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Sample records for age calendar period

  1. History of the Calendar : In Different Countries Through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, M. N.; Lahiri, N. C.

    This volume contains Part of the Report of the Calendar Reform Committee appointed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) on history of the Calendar in different countries through the Ages.

  2. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  3. Dating of Mayan Calendar using Long-periodic Astronomical Phenomena in Dresden Codex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, V.; Bohm, B.; Klokocnik, J.; Vondrak, J.; Kostelecky, J.

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between Mayan and our calendar is expressed by a coefficient known as `correlation' which is a number of days that we have to add to the Mayan Long Count date to get Julian Date used in astronomy. There is a surprisingly large uncertainty in the value of the correlation, yielding a shift between both calendars (and thus between the history of Maya and of our world) of typically several hundred years. There are more than 50 diverse values of the correlation, some of them derived from historical, other by astronomical data. We test here (among others) the well established Goodman-Martínez-Thompson correlation (GMT) based on historical data, and the Böhms' one (B&B) based on astronomical data decoded from the Dresden Codex (DC); this correlation differs by about +104 years from the GMT. In our previous works we used several astronomical phenomena as recorded in the DC for a check. We clearly demonstrated that (i) the GMT was not capable to predict these phenomena that really happened in nature and (ii) that the GMT predicts them on the days when they did not occur. The phenomena used till now in the test are, however, short-periodic and the test then may suffer from ambiguity. Therefore, we add long-periodic astronomical phenomena, decoded successfully from the DC, to the testing. These are (i) a synchrony of Venusian heliacal risings with the solar eclipses, (ii) a synchrony of Venus and Mars conjunctions with eclipses, (iii) conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn repeated in a rare way, and (iv) a synchrony of synodic and sideric periods of Mercury with the tropical year. Based on our analysis, we find that the B&B correlation yields the best agreement with the astronomical phenomena observed by the Maya. Therefore, we recommend to reject the GMT and support the B&B correlation.

  4. Mesopotamian Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The civil calendar used throughout ancient Mesopotamia was a lunisolar calendar. This chapter discusses the structure of the calendar, local variations, the role of the calendar in society, and the increasing use of astronomy in the management of the calendar during the first millennium BC.

  5. Ancient and Medieval Jewish Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Sacha

    This chapter surveys the history of Jewish calendars from Biblical origins to the later Middle Ages, with reference to their structure, astronomical basis, and cultural context. Special attention is given to the 364-day calendar (third century BCE-first century CE) and the fixed rabbinic calendar (from late Antiquity to the Middle Ages). The chapter concludes with a discussion of attempts to date the institution of the rabbinic calendar on the basis of its minor astronomical discrepancies.

  6. Age-associated circadian period changes in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Yumi; Yeom, Miji; Lim, Junhyun; Nam, Hong Gil

    2016-04-01

    As most organisms age, their appearance, physiology, and behaviour alters as part of a life history strategy that maximizes their fitness over their lifetime. The passage of time is measured by organisms and is used to modulate these age-related changes. Organisms have an endogenous time measurement system called the circadian clock. This endogenous clock regulates many physiological responses throughout the life history of organisms to enhance their fitness. However, little is known about the relation between ageing and the circadian clock in plants. Here, we investigate the association of leaf ageing with circadian rhythm changes to better understand the regulation of life-history strategy in Arabidopsis. The circadian periods of clock output genes were approximately 1h shorter in older leaves than younger leaves. The periods of the core clock genes were also consistently shorter in older leaves, indicating an effect of ageing on regulation of the circadian period. Shortening of the circadian period with leaf age occurred faster in plants grown under a long photoperiod compared with a short photoperiod. We screened for a regulatory gene that links ageing and the circadian clock among multiple clock gene mutants. Only mutants for the clock oscillator TOC1 did not show a shortened circadian period during leaf ageing, suggesting that TOC1 may link age to changes in the circadian clock period. Our findings suggest that age-related information is incorporated into the regulation of the circadian period and that TOC1 is necessary for this integrative process.

  7. Age-associated circadian period changes in Arabidopsis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Yumi; Yeom, Miji; Lim, Junhyun; Nam, Hong Gil

    2016-01-01

    As most organisms age, their appearance, physiology, and behaviour alters as part of a life history strategy that maximizes their fitness over their lifetime. The passage of time is measured by organisms and is used to modulate these age-related changes. Organisms have an endogenous time measurement system called the circadian clock. This endogenous clock regulates many physiological responses throughout the life history of organisms to enhance their fitness. However, little is known about the relation between ageing and the circadian clock in plants. Here, we investigate the association of leaf ageing with circadian rhythm changes to better understand the regulation of life-history strategy in Arabidopsis. The circadian periods of clock output genes were approximately 1h shorter in older leaves than younger leaves. The periods of the core clock genes were also consistently shorter in older leaves, indicating an effect of ageing on regulation of the circadian period. Shortening of the circadian period with leaf age occurred faster in plants grown under a long photoperiod compared with a short photoperiod. We screened for a regulatory gene that links ageing and the circadian clock among multiple clock gene mutants. Only mutants for the clock oscillator TOC1 did not show a shortened circadian period during leaf ageing, suggesting that TOC1 may link age to changes in the circadian clock period. Our findings suggest that age-related information is incorporated into the regulation of the circadian period and that TOC1 is necessary for this integrative process. PMID:27012281

  8. The ``Madonna di Loreto'' Bronze Age Sanctuary and its Stone Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunzi, A.; Zupone, M. L.; Antonello, E.

    2009-08-01

    The ``Madonna di Loreto'' (Trinitapoli, Puglia) site is the largest Bronze Age sanctuary presently known in Italy. Inside its area, several hypogeal structures excavated in the calcareous rock and devoted to ritual use were found. The most impressive manifestation of the cult is however a set of more than 1000 circular holes, aligned in rows and covering the whole sacred area. The holes were excavated during many centuries, following a rigid plan and taking into account specific celestial points. The archaeoastronomical study of the rows revealed three main alignments: that with the highest frequency, i.e. with the highest number of holes, is along the meridian, thus referring to astronomical phenomena with a daily periodicity; that with an intermediate frequency to a phenomenon with annual periodicity (the azimuth of the sunrise on a peculiar day, near to the summer solstice), and that with the lowest frequency to the South major lunistice, a phenomenon with a long term (18.6 years) periodicity. This agreement has a very high statistical significance and it allows us to interpret the hole rows as elements of a complex calendric system with a ritual character.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Period of HD 19356 recorded in the Cairo Calendar? (Jetsu+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Lehtinen, J.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2016-08-01

    Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned good and bad prognoses for the days of the year. These prognoses were based on mythological and astronomical events considered influential for everyday life. The best preserved calendar is the Cairo Calendar (CC) in papyrus Cairo 86637 dated to 1271-1163B.C. Here, we concentrate on statistics, astrophysics, and astronomy. We show that n~200 good prognoses would induce PMoon and PAlgol in CC, even if the remaining n~700 good and bad prognoses had aperiodic origins. The connections between Algol and AES are discussed in detail in S. Porceddu et al. (2013, in preparation, Paper III), where we date CC to 1224 B.C. (2 data files).

  10. College Calendars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Robert D.

    In order to determine whether there were compelling reasons for Schenectady County Community College (SCCC) to change its quarter calendar, and which calendar would be most appropriate to the college and most responsive to the problems that made the change seem desirable, previous calendar change studies were reviewed and administrators of…

  11. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  12. An Investigation of the Calendar Calculation Ability of a Chinese Calendar Savant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Eric D. F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A Chinese mentally retarded calendar savant (age 19) was evaluated for his exceptional proficiency in calendar calculation including converting the Gregorian calendar to the Chinese calendar. Results did not support hypotheses of use of eidetic imagery, high speed calculation, rote memorization, or keying-off (anchoring) strategies. (Author/DB)

  13. The Macedonian Calendar in Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Danezis, E.; Grammenos, Th.; Stathopoulou, M.

    The Macedonian Calendar was a luni-solar calendar. The only difference from the rest of the Greek calendars consisted in the date of the new year celebration. The Macedonian Calendar started after the first new moon following the automnal equinox during the month Dios and included 12 months of either 30 or 29 days, with the last decade of either ten or nine days, giving a total of 354 days for one year. To bring the Macedonian year in accordance with the solar tropical year a 13th month had to be periodically inserted into the year. Some of the months from Macedonian Calendar can be found in the calendars of other Doric cities. After Alexander the Great the influence of the Macedonian Calendar extended also to Asia and Egypt.

  14. Wooden Calendars from Central Rhodopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, V.

    2008-10-01

    Four wooden calendars from the village of Polkovnik Serafimovo, Smolyan region, in the Central Rhodopes are presented here, and three of them - for the first time. The shape and size, the kind of the signs and structure of the calendar record bear the characteristic features of the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The short notches on the edges represent the days of the year in the Julian (solar) calendar. The special signs on the sides mark the fixed festivals of the Orthodox Church calendar and are also influenced by the local tradition. The type of the signs confirms that the wooden sticks belong to the group of calendars from the Central Rhodopes. According to the beginning date of the calendar record on the sticks, two of the calendars are of the April (May) or October (November) type which corresponds to the very popular economic division of the year in the folk calendar into two periods -- warm and cold. The other two sticks, which are very similar to each other, make an exception in this respect among the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The months are divided into four groups (seasons) on each of the four edges of the stick (only one calendar from Burgas region has the same structure). The most interesting thing about the two sticks is that this is the only case among all known Bulgarian calendars that the beginning of the calendar record coincides with the beginning of the civil year on 1st January (January type) like some wooden calendars from Western Europe. Nowadays it is getting harder and harder to find wooden calendars in Bulgaria and in the neighbouring Balkan countries. The thorough knowledge about them could be helpful in various scientific fields, e.g. history of religion, ethnology, history of astronomy and mathematics, as well as semiotics.

