. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    PubMed

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment.

  13. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    PubMed

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment. PMID:26768691

  14. Drifting invertebrates, stomach contents, and body conditions of juvenile rainbow trout from fall through winter in a Wyoming tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the availability of drifting invertebrates and the stomach contents and body conditions of stocked (hatchery) and naturally spawned (wild) juvenile (20-25 cm total length) rainbow trout from fall through winter in the Big Horn River downstream from Boysen Dam in Wyoming. When the density and biomass of drifting invertebrates declined with water temperature during the fall, stomach contents and body conditions substantially decreased among both wild and stocked fish. During the coldest portion of the winter, the density of small drifting invertebrates increased as did the body conditions of both wild and hatchery trout. We suggest that the perceived increase in body conditions during late winter was due to survival of fish with higher body conditions and not growth of fish from fall to late winter.

  15. WINE-1: Special-Purpose Computer forN-Body Simulations with a Periodic Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro

    1993-06-01

    We have developed WINE-1 (Wave space INtegrator for Ewald method), a special-purpose computer for N-body simulations with a periodic boundary condition. In N-body simulations with a periodic boundary condition such as cosmological N-body simulations, we use the Ewald method to calculate the gravitational interaction. With the Ewald method, we can calculate the interaction more accurately than a calculation with other methods, such as the PM method, the P(3) M method, or the tree algorithm. In the Ewald method, the total force exerted on a particle is divided into contributions from real space and wave-number space so that the infinite sum can converge exponentially in both spaces. WINE is a special-purpose computer used to calculate the interaction in wave-number space. WINE is connected to a host computer via the VME bus. We have developed the first machine, WINE-1. It is made of one board having a size of 38 cm by 40 cm, on which 31 LSI chips and 46 IC chips are wire-wrapped. The peak speed of WINE-1 is equivalent to 480 Mflops. The summation in real space is calculated using a GRAPE system, another special-purpose computer for the direct calculation of the interparticle force. For example, we can perform a cosmological N-body simulation for N=80,000 (500 steps) within a week if we use GRAPE-2A for the summation in real space and WINE-1 for that in wave-number space.

  16. L^1 -optimality conditions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the L^1 -minimization for the translational motion of a spacecraft in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is considered. Necessary conditions are derived by using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP), revealing the existence of bang-bang and singular controls. Singular extremals are analyzed, recalling the existence of the Fuller phenomenon according to the theories developed in (Marchal in J Optim Theory Appl 11(5):441-486, 1973; Zelikin and Borisov in Theory of Chattering Control with Applications to Astronautics, Robotics, Economics, and Engineering. Birkhäuser, Basal 1994; in J Math Sci 114(3):1227-1344, 2003). The sufficient optimality conditions for the L^1 -minimization problem with fixed endpoints have been developed in (Chen et al. in SIAM J Control Optim 54(3):1245-1265, 2016). In the current paper, we establish second-order conditions for optimal control problems with more general final conditions defined by a smooth submanifold target. In addition, the numerical implementation to check these optimality conditions is given. Finally, approximating the Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system by the CRTBP, an L^1 -minimization trajectory for the translational motion of a spacecraft is computed by combining a shooting method with a continuation method in (Caillau et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 114:137-150, 2012; Caillau and Daoud in SIAM J Control Optim 50(6):3178-3202, 2012). The local optimality of the computed trajectory is asserted thanks to the second-order optimality conditions developed.

  17. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

  18. The Effect of Exercise on Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem as a Function of Gender and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Williamson, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between amount of exercise and psychological wellbeing, surveying people age 16-60 years. Women had lower body satisfaction and self-esteem than men. While there was generally a positive relationship between exercise and wellbeing, for women age 16-21 years, there was a significant negative relationship. Women…

  19. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  20. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Yamaçake, K. G. R.; Cocuzza, M.; Torricelli, F. C. M.; Tiseo, B. C.; Frati, R.; Freire, G. C.; Antunes, A. A.; Srougi, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001) compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113), FSH serum levels (p=0.863) and LH serum levels (p=0.218) between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05). There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120) among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men. PMID:27256193

  1. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethy...

  2. Gender differences between hypocretin/orexin knockout and wild type mice: age, body weight, body composition, metabolic markers, leptin and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2014-12-01

    Female hypocretin knockout (Hcrt KO) mice have increased body weight despite decreased food intake compared to wild type (WT) mice. In order to understand the nature of the increased body weight, we carried out a detailed study of Hcrt KO and WT, male, and female mice. Female KO mice showed consistently higher body weight than WT mice, from 4 to 20 months (20-60%). Fat, muscle, and free fluid levels were all significantly higher in adult (7-9 months) as well as old (18-20 months) female KO mice compared to age-matched WT mice. Old male KO mice showed significantly higher fat content (150%) compared to age-matched WT mice, but no significant change in body weight. Respiratory quotient (-19%) and metabolic rates (-14%) were significantly lower in KO mice compared to WT mice, regardless of gender or age. Female KO mice had significantly higher serum leptin levels (191%) than WT mice at 18-20 months, but no difference between male mice were observed. Conversely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in both male (73%) and female (93%) KO mice compared to age- and sex-matched WT mice. We conclude that absence of the Hcrt peptide has gender-specific effects. In contrast, Hcrt-ataxin mice and human narcoleptics, with loss of the whole Hcrt cell, show weight gain in both sexes.

  3. Survival characteristics of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis under constant culture conditions: effects of aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Janse, C; Slob, W; Popelier, C M; Vogelaar, J W

    1988-03-01

    Survival characteristics of seven different populations of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis were studied under constant culture conditions. On the basis of these characteristics four populations were considered as healthy and three as infected. In the healthy populations senescence started at an age of about 200 days, 50% survival age varied from 282 to 372 days, 10% survival age from 417 to 508 days and the maximum age from 528 to 673 days. Infected populations differed from healthy ones: (1) in behaviour of the animals; and (2) in shape of survival curve and age-specific death rate. It is concluded that in aging studies in addition to the absolute age of the animals, the following information should be given: the percentage of survival of the population at the time of sampling and a quantitative estimate of the quality of the cultures from which the animals were sampled. The parameters of the Weibull function seem to be suitable for such estimations.

  4. Stress and body condition are associated with climate and demography in Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Hannah S.; Mar, Khyne U.; Thitaram, Chatchote; Courtiol, Alexandre; Towiboon, Patcharapa; Min-Oo, Zaw; Htut-Aung, Ye; Brown, Janine L.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Establishing links between ecological variation, physiological markers of stress and demography is crucial for understanding how and why changes in environmental conditions affect population dynamics, and may also play a key role for conservation efforts of endangered species. However, detailed longitudinal studies of long-lived species are rarely available. We test how two markers of stress and body condition vary through the year and are associated with climatic conditions and large-scale mortality and fertility variation in the world's largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants employed in the timber industry in Myanmar. Glucocorticoid metabolites (used as a proxy for stress levels in 75 elephants) and body weight (used as a proxy for condition in 116 elephants) were monitored monthly across a typical monsoon cycle and compared with birth and death patterns of the entire elephant population over half a century (n = 2350). Our results show seasonal variation in both markers of stress and condition. In addition, this variation is correlated with population-level demographic variables. Weight is inversely correlated with population mortality rates 1 month later, and glucocorticoid metabolites are negatively associated with birth rates. Weight shows a highly positive correlation with rainfall 1 month earlier. Determining the factors associated with demography may be key to species conservation by providing information about the correlates of mortality and fertility patterns. The unsustainability of the studied captive population has meant that wild elephants have been captured and tamed for work. By elucidating the correlates of demography in captive elephants, our results offer management solutions that could reduce the pressure on the wild elephant population in Myanmar. PMID:27293715

  5. Stress and body condition are associated with climate and demography in Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Thitaram, Chatchote; Courtiol, Alexandre; Towiboon, Patcharapa; Min-Oo, Zaw; Htut-Aung, Ye; Brown, Janine L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Establishing links between ecological variation, physiological markers of stress and demography is crucial for understanding how and why changes in environmental conditions affect population dynamics, and may also play a key role for conservation efforts of endangered species. However, detailed longitudinal studies of long-lived species are rarely available. We test how two markers of stress and body condition vary through the year and are associated with climatic conditions and large-scale mortality and fertility variation in the world's largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants employed in the timber industry in Myanmar. Glucocorticoid metabolites (used as a proxy for stress levels in 75 elephants) and body weight (used as a proxy for condition in 116 elephants) were monitored monthly across a typical monsoon cycle and compared with birth and death patterns of the entire elephant population over half a century (n = 2350). Our results show seasonal variation in both markers of stress and condition. In addition, this variation is correlated with population-level demographic variables. Weight is inversely correlated with population mortality rates 1 month later, and glucocorticoid metabolites are negatively associated with birth rates. Weight shows a highly positive correlation with rainfall 1 month earlier. Determining the factors associated with demography may be key to species conservation by providing information about the correlates of mortality and fertility patterns. The unsustainability of the studied captive population has meant that wild elephants have been captured and tamed for work. By elucidating the correlates of demography in captive elephants, our results offer management solutions that could reduce the pressure on the wild elephant population in Myanmar. PMID:27293715

  6. Determining rigid body transformation parameters from ill-conditioned spatial marker co-ordinates.

    PubMed

    Carman, A B; Milburn, P D

    2006-01-01

    The three-dimensional location of a body-fixed axis system is described by position and orientation parameters that can be calculated knowing local and global coordinates of three or more body-fixed markers. However, marker distribution can become ill-conditioned when marker placement is symmetrical with respect to the mean of the markers. As symmetry and ill-conditioning increases, random errors in marker locations can affect the stability of orientation parameters as a result of the mathematical approach adopted. The present study investigates the methods of Veldpaus et al. [1988; Journal of Biomechanics 21, 45], Challis [1995; Biomechanics 28, 733] and Andriacchi et al. [1998; Journal of Biomedical Engineering 120, 743] for obtaining segment orientation parameters when segment markers ranged from well-defined to highly ill-conditioned depending on the symmetry of segment markers. A novel fourth approach is also presented that enabled comparisons of the root mean square error of reconstructed marker coordinates to verify that an optimal solution was obtained. No single method produced optimal results for all axis orientation parameters when reconstructing movement trials. The best performed was the method of Veldpaus et al. [1988; Journal of Biomechanics 21, 45] based on consistent results and ease of implementation. The fourth approach presented provided a reliable method in all but the highly ill-conditioned markers, however implementation was computationally difficult. The method of Challis [1995; Biomechanics 28, 733] was only suited to well-conditioned marker sets which avoided markers lying in a single plane with symmetries in marker distribution relative to the mean. The method of Andriacchi et al. [1998; Journal of Biomedical Engineering 120, 743] produced, at best, orientation parameters that approximated the results obtained by least squares methods.