  15. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  16. Ancient Egyptian Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalinger, Anthony

    The study of the Egyptian calendar lends itself to a deeper analysis in which the original system of calendrics was based on the moon and the later one, organized by a simple device of 365 days per year. The latter, originally determined by the sighting of the star Sothis (Sirius) in the east after a period of 70 days of invisibility, is called the Civil Calendar. The change, however, brought with it an alteration in the names of the Egyptian months.

  17. Classical Cepheid Pulsation Models. X. The Period-Age Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, G.; Marconi, M.; Cassisi, S.; Caputo, F.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2005-03-01

    We present new period-age (PA) and period-age-color (PAC) relations for fundamental and first-overtone classical Cepheids. Current predictions rely on homogeneous sets of evolutionary and pulsation models covering a broad range of stellar masses and chemical compositions. We found that PA and PAC relations present a mild dependence on metal content. Moreover, the use of different PA and PAC relations for fundamental and first-overtone Cepheids improves the accuracy of age estimates in the short-period (logP<1) range (old Cepheids), because they present smaller intrinsic dispersions. At the same time, the use of the PAC relations improves the accuracy in the long-period (logP>=1) range (young Cepheids), since they account for the position of individual objects inside the instability strip. We performed a detailed comparison between evolutionary and pulsation ages for a sizable sample of LMC (15) and SMC (12) clusters which host at least two Cepheids. In order to avoid deceptive uncertainties in the photometric absolute zero point, we adopted the homogeneous set of B, V, and I data for clusters and Cepheids collected by OGLE. We also adopted the same reddening scale. The different age estimates agree at the level of 20% for LMC clusters and of 10% for SMC clusters. We also performed the same comparison for two Galactic clusters (NGC 6067, NGC 7790), and the difference in age is smaller than 20%. These findings support the use of PA and PAC relations to supply accurate estimates of individual stellar ages in the Galaxy and in external Galaxies. The main advantage of this approach is its independence from the distance.

  18. Age, Period and Cohort Effects on Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwadel, Philip; Stout, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers hypothesize that social capital in the United States is not just declining, but that it is declining across "generations" or birth cohorts. Testing this proposition, we examine changes in social capital using age-period-cohort intrinsic estimator models. Results from analyses of 1972-2010 General Social Survey data show (1) that…

  19. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  20. Calendars and Thinking Logically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fred C.; Abrahamson, Brant

    This teaching guide consists of two short lessons: (1)"Centuries and Millennia"; and (2) "Days, Weeks, Months and Years." The first lesson shows major religious and secular concerns that, in various ages, combined to produce the calendar that now indicates the beginning of "a new millennium." It is specifically designed to combat "calendar…

  1. Interpersonal trust: An age-period-cohort analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Clark, April K; Eisenstein, Marie A

    2013-03-01

    Building on the previous work of Robinson and Jackson(1), this study addresses the extent to which interpersonal trust in America is changing due to age, period, or cohort effects (APC). The importance of APC in explaining variations in trust stems from the understanding that the specific source of change can have important - albeit different and possibly, negative - consequences on society. Moreover, 3years after the previous study concluded, the country experienced the largest concerted terrorist attacks on US soil. Little is known about how the attacks affected the dynamics of interpersonal trust relative to the processes of birth, aging, and historical change - such an investigation has important implications for our understanding of the sources and consequences of interpersonal trust. Two analysis techniques for disentangling APC effects are used: constrained generalized linear models and intrinsic estimator models. The results show that while period effects are an important contributor to declining trust, the attacks exert little influence over one's decision to trust others. Also, the investigation provides further confirmation that trust in others has fallen dramatically in the US with the scarcity being led by individuals coming of age in the late 1940s, after which, trust falls with each successive cohort. If this trend continues, through the process of cohort replacement, we will become a society of "distrusters".

  2. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2005. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2004-11-15

    care institution items and services to the beneficiary's home. In addition, this rule updates the codes subject to the physician self-referral prohibition, discusses payment for set-up of portable x-ray equipment, discusses the third five-year refinement of work RVUs, and solicits comments on potentially misvalued work RVUs. We are also finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2004 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for CY 2005. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2005 is 1.5 percent, the initial estimate for the sustainable growth rate for CY 2005 is 4.3, and the conversion factor for CY 2005 is $37.8975.

  3. Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

    2015-02-01

    A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain.

  4. Calendar motifs on Getashen hydria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtanesyan, Garegin

    2015-07-01

    Getashen hydria was found in the tombs of the middle bronze age (the first third of the second Millennium B.C.) in Armenia (Lake Sevan). It shows a scene consisting of three friezes. On the lower frieze depicts six zoomorphic figures, on an average six frieze waterfowl, and on top, is the graphic signs. Calendar motives of this composition have a numeric expression, six zoomorphic figures on the lower and middle friezes. Division of the annual cycle into two parts is known in the calendars of the ancient Indo-Iranian ("great summer" and "the great winter"). Animals on the lower frieze of the second mark, "winter" road of the Sun, because in this period are the most important events, ensuring the reproduction of the economy of the society. This rut ungulates - wild (deer) and domestic (goats). Moreover, the gon goats end in December, almost coinciding with the onset of the winter solstice. A couple of dogs on the lower frieze marks the version of the myth, imprisoned in the rock hero - the Sun (Mihr - Artavazd), to which his dogs have to chew the chains, anticipating his exit at the winter solstice. This is indicated by the direction of their movement, the Sun moves from left to right for an observer, only when located on the South side of the sky (i.e., beginning with the autumnal equinox). The most important event of the period of "summer road" of the Sun is the vernal equinox, which coincide with the arrival of waterfowl (ducks, geese). Their direction on the second frieze (left to right) corresponds to the position of the observer, facing North.

  5. EVIDENCE IN CRATER AGES FOR PERIODIC IMPACTS ON THE EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, W.; Muller, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that the impact of a comet or asteroid may have been responsible for mass extinction at the ends of both the Cretaceous and the Eocene. Quantitative analysis by Raup and Sepkoski showed that mass extinctions occur with a 26-Myr period, similar to the period seen in qualitative pelagic records by Fischer and Arthur. To account for the possibility of periodic comet showers, Davis et al. proposed that such showers could be triggered by an unseen solar companion star as it passes through perihelion on a moderately eccentric orbit. To test a prediction implicit in this model we examined records of large impact craters on the Earth. We report here that most of the craters occur in a 28.4-Myr cycle. Within measurement errors, this period and its phase are the same as those found in the fossil mass extinctions. The probability that such agreement is accidental is 1 in 10.

  6. Korean Astronomical Calendar, Chiljeongsan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Hee

    In fifteenth century Korea, there was a grand project for the astronomical calendar and instrument making by the order of King Sejong 世宗 (1418-1450). During this period, many astronomical and calendrical books including Islamic sources in Chinese versions were imported from Ming 明 China, and corrected and researched by the court astronomers of Joseon 朝鮮 (1392-1910). Moreover, the astronomers and technicians of Korea frequently visited China to study astronomy and instrument making, and they brought back useful information in the form of new published books or specifications of instruments. As a result, a royal observatory equipped with 15 types of instrument was completed in 1438. Two types of calendar, Chiljeongsan Naepyeon 七政算內篇 and Chiljeongsan Oepyeon 七政算外篇, based on the Chinese and Islamic calendar systems, respectively, were published in 1444 with a number of calendrical editions such as corrections and example supplements (假令) including calculation methods and results for solar and lunar eclipses.

  7. E-Journals Come of Age. Periodical Price Survey 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham-Van Orsdel, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Print journals still outnumber e-journals by more than 60 to 1, yet these electronic resources will profoundly change the serials marketplace, as well as the world of scholarly research. This year's periodicals price study looks at these changes, along with currency and historical pricing, to predict 1999 subscription prices. (AEF)

  8. Age, period, and cohort effects on maternal mortality: a linear logit model.

    PubMed

    Tu, E J; Chuang, J L

    1983-01-01

    This analysis was aimed at disentangling the age, period, and cohort effects on the decline in maternal mortality in the 1917-77 period in New York State. New York maternal mortality rates were consistentley lower than US rates from 191-56, but fell considerably more slowly than national rates since 1957. Cohort analysis can potentially provide separate measures of age, period, and cohort effects by use of linear ligit models. Comparison of various age-period-cohort linear logit models on the logits of maternal mortality rates indicated that period and age effects are the dominant influences on maternal mortality. Cohortship did not make a significant contribution after age and period were already in the model. Age parameter results suggest that the 20-24 year age group faces the lowest maternal mortality risk, and risk increases rapidly with age after age 30 years. The infuctuation in the residuals for the 40-44 year age group is slightly higher due to the stochastic variation in diminishing small numbers of maternal deaths and pregnancies in this group. In addition, adding the period dimension after adjustment for age had a greater impact than adding the cohort dimension after adjustment for age. The implication of these findings is that, as a set, changes in temporal variables that cut across cohorts seem to be more important than those variables that distinguish cohorts.

  9. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  10. National calendar-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Alexe; Avasiloaie, Rodica; Contescu, Elena; Madan, Ion; Sanduta, Elena; Trifan, Aculina; Ciuntu, Ioan

    The calendar contains about 365 biographies of scientists, artists, institutions and orgaizations ordered by their birth day or foundation day from around the world. The main international fests, according to UNESCO calendar are given.

  11. Of Calendars and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Richard H.

    The question of which calendar is best for Barstow College (BC) is addressed in terms of general considerations connected with academic calendars, the intended effects of the quarter system, the issue of cost effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of both calendars. First, introductory material discusses BC's conversion to a quarter…

  12. Rotation periods and seismic ages of KOIs - comparison with stars without detected planets from Kepler observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceillier, T.; van Saders, J.; García, R. A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Creevey, O.; Mathis, S.; Mathur, S.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Salabert, D.; Tayar, J.