  7. Stress and body condition are associated with climate and demography in Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Thitaram, Chatchote; Courtiol, Alexandre; Towiboon, Patcharapa; Min-Oo, Zaw; Htut-Aung, Ye; Brown, Janine L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Establishing links between ecological variation, physiological markers of stress and demography is crucial for understanding how and why changes in environmental conditions affect population dynamics, and may also play a key role for conservation efforts of endangered species. However, detailed longitudinal studies of long-lived species are rarely available. We test how two markers of stress and body condition vary through the year and are associated with climatic conditions and large-scale mortality and fertility variation in the world's largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants employed in the timber industry in Myanmar. Glucocorticoid metabolites (used as a proxy for stress levels in 75 elephants) and body weight (used as a proxy for condition in 116 elephants) were monitored monthly across a typical monsoon cycle and compared with birth and death patterns of the entire elephant population over half a century (n = 2350). Our results show seasonal variation in both markers of stress and condition. In addition, this variation is correlated with population-level demographic variables. Weight is inversely correlated with population mortality rates 1 month later, and glucocorticoid metabolites are negatively associated with birth rates. Weight shows a highly positive correlation with rainfall 1 month earlier. Determining the factors associated with demography may be key to species conservation by providing information about the correlates of mortality and fertility patterns. The unsustainability of the studied captive population has meant that wild elephants have been captured and tamed for work. By elucidating the correlates of demography in captive elephants, our results offer management solutions that could reduce the pressure on the wild elephant population in Myanmar.

  8. Coupled-rearrangement-channels calculation of the three-body system under the absorbing boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, M.; Otani, R.; Ito, M.; Kamimura, M.

    2016-05-01

    We formulate the method of the absorbing boundary condition (ABC) in the coupled-rearrangement-channels variational method (CRCMV) for the three-body problem. In the present study, we handle the simple three-boson system, and the absorbing potential is introduced in the Jacobi coordinate in the individual rearrangement channels. The resonance parameters and the strength of the monopole breakup are compared with the complex scaling method (CSM). We have found that the CRCVM + ABC method nicely works in the threebody problem with the rearrangement channels.

  9. Statistical analysis of landing contact conditions for three lifting body research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The landing contact conditions for the HL-10, M2-F2/F3, and the X-24A lifting body vehicles are analyzed statistically for 81 landings. The landing contact parameters analyzed are true airspeed, peak normal acceleration at the center of gravity, roll angle, and roll velocity. Ground measurement parameters analyzed are lateral and longitudinal distance from intended touchdown, lateral distance from touchdown to full stop, and rollout distance. The results are presented in the form of histograms for frequency distributions and cumulative frequency distribution probability curves with a Pearson Type 3 curve fit for extrapolation purposes.

  10. On the age and parent body of the daytime Arietids meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, A.; Wiegert, P.; Pokorny, P.; Brown, P.

    2016-01-01

    The daytime Arietid meteor shower is active from mid-May to late June and is among the strongest of the annual meteor showers, comparable in activity and duration to the Perseids and the Geminids. Due to the daytime nature of the shower, the Arietids have mostly been constrained by radar studies. The Arietids exhibit a long-debated discrepancy in the semi-major axis and the eccentricity of meteoroid orbits as measured by radar and optical surveys. Radar studies yield systematically lower values for the semi-major axis and eccentricity, where the origin of these discrepancies remain unclear. The proposed parent bodies of the stream include comet 96P/Machholz and more recently the Marsden's group of sun-skirting comets. In this work, we present detailed numerical modelling of the daytime Arietid meteoroid stream, with the goal to identifying the parent body and constraining the age of the stream. We use observational data from an extensive survey of the Arietids by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), in the period of 2002-2013, and several optical observations by the SonotaCo meteor network and the Cameras for All-sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS). Our simulations suggest that the age and observed characteristics of the daytime Arietids are consistent with cometary activity from 96P, over the past 12000 years. The sunskirting comets that presumably formed in a major comet breakup between 100 - 950 AD (Chodas and Sekanina, 2005), alone, cannot explain the observed shower characteristics of the Arietids. Thus, the Marsden sunskirters cannot be the dominant parent, though our simulations suggest that they contribute to the core of the stream.

  11. Maternal body condition influences magnitude of anti-predator response in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amanda M; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-11-01

    Organisms exhibit plasticity in response to their environment, but there is large variation even within populations in the expression and magnitude of response. Maternal influence alters offspring survival through size advantages in growth and development. However, the relationship between maternal influence and variation in plasticity in response to predation risk is unknown. We hypothesized that variation in the magnitude of plastic responses between families is at least partly due to maternal provisioning and examined the relationship between maternal condition, egg provisioning and magnitude of plastic response to perceived predation risk (by dragonfly larvae: Aeshna spp.) in northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Females in better body condition tended to lay more (clutch size) larger (egg diameter) eggs. Tadpoles responded to predation risk by increasing relative tail depth (morphology) and decreasing activity (behaviour). We found a positive relationship between morphological effect size and maternal condition, but no relationship between behavioural effect size and maternal condition. These novel findings suggest that limitations imposed by maternal condition can constrain phenotypic variation, ultimately influencing the capacity of populations to respond to environmental change. PMID:25253460

  12. Maternal body condition influences magnitude of anti-predator response in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Amanda M.; Murray, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms exhibit plasticity in response to their environment, but there is large variation even within populations in the expression and magnitude of response. Maternal influence alters offspring survival through size advantages in growth and development. However, the relationship between maternal influence and variation in plasticity in response to predation risk is unknown. We hypothesized that variation in the magnitude of plastic responses between families is at least partly due to maternal provisioning and examined the relationship between maternal condition, egg provisioning and magnitude of plastic response to perceived predation risk (by dragonfly larvae: Aeshna spp.) in northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Females in better body condition tended to lay more (clutch size) larger (egg diameter) eggs. Tadpoles responded to predation risk by increasing relative tail depth (morphology) and decreasing activity (behaviour). We found a positive relationship between morphological effect size and maternal condition, but no relationship between behavioural effect size and maternal condition. These novel findings suggest that limitations imposed by maternal condition can constrain phenotypic variation, ultimately influencing the capacity of populations to respond to environmental change. PMID:25253460

  13. Impaired Control of Body Cooling during Heterothermia Represents the Major Energetic Constraint in an Aging Non-Human Primate Exposed to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stephane; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Daily heterothermia is used by small mammals for energy and water savings, and seems to be preferentially exhibited during winter rather than during summer. This feature induces a trade-off between the energy saved during daily heterothermia and the energy cost of arousal, which can impact energy balance and survival under harsh environmental conditions. Especially, aging may significantly affect such trade off during cold-induced energy stress, but direct evidences are still lacking. We hypothesized that aging could alter the energetics of daily heterothermia, and that the effects could differ according to season. In the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a non-human primate species which exhibits daily heterothermia, we investigated the effects of exposures to 25 and 12°C on body composition, energy balance, patterns of heterothermia and water turnover in adult (N = 8) and aged animals (N = 7) acclimated to winter-like or summer-like photoperiods. Acclimation to summer prevented animals from deep heterothermia, even during aging. During winter, adult animals at 12°C and aged animals at 25°C exhibited low levels of energy expenditure with minor modulations of heterothermia. The major effects of cold were observed during winter, and were particularly pronounced in aged mouse lemurs which exhibited deep heterothermia phases. Body composition was not significantly affected by age and could not explain the age-related differences in heterothermia patterns. However, aging was associated with increased levels of energy expenditure during cold exposure, in concomitance with impaired energy balance. Interestingly, increased energy expenditure and depth of heterothermia phases were strongly correlated. In conclusion, it appeared that the exhibition of shallow heterothermia allowed energy savings during winter in adult animals only. Aged animals exhibited deep heterothermia and increased levels of energy expenditure, impairing energy balance. Thus, an

  14. Impaired control of body cooling during heterothermia represents the major energetic constraint in an aging non-human primate exposed to cold.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stephane; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Daily heterothermia is used by small mammals for energy and water savings, and seems to be preferentially exhibited during winter rather than during summer. This feature induces a trade-off between the energy saved during daily heterothermia and the energy cost of arousal, which can impact energy balance and survival under harsh environmental conditions. Especially, aging may significantly affect such trade off during cold-induced energy stress, but direct evidences are still lacking. We hypothesized that aging could alter the energetics of daily heterothermia, and that the effects could differ according to season. In the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a non-human primate species which exhibits daily heterothermia, we investigated the effects of exposures to 25 and 12 degrees C on body composition, energy balance, patterns of heterothermia and water turnover in adult (N = 8) and aged animals (N = 7) acclimated to winter-like or summer-like photoperiods. Acclimation to summer prevented animals from deep heterothermia, even during aging. During winter, adult animals at 12 degrees C and aged animals at 25 degrees C exhibited low levels of energy expenditure with minor modulations of heterothermia. The major effects of cold were observed during winter, and were particularly pronounced in aged mouse lemurs which exhibited deep heterothermia phases. Body composition was not significantly affected by age and could not explain the age-related differences in heterothermia patterns. However, aging was associated with increased levels of energy expenditure during cold exposure, in concomitance with impaired energy balance. Interestingly, increased energy expenditure and depth of heterothermia phases were strongly correlated. In conclusion, it appeared that the exhibition of shallow heterothermia allowed energy savings during winter in adult animals only. Aged animals exhibited deep heterothermia and increased levels of energy expenditure, impairing energy balance

  15. Thermal stability of the human body under hyperbaric environmental conditions: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Kandjov, I M

    2001-10-01

    I report here a theoretical study of the dependence on ambient pressure of heat and mass (water vapour) rate transfer processes between the human body and its gaseous surroundings, for monocomponent gases (N2, O2, He) and/or diatomic gas mixtures (He-O2, N2-O2). Heat and water vapour rate transport are described by the following rate transfer parameters: the convective heat transfer coefficient (hc), the evaporative heat transfer coefficient (he) and the Lewis relationship (LR). It is shown that the thermal stability of the human body under hyperbaric conditions is proportional to the evaporative resistance. It is also shown that in a He atmosphere the change in the thermal state caused by a heat load of 1 W x m(-2) at sea level is equivalent to the effect of a heat flow of 0.186 W x m(-2) at 30 atmospheres absolute. This indicates that the thermal state of the body is more prone to instability at increasing ambient pressures.