    2016-02-01

    One of the most difficult properties to derive for stars is their age. For cool main-sequence stars, gyrochronology relations can be used to infer stellar ages from measured rotation periods and Hertzsprung Russell diagram positions. These relations have few calibrators with known ages for old, long rotation period stars. There is a significant sample of old Kepler objects of interest, or KOIs, which have both measurable surface rotation periods and precise asteroseismic measurements from which ages can be accurately derived. In this work, we determine the age and the rotation period of solar-like pulsating KOIs to both compare the rotation properties of stars with and without known planets and enlarge the gyrochronology calibration sample for old stars. We use Kepler photometric light curves to derive the stellar surface rotation periods while ages are obtained with asteroseismology using the Asteroseismic Modelling Portal in which individual mode frequencies are combined with high-resolution spectroscopic parameters. We thus determine surface rotation periods and ages for 11 planet-hosting stars, all over 2 Gyr old. We find that the planet-hosting stars exhibit a rotational behaviour that is consistent with the latest age-rotation models and similar to the rotational behaviour of stars without detected planets. We conclude that these old KOIs can be used to test and calibrate gyrochronology along with stars not known to host planets.

  13. Morphological Characteristics of the Cartilaginous Tissue of Human Auricle in Different Age Periods.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, V P; Savchenko, S V; Pyatkova, E V; Nadeev, A P; Ageeva, T A; Chikinev, Yu V; Polyakevich, A S

    2016-04-01

    A complex morphological study of the auricle to determine the human age was performed by evaluating the metric sizes between fixed points in each auricle with axial guidelines. The auricular elastic cartilage in different age periods was characterized by thickening of the cartilaginous plate, different mature and immature cartilage zone ratio, variations in the volume density of the intercellular substance and elastic fibers, and change in the numerical density of individual chondrocytes and isogroups. Aggrecan content in the cartilage was shown to increase in different age periods. Age-related structural changes in the auricular cartilage expand the possibilities of forensic medical examination and hold much promise for the identification of personality.

  14. AN AGE-PERIOD-COHORT ANALYSIS OF CANCER INCIDENCE AMONG THE OLDEST OLD

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Heidi A.; Smith, Ken R.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Harrell, C. Janna

    2014-01-01

    Separating and understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on major health conditions in the population over eighty-five, the oldest-old, will lead to better population projections of morbidity and mortality. We used age-period-cohort (APC) analyses to describe the simultaneous effects of age, period and cohort on cancer incidence rates in an attempt to understand the population dynamics underlying their patterns. Data from the Utah Cancer Registry (UCR), the US Census, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillence Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program were used to generate age-specific estimates of cancer incidence for ages 65–99 from 1973–2002 for Utah. Our results showed increasing cancer incidence rates up to the 85–89 age group followed by declines for ages 90–99 when not confounded by the distinct influence of period and cohort effects. We found significant period and cohort effects, suggesting the role of environmental mechanisms in cancer incidence trends between the ages of 85 and 100. PMID:25396304

  15. On the periodicity hypothesis of the ages of large impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, Shin

    2002-08-01

    An analysis is made of the periodicity hypothesis of the ages of large craters, based on the compilation by Grieve with the addition of recently identified craters. A method earlier proposed by Broadbent is used to derive a period, and the significance of the derived period is tested by a Monte Carlo experiment. In accordance with the result of Stothers, the ages of large craters (D>30km) are shown to exhibit a period close to 37.5Myr. Monte Carlo experiments show, however, that the derived period is far from being statistically significant. A subset of crater data earlier adopted by Napier for the purpose of similar investigation is also tested, and it is shown that they also exhibit a similar period at an almost identical level of confidence. A brief discussion is made of the relation between the derived period and that associated with faunal mass extinctions.

  16. Twenty-year dynamics of hypertension in Iranian adults: age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rafei, Ali; Fayaz, Mohammad; Heshmat, Ramin; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a well-known health problem all over the world. Many studies have assessed its prevalence and associated risk factors, but all were cross-sectional and did not evaluate the trend of hypertension through all three different temporal dimensions including age, period, and cohort. So, we aimed to assess the 20-year dynamics of hypertension via the age-period-cohort model. Data from 74,155 subjects aged 25-60 years gathered through five national health surveys (1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) were used in this study. The age-period-cohort effect on hypertension was analyzed using the intrinsic estimator model. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age for both genders except for males in 2003 and 2011 periods with drops of 3.5% for ages 55-60 and 8.1% for ages 50-60, respectively. As for the period effect, the prevalence of hypertension was almost constant in all age groups for both genders from 1990-1999. The cohort-based prevalence of hypertension showed a declining trend in all cohorts for females except for 2011 in birth cohort of 1950-1955 which remains stationary. The trend of prevalence for males also follows a decreasing trend except for periods of 2003, 2007, and 2011; birth cohorts of 1945-1949, 1975-1980, and 1950-1960 increase by 3.5%, 1.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The age effect on the prevalence of hypertension showed an almost monotonic increasing trend. The period effect increased the total prevalence of hypertension from 1992 to 1997. The cohort effect also showed a monotonic decrease in hypertension prevalence except for a few discrepancies. PMID:26481410

  17. Calendar Reform: Bob McClenon's Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The world's presently-used Gregorian calendar is extremely clumsy, because the Gregorian calendar repeats only after 400 years (Seidelman 1961), and therefore organizations, including the AAS, have to re-work their calendar each and every year. This work is totally unnecessary. I propose that the American Astronomical Society advocate the world-wide adoption of the CCC&T calendar, which is an adaptation of Bob McClenon's Calendar, a brilliant fix which results in the calendar being identical every year. This calendar is far superior to previously suggested reformed calendars, in that it does not break the cycle of the days of the week, ever! Pragmatic (and more than adequate) synchronization with the seasons is achieved by the introduction of an extra week-long ``month" every four or five years at the end of June; I propose that this seven-day month be called Newton. The target for adoption is 2006 Jan 1, and at the same time, universal use of universal time should be adopted, making the date and time identical everywhere on Earth. Time zones remain as ``hours of work" zones, EST for example becoming ``14 o'clock to 22 o'clock" for a ``nine-to-five" job. The economic benefit that astronomers could provide the world through shepherding this simple reform would easily and indeed more than repay all that the world has kindly spent on astronomical research. This work was supported by NASA's Maryland Space Grant Consortium. Seidelman, K. 1961, Explanatory Supplement to ``The Astronomical Ephemeris" and ``The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac," (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office), p. 407

  18. Ancient Greek Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Robert

    Greek festival calendars were in origin lunar, eventually being aligned with the sun through various lunisolar intercalary cycles. Each city-state had its own calendar, whose month names have some, little, or no similarity with those of other city-states. These names often reflect gods or festivals held in their honor in a given month, so there is an explicitly sacred character to the calendar. New Year's Day could also differ from one state to another, but generally began with the sighting of the first new moon after one of the four tropical points. Even the introduction of the Roman Julian calendar brought little uniformity to the eastern Greek calendars. The calendar is one of the elements which can assist in understanding the siting of Greek sacred structures.

  19. Axonal transport declines with age in two distinct phases separated by a period of relative stability☆

    PubMed Central

    Milde, Stefan; Adalbert, Robert; Elaman, M. Handan; Coleman, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Axonal transport is critical for supplying newly synthesized proteins, organelles, mRNAs, and other cargoes from neuronal cell bodies into axons. Its impairment in many neurodegenerative conditions appears likely to contribute to pathogenesis. Axonal transport also declines during normal aging, but little is known about the timing of these changes, or about the effect of aging on specific cargoes in individual axons. This is important for understanding mechanisms of age-related axon loss and age-related axonal disorders. Here we use fluorescence live imaging of peripheral nerve and central nervous system tissue explants to investigate vesicular and mitochondrial axonal transport. Interestingly, we identify 2 distinct periods of change, 1 period during young adulthood and the other in old age, separated by a relatively stable plateau during most of adult life. We also find that after tibial nerve regeneration, even in old animals, neurons are able to support higher transport rates of each cargo for a prolonged period. Thus, the age-related decline in axonal transport is not an inevitable consequence of either aging neurons or an aging systemic milieu. PMID:25443288

  20. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p < 0.01). In the age-period model, the estimated linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  1. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  2. Rotation Periods and Ages of Solar Analogs and Solar Twins Revealed by the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, J.-D., Jr.; García, R. A.; Mathur, S.; Anthony, F.; Barnes, S. A.; Meibom, S.; da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  3. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…

  4. Hippocampal plasticity during the peripartum period: Influence of sex steroids, stress and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Liisa A.M.; Leuner, Benedetta; Slattery, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The peripartum period is accompanied by dramatic changes in hormones and a host of new behaviors in response to experience with offspring. Both maternal experience and maternal hormones can have a significant impact on the brain and behavior. This review outlines recent studies demonstrating modifications in hippocampal plasticity across the peripartum period, as well as the putative hormonal mechanisms underlying these changes, and their modulation by stress. In addition, the impact of reproductive experience on the aging hippocampus will be discussed. Finally, we consider how these changes in hippocampal structure may play a role in postpartum cognitive function and mood disorders as well as age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25039797

  5. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  6. Pupil dynamics with periodic flashes: effect of age on mesopic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bárbara; Sfer, Ana; D'Urso Villar, Marcela A; Issolio, Luis Alberto; Colombo, Elisa M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the pupillary dynamics with periodical flashes from a peripheral glare source, in similar conditions to night driving, while focusing on dependence with age. We measured two groups of people: youth and adults. Maximum pupil size decreases due to periodic flashes. Latency does not present significant differences. The reduction of pupil size is greater for older adults. The presence of a peripheral and periodic glare source modifies the pupil size. This leads to a reduction of retinal illuminance, which is greater for older adults. PMID:27505653

  7. Pupil dynamics with periodic flashes: effect of age on mesopic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bárbara; Sfer, Ana; D'Urso Villar, Marcela A; Issolio, Luis Alberto; Colombo, Elisa M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the pupillary dynamics with periodical flashes from a peripheral glare source, in similar conditions to night driving, while focusing on dependence with age. We measured two groups of people: youth and adults. Maximum pupil size decreases due to periodic flashes. Latency does not present significant differences. The reduction of pupil size is greater for older adults. The presence of a peripheral and periodic glare source modifies the pupil size. This leads to a reduction of retinal illuminance, which is greater for older adults.