  16. [Effect of small doses of interferon-alpha on food conditioning in young and ageing rats].

    PubMed

    Loseva, E V; Loginova, N A; Biriukovan, L M; Mats, V N; Pasikova, N V

    2007-04-01

    Low doses (10 or 350 ME) of human interferon-alpha (HIA) were intranasally applied to young (3-4 months) and ageing (12-15 months) Wistar rats during food conditioning. In control groups, development of the conditioned reflex to acoustic stimulus (tone) did not differ significantly in young and ageing rats in the course of chronic applications of the HIA. However, the control ageing rats were better than young rats in time-interval conditioning. Small doses of HIA do not cause anorexia in rats whereas large doses do so. Tone-conditioning did not change in rats of both ages when they were treated with 10 ME of the HIA; moreover, 350 ME increased food motivation, especially in young rats. Time-interval conditioning in aging rats was descended by both doses to the level of young rats, whereas in young rats it did not change at all. We suggest that these differences between ages may by accounted for be different affinity and concentration of micro-opiod receptors (which are the targets for the HIA) in the brain structures responsible for food behaviour, and for counting time intervals.

  17. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escaler, X.; De La Torre, O.; Farhat, M.

    2015-12-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed.

  18. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  19. Associations among dairy cow body condition and welfare-associated behavioral traits.

    PubMed

    Matthews, L R; Cameron, C; Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R

    2012-05-01

    Some evidence exists that cow body condition score (BCS) is associated with risks to animal health, and that higher BCS in extensively kept animals provides a buffer against cold conditions or other adverse weather events. Not surprisingly, measures of BCS feature in dairy cattle welfare assessment protocols. However, the degree to which BCS predicts welfare state, particularly in relation to the level of "hunger" experienced, is not well researched. The aim of this study was to examine associations between naturally arising variations in BCS in dairy cattle and time spent engaged in activities used as proxy indicators of hunger. Holstein-Friesian cows (n=113) of either North American or New Zealand ancestry were allocated to 1 of 3 levels of concentrate-feed supplementation (0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/d) and also offered pasture in excess of requirements. Body condition score (1 to 10 scale), pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and time budgets for grazing, ruminating, standing, and lying were recorded during early, mid, and late lactation. Body condition score varied over a wide range (2.5 to 8.5) and, within genetic strain and supplementation level, was inversely associated with pasture DMI, rate of DMI, and the proportions of time spent grazing and ruminating. In comparison, variation in BCS (within genetic strain and supplementation level) was directly associated with variations in time spent lying (in late lactation). Nevertheless, pasture DMI and time spent in the key behavioral activities were all within the normal expected limits for pasture-fed dairy cows. Thus, thin cows appeared able to achieve their nutritional requirements. Furthermore, even though thinner cows traded-off a small portion of their lying time in late lactation to forage longer, they still rested for normal periods each day. Based on these results, we found no difference in the welfare status of naturally thin and fat cows when they were offered generous pasture allowances with or without

  20. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  1. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  2. Implications of age and conditional survival estimates for patients with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mousumi; Lao, Christopher D; Wancata, Lauren M; Muenz, Daniel G; Haymart, Megan R; Wong, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    Overall cancer incidence is decreasing, whereas melanoma cases are increasing. Conditional survival estimates offer a more accurate prognosis for patients the farther they are from time of diagnosis. The effect of age and stage on a melanoma patient's conditional survival estimate is unknown. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data were utilized to identify newly diagnosed cutaneous melanoma patients (N=95 041), from 1998 to 2005, with up to 12 years of follow-up. Estimates of disease-specific survival by stage and age were determined by Cox regression analysis and transformed to estimated conditional 5-year survival. Localized melanoma patients have an excellent 5-year survival at diagnosis and over subsequent years. For patients with localized and regional disease, an age effect is present for disease-specific mortality when comparing older patients (70-79 years) with younger patients (<30 years): hazard ratio (HR) for mortality 3.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.01-4.84] and HR 2.36 (95% CI 1.93-2.91), respectively. No age effect difference is observed in disease-specific survival for advanced disease: HR 1.14 (95% CI 0.87-1.53). Over time, conditional survival estimates improve for older patients with localized and regional disease. This improvement is not seen in distant disease, neither is the age gradient. Disease-specific mortality and conditional survival for patients with localized and regional melanomas are initially impacted by older age, with effects dissipating over time. Age does not affect survival in patients with advanced disease. Understanding the conditional 5-year disease-specific survival of melanoma based on age and stage can help patients and physicians, informing decision-making about treatment and surveillance. PMID:26479218

  3. Implications of age and conditional survival estimates for patients with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mousumi; Lao, Christopher D.; Wancata, Lauren M.; Muenz, Daniel G.; Haymart, Megan R.; Wong, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Overall cancer incidence is decreasing while melanoma cases increase. Conditional survival estimates offer a more accurate prognosis for patients as they survive past diagnosis. It is unknown the effect age and stage has on a melanoma patient’s conditional survival estimate. Methods Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) data was utilized, identifying new diagnosis cutaneous melanoma patients (N=95,041), from 1998–2005, with up to 12 year follow up. Estimates of disease-specific survival by stage and age were determined by Cox regression and transformed to estimate conditional five-year survival. Results Localized melanoma patients have an excellent five-year survival at diagnosis and subsequent years. For patients with localized and regional disease, an age effect is present for disease-specific mortality when comparing older patients (70–79 years) to younger patients (<30 years): hazard ratio (HR) for mortality 3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.01–4.84) and HR 2.36 (95% CI 1.93–2.91), respectively. No age effect difference is observed in disease-specific survival for advanced disease: HR 1.14 (95% CI 0.87–1.53). Over time conditional survival estimates improve for older patients with localized and regional disease. This improvement is not seen in distant disease nor is the age gradient. Conclusions Disease-specific mortality and conditional survival for patients with localized and regional melanoma is initially impacted by older age with effects dissipating over time. Age does not affect survival in patients with advanced disease. Understanding the conditional five-year disease-specific survival of melanoma based on age and stage can help patients and physicians, informing decision making about treatment and surveillance. PMID:26479218

  4. Comparison of a classical with a highly formularized body condition scoring system for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Isensee, A; Leiber, F; Bieber, A; Spengler, A; Ivemeyer, S; Maurer, V; Klocke, P

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring is a common tool to assess the subcutaneous fat reserves of dairy cows. Because of its subjectivity, which causes limits in repeatability, it is often discussed controversially. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of considering the cows overall appearance on the scoring process and on the validity of the results. Therefore, two different methods to reveal body condition scores (BCS), 'independent BCS' (iBCS) and 'dependent BCS' (dBCS), were used to assess 1111 Swiss Brown Cattle. The iBCS and the dBCS systems were both working with the same flowchart with a decision tree structure for visual and palpatory assessment using a scale from 2 to 5 with increment units of 0.25. The iBCS was created strictly complying with the defined frames of the decision tree structure. The system was chosen due to its formularized approach to reduce the influence of subjective impressions. By contrast, the dBCS system, which was in line with common practice, had a more open approach, where - besides the decision tree - the overall impression of the cow's physical appearance was taken into account for generating the final score. Ultrasound measurement of the back fat thickness (BFT) was applied as a validation method. The dBCS turned out to be the better predictor of BFT, explaining 67.3% of the variance. The iBCS was only able to explain 47.3% of the BFT variance. Within the whole data set, only 31.3% of the animals received identical dBCS and iBCS. The pin bone region caused the most deviations between dBCS and iBCS, but also assessing the pelvis line, the hook bones and the ligaments led to divergences in around 20% of the scored animals. The study showed that during the assessment of body condition a strict adherence to a decision tree is a possible source of inexact classifications. Some body regions, especially the pin bones, proved to be particularly challenging for scoring due to difficulties in assessing them. All the more, the inclusion

  5. [DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND IN PHYSICAL CONDITION BETWEEN SCHOOL AGE STUDENTS OF TWO PUBLIC CURRICULUM PROGRAMS IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Cubides, Raúl; Aldana Alarcón, Luis Gonzalo; Gutiérrez Galvis, Adriana Rocío

    2015-11-01

    During the past five decades there has been an increased in the prevalence of obesity and over weight, also in physical inactivity and /or low cardiorespiratory fitness within the population in school age from diverse regions of the planet, including Bogota-Colombia. The general objective of this study was to compare the physical condition and the levels of physical activity from students who belonged to two curriculum programs of the Public Schools Network from Bogota, one of which includes two sessions per week, each session of 90 minutes of physical activity. We developed a research of unlike cross-sectional groups. There were 178 children evaluated from the regular curriculum and 170 kids belonging to the program 40 x 40. The physical condition was evaluated applying the protocol of high priority from the ALPHA -Fitness test Battery. The weight, height, body mass index, the waist circumference, the standing long jump, the handgrip in both hands and the motor fitness 20 meter shuttle run test were developed under standardized conditions. The Global School Health Survey (GSHS) was used to evaluate the levels of AF. No significant statistical differences were founded between P-40x40 and the regular curriculum regarding: weight, height, the body mass index, the waist circumference, the handgrip in both hands and the explosive strength in lower limbs. Nevertheless the cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly lower within de P-40x40. In conclusion the participation in the curricular program 40 x 40 was not associated with better levels of physical condition.

  6. [DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND IN PHYSICAL CONDITION BETWEEN SCHOOL AGE STUDENTS OF TWO PUBLIC CURRICULUM PROGRAMS IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Cubides, Raúl; Aldana Alarcón, Luis Gonzalo; Gutiérrez Galvis, Adriana Rocío

    2015-01-01

    During the past five decades there has been an increased in the prevalence of obesity and over weight, also in physical inactivity and /or low cardiorespiratory fitness within the population in school age from diverse regions of the planet, including Bogota-Colombia. The general objective of this study was to compare the physical condition and the levels of physical activity from students who belonged to two curriculum programs of the Public Schools Network from Bogota, one of which includes two sessions per week, each session of 90 minutes of physical activity. We developed a research of unlike cross-sectional groups. There were 178 children evaluated from the regular curriculum and 170 kids belonging to the program 40 x 40. The physical condition was evaluated applying the protocol of high priority from the ALPHA -Fitness test Battery. The weight, height, body mass index, the waist circumference, the standing long jump, the handgrip in both hands and the motor fitness 20 meter shuttle run test were developed under standardized conditions. The Global School Health Survey (GSHS) was used to evaluate the levels of AF. No significant statistical differences were founded between P-40x40 and the regular curriculum regarding: weight, height, the body mass index, the waist circumference, the handgrip in both hands and the explosive strength in lower limbs. Nevertheless the cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly lower within de P-40x40. In conclusion the participation in the curricular program 40 x 40 was not associated with better levels of physical condition. PMID:26545682

  7. Experimental investigation of the influence of inlet conditions to a bluff body wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallenius, Bengt; Fransson, Jens

    2010-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have been performed in a bluff body wake with varying inlet conditions in order to enhance the physical understanding of the wake flow instability, which may lead to successful flow control and in turn reduced aerodynamic drag. The geometry consists of a rectangular-based forebody with permeable surfaces, an elliptic leading edge and a blunt trailing edge. Length, width and base height of the forebody is 2.3, 0.5 and 0.04 meters, respectively. Applying continuous suction or blowing, of different levels, through the permeable surfaces along the forebody, varies the wall-normal trailing edge velocity profile in a systematic way and hence the inlet condition to the wake. The streamwise velocity component has been measured both throughout the boundary layer and in the wake behind the body using hot-wire anemometry. High-speed stereo PIV has been used in the wake in order to collect statistics of vortical structures in the wake. The influence of boundary layer parameters on the wake flow characteristics, such as vortex shedding frequency and base pressure, will be presented.

  8. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector.

    PubMed

    Nell, Lucas A; Frederick, Peter C; Mazzotti, Frank J; Vliet, Kent A; Brandt, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction.

  9. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Cherel, Y; Guinet, C; Arnould, J P Y

    2016-07-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R (2)/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills.

  10. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector.

    PubMed

    Nell, Lucas A; Frederick, Peter C; Mazzotti, Frank J; Vliet, Kent A; Brandt, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction. PMID:26934602

  11. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randhir; Randhawa, S. N. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS) and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT) in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD), close up dry (CUD) and fresh (F). BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period. PMID:27047087

  12. Relationship between colouration and body condition in a crab spider that lures pollinators.

    PubMed

    Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Llandres, Ana L; Herberstein, Marie E

    2012-04-01

    Sit-and-wait predators have evolved several traits that increase the probability of encountering prey, including lures that attract prey. Although most crab spiders (Thomisidae) are known by their ability to change colour in order to match the background, a few use a different strategy. They are UV-reflective, creating a colour contrast against UV-absorbing flowers that is attractive for pollinators. The nature of the relationship between colour contrast and foraging success is unknown, as is how spiders trade off the potential costs and benefits of strong colour contrast. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between spider colouration, foraging success and background colouration in a crab spider species known to lure pollinators via UV reflectance (Thomisus spectabilis). Field data revealed that spider body condition - a proxy of past foraging success - is positively related to overall colour contrast. We experimentally tested the effect of satiation and background colour on spider colour change. Throughout the experiment, spiders changed their colour contrast regardless of their food intake, suggesting that colour contrast and the UV component contributing to overall contrast are not caused by spider condition. Although spiders responded to different backgrounds by subtly changing their body colour, this did not result in colour matching. We believe that the observed variation in colour contrast and hence conspicuousness in the field, coupled with the spiders' reaction to our manipulation, could be the result of plasticity in response to prey.

  13. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Y.; Guinet, C.; Arnould, J. P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R2/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  14. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Cherel, Y; Guinet, C; Arnould, J P Y

    2016-07-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R (2)/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  15. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector

    PubMed Central

    Nell, Lucas A.; Frederick, Peter C.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Vliet, Kent A.; Brandt, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction. PMID:26934602

  16. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  17. Metabolism and aging: effects of cold exposure on metabolic rate, body composition, and longevity in mice.

    PubMed

    Vaanholt, Lobke M; Daan, Serge; Schubert, Kristin A; Visser, G Henk

    2009-01-01

    The proposition that increased energy expenditure shortens life has a long history. The rate-of-living theory (Pearl 1928 ) states that life span and average mass-specific metabolic rate are inversely proportional. Originally based on interspecific allometric comparisons between species of mammals, the theory was later rejected on the basis of comparisons between taxa (e.g., birds have higher metabolic rates than mammals of the same size and yet live longer). It has rarely been experimentally tested within species. Here, we investigated the effects of increased energy expenditure, induced by cold exposure, on longevity in mice. Longevity was measured in groups of 60 male mice maintained at either 22 degrees C (WW) or 10 degrees C (CC) throughout adult life. Forty additional mice were maintained at both of these temperatures to determine metabolic rate (by stable isotope turnover, gas exchange, and food intake) as well as the mass of body and organs of subsets of animals at four different ages. Because energy expenditure might affect longevity by either accumulating damage or by instantaneously affecting mortality rate, we included a third group of mice exposed to 10 degrees C early in life and to 22 degrees C afterward (CW). Exposure to cold increased mean daily energy expenditure by ca. 48% (from 47.8 kJ d(-1) in WW to 70.6 kJ d(-1) in CC mice, with CW intermediate at 59.9 kJ d(-1)). However, we observed no significant differences in median life span among the groups (WW, 832 d; CC, 834 d; CW, 751 d). CC mice had reduced body mass (lifetime mean 30.7 g) compared with WW mice (33.8 g), and hence their lifetime energy potential (LEP) per gram whole-body mass had an even larger excess than per individual. Greenberg ( 1999 ) has pointed out that the size of the energetically costly organs, rather than that of the whole body, may be relevant for the rate-of-living idea. We therefore expressed LEP also in terms of energy expenditure per gram dry lean mass or per gram

  18. ‘Keeping your body and mind active’: an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and ‘semistructured’ participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. Participants 27 participants (65–80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Setting Participants’ homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. Results All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. ‘Getting out of the house’, being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their ‘activeness’. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Conclusions Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its

  19. Suture Dynamics of the Banda Arc Collision Zone: Geochemical and Age Analysis of Ultramafic and Mafic Bodies in Timor, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, J. M.; Harris, R. A.; Spencer, C. J.; Hoiland, C. W.; Flores, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    New age and geochemical data confirm that most ultramafic bodies on the north coast of Timor are derived from the distal reaches of the Australian continental margin lower plate that was exhumed by extension during Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifting. The ultramafic bodies were accreted to Timor during Late Miocene to present arc-continent collision. One of the lherzolitic ultramafic bodies near Caicua was previously unknown, but yields clear isotopic indicators that it is kin to the Hili Manu mafic and ultramafic complex further to the west. Zircon grains from metagabbro of the Hili Manu complex have cores with mostly Early Permian ages and rims of Latest Miocene ages. Isotopic analysis indicates abyssal plain, or passive margin affinity of the Caicua ultramafic body. One important exception to this pattern are mafic and ultramafic bodies associated with the Ocussi volcanics, which yield Miocene and Pliocene ages and supra-subduction zone chemical signatures. The Ocussi body is clearly part of the upper plate of the collision and formed after collision initiated further to the east. It is also structurally higher than the Hili Manu complex and has no affinities with the Australian plate. This study documents that both the upper and lower plates of the active arc-continent collision contribute mafic and ultramafic rocks to the evolving suture zone between the Indo-Australian and Asian plates in the Banda Arc region.

  20. Number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) crossbred gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate. The genital organs from 316 gilts were examined for gross abnormalities, and those with normal cyclic ovaries (n=155, 307 ± 4.1 days of age, 148 ± 1.6 kg body weight) were included in the analyses. Number of ovulations was defined by a count of the corpora lutea (CL) from both ovaries. On average, the number of ovulations in LY gilts was 15.9 ± 0.3 (range 4 to 27). The number of ovulations correlated with the body weight (r=0.31, P<0.001) and growth rate (r=0.20, P=0.015) of the gilts, but not with their age (P>0.05). Gilts with a body weight of 141 to 150 kg (17.0 CL, n=31) ovulated more than those with a body weight ≤130 kg (14.1 CL, P=0.014, n=23). In conclusion, both the body weight and growth rate of the gilts were significantly correlated with the number of ovulations. The maximum number of ovulations was found in gilts at a body weight of above 141 kg.

  1. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  2. Nutritional modulation of IGF-1 in relation to growth and body condition in Sceloporus lizards.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christine A; Jetzt, Amanda E; Cohick, Wendie S; John-Alder, Henry B

    2015-05-15

    Nutrition and energy balance are important regulators of growth and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. However, our understanding of these functions does not extend uniformly to all classes of vertebrates and is mainly limited to controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards can be useful models to improve our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis because many species are relatively easy to observe and manipulate both in the laboratory and in the field. In the present study, the effects of variation in food intake on growth, body condition, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA levels were measured in (1) juveniles of Sceloporus jarrovii maintained on a full or 1/3 ration and (2) hatchlings of Sceloporus undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. These parameters plus plasma IGF-1 were measured in a third experiment using adults of S. undulatus subjected to full or zero ration with or without re-feeding. In all experiments, plasma corticosterone was measured as an anticipated indicator of nutritional stress. In S. jarrovii, growth and body condition were reduced but lizards remained in positive energy balance on 1/3 ration, and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and plasma corticosterone were not affected in comparison to full ration. In S. undulatus, growth, body condition, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, and plasma IGF-1 were all reduced by zero ration and restored by refeeding. Plasma corticosterone was increased in response to zero ration and restored by full ration in hatchlings but not adults of S. undulatus. These data indicate that lizards conform to the broader vertebrate model in which severe food deprivation and negative energy balance is required to attenuate systemic IGF-1 expression. However, when animals remain in positive energy balance, reduced food intake does not appear to affect systemic IGF-1. Consistent with other studies on lizards, the corticosterone response to reduced food intake is an unreliable indicator

  3. Association of size at birth with adolescent hormone levels, body size and age at menarche: relevance for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Opdahl, S; Nilsen, T I L; Romundstad, P R; Vanky, E; Carlsen, S M; Vatten, L J

    2008-07-01

    Birth size has been positively associated with age at menarche and height in adolescence and adulthood, but the relevant biological mechanisms remain unclear. Among 262 Norwegian term-born singleton girls, birth size measures (weight, length, ponderal index, head circumference and subscapular skin-fold thickness) were analysed in relation to adolescent hormone levels (oestradiol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione and free testosterone index), age at menarche and adolescent (ages 12.7-15.5 years) and body size (height, weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio) using survival analysis and general linear modelling. The results were adjusted for gestational age at birth, age and menarcheal status at measurement in adolescence and maternal age at menarche. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were positively associated with adolescent weight and height, and small birth size was associated with earlier age at menarche. Subscapular skin-fold thickness at birth was not associated with adolescent body size, but low fold-thickness was associated with earlier age at menarche. Measures of birth size were inversely related to circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in adolescence, but there was no clear association with other hormones. These results suggest that physical and sexual development in puberty and adolescence is influenced by prenatal factors, and in combination, these factors may influence health and disease later in life. PMID:18594544