  8. Old radiocarbon ages in the southwest Pacific Ocean during the last glacial period and deglaciation

    PubMed

    Sikes; Samson; Guilderson; Howard

    2000-06-01

    Marine radiocarbon (14C) dates are widely used for dating oceanic events and as tracers of ocean circulation, essential components for understanding ocean-climate interactions. Past ocean ventilation rates have been determined by the difference between radiocarbon ages of deep-water and surface-water reservoirs, but the apparent age of surface waters (currently approximately 400 years in the tropics and approximately 1,200 years in Antarctic waters) might not be constant through time, as has been assumed in radiocarbon chronologies and palaeoclimate studies. Here we present independent estimates of surface-water and deep-water reservoir ages in the New Zealand region since the last glacial period, using volcanic ejecta (tephras) deposited in both marine and terrestrial sediments as stratigraphic markers. Compared to present-day values, surface-reservoir ages from 11,900 14C years ago were twice as large (800 years) and during glacial times were five times as large (2,000 years), contradicting the assumption of constant surface age. Furthermore, the ages of glacial deep-water reservoirs were much older (3,000-5,000 years). The increase in surface-to-deep water age differences in the glacial Southern Ocean suggests that there was decreased ocean ventilation during this period.

  9. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  10. The Macedonian Calendar outside Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Danezis, E.; Grammenos, Th.; Stathopoulou, M.

    The Macedonian calendar was the most widespread among the luni?solar Greek calendars, because Alexander the Great imposed the Macedonian Calendar on his conquests. As a result, it reached a number of big cities in Asia and Egypt as well and managed to survive among the local calendars for centuries after Alexander. Due to the intermeddling with the local calendars, the month correspondence has not been accurate in the use of the calendar outside Macedonia. In our paper we give the month correspondence of the Macedonian calendar with Egyptian and Babylonian ones and its course in the pass of the centuries.

  11. Chinese Calendar and Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The Chinese calendar (li 历) was a system of mathematical astronomy that included mathematical techniques for the computation of celestial movements. It was the basis for producing astronomical ephemerides and annual almanacs. Calendar making started early in China. Since the Great Inception calendar reform in 104 BC, China has produced about 100 calendars (astronomical systems). The focus of calendar making was the prediction of solar, lunar, and planetary motions. As astronomy developed, new observational discoveries were incorporated into the calendar to make the system more precise. The history of astronomy in ancient China was largely a history of calendar making.

  12. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose South Korea has the highest incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the world, and the incidence rate continues to increase. The aim of this study was to determine the age-period-cohort effects on the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea. Materials and Methods Using the Korean National Cancer registry database, age-standardized incidence rates and annual percent changes (APCs) in thyroid cancer according to sex and histologic type were analyzed between 1997 and 2011. Age-period-cohort models were applied using an intrinsic estimator method according to sex. Results In both men and women, the incidence of thyroid cancer showed a sharp increase from 1997 through 2011. Among the histologic types, papillary carcinoma showed the greatest increase, with APCs of 25.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.7% to 27.5%) in men and 23.7% (95% CI, 21.9% to 25.5%) in women, whereas anaplastic carcinoma did not show a significant increase in either sex. An increase in overall thyroid cancer incidence over time was observed in all birth cohorts. An age-period-cohort model indicated a steeply increasing period effect, which increased prominently from 1997 to 2011 in both men and women. The age effect showed an inverted U-shaped trend. The cohort effect tended to show a slight increase or remain constant from 1952 to 1977, followed by a decrease. Conclusion The period effect can explain the sharp increase in thyroid cancer incidence, strongly suggesting the role of thyroid screening. PMID:25672579

  13. Evaluation of combined effects of ageing period and freezing rate on quality attributes of beef loins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Liesse, Charlotte; Kemp, Robert; Balan, Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of ageing period and different freezing rates on meat quality attributes of beef loins. Pairs of loins (M. longissimus at 1 day post mortem) from 12 carcasses were divided into four equal portions and randomly assigned to four ageing/freezing treatments (aged only, frozen only, and 3 or 4 weeks ageing at -1.5°C then frozen). Two freezing methods (fast freezing by calcium chloride immersion or slow freezing by air freezer at -18°C) were applied to the loin sections. Fast freezing had no effect on shear force (P>0.05), but significantly improved the water-holding capacity of the aged/frozen loins by reducing purge and drip losses. Ageing-then-freezing significantly improved shear force values of loins compared to both the aged only and frozen only loins. These observations suggest that fast freezing will add more value to the aged/frozen/thawed meat by minimising the amount of water-loss due to the freezing/thawing process.

  14. National Calendar-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Madan, Ion; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great defect of the calendar is the introduction of the "International day of astrology" in the list of holydays. Another defect is the absence of the indication on the membership to the Communist Party for persons cited from the former Soviet Union.

  15. National Calendar-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    2009-10-01

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great deffect of the Calendar is the introduction in the list of holydays of the "international day of astrology". Another defect is the absence of the indication of the membership to Communist Parties for persons cited from the former USSR and former Communist Countries.

  16. National Calendar-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Madan, Ion; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great defect of the calendar is the introduction in the list of holydays of the "international day of astrology". Another defect is the absence of the indication on the membership in Communist Parties for persons cited from the former USSR and former Communist Countries.

  17. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560768

  18. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  20. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  1. Solar and lunar calendars of the mountain sanctuary Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmanovska, Olgica; Stankovski, Jovica; Apostolovska, Gordana

    2016-03-01

    The mountain sanctuary Kokino is located in the northeast part of Macedonia, on the summit of a hill of volcanic origin. The archeological research that has been performed for more than a decade confirmed its use as a large extra-urban religious site during the whole period of the Bronze Age. Additional astronomical analyses showed that it has the characteristics of a megalithic observatory, with some of its religious cults related with the motion of the sun, moon and some of the brightest stars. For that purpose the periodic motion of these celestial objects was observed and their position on specific calendar dates marked by stone notches cut in the surrounding rocks. In this paper, we present the results of the astronomical investigation of a group of stone markers aligned toward the specific positions of the full moon and analyze their purpose in creating a simple solar and lunar calendar which was used in planning the everyday life of the Bronze Age people in the region.

  2. Calendars in the Gregorian Spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Heiner; Richter, Peter H.

    The Gregorian Calendar is an adaptable cyclic, lunisolar time-reckoning system [1]. It assumes the following equations: atrop &=& 1461/4 - s/(100 × P1) quad days msyn &=& atrop / (235/19 + e/(3000 × P2))quad day s for the average tropical year atrop and the average synodical month msyn, respectively [2]. s is the number of leap years reverting to common years at the secular boundaries of the period P1, measured in centuries. e is the number of (net) adjustments of the epact at the secular boundaries of the period P2, measured in centuries. The particular form of this rational approximation characterizes the Gregorian spirit; the standard integers s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -43, P2 = 100 are open for adjustment. Truncated continued fraction expansions should be used to successively improve the accuracy. For atrop = 365.2422 d and msyn = 29.530588 d, we find that s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -19, P2 = 44 is slightly better than the standard values. Its fundamental equation 2,508,000 atrop = 31,019,639 msyn = 916,028,190 d defines a period about half as long as for the usual Gregorian calendar, 5,700,000 atrop = 70,499,183 msyn = 2,081,882,250 d [3]. [1] Clavius, Chr., Rom. Cal. Explic., Rome 1603, (= Op. math., tom. V, Mainz 1612). [2] Lichtenberg, H., The Gregorian Calendar: An Adaptable Cyclic Lunisolar Time-reckoning System for the Millennia, Hum. Welf. Stud., vol. 2 (1999), pp. 137 - 148. [3] Explan. Suppl. Astron. Almanac, ed. P. K. Seidelmann, Mill Valley, Ca.,

  3. Defining Age Limits of the Sensitive Period for Attachment Learning in Rat Pups

    PubMed Central

    Upton, Karen J.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced odor preference learning and attenuated fear learning characterizes rat pups’ attachment learning Sensitive Period for learning the maternal odor. This period terminates at 10 days old (PN10) with increasing endogenous levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone. Increasing Sensitive Period pups’ corticosterone prematurely terminates the Sensitive Period, while decreasing corticosterone in older pups delays Sensitive Period termination. Here we extend these findings and define the age range corticosterone alters learning and question whether corticosterone permanently terminates the Sensitive Period. Pups were odor-0.5mA shock conditioned with either corticosterone increased (PN5–6; 4 mg/kg vs. saline) or decreased (PN15–16; naturally by maternal presence or corticosterone synthesis blocker, Metyrapone). Finally, PN7–8 pups were conditioned with corticosterone and reconditioned without corticosterone to assess whether the Sensitive Period was permanently terminated. Results indicate developmental limits for corticosterone regulation of pup learning are PN6 through PN15. Furthermore, inducing precocious corticosterone induced fear learning was not permanent, since reconditioning without corticosterone enabled odor preference learning. Results suggest pups are protected from learning aversions to maternal odor until approaching weaning. PMID:20583142

  4. The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period in the Sargasso Sea

    PubMed

    Keigwin

    1996-11-29

    Sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and flux of terrigenous material oscillated on millennial time scales in the Pleistocene North Atlantic, but there are few records of Holocene variability. Because of high rates of sediment accumulation, Holocene oscillations are well documented in the northern Sargasso Sea. Results from a radiocarbon-dated box core show that SST was approximately 1°C cooler than today approximately 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and approximately 1°C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period). Thus, at least some of the warming since the Little Ice Age appears to be part of a natural oscillation.

  5. Odessa Astronomical Calendar-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karetnikov, V. G.; Mihalchuk, V. V.; Bazey, A. A.; Andronov, I. L.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.; Garbuzov, G. A.; Komarov, N. S.; Koshkin, N. I.; Pozigun, V. A.; Ryabov, M. I.

    2002-10-01

    The Odessa Astronomical Calendar is intended for a wide range of readers, who are interested in the problems of astronomy and in the applications of the astronomical data. The items, of information, assembled in the Calendar may be useful to professional workers requiring a definition of time of sets and rises of the Sun and the Moon and approach of twilights, as well as to the amateurs astronomers and other citizens. The Calendar may be used for astronomical education at schools, hymnasia, lycea, colleges and institutes. In this issue of the Calendar, besides a description of the main astronomical events of the year and the tables of the positions of celestial bodies and time of observations of astronomical events on the celestial sphere, there are also included sketches on interesting problems of astronomy and, as the appendix, the instruction on observations of comets. The Odessa Astronomical Calendar is published in Russian and is intended for the inhabitants of southern region of Ukraine. The Calendar is published every year with a constant part and series of articles, which change every year.

  6. Age-Period-Cohort Models in Cancer Surveillance Research: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Anderson, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Standard descriptive methods for the analysis of cancer surveillance data include canonical plots based on the lexis diagram, directly age-standardized rates (ASR), estimated annual percentage change (EAPC), and joinpoint regression. The age-period-cohort (APC) model has been used less often. Here, we argue that it merits much broader use. Firstly, we describe close connections between estimable functions of the model parameters and standard quantities such as the ASR, EAPC, and joinpoints. Estimable functions have the added value of being fully adjusted for period and cohort effects, and generally more precise. Secondly, the APC model provides the descriptive epidemiologist with powerful new tools, including rigorous statistical methods for comparative analyses and the ability to project the future burden of cancer. We illustrate these principles using invasive female breast cancer incidence in the United States, but these concepts apply equally well to other cancer sites for incidence or mortality. PMID:21610223

  7. Rainbow People's Calendar: A Library Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite R-P.; Littel, Karen

    Intended for educators and parents who want to make their children aware of the contributions of all ethnic groups, this calendar has each day of the year showing an important contribution which has been made by significant members of American society that includes blacks, whites, American Indians, Chicanos, Asian Americans, and women. The age of…

  8. ROTATION PERIODS AND AGES OF SOLAR ANALOGS AND SOLAR TWINS REVEALED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Do Nascimento Jr, J.-D.; Meibom, S.; García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.; Anthony, F.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Barnes, S. A.

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  9. An age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence among the oldest old, Utah 1973-2002.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Ken R; Stroup, Antoinette M; Harrell, C Janna

    2015-01-01

    We used age-period-cohort (APC) analyses to describe the simultaneous effects of age, period, and cohort on cancer incidence rates in an attempt to understand the population dynamics underlying their patterns among those aged 85+. Data from the Utah Cancer Registry (UCR), the US Census, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) programme were used to generate age-specific estimates of cancer incidence at ages 65-99 from 1973 to 2002 for Utah. Our results showed increasing cancer incidence rates up to the 85-89 age group followed by declines at ages 90-99 when not confounded by the separate influences of period and cohort effects. We found significant period and cohort effects, suggesting the role of environmental mechanisms in cancer incidence trends between the ages of 85 and 100.

  10. Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period or cohort effects?

    PubMed Central

    Ahacic, Kozma; Kennison, Robert F; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to examine age, cohort and period trends in alcohol abstinence. Design Two surveys, the Level of Living Survey collected in 1968, 1974, 1981, 1990 and 2000, and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) collected in 1992 and 2002, were studied with graphical depictions of cross-sectional and longitudinal data presented over time and over age. Cross-sectional 10-year age group differences, time-lag differences between waves and within-cohort differences between waves for 10-year birth cohorts were examined. Logistic regression models were applied to confirm the observed patterns. Setting The samples were representative of the Swedish population. Participants Participants ranged in age from 18 to 75 (n = 5000 per wave), and 77+ at later waves (n = 500). Measurements Alcohol abstinence was determined by asking ‘Do you ever drink wine, beer, or spirits?’, where a ‘no’ response indicated abstinence. Findings Decreases in abstinence rates were observed from 1968 to 2000/02. While cross-sectional analysis indicated increased abstinence with advancing age, the longitudinal analysis suggested otherwise. Inspection of cohort differences revealed little change within cohorts and large differences between cohorts; abstinence rates declined in later-born cohorts up to the 1940s birth cohorts; stability was observed in cohorts born since the 1940s. Logistic regression models indicated that neither age nor period were significant (P > 0.05) predictors of abstinence when cohort (P < 0.001) was included. Conclusion Decreasing proportions of total alcohol abstainers in Sweden from 1968 to 2000 appear to be attributable primarily to decreases in successive cohorts rather than drinkers becoming abstainers. PMID:22008293

  11. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  12. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  13. Aitchbone hanging and ageing period are additive factors influencing pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; Taverner, M R; D'Souza, D N; Warner, R D

    2014-01-01

    The effects of abattoir, carcase weight (60 or 80 kg HCW), hanging method (Achilles or aitchbone) and ageing period (2 or 7 day post-slaughter) on eating quality attributes of pork were investigated in this 3×2×2×2 factorial study. A total of 144 Large White×Landrace female pigs were slaughtered at one of three abattoirs and sides hung from either the Achilles tendon or the aitchbone. After 24 h chilling, loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and topside (M. semimembranosus) muscles were individually vacuum packaged and aged for 2 or 7 days post-slaughter. Consumers (n=852) evaluated eating quality. Neither abattoir nor carcase weight influenced tenderness, flavour or overall liking of pork. Improvements in tenderness, flavour and overall liking were found due to aitchbone hanging (P<0.001) and ageing (P<0.001) for 7 days compared with Achilles-hung carcases and pork aged for 2 days, respectively. This study demonstrated that aitchbone hanging and 7 day ageing can improve eating quality, but these effects were additive as the interaction term was not significant. PMID:24013699

  14. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health. PMID:26458119

  15. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.

  16. Updating UK estimates of age, sex and period specific cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption per adult

    PubMed Central

    Forey, B.; Lee, P.; Fry, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In 1993 we presented age and sex specific estimates of cumulative constant tar cigarette consumption (CCTCC) per adult for five year periods to 1986-90. These were derived from annual surveys conducted for the Tobacco Manufacturers' Association (TMA) since 1946, extrapolated back to 1891 for men and to 1921 for women and corrected for the decline in average (machine smoked) tar levels. We now provide estimates for 1991-5.
METHODS—TMA surveys having ceased, 1991-5 estimates of manufactured cigarette consumption per adult (MCA) were derived from the General Household Survey (GHS) and corrected for the continuing decline in tar. These estimates were divided by 0.75 (men) and 0.80 (women), based on a comparison of GHS and TMA data for 1971-90, to allow accumulation with the TMA derived estimates prior to 1991.
RESULTS—For both sexes the GHS/TMA ratio of MCA varied little by age or five year period, justifying the use of the correction factors when adjusting GHS estimates for 1991-95. TMA estimates were higher than GHS estimates as only TMA sales-corrected their data for understatement of smoking and the surveys differed in questions on handrolled cigarette smoking. The 1991-95 data confirm the continuing decline in CCTCC at all ages in men. Women show a less steep decline for ages 30-64 and an increase for ages 65-84.
CONCLUSION—The GHS data can validly be used to update the CCTCC estimates. Some reservations about the use of CCTCC are discussed.

 PMID:10193376

  17. Evolution of obesity prevalence in France: an age-period-cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Charles, Marie Aline; Ducimetière, Pierre; Basdevant, Arnaud; Eschwege, Evelyne; Heude, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background A rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity has been reported in France since 1990. We investigated the impact of birth cohort on the changes in obesity prevalence after taking into account age and survey period. Methods We analyzed data from four national surveys in 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. For each survey, self-reported data on weight and height were recorded on mailed questionnaires sent to a sample of 20 000 households, representative of the French population. Obesity was defined according to WHO criteria, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. We modeled the prevalence of obesity using logistic regression with age, cohort and period as explanatory variables. As these variables are linearly dependent, only nonlinear effects can be estimated uniquely and interpreted, after including specific chosen constraints in the models. Results There was a progressive increase in the prevalence of obesity between 1997 and 2006, attributable either to a period or to a cohort effect. There was a substantial departure from a linear trend for the cohort effect only, which appeared to be stronger in women: there was an acceleration in the prevalence of obesity with birth cohort for individuals born after the mid-1960s, in both sexes. Conclusions Our results are consistent with previous studies in other countries. Compared with older generations, men and women born in the late 1960s may have been subject to early exposures that increased their lifelong susceptibility to obesity. PMID:20375843

  18. Calendars and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Over the widest possible range of human cultures, calendars serve to synchronize events, to arrange events chronologically, to provide a temporal framework for referencing and enacting events, and to determine durations (time intervals) between events. They are typically, although not exclusively, linked to one or more astronomical cycles such as the phase cycle of the moon, the seasonal cycle of appearances and disappearances of stars and asterisms, and the seasonal movement of the position of sunrise or sunset to and fro along the horizon. Cultural diversity, together with the fact that the principal astronomical cycles do not fit neatly together, has led different communities to create an extraordinary range of calendars fitted to particular situations and social needs, often showing remarkable ingenuity. This brief survey, which cross-references many other articles in the Handbook, begins by exploring the nature and purpose of calendars in broad terms before proceeding to examine some of the general characteristics of different types of calendar. The next section identifies some of the theoretical and methodological issues facing those who attempt to reconstruct elements of prehistoric calendars from material evidence alone. The article finishes with some remarks concerning calendrical evolution and development.