  4. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P < 0.001) and was partially reciprocated by a 6.0% increase in resting (F1,154 = 7.629, P = 0.006), 0.9% increase in maintenance (F1,154 = 7.028, P = 0.009), and 1.8% increase in social behavior (F1,154 = 15.064, P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in body condition of treated versus control females (F1,154 = 0.033, P = 0.856), but females with a dependent foal had lower body condition than those without a foal (F1,154 = 4.512, P = 0.038). Herding behavior was best explained by a model of treatment and the interaction of band fidelity and foal presence (AICc weight = 0.660) which estimated no difference in rate of herding behavior directed toward control versus treated females (F1,102 = 0.196, P = 0.659), but resident females without a dependent foal were herded 50.9% more than resident females with a foal (F3,102 = 8.269, P < 0.001). Treated females received 54.5% more reproductive behaviors from stallions than control mares (F1,105 = 5.155, P = 0.025), with the model containing only treatment being the most-supported (AICc weight = 0.530). Treated and control females received harem-tending behaviors

  5. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Brock, Patrick M; Hall, Ailsa J; Goodman, Simon J; Cruz, Marilyn; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on individuals, which

  6. The whole body cryostimulation modifies irisin concentration and reduces inflammation in middle aged, obese men.

    PubMed

    Dulian, Katarzyna; Laskowski, Radosław; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kujach, Sylwester; Flis, Damian J; Smaruj, Mirosław; Ziemann, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect induced by exposure to low temperature might trigger the endocrine function of muscle and fat tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the whole body cryostimulation (CRY) on irisin, a myokine which activates oxygen consumption in fat cells as well as thermogenesis. In addition, the relationship between hepcidin (Hpc) - hormone regulating iron metabolism, and inflammation was studied. A group of middle aged men (n = 12, 38 ± 9 years old, BMI > 30 kg m(-2)) participated in the study. Subjects were exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (once a day at 9:30 am, for 3 min, at temperature -110 °C). Blood samples were collected before the first cryostimulation and after completing the last one. Prior to treatment body composition and fitness level were determined. The applied protocol of cryostimulation lead to rise the blood irisin in obese non-active men (338.8 ± 42.2 vs 407.6 ± 118.5 ng mL(-1)), whereas has no effect in obese active men (371.5 ± 30.0 vs 343.3 ± 47.6 ng mL(-1)). Values recorded 24 h after the last cryo-session correlated significantly with the fat tissue, yet inversely with the skeletal muscle mass. Therefore, we concluded the subcutaneous fat tissue to be the main source of irisin in response to cold exposures. The applied cold treatment reduced the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hpc concentration confirming its anti-inflammatory effect.

  7. Temporal associations between low body condition, lameness and milk yield in a UK dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Green, L E; Huxley, J N; Banks, C; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has hypothesised that cows in low body condition become lame. We tested this in a prospective longitudinal study. Body condition score (BCS), causes of lameness and milk yield were collected from a 600-cow herd over 44-months. Mixed effect binomial models and a continuous outcome model were used to investigate the associations between lameness, BCS and milk yield. In total, 14,320 risk periods were obtained from 1137 cows. There were 1510 lameness treatments: the most common causes of lameness were sole ulcer (SU) (39%), sole haemorrhage (SH) (13%), digital dermatitis (DD) (10%) and white line disease (WLD) (8%). These varied by year and year quarter. Body condition was scored at 60-day intervals. BCS ranged from 1 to 5 with a mean of 2.5, scores were higher in very early lactation but varied widely throughout lactation; approximately 45% of scores were <2.5. The key finding was that BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for lameness in the following 0-2 months and >2-4 months for all causes of lameness and also specifically for SU/WLD lameness. BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for SH in the following 0-2 months but not >2-4 months. There was no such association with DD. All lameness, SU/WLD, SH and DD were significantly more likely to occur in cows that had been lame previously, but the effect of BCS was present even when all repeat cases of lameness were excluded from the analysis. Milk yield was significantly higher and fell in the month before treatment in cows lame with SU/WLD but it was not significantly higher for cows that were treated for DD compared with non-lame cows. These findings support the hypothesis that low BCS contributes to the development of horn related claw lameness but not infectious claw diseases in dairy cows. One link between low BCS and lameness is a thin digital cushion which has been proposed as a trigger for claw horn disease. Cows with BCS 2 produced more milk than cows

  8. Rectal temperature time of death nomogram: dependence of corrective factors on the body weight under stronger thermic insulation conditions.

    PubMed

    Henssge, C

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-eight test coolings were made under various cooling conditions (moving air, two types of both clothing and covering) on dummies of real masses of 1, 3.3, 9.9, 24.5 and 33.4 kg, respectively, which cool under standard conditions (unclothed, uncovered, still air) like human bodies of 14, 33, 41, 83 and 104 kg, respectively. The results provide evidence of a non-linear dependence of corrective factors of body weight upon the body weight. The dynamics of the dependence increases with the thickness of thermic insulation. Transferred to the use of the nomogram method on bodies, cooling conditions requiring corrective factors between 0.75 (moving air) and 1.3 (rather thin clothing/covering), known from experience on bodies of an average weight, can be used as in the past, independent of the body weight. According to experience the dependence of corrective factors on the body weight must be taken into account in bodies of a very high or low body weight. For that purpose both a simplified table and a formula for computing is given.

  9. Exploring "Other Body(s)" of Knowledge: Getting to the Heart of the Story about Aging and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Bevan C.; Kluge, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Aging is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon subject to a continual redefining of the physical, social, psychological, and cultural self. The collective of these subtleties poses a number of challenges for policy makers, program and community leaders, health professionals, and researchers when trying to enhance quality of life for older…

  10. A behavioral stages model of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: application to cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Powell, D A

    1999-01-01

    In the present article, it is argued that a five-stage sequential model of the behavioral and neurophysiological events that occur when organisms are exposed to signals predicting significant events suggests that classical conditioning produces multiple memory traces involving both excitatory and inhibitory processes. Further, these multiple brain structures and associated neurophysiological mechanisms are beginning to be understood; thus, using Pavlovian conditioning techniques to study aging and cognitive functions may provide insights into which brain structures or mechanisms are responsible for more general age-related declines in associative learning and memory. The evidence for this model is briefly reviewed and studies suggesting age-related effects on classical conditioning of various response systems are described within the context of the brain structures implicated by the model.

  11. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  12. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  13. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating child body burdens of polychlorodibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Kerger, Brent D; Leung, Hon-Wing; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-04-01

    We modified our prior age-dependent half-life model to characterize the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens associated with dietary and environmental exposure to polychlorodibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Several exposure scenarios were evaluated. Infants were assumed to be either breast-fed or formula-fed from birth to 6 months of age. They then received intakes of PCDD/Fs through age 7 from foods based on weighted means estimates [JECFA, 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives. Fifty-seventh meeting, Rome, June 5-14 , 2001, pp. 24-40], and with or without exposures (ingestion and dermal) to urban residential soils at 1ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). A one-compartment (adipose volume) toxicokinetic model for TCDD described by Kreuzer [Kreuzer, P.F., Csanady, Gy.A., et al., 1997. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and congeners in infants. A toxicokinetic model of human lifetime body burden by TCDD with special emphasis on its uptake by nutrition. Arch. Toxicol. 71, 383-400] was expanded to include the key non-TCDD congeners in human breast milk and adipose tissues, and two model parameter refinements were examined: (1) use of updated and more detailed age-correlated body fat mass data [CDC, 2000. Centers for Disease Control. CDC Growth Charts: United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Number 314, December 2000]; (2) use of breast milk PCDD/F concentration data from sampling completed in 2000-2003 [Wittsiepe, J., Fürst, P., et al., 2004. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers. Organohalogen Compd. 66, 2865-2872]. The updated body fat mass data nearly halved the predicted peak body burden for breast-feeding and lowered the time-weighted average (TWA) body burdens from ages 0-7 by 30-40% for breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Combined use of the updated breast milk PCDD/F concentration and body fat

  14. On the biodegradation performance of an Mg-Y-RE alloy with various surface conditions in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Hänzi, Anja C; Gunde, Petra; Schinhammer, Michael; Uggowitzer, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the influence of different surface conditions produced by various heat treatments on the in vitro degradation performance of an Mg-Y-RE alloy (WE43) investigated by immersion in simulated body fluid. WE43 samples were, respectively (i) annealed at 525 degrees C (plus artificial aging at 250 degrees C in one case) and afterwards polished; and (ii) polished, annealed at 500 degrees C in air and subsequently investigated in the oxidized state. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a mass gain during oxidation in air, following a square-root law over time. X-ray diffraction spectra imply a growing Y(2)O(3) layer upon oxidation, and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles show an increased oxide layer thickness which develops according to the behavior observed by TGA. Macroscopically, the degradation performance of the differently heat-treated samples can be divided into two groups. Annealed and polished samples show a fast and homogeneous degradation which slows with time. Their degradation behavior is approximated by a parabolic law. Oxidized samples exhibit a slow initial degradation rate which increases when the protection of the oxide layer is reduced. Overall, they reveal a sigmoidal degradation behavior. Here the differing degradation performances of the annealed-polished and the oxidized samples are related to the different surface conditions and explained on the basis of a depletion hypothesis.

  15. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors.

  16. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors. PMID:17024381

  17. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 mg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20e22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  18. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Overton, C.T.; Casazza, M.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Keister, R.A.; Herzog, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 ??g/g ww in blood (range: 0.15-1.43), 9.87 ??g/g fw in head feathers (3.37-22.0), 9.04 ??g/g fw in breast feathers (3.68-20.2), and 0.57 ??g/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15-2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58-0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20-22 g (5-7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Cassazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  20. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  1. Bioavailability of freshly added and aged naphthalene in soils under gastric pH conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Simkins, S.; Xing, B.