  19. Verification of the Calendar Days of the Joseon Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Astronomical data making such as forming a calendar, period of day, determining the time of rising/setting of the sun and the onset of twilight are essential in our daily lives. Knowing the calendar day of the past is particularly crucial for studying the history of a clan or a nation. To verify previous studies in the calendar day of the Joseon dynasty (1392 -- 1910), we investigate the sexagenary cycle of the new moon day (i.e., the first day in a lunar month) by using sources such as results of the calculations using the Datong calendar (a Chinese Calendar of the Ming Dynasty) and the data of Baekjungryeok (a Perpetual Calendar; literally, a one hundred-year almanac). Compared with the study of Ahn et al., we find that as many as 17 sexagenary cycles show discrepancies. In the cases of nine discrepancies, we find that the sexagenary cycles of this study are identical to those of the almanacs at that time. In addition, we study five sexagenary cycles by using the historical accounts of Joseon Wangjo Sillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty), Seungjeongwon Ilgi (Daily Reports of Royal Secretariat), Chungung Ilgi (Logs of Crown Prince), and so forth. For the remaining discrepancies, we present historical literature supporting the results of this study. This study will greatly contribute to the identification of the lunisolar calendar days during the Joseon dynasty as the dates of the modern (i.e., Gregorian) calendar.

  20. The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Keigwin, L.D.

    1996-11-29

    Sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and flux of terrigenous material oscillated on millennial time scales in the Pleistocene North Atlantic, but there are few records of Holocene variability. Because of high rates of sediment accumulation, Holocene oscillations are well documented in the northern Sargasso Sea. Results from a radiocarbondated box core show that SST was {approximately} 1{degree}C cooler than today {approximately} 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and {approximately} 1{degree}C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period). Thus, at least some of the warming since the Little Ice Age appears to be part of a natural oscillation. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Age-related alterations in the neural coding of envelope periodicities.

    PubMed

    Walton, Joseph P; Simon, Henry; Frisina, Robert D

    2002-08-01

    This research was guided by the working hypothesis that the aging auditory system progressively loses its ability to process rapid acoustic transients efficiently, and in elderly listeners, this results in difficulties in speech perception. Neural correlates of age-related deficits in temporal processing were investigated by recording from inferior colliculus (IC) neurons from young adult and old CBA mice. Single-unit responses were recorded to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) noise carriers, presented at 65-80 dB SPL, having modulation frequencies (MFs) that ranged from 10 to 800 Hz. Because phasic-type temporal response patterns dominate responses to tone and noise in mammalian IC, we limited our analyses to only phasic units. Modulation transfer functions (MTF) for both rate (rMTF) and synchronization (sMTF) measures were used to derive respective best modulation frequencies (rBMF and sBMF). The main age-related finding was that there was an overall increase in response rate to SAM noise carriers and a decrease in the median upper cutoff frequency in units from old mice. At rBMF, the median spike count from units from old animals was 1.63 times greater, and at the sBMF, the median spike count was 2.29 times greater than the young adult sample. We explored whether the increase in driven activity was due to a change in the transient (first cycle response) or periodic (remaining response) component of the response to SAM noise. Median spike counts of the transient component decreased with increasing MF for both young adult and old units, with median counts consistently greater in the old sample as compared with young. Median spike counts for the periodic response remained relatively constant as a function of MF; however, there was a significantly greater (3 times) response for older units in a restricted range of MFs. The greater median spike counts found for the transient and periodic response was also evident when we analyzed the cycle-by-cycle response

  2. An age, period and cohort analysis of pleural cancer mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Peto, J; Levi, F; Tomei, F; Negri, E

    2000-06-01

    Death certification data from pleural cancer in eight European countries providing data to the World Health Organization database over the period 1970-1994 were analysed using a log-linear Poisson model to disentangle the effects of age, birth cohort and period of death. The age effect reached values between 10 and 15/100,000 males at age 80-84 in most countries, except Hungary (6.7), Switzerland (18.0), France (20.6) and the Netherlands (36.5). Cohort effects were steadily and appreciably upwards in all countries up to the generations born in 1940 or 1945, and levelled off for the 1950 cohort, except in Hungary, where persistent rises were observed. Thus, most rises in pleural cancer mortality in Europe were on a cohort of birth basis. Since most pleural cases were asbestos-related mesotheliomas, and since asbestos has an early-stage effect on subsequent mesothelioma risk, exposure early in life is important for determining the subsequent mesothelioma risk of each generation. Consequently, the data indicate that the peak mortality from pleural cancer in most western European countries will be reached in the first decades of the 21st century, i.e. around 2010-2020, when the generations born between 1940 and 1950 will reach the peak age for mesothelioma incidence and mortality. This contrasts with US data, where the peak of pleural cancer incidence has been reached at the end of the 20th century, and reflects a delay in adopting adequate prevention measures since the 1940-1945 generations entered the workforce in the 1960s, when cancer risk from asbestos exposure was already recognized.

  3. Calendar Study Committee Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Redwoods, Eureka, CA.

    A three-phase study was conducted at the College of the Redwoods (C/R) to determine if the college calendar should be changed, and if so, how. The first phase of the study consisted of establishing priority criteria for consideration of alternative forms of calendar organization, identification of calendar alternatives, and compilation of a list…

  4. Color stability of modern composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). A polytetrafluorethylene matrix (10 x 2 mm) was used to fabricate 24 test specimens of three different composites (n=8): Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar/Vivadent); Filtek P90 and Z250 (3M ESPE), shade A3. After light activation for 20 s (FlashLite 1401), polishing and initial color readout (Spectrophotometer PCB 687; BYK Gardner), the test specimens were subjected to AAA (C-UV; Comexim), in 8-h cycles: 4 h exposure to UV-B rays at 50°C and 4 h condensation at 50°C. At the end of each cycle, color readouts were taken and the test ended when the mean value of ΔE attained a level ≥3.30. Tetric Ceram presented alteration in ΔE equal to 3.33 in the first aging cycle. For Filtek P90 and Z250, two (ΔE=3.60) and four (ΔE=3.42) AAA cycles were necessary. After each cycle, there was a reduction of luminosity in all the samples (ΔL). It was concluded that a short period of AAA was sufficient to promote clinically unacceptable color alteration in composites, and that this alteration was material-dependent. PMID:23306237

  5. Color stability of modern composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). A polytetrafluorethylene matrix (10 x 2 mm) was used to fabricate 24 test specimens of three different composites (n=8): Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar/Vivadent); Filtek P90 and Z250 (3M ESPE), shade A3. After light activation for 20 s (FlashLite 1401), polishing and initial color readout (Spectrophotometer PCB 687; BYK Gardner), the test specimens were subjected to AAA (C-UV; Comexim), in 8-h cycles: 4 h exposure to UV-B rays at 50°C and 4 h condensation at 50°C. At the end of each cycle, color readouts were taken and the test ended when the mean value of ΔE attained a level ≥3.30. Tetric Ceram presented alteration in ΔE equal to 3.33 in the first aging cycle. For Filtek P90 and Z250, two (ΔE=3.60) and four (ΔE=3.42) AAA cycles were necessary. After each cycle, there was a reduction of luminosity in all the samples (ΔL). It was concluded that a short period of AAA was sufficient to promote clinically unacceptable color alteration in composites, and that this alteration was material-dependent.

  6. The Perpetual Calendar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogosinski, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    A brief history of the development of our present day Gregorian calendar is given. Methods are then given, based on congruences, to determine such things as the week-day for any given date and the date for Easter in any year. (LS)

  7. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  8. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period.

    PubMed

    Slavtchova-Bojkova, Maroussia N; González, Miguel; Martìnez, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modeling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast'yanov's branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible-infected-removed) scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples. PMID:21423438

  9. Thermoluminescence dating of archaeological artefacts from the Middle Neolithic, Bronze Age and the Roman Empire period.

    PubMed

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Primerano, W; Vana, N

    2002-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was applied for artefacts found near the small village of Michelstetten, Lower Austria. Settlements in this region can be traced hack a long time and, according to archaeologists, the discovered artefacts may be as old as 6000 years. A modified sample preparation technique based on the fine-grain method was developed. This technique results in a higher reproducibility and reduces the overall preparation time. For some artefacts the new information of the TL dating leads to an unforeseen re-interpretation of the archaeological age. Furthermore, an iron furnace from the period of the Roman Empire could be dated. For the first time, it was possible to estimate correctly the point of time of the burn-down of an ancient wooden house via an analysis of the house's clay plaster. The fire took place in the sixth century; this was confirmed by dating ceramic artefacts.

  10. Age, Period, and Cohort Effects in Psychological Distress in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Nicholson, Ryan; Kinley, Jolene; Raposo, Sarah; Stein, Murray B.; Goldner, Elliot M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Although treatment utilization for depression and anxiety symptoms has increased substantially in the United States and elsewhere, it remains unclear whether the underlying population distribution of psychological distress is changing over time. We estimated age, period, and cohort effects using data from 2 countries over more than 20 years, including National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2010 (n = 447,058) and Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2007 (n = 125,306). Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. By period, both countries showed the highest levels of psychological distress in 2001 and the lowest levels in 2007. By age, psychological distress was highest in adolescence and during the late 40s and early 50s. By cohort, Canadian Community Health Survey results indicated a decreasing cohort effect among those born in 1922–1925 through 1935–1939 (β = −0.36, 95% confidence interval: −0.45, −0.27) and then a continuously increasing cohort effect during the remainder of the 20th century through 1989–1992 (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.61). The National Health Interview Survey data captured earlier-born cohorts and indicated an increased cohort effect for the earliest born (for 1912–1914, β = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.61). In sum, individuals in the oldest and more recently born birth cohorts have higher mean psychological distress symptoms compared with those born in midcentury, underscoring the importance of a broad, population-level lens for conceptualizing mental health. PMID:24692432

  11. Canadian family physicians' decision to collaborate: age, period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Sisira; Devlin, Rose Anne; Thind, Amardeep; Chu, Man-Kee

    2012-11-01

    One of the core primary care reform initiatives seen across provinces in Canada is the introduction of inter-professional primary healthcare teams in which family physicians are encouraged to collaborate with other health professionals. Although a higher proportion of physicians are collaborating with various health professionals now compared to the previous decade, a substantial number of physicians still do not work in a collaborative setting. The objective of this paper is to examine the age, period and cohort effects of Canadian family physicians' decisions to collaborate with seven types of health professionals: specialists, nurse practitioners, nurses, dieticians, physiotherapists, psychologists and occupational therapists. To this end, this paper employs a multivariate probit model consisting of seven equations and a cross-classified fixed-effects strategy to explain the collaborative decisions of family physicians. Utilizing three cross-sectional physician surveys from Canada over the 2001-2007 period, cohorts are defined over five-year intervals according to their year of graduation from medical school. We find that newer cohorts of physicians are more likely to collaborate with dieticians, physiotherapists, psychologists and occupational therapists; newer female cohorts are more likely to collaborate with nurses while newer male cohorts are less likely to collaborate with nurses but more likely to collaborate with specialists. Older physicians are more likely to collaborate with specialists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and occupational therapists; the age effect for nurses is U-shaped for male physicians while it is inverse U-shaped for females. Family physicians are collaborating more with all seven health professionals in 2004 and 2007 compared to 2001. Belonging to a group practice has a largely positive influence on collaborations; and being paid by a fee-for-service remuneration scheme exerts a negative influence on collaboration, ceteris

  12. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ??? 2-4??C in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ???2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. National Calendar-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvei, Valeria; Svet, Natalia-Maria; Puscasu, Madlena; Ciobanu, Maria; Netida, Xenia; Pohila, Vlad

    2014-02-01

    The following biographies of scientists were included in the calendar: Fermi Enrico (1901-1954), Gagarin Iury (1934-1938), Kirchhoff Gustav Robert (1824-2009), Kot Mihail V.(1914-1967), Lalescu Traian (1882-1929), Laplace Pierre Simon Marchiz de (1749-1827), Loumiere Louis, Pavlov Mihail (1884-1961), Steklov Vladimir(1864-1926), Ulugbek Mahhomed Taragai (1394-1449). A short presentation of the Harvard University, founded in 1639, has been given also.

  14. Mursi and Borana Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The Mursi and Borana are two indigenous groups inhabiting areas relatively close together in southern Ethiopia and (in the Borana case) northern Kenya. Elements of their very different calendrical systems were recorded by ethnographers in the mid-twentieth century. Both systems provide excellent case studies that counter a number of assumptions about the nature and development of indigenous calendars that are too easily made from a "Western" standpoint.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  20. Tailored Calendar Journals to Ascertain Falls Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, Susan L; Silianoff, Tara J; Kim, H Lyn; Conte, Jane W; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    Although falls are a serious health risk for community-dwelling older adults, their ascertainment has been complicated by issues such as recall and reporting biases. We examined a novel method, individualized tailored calendars, to accurately ascertain falls in older adults. A convenience sample of 125 cognitively normal participants enrolled in longitudinal studies of healthy aging at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Ressearch Center was followed prospectively for 12 months. Tailored calendar journal pages were used to document falls daily and returned by mail monthly. Participants received a US$5 gift card incentive for each month returned. Participants returned 1,487 of 1,500 calendar months over the 12-month follow-up for 99.1% compliance rate. There were 154 falls reported. Tailored calendar journals and incentives may be effective in ascertaining falls among community-dwelling older adults. This tool could improve the accuracy of outcome measures for occupational therapy interventions. PMID:25866488

  1. Stellar Rubella: Starspots on F, G and K Stars of Different Ages and Rotation Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Dewarf, L. E.; Messina, S.; McCook, G. P.

    1995-05-01

    We present high precision photoelectric photometry of a sample of bright, single F, G, and K- type main-sequence and subgiant stars. Several of the stars are members of clusters or moving groups and thus have well determined ages. The majority of the stars are main-sequence to subgiant G-types stars that range in age from 70 Myr to 10 Gyr with directly measured rotation periods from 2.7 days up to 40-50 days. The observations have been carried out with Automatic Photometric Telescopes (APTs) located on Mt Hopkins, Arizona beginning in 1988; standard UBVRI \\ or uvby \\ filters were used. As expected, the youngest, fastest rotating stars in the sample typically have the largest, rotationally modulated starspot light variations. Some of the stars show relatively rapid changes in their light curves that are explained by differential rotation of the starspot groups. In addition, some of the stars that have been observed over several years show long-term, seasonal trends in their mean brightness levels that most likely arise from starspot cycles. The starspot properties (areal coverage, distribution, and temperature) are determined from the modelling of the multiwavelength light curves. For certain stars, comparisons of these photospheric starspots properties to their corresponding chromospheric, transition region, and coronal activity indicators obtained in the UV, EUV \\ and X-ray are presented and discussed. Analogies are also made to the magnetic properties of the Sun. This research is supported by NSF AST 86-16362, NASA NAG5-2160, and NAG5-2494.

  2. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  3. Mortality of breast cancer in Taiwan, 1971-2010: temporal changes and an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Ho, M-L; Hsiao, Y-H; Su, S-Y; Chou, M-C; Liaw, Y-P

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer mortality in Taiwan. Female breast cancer mortality data were collected from the Taiwan death registries for 1971-2010. The annual percentage changes, age- standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and age-period-cohort model were calculated. The mortality rates increased with advancing age groups when fixing the period. The percentage change in the breast cancer mortality rate increased from 54.79% at aged 20-44 years, to 149.78% in those aged 45-64 years (between 1971-75 and 2006-10). The mortality rates in the 45-64 age group increased steadily from 1971 to 1975 and 2006-10. The 1951 birth cohorts (actual birth cohort; 1947-55) showed peak mortalities in both the 50-54 and 45-49 age groups. We found that the 1951 birth cohorts had the greatest mortality risk from breast cancer. This might be attributed to the DDT that was used in large amounts to prevent deaths from malaria in Taiwan. However, future researches require DDT data to evaluate the association between breast cancer and DDT use. PMID:25020211

  4. Mortality of breast cancer in Taiwan, 1971-2010: temporal changes and an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Ho, M-L; Hsiao, Y-H; Su, S-Y; Chou, M-C; Liaw, Y-P

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer mortality in Taiwan. Female breast cancer mortality data were collected from the Taiwan death registries for 1971-2010. The annual percentage changes, age- standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and age-period-cohort model were calculated. The mortality rates increased with advancing age groups when fixing the period. The percentage change in the breast cancer mortality rate increased from 54.79% at aged 20-44 years, to 149.78% in those aged 45-64 years (between 1971-75 and 2006-10). The mortality rates in the 45-64 age group increased steadily from 1971 to 1975 and 2006-10. The 1951 birth cohorts (actual birth cohort; 1947-55) showed peak mortalities in both the 50-54 and 45-49 age groups. We found that the 1951 birth cohorts had the greatest mortality risk from breast cancer. This might be attributed to the DDT that was used in large amounts to prevent deaths from malaria in Taiwan. However, future researches require DDT data to evaluate the association between breast cancer and DDT use.

  5. Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)—and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

  6. A Study of School Calendars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    This report summarizes the Study of School Calendars in New York State. The Division of Research of the New York State Education Department was charged to study the effects of alternative school calendars on (1) energy conservation, (2) learning and retention of learning by students, (3) maximum utilization of school facilities, and (4) changing…

  7. Health Disparities in Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality in Hungary From 1970 to 2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Krisztina; Eshak, Ehab S.; Ma, Enbo; Takahashi, Hideto; Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in rates of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, a leading cause of mortality in Hungary. The study examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality rates and compared mortality rates between the capital (Budapest) and non-capital counties. Methods Data on IHD deaths and population censuses were obtained from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Age-period-cohort analysis utilized nine age-group classes for ages 40 to 84 years, eight time periods from 1970 to 2009, and 16 birth cohorts from 1886 to 1969. Results Age-adjusted IHD mortality rates for men and for women generally increased from 1970 to 1993 and from 1980 to 1999, respectively, decreasing thereafter for both sexes. IHD mortality rates for men and for women from Budapest were lower from 1991 and from 1970, respectively, than corresponding rates in non-capital counties, with the difference increasing after 1999. Age had a more significant influence on mortality rates for women than for men. The period effect increased from 1972 to 1982 and decreased thereafter for men, while the period effect decreased consistently for women from 1972 to 2007. The decline in period effect for both sexes was larger for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. The cohort effect for both sexes declined from birth years 1890 to 1965, with a steeper decline for individuals from the capital than for those from non-capital counties. Conclusions The findings indicate a need for programs in Hungary for IHD prevention, especially for non-capital counties. PMID:25986153

  8. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  9. Using dissolved gases to observe the evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Baseflows in snowmelt-dominated mountain streams are critical for sustaining ecosystems and water resources during periods of greatest demand. Future climate predictions for mountainous areas throughout much of the western U.S. include increasing temperatures, declining snowpacks, and earlier snowmelt periods. The degree to and rate at which these changes will affect baseflows in mountain streams remains unknown, largely because baseflows are groundwater-fed and the relationship between climate and groundwater recharge/discharge rates in mountain watersheds is uncertain. We use groundwater age determinations from multiple dissolved gas tracers (CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) to track changes in groundwater age over a period of thirteen years in the Sagehen Creek watershed, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA. Data were collected from springs and wells in 2009 and 2010 and combined with those obtained in prior studies from 1997 to 2003. Apparent ages range from 0 to >60 years. Comparison between variations in age and variations in snow water equivalent (SWE) and mean annual air temperature reveals the degree of correlation between these climate variables and recharge rate. Further, comparison of apparent ages from individual springs obtained at different times and using different tracers helps constrain the age distribution in the sampled waters. The age data are generally more consistent with an exponential age distribution than with piston-flow. However, many samples, even those with relatively old mean ages, must have a disproportionately large very young fraction that responds directly to annual SWE variations. These findings have important implications for how future baseflows may respond to decreasing SWE.