    1999-12-01

    The bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals decreases with aging in soil because of sequestration. However, assessments of the risk of exposure to contaminated soils are usually dependent on either chemical concentrations, which are measured using vigorous extraction methods, or models that assume an equilibrium without considering the actual conditions. The objective of this research was to determine the availability and desorption kinetics of freshly added and aged naphthalene from a peat and a mineral soil; naphthalene was desorbed into solutions with pH levels that approximate those found in different gastric regions. Soil and peat samples were spiked with radiolabeled and unlabeled naphthalene at 2 and 20 {micro}g/g and were aged from 0 to 135 d. Desorption kinetics were determined using a simulated stomach solution and a neutral solution that represented the pH of intestinal conditions and most soils. Peat sorbed much more naphthalene than did soil, and it allowed little desorption. Though both acidic and neutral extracting solutions could desorb naphthalene, little apparent effect of aging was observed in peat, whereas desorption from soil declined markedly with aging. In addition, the percentage of naphthalene that desorbed from soil was greater for the higher incubation concentration. The desorption of naphthalene from the peat and soil was higher into the neutral solution than into the gastric solution. These results suggest that aging, exposure conditions, concentration effect, and organic matter content should be taken into account in predictive models and risk assessments.

  2. Coupled-rearrangement-channels calculation of the three-body system under the absorbing boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, M.; Otani, R.; Ito, M.; Kamimura, M.

    2016-06-01

    We formulate the absorbing boundary condition (ABC) in the coupled rearrangement-channels variational method (CRCVM) for the three-body problem. The absorbing potential is introduced in the system of the identical three-bosons, on which the boson symmetry is explicitly imposed by considering the rearrangement channels. The resonance parameters and the strength of the monopole breakup are calculated by the CRCVM + ABC method, and the results are compared with the complex scaling method (CSM). We have found that the results of the ABC method are consistent with the CSM results. The effect of the boson symmetry, which is often neglected in the calculation of the triple α reactions, is also discussed.

  3. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badzinski, S.S.; Flint, P.L.; Gorman, K.B.; Petrie, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 ??g g-1 dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 ??g g-1 dw), and selenium (Se: >10 ??g g-1 dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  5. Influence of an active stable system on the behavior and body condition of Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Bentke, A; Rose-Meierhöfer, S; Berg, W; Mazetti, P; Hardarson, G H

    2012-10-01

    Horses are often stabled in individual boxes, a method that does not meet their natural needs and may cause psychical and musculoskeletal diseases. This problem is particularly evident in Iceland, where horses often spend the long winter periods in cramped boxes. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability of a group housing system in Iceland, but the results are also applicable to horses of other regions. Eight Icelandic horses were observed in an active stable system, and their behavior and time budget were recorded. Movement and lying behavior were studied with ALT (Activity, Lying, Temperature detection) pedometers. The effect of an automatic concentrate feeding station (CFS) on the horses' behavior was examined. In the first period of investigation, the horses were fed concentrates manually, and in the second period, they were fed with the CFS. Additional behavioral observations and a determination of social hierarchy occurred directly or by video surveillance. The physical condition of the horses was recorded by body weight (BW) measurement and body condition scoring (BCS). The results showed a significant increase between the first and second trial periods in both the activity (P < 0.001) and the lying time (P = 0.003) of the horses with use of the CFS. However, there was no significant change in BW during the first period without the CFS (P = 0.884) or during the second period with the CFS (P = 0.540). The BCS of the horses was constant at a very good level during both trial periods, and the horses showed a low level of aggression, a firm social hierarchy and behavioral synchronization. This study concludes that group housing according to the active stable principle is a welfare-friendly option for keeping horses and is a suitable alternative to conventional individual boxes. PMID:22717220

  6. Genetic and environmental relationships between body condition score and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Loker, S; Bastin, C; Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Schaeffer, L R; Jamrozik, J; Ali, A; Osborne, V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters of first-lactation body condition score (BCS), milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), somatic cell score (SCS), milk urea nitrogen (MUN), lactose percentage (Lact%), and fat to protein ratio (F:P) using multiple-trait random regression animal models. Changes in covariances between BCS and milk production traits on a daily basis have not been investigated before and could be useful for determining which BCS estimated breeding values (EBV) might be practical for selection in the future. Field staff from Valacta milk recording agency (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) collected BCS from Québec herds several times per cow throughout the lactation. Average daily heritabilities and genetic correlations among the various traits were similar to literature values. On an average daily basis, BCS was genetically unfavorably correlated with milk yield (i.e., increased milk yield was associated with lower body condition). The unfavorable genetic correlation between BCS and milk yield became stronger as lactation progressed, but was equivalent to zero for the first month of lactation. Favorable genetic correlations were found between BCS with Prot%, SCS, and Lact% (i.e., greater BCS was associated with greater Prot%, lower SCS, and greater Lact%). These correlations were strongest in early lactation. On an average daily basis, BCS was not genetically correlated with Fat% or MUN, but was negatively correlated with F:P. Furthermore, BCS at 5 and 50 d in milk (DIM) had the most favorable genetic correlations with milk production traits over the lactation (at 5, 50, 150, and 250 DIM). Thus, early lactation BCS EBV shows potential for selection. Regardless, this study showed that the level of association BCS has with milk production traits is not constant over the lactation. Simultaneous selection for both BCS and milk production traits should be considered, mainly due to the unfavorable

  7. Increasing body mass index, blood pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans abnormalities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Otto, Debra E; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A; Rodriguez, Melinda C; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with AN as the dependent variable, with year, gender, BMI, and BP as independent variables. The results indicate that the rate of children in each grade with three positive markers increased 2% during a 3-year period between 2008 and 2010. In the 5-year period between 2005 and 2010, a clear trend of significantly higher numbers of children with both AN and BMI markers was apparent. Gender played a significant role as females were more likely to have the AN marker than males. Further study is indicated based on the increasing trend of school-age children in Texas with positive markers for AN, increased BMI and BP.

  8. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G0. A lower ruminal pH and ammonia N but higher total N and trichloroacetic acid-precipitable N, an increase in holotrichs, spirotrichs and total protozoa population, increase in haemoglobin but decrease in serum total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were observed in high-concentrate-fed groups. Carcass attributes revealed increase (P < 0.05) in empty LW, dressing yield, eye muscle area, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, decrease in shear force value and higher (P < 0.05) protein content in Longissimus dorsi muscle in test groups than in the control. Above all, the G2 animals had better rumen environment and blood biochemical attributes and consumed more feed with enhanced digestibility that supported higher LWG at better feed conversion efficiency, improvement in BCS and carcass quality. Thus, re-alimentation of

  9. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G0. A lower ruminal pH and ammonia N but higher total N and trichloroacetic acid-precipitable N, an increase in holotrichs, spirotrichs and total protozoa population, increase in haemoglobin but decrease in serum total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were observed in high-concentrate-fed groups. Carcass attributes revealed increase (P < 0.05) in empty LW, dressing yield, eye muscle area, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, decrease in shear force value and higher (P < 0.05) protein content in Longissimus dorsi muscle in test groups than in the control. Above all, the G2 animals had better rumen environment and blood biochemical attributes and consumed more feed with enhanced digestibility that supported higher LWG at better feed conversion efficiency, improvement in BCS and carcass quality. Thus, re-alimentation of

  10. Relationship of Body Composition to Somatotype in Boys Ages 7 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, M. H.; Lohman, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    The authors conclude that endomorphy and the first component of Heath and Carter's anthropometric method reflect body fatness to a considerable degree, but that little association between lean body mass and mesomorphy or the second component exists in children. (Author)

  11. Body mass index and age at menarche in Peruvian children living at high altitude and at sea level.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Villena, A

    1996-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and age at menarche in girls (aged 10-19 years) living in Lima (150 m) and in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m above sea level). The purpose of the study was to determine whether the relationships between BMI and both age at menarche and chronological age differ between girls living at low and at high altitude. The ratio weight/height (the Benn index) was used in the present study as a variant of BMI because the exponent minimizes the relationship with height and maximizes the relationship with weight. From 10 to 16 years of age the Benn index of highlander girls was lower than that for girls at sea level, but at 17-19 years the differences disappeared. A later age at menarche was observed at high altitude than at sea level after controlling for socioeconomic status and for the Benn index. The value of the Benn index at the time of menarche, after controlling for chronological age in the analysis, was significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. It was also observed that the higher the chronological age, the lower the value of the Benn index at the time of menarche. Using the median ages at menarche in Lima and in Cerro de Pasco, we found that a higher Benn index at the time of menarche is still observed at high altitude compared with girls from sea level. In Lima body weight and height were directly related to age at menarche (p < 0.001 and p < 0.005, respectively), whereas in Cerro de Pasco only weight was related to age at menarche (p < 0.001). The value of body weight at the time of menarche, after controlling for height in the analysis, was significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. The stepwise multiple regression analysis of data from 93 girls having menarche at the time of or at most one month before the study showed that weight and altitude x height are predictors of age at menarche. These data suggest that age at menarche has an effect on both age

  12. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  13. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  14. Conditional Survival of All Primary Brain Tumor Patients by Age, Behavior, and Histology

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kimberly R.; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Davis, Faith G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival statistics commonly reflect survival from the time of diagnosis but do not take into account survival already achieved after a diagnosis. The objective of this study was to provide conditional survival estimates for brain tumor patients as a more accurate measure of survival for those who have already survived for a specified amount of time after diagnosis. Methods Data on primary malignant and nonmalignant brain tumor cases diagnosed from 1985–2005 from selected SEER state cancer registries were obtained. Relative survival up to 15 years postdiagnosis and varying relative conditional survival rates were computed using the life-table method. Results The overall 1-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis was 67.8% compared to the 6-month relative conditional survival rate of 85.7% for 6-month survivors (the probability of surviving to 1 year given survival to 6 months). The 10-year overall relative survival rate was 49.5% from time of diagnosis compared to the 8-year relative conditional survival rate of 79.2% for 2-year survivors. Conditional survival estimates and standard survival estimates varied by histology, behavior, and age at diagnosis. The 5-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis for glioblastoma was 3.6% compared to the 3-year relative conditional survival rate of 36.4% for 2-year survivors. For most nonmalignant tumors, the difference between relative survival and the corresponding conditional survival estimates were minimal. Older age groups had greater numeric gains in survival but lower conditional survival estimates than other age groups. Similar findings were seen for other conditional survival intervals. Conclusions Conditional survival is a useful disease surveillance measure for clinicians and brain tumor survivors to provide them with better ‘real-time’ estimates and hope. PMID:21677447

  15. Appropriate solid-body models as initial conditions for SPH-based numerical collision experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, C.; Maindl, T. I.; Dvorak, R.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.

    2016-02-01

    Providing the simulation algorithm with suitable initial conditions is a crucial first step in almost all numerical computations, except for the most trivial cases. Even the most sophisticated simulation program will not produce meaningful results if not started with an appropriate initial configuration, satisfying demands like isotropy, a low level of noise and physical accuracy. Some of these requirements are unique to Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) - the numerical method considered here - others are of fundamental relevance, independent of the chosen numerical technique. The main focus of this work lies on considerations concerning initial conditions for subsequent SPH simulation runs. The geometrical arrangement of an initial SPH particle setup is discussed, particularly w.r.t. regular lattice configurations and associated symmetry effects. In order to avoid unphysical behavior the initial particle configuration has to be in a relaxed (i.e. equilibrated) state where necessary. This is of particular importance for simulations of giant collisions, where the involved bodies naturally exhibit a hydrostatic internal structure. Beyond the common numerical procedure, a semi-analytical approach for relaxation is introduced and validated, practically eliminating the need for spending significant amounts of valuable computing time solely for the production of a relaxed initial state in a lot of situations. Finally the basic relevance of relaxation itself is studied, focusing on collision simulations in different mass ranges important in the context of planet formation and the transport of water.

  16. N-body simulations with generic non-Gaussian initial conditions II: halo bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia

    2012-03-01

    We present N-body simulations for generic non-Gaussian initial conditions with the aim of exploring and modelling the scale-dependent halo bias. This effect is evident on very large scales requiring large simulation boxes. In addition, the previously available prescription to implement generic non-Gaussian initial conditions has been improved to keep under control higher-order terms which were spoiling the power spectrum on large scales. We pay particular attention to the differences between physical, inflation-motivated primordial bispectra and their factorizable templates, and to the operational definition of the non-Gaussian halo bias (which has both a scale-dependent and an approximately scale-independent contributions). We find that analytic predictions for both the non-Gaussian halo mass function and halo bias work well once a fudge factor (which was introduced before but still lacks convincing physical explanation) is calibrated on simulations. The halo bias remains therefore an extremely promising tool to probe primordial non-Gaussianity and thus to give insights into the physical mechanism that generated the primordial perturbations. The simulation outputs and tables of the analytic predictions will be made publicly available via the non-Gaussian comparison project web site http://icc.ub.edu/~liciaverde/NGSCP.html.

  17. Estimating geographic variation on allometric growth and body condition of Blue Suckers with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.; Terrell, J.W.; Neely, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of how environmental factors affect fish body condition and improving its utility as a metric of aquatic system health require reliable estimates of spatial variation in condition (weight at length). We used three statistical approaches that varied in how they accounted for heterogeneity in allometric growth to estimate differences in body condition of blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus across 19 large-river locations in the central USA. Quantile regression of an expanded allometric growth model provided the most comprehensive estimates, including variation in exponents within and among locations (range = 2.88–4.24). Blue suckers from more-southerly locations had the largest exponents. Mixed-effects mean regression of a similar expanded allometric growth model allowed exponents to vary among locations (range = 3.03–3.60). Mean relative weights compared across selected intervals of total length (TL = 510–594 and 594–692 mm) in a multiplicative model involved the implicit assumption that allometric exponents within and among locations were similar to the exponent (3.46) for the standard weight equation. Proportionate differences in the quantiles of weight at length for adult blue suckers (TL = 510, 594, 644, and 692 mm) compared with their average across locations ranged from 1.08 to 1.30 for southern locations (Texas, Mississippi) and from 0.84 to 1.00 for northern locations (Montana, North Dakota); proportionate differences for mean weight ranged from 1.13 to 1.17 and from 0.87 to 0.95, respectively, and those for mean relative weight ranged from 1.10 to 1.18 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. Weights for fish at longer lengths varied by 600–700 g within a location and by as much as 2,000 g among southern and northern locations. Estimates for the Wabash River, Indiana (0.96–1.07 times the average; greatest increases for lower weights at shorter TLs), and for the Missouri River from Blair, Nebraska, to Sioux City, Iowa (0.90

  18. Aging of Nanocarbons in Ambient Conditions: probable metastability of carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Kim, Pyoungchung; Meyer III, Harry M; Agnihotri, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We studied the physicochemical properties of several commercially available single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs) and fullerenes stored in normal ambient conditions for 24 months. We found that SWNTs exhibit a trend of decreasing surface area and pore volume up to 7 to 15 months but then stabilized, no longer being impacted by sample age or outgassing temperatures. Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, we also observed a trend of decreasing surface oxygen in all samples from the beginning with much lower % oxygen observed after 12 to 15 months of aging under ambient conditions. The surface oxygen then stabilized for the duration of this study. There was also evidence that the total structural-defect concentration, estimated from Raman spectroscopy, was somehow lowered during the aging process. The decrease in surface oxygen is an unexpected phenomenon because most other carbons, such as activated carbons or carbon molecular sieves, either oxidize or remain unaffected by age. We believe that nanocarbons are meta-stable materials (in pseudo-thermodynamic equilibrium), and that their aging in ambient conditions makes them more thermodynamically stable with fixed properties. This new information about the properties of nanocarbons should be further explored as it can help resolve some of the conflicting reports such as those about the environmental impacts of nanomaterials.

  19. Chemiluminescence as a condition monitoring method for thermal aging and lifetime prediction of an HTPB elastomer.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Minier, Leanna M. G.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Trujillo, Ana B.

    2007-03-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) has been applied as a condition monitoring technique to assess aging related changes in a hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene based polyurethane elastomer. Initial thermal aging of this polymer was conducted between 110 and 50 C. Two CL methods were applied to examine the degradative changes that had occurred in these aged samples: isothermal 'wear-out' experiments under oxygen yielding initial CL intensity and 'wear-out' time data, and temperature ramp experiments under inert conditions as a measure of previously accumulated hydroperoxides or other reactive species. The sensitivities of these CL features to prior aging exposure of the polymer were evaluated on the basis of qualifying this method as a quick screening technique for quantification of degradation levels. Both the techniques yielded data representing the aging trends in this material via correlation with mechanical property changes. Initial CL rates from the isothermal experiments are the most sensitive and suitable approach for documenting material changes during the early part of thermal aging.

  20. The physical conditions and age indicated by the flora of the Alum Bluff formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Edward Wilber

    1917-01-01

    The present paper has for its purpose the description of a small flora collected from the Alum Bluff formation, representing a horizon hitherto unrepresented paleobotanically in southeastern North America, and the discussion of the bearing of this flora on the physical conditions of deposition and the probable age of the deposits.

  1. Age-related declines in car following performance under simulated fog conditions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Kang, Julie J; Andersen, George J

    2010-05-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in car following performance when contrast of the driving scene was reduced by simulated fog. Older (mean age of 72.6) and younger (mean age of 21.1) drivers were presented with a car following scenario in a simulator in which a lead vehicle (LV) varied speed according to a sum of three sine wave functions. Drivers were shown an initial following distance of 18 m and were asked to maintain headway distance by controlling speed to match changes in LV speed. Five simulated fog conditions were examined ranging from a no fog condition (contrast of 0.55) to a high fog condition (contrast of 0.03). Average LV speed varied across trials (40, 60, or 80 km/h). The results indicated age-related declines in car following performance for both headway distance and RMS (root mean square) error in matching speed. The greatest decline occurred at moderate speeds under the highest fog density condition, with older drivers maintaining a headway distance that was 21% closer than younger drivers. At higher speeds older drivers maintained a greater headway distance than younger drivers. These results suggest that older drivers may be at greater risk for a collision under high fog density and moderate speeds.

  2. Exploration of virtual body-representation in adolescence: the role of age and sex in avatar customization.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Gatti, Elena; Triberti, Stefano; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The malleable nature of the self led researchers to investigate the meaning of virtual identity by exploring virtual self-representation through avatars and its association with users' identity. The present study aims to investigate the changes in virtual body-representation in adolescence related to age levels and sex and the association with adolescents' self-esteem and body esteem. Anthropometric features, body esteem and self-esteem were used to assess adolescents' body image and identity. The scoring code of the "Drawing Me" graphical test was used to evaluate the avatars. The sample is composed of 63 adolescents of different ages-early, middle and late adolescence-balanced by sex. Results show that the creation of a digital avatar changes with age and is partially associated with adolescents' perceptions in terms of body esteem and self-esteem. Moreover, the creation of avatars occurs differently for boys, who enrich their avatars with many sexual features, than for girls, who prefer to detail their avatars' clothing to enrich them. Critical reflections and implications for psychological interventions that may use avatars to investigate adolescents' identity in integration with other tools will be discussed.

  3. Exploration of virtual body-representation in adolescence: the role of age and sex in avatar customization.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Gatti, Elena; Triberti, Stefano; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The malleable nature of the self led researchers to investigate the meaning of virtual identity by exploring virtual self-representation through avatars and its association with users' identity. The present study aims to investigate the changes in virtual body-representation in adolescence related to age levels and sex and the association with adolescents' self-esteem and body esteem. Anthropometric features, body esteem and self-esteem were used to assess adolescents' body image and identity. The scoring code of the "Drawing Me" graphical test was used to evaluate the avatars. The sample is composed of 63 adolescents of different ages-early, middle and late adolescence-balanced by sex. Results show that the creation of a digital avatar changes with age and is partially associated with adolescents' perceptions in terms of body esteem and self-esteem. Moreover, the creation of avatars occurs differently for boys, who enrich their avatars with many sexual features, than for girls, who prefer to detail their avatars' clothing to enrich them. Critical reflections and implications for psychological interventions that may use avatars to investigate adolescents' identity in integration with other tools will be discussed. PMID:27376008

  4. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  5. Age-Dependent Impairment of Eyeblink Conditioning in Prion Protein-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Hirono, Moritoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Yoshioka, Tohru; Katamine, Shigeru; Kirino, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Mice lacking the prion protein (PrPC) gene (Prnp), Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice, show late-onset cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration because of ectopic overexpression of PrPC-like protein (PrPLP/Dpl). Because PrPC is highly expressed in cerebellar neurons (including PCs and granule cells), it may be involved in cerebellar synaptic function and cerebellar cognitive function. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate the possible involvement of PrPC and/or PrPLP/Dpl in cerebellum-dependent discrete motor learning. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study was designed to examine cerebellum-dependent delay eyeblink conditioning in Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice in adulthood (16, 40, and 60 weeks of age). The aims of the present study were two-fold: (1) to examine the role of PrPC and/or PrPLP/Dpl in cerebellum-dependent motor learning and (2) to confirm the age-related deterioration of eyeblink conditioning in Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice as an animal model of progressive cerebellar degeneration. Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice aged 16 weeks exhibited intact acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs), although the CR timing was altered. The same result was observed in another line of PrPc-deficient mice, ZrchI PrnP0/0 mice. However, at 40 weeks of age, CR incidence impairment was observed in Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice. Furthermore, Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice aged 60 weeks showed more significantly impaired CR acquisition than Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice aged 40 weeks, indicating the temporal correlation between cerebellar PC degeneration and motor learning deficits. Our findings indicate the importance of the cerebellar cortex in delay eyeblink conditioning and suggest an important physiological role of prion protein in cerebellar motor learning. PMID:23593266

  6. Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Gain Among Reproductive Age Women with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle; Ainalem, Abinnet; Qiu, Chunfang; Peterlin, B. Lee; Aurora, Sheena K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between migraine and pre-gravid obesity; and to assess the risk of adult weight gain among women with history of a pediatric diagnosis of migraine. Background Obesity, comorbid with pain disorders including migraine, shares common pathophysiological characteristics including systemic inflammation, and derangements in adipose-tissue derived cytokines. Despite biochemical and epidemiological commonalities, obesity-migraine associations have been inconsistently observed. Methods A cohort of 3,733 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained participants’ self-reported history of physician-diagnosed migraine and collected self-reported information about pre-gravid weight, adult height and net weight change from age 18 to the 3-monthsperiodpriorto pregnancy. Using pre-gravid body mass index, we categorized participants as follows: lean (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2); overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2), severely obese (35–39.9 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m2). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After adjusting for confounders, relative to normal weight women, obese women had a 1.48-fold increased odds of migraine(OR=1.48; 95%CI 1.12–1.96). Severely obese (OR=2.07; 95%CI 1.27–3.39) and morbidly obese (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.60–4.70) had the highest odds of migraines. Women with a history of diagnosed pediatric migraine had a 1.67-fold higher odds of gaining ≥10.0 kg above their weight at age 18, as compared with non-migraineurs (OR=1.67; 95%CI 1.13–2.47). Conclusion These data support earlier observations of migraine-obesity association among women, and extend the literature to include evidence of adult weight gain among women with a history of pediatric migraine. PMID:21269300

  7. Air Pollution modifies the association between successful and pathological aging throughout the frailty condition.

    PubMed

    Fougère, Bertrand; Vellas, Bruno; Billet, Sylvain; Martin, Perrine J; Gallucci, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    The rapid growth in the number of older adults has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures. Aging leads to a decline and deterioration of functional properties at the cellular, tissue and organ level. This loss of functional properties yields to a loss of homeostasis and decreased adaptability to internal and external stress. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by weakness, weight loss, and low activity that is associated with adverse health outcomes. Frailty manifests as an age-related, biological vulnerability to stressors and decreased physiological reserves. Ambient air pollution exposure affects human health, and elderly people appear to be particularly susceptible to its adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of air pollution in the modulation of several biological mechanisms involved in aging. Evidence is presented on how air pollution can modify the bidirectional association between successful and pathological aging throughout the frailty conditions.

  8. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brun-Lafleur, L; Cutullic, E; Faverdin, P; Delaby, L; Disenhaus, C

    2013-08-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reproduction model sensitive to both MY and body condition score (BCS). A dynamic and stochastic individual reproduction model was built mainly from data of a single recent long-term experiment. This model covers the whole reproductive process and is composed of a succession of discrete stochastic events, mainly calving, ovulations, conception and embryonic loss. Each reproductive step is sensitive to MY or BCS levels or changes. The model takes into account recent evolutions of reproductive performance, particularly concerning calving-to-first ovulation interval, cyclicity (normal cycle length, prevalence of prolonged luteal phase), oestrus expression and pregnancy (conception, early and late embryonic loss). A sensitivity analysis of the model to MY and BCS at calving was performed. The simulated performance was compared with observed data from the database used to build the model and from the bibliography to validate the model. Despite comprising a whole series of reproductive steps, the model made it possible to simulate realistic global reproduction outputs. It was able to well simulate the overall reproductive performance observed in farms in terms of both success rate (recalving rate) and reproduction delays (calving interval). This model has the purpose to be integrated in herd simulation models to usefully test the impact of management strategies on herd reproductive performance, and thus on calving patterns and culling rates.

  9. Uranium and plutonium in hair as an indicator of body burden in mice of different age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.W.; Wyatt, J.H.; Wilson, D.J.; Dixon, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The uptake of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 in mice of different age and sex is examined in a controlled study. The animals received a single intraperitoneal dose of either plutonium-239 nitrate or uranium-235 nitrate at amounts of 0.2 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg respectively. Seven days after radioisotope administration, the animals were sacrificed and the uranium or plutonium content of the hair (including skin) was measured directly by delayed neutron analysis. Results show a higher retention of both uranium and plutonium in the whole body of young animals, but for specific whole body burden there was a marked increase with age for plutonium and only a slight increase for uranium. Sex did not appear to have any significant influence on the residual whole body or hair burdens. (JMT)

  10. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  11. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Crook, Tina A; Armbya, Narain; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M; Andres, Aline

    2012-12-01

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in measuring body fat mass in children at ages 3 to 5 years compared with a criterion method, deuterium oxide dilution (D(2)O), which estimates total body water and a commonly used methodology, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A prospective, cross-sectional cohort of 66 healthy children (35 girls) was recruited in the central Arkansas region between 2007 and 2009. Weight and height were obtained using standardized procedures. Fat mass (%) was measured using ADP, DXA, and D(2)O. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate the precision of the ADP techniques against D(2)O and DXA in children at ages 3 to 5 years. ADP concordance correlation coefficient for fat mass was weak (0.179) when compared with D(2)O. Bland-Altman plots revealed a low accuracy and large scatter of ADP fat mass (%) results (mean=-2.5, 95% CI -20.3 to 15.4) compared with D(2)O. DXA fat mass (%) results were more consistent although DXA systematically overestimated fat mass by 4% to 5% compared with D(2)O. Compared with D(2)O, ADP does not accurately assess percent fat mass in children aged 3 to 5 years. Thus, D(2)O, DXA, or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance may be considered better options for assessing fat mass in young children.

  12. Aging of a Polymer Core Composite Conductor under combined ozone and temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, James M.

    The next generation High Temperature Low Sag Polymer Core Composite Conductors (HTLS PCCC) can experience harsh in-service environments including high temperature and highly concentrated ozone. In some extreme cases, it is possible that the conductors will experience temperatures of up to 180°C and ozone concentrations as high as 1% (10,000 ppm). Therefore, the primary goal of this research was to determine the most damaging aging conditions which could negatively affect the in-service life of the conductors. This included characterizing the aging in ozone and at high temperature of the HTLS PCCC hybrid composite rods and neat resin. It was found that exposure to 1% ozone for up to three months at room temperature did not negatively affect the flexural performance of either the neat resin epoxy, or the hybrid composite rods. When aged up to a year at 140°C no detrimental effect on flexural performance of the composite was observed, as opposed to aging at 180°C, which had a very negative effect on the properties. The aging of the epoxy at 140°C was driven almost entirely by temperature and the effect of 1% ozone, even at that temperature, was insignificant for aging times up to ninety days. A finite element model was developed and showed the residual stresses developed after aging at 140°C for a year were minimal, but for temperatures higher than 160°C were substantial. From this it was determined that the aging was thermally driven, and atmospheric high temperatures were the most damaging conditions for the PCCC conductors.

  13. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  14. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species.

    PubMed

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress. PMID:27262291

  15. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  16. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species.

    PubMed

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  17. Sexual selection, multiple male ornaments, and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat.

    PubMed

    Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Taff, Conor C; Morin, Douglas F; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A; Tsang, Susan M

    2010-04-01

    In many animals, sexual selection has resulted in complex signaling systems in which males advertise aspects of their phenotypic or genetic quality through elaborate ornamentation and display behaviors. Different ornaments might convey different information or be directed at different receivers, but they might also be redundant signals of quality that function reliably at different times (ages) or in different contexts. We explored sexual selection and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler with two prominent plumage ornaments--a melanin-based, black facial "mask" and carotenoid-based, UV-yellow "bib." In a three-year study, variance among males in the number of social (M(w)) and extra-pair (M(e)) mates generated strong sexual selection on mask and bib attributes. Some traits (mask size, bib yellow brightness) were correlated with male age and did not experience selection beyond age-related increases in M(w) and M(e). Other traits showed age-specific (bib size) or age-reversed (ultraviolet brightness) patterns of selection that paralleled changes in the information-content of each ornament. The components of male fitness generating selection in young versus old males were distinct, reflecting different sources of variation in male fertilization success. Age- and context-dependent changes in the strength, direction, and target of selection may help explain the maintenance of multiple ornaments in this and other species.

  18. Accelerated aging phenotype in mice with conditional deficiency for mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Nicolai; Maity, Pallab; Singh, Karmveer; Kohn, Matthias; Keist, Alexander F; Ferchiu, Florentina; Sante, Lea; Frese, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kreppel, Florian; Kochanek, Stefan; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Högel, Josef; Ohnmacht, Michael; Claes, Lutz E; Ignatius, Anita; Chung, Jin H; Lee, Min J; Kamenisch, York; Berneburg, Mark; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Braunstein, Kerstin; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Ludolph, Albert C; Briviba, Karlis; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Florin, Lore; Angel, Peter; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2011-04-01

    The free radical theory of aging postulates that the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is the major determinant of aging and lifespan. Its role in aging of the connective tissue has not yet been established, even though the incidence of aging-related disorders in connective tissue-rich organs is high, causing major disability in the elderly. We have now addressed this question experimentally by creating mice with conditional deficiency of the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase in fibroblasts and other mesenchyme-derived cells of connective tissues in all organs. Here, we have shown for the first time that the connective tissue-specific lack of superoxide anion detoxification in the mitochondria results in reduced lifespan and premature onset of aging-related phenotypes such as weight loss, skin atrophy, kyphosis (curvature of the spine), osteoporosis and muscle degeneration in mutant mice. Increase in p16(INK4a) , a robust in vivo marker for fibroblast aging, may contribute to the observed phenotype. This novel model is particularly suited to decipher the underlying mechanisms and to develop hopefully novel connective tissue-specific anti-aging strategies.

  19. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations.

  20. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  1. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    PubMed

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05) from each other in body mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05) in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by

  2. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link

    PubMed Central

    Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55–64 yrs), young-old (65–74 yrs), and old (75–84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05) from each other in body mass index (BMI) and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05) in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dis)satisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. Th