  10. Growth of river delta networks: Thresholds, periodicity, aging and self similarity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, D. J.; Reitz, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    The surfaces of river deltas and alluvial fans (collectively fans) are often dissected by a small number of channels radiating from the fan apex. These dispersive, depositional systems do not exhibit the fractal scaling typical of erosional drainage networks. On long timescales, fan channels migrate via avulsion - the process of channel bed deposition and abandonment. What governs the selection of new flow paths, or the ultimate number of active channels, is poorly understood. Here we present results of an experimental fan that allow us to examine the growth of a depositional channel network. Flow over the fan collapses into a single channel whose dimensions adjust to threshold transport conditions for the imposed sediment load. This channelization causes localized shoreline growth, which diminishes transport capacity of the channel until the slope drops below the threshold value. This leads to deposition within the channel and widespread flooding; avulsion is completed when a new channel path is selected. This cycle is remarkably periodic, and dynamics suggest that fan slope oscillates between two thresholds - entrainment and distrainment - analogous to static and dynamic angles of repose in grain flows. Selection of a new flow path is inherently stochastic, but previously abandoned channels act as significant attractors for the flow. In the early stages of fan growth, new channels are likely to be created. Once a critical density of flow paths has been established, however, the flow oscillates among the same 3-5 channels indefinitely. These dynamics are similar to the aging phenomenon observed in the growth of fractures in brittle materials under stress. We demonstrate that a directed random walk model with memory quantitatively reproduces these dynamics and limiting behavior, and is consistent with natural fans. Because our experimental fan is built by the recurring avulsion sequence, its shoreline shape is a series of lobes that indicate persistent upstream

  11. Cod liver oil consumption at different periods of life and bone mineral density in old age.

    PubMed

    Eysteinsdottir, Tinna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2015-07-01

    Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (age 66-96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0.1 higher, compared with those with an intake of < once/week. Although significant, this difference is small, and its clinical relevance is questionable. Intake of aged participants was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D: individuals with intakes of < once/week, one to six time(s)/week and daily intake had concentrations of approximately 40, 50 and 60 nmol/l respectively (P for trend < 0.001).

  12. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  13. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. XIV. The Period-Age Relationship of Cepheid Variables in M31 Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senchyna, Peter; Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Beerman, Lori C.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dolphin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Larsen, Søren S.

    2015-11-01

    We present a sample of 11 M31 Cepheids in stellar clusters, derived from the overlap of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury cluster catalog and the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) disk Cepheid catalog. After identifying the PS1 Cepheids in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) catalog, we calibrate the PS1 mean magnitudes using the higher resolution HST photometry, revealing up to 1 mag offsets due to crowding effects in the ground-based catalog. We measure ages of the clusters by performing single-age stellar population fits to their color-magnitude diagrams excluding their Cepheids. From these cluster age measurements, we derive an empirical period-age relation which agrees well with the existing literature values. By confirming this relation for M31 Cepheids, we justify its application in high-precision pointwise age estimation across M31.

  14. New rotation periods in the open cluster NGC 1039 (M 34), and a derivation of its gyrochronology age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. J.; Barnes, S. A.; Meibom, S.; Lockwood, G. W.; Levine, S. E.; Deliyannis, C.; Platais, I.; Steinhauer, A.; Hurley, B. K.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: Employing photometric rotation periods for solar-type stars in NGC 1039 [M 34], a young, nearby open cluster, we use its mass-dependent rotation period distribution to derive the cluster's age in a distance independent way, i.e., the so-called gyrochronology method. Methods: We present an analysis of 55 new rotation periods, using light curves derived from differential photometry, for solar type stars in the open cluster NGC 1039 [M 34]. We also exploit the results of a recently-completed, standardized, homogeneous BVIc CCD survey of the cluster, performed by the Indiana Group of the WIYN open cluster survey, in order to establish photometric cluster membership and assign B-V colours to each photometric variable. We describe a methodology for establishing the gyrochronology age for an ensemble of solar-type stars. Empirical relations between rotation period, photometric colour and stellar age (gyrochronology) are used to determine the age of M 34. Based on its position in a colour-period diagram, each M 34 member is designated as being either a solid-body rotator (interface or I-star), a differentially rotating star (convective or C-star) or an object which is in some transitory state in between the two (gap or g-star). Fitting the period and photometric colour of each I-sequence star in the cluster, we derive the cluster's mean gyrochronology age. Results: Of the photometric variable stars in the cluster field, for which we derive a period, 47 out of 55 of them lie along the loci of the cluster main sequence in V/B-V and V/V-I space. We are further able to confirm kinematic membership of the cluster for half of the periodic variables [21/55], employing results from an on-going radial velocity survey of the cluster. For each cluster member identified as an I-sequence object in the colour-period diagram, we derive its individual gyrochronology age, where the mean gyro age of M 34 is found to be 193 ± 9 Myr. Conclusions: Using differential photometry, members

  15. Attitude toward own aging in midlife and early old age over a 12-year period: examination of measurement equivalence and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Miche, Martina; Elsässer, Valerie C; Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2014-09-01

    The Attitude Toward Own Aging Subscale (ATOA) is a frequently used measure of subjective aging. Although ATOA in midlife might assume a preparatory role for psychosocial adjustment in old age, research has been dominated by a focus on older adults. To enable a comparison of developmental trajectories of ATOA between middle-aged and young-old adults, we tested measurement invariance between age groups and over a 12-year study period. In addition, personality variables, health dimensions, and sociodemographic variables were investigated as predictors of developmental trajectories of ATOA. Data came from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (ILSE) with 2 birth cohorts (1930-1932: n = 500; 1950-1952: n = 501) followed over 12 years. Data analyses were conducted with confirmatory factor analysis for ordered-categorical variables and latent growth models. Support for the assumption of partial measurement invariance of ATOA was found in each age group, but not between age groups. Latent growth models revealed a steady decline in ATOA for young-old individuals, whereas ATOA trajectories in midlife were characterized by interindividual variation. Health variables predicted level of ATOA in the young-old. In midlife ATOA were shaped by a variety of factors. Future studies should be conducted with an awareness of differential item functioning of the ATOA scale across age groups. Furthermore, our results point to a greater modifiability of aging attitudes in middle-aged compared with young-old individuals, thus highlighting the importance of the midlife years in shaping developmental trajectories into old age.

  16. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT BIRTH BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND ULTRASOUND DURING THE FIRST TRIMESTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age (GA) but may be unreliable. Ultrasound in the first trimester is generally considered a highly accurate method of pregnancy dating. The authors compared first trimester report of LMP and first trime...

  17. Black bear femoral geometry and cortical porosity are not adversely affected by ageing despite annual periods of disuse (hibernation)

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Meghan E; Miller, Danielle L; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Donahue, Seth W

    2007-01-01

    Disuse (i.e. inactivity) causes bone loss, and a recovery period that is 2–3 times longer than the inactive period is usually required to recover lost bone. However, black bears experience annual disuse (hibernation) and remobilization periods that are approximately equal in length, yet bears maintain or increase cortical bone material properties and whole bone mechanical properties with age. In this study, we investigated the architectural properties of bear femurs to determine whether cortical structure is preserved with age in bears. We showed that cross-sectional geometric properties increase with age, but porosity and resorption cavity density do not change with age in skeletally immature male and female bears. These findings suggest that structural properties substantially contribute to increasing whole bone strength with age in bears, particularly during skeletal maturation. Porosity was not different between skeletally immature and mature bears, and showed minimal regional variations between anatomical quadrants and radial positions that were similar in pattern and magnitude between skeletally immature and mature bears. We also found gender dimorphisms in bear cortical bone properties: females have smaller, less porous bones than males. Our results provide further support for the idea that black bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis. PMID:17261138

  18. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended.

  19. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn.

  20. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  1. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  2. Humeral development from neonatal period to skeletal maturity--application in age and sex assessment.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; López-Costas, Olalla; Turbón, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine cross-sectional information on the growth of the humerus based on the analysis of four measurements, namely, diaphyseal length, transversal diameter of the proximal (metaphyseal) end of the shaft, epicondylar breadth and vertical diameter of the head. This analysis was performed in 181 individuals (90 ♂ and 91 ♀) ranging from birth to 25 years of age and belonging to three documented Western European skeletal collections (Coimbra, Lisbon and St. Bride). After testing the homogeneity of the sample, the existence of sexual differences (Student's t- and Mann-Whitney U-test) and the growth of the variables (polynomial regression) were evaluated. The results showed the presence of sexual differences in epicondylar breadth above 20 years of age and vertical diameter of the head from 15 years of age, thus indicating that these two variables may be of use in determining sex from that age onward. The growth pattern of the variables showed a continuous increase and followed first- and second-degree polynomials. However, growth of the transversal diameter of the proximal end of the shaft followed a fourth-degree polynomial. Strong correlation coefficients were identified between humeral size and age for each of the four metric variables. These results indicate that any of the humeral measurements studied herein is likely to serve as a useful means of estimating sub-adult age in forensic samples.

  3. Radiocarbon to calendar date conversion: Calendrical band widths as a function of radiocarbon precision

    SciTech Connect

    McCormac, F.G.; Baillie, M.G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Accurate high-precision [sup 14]C dating (i.e., [plus minus] 20 yr precision or less on the [sup 14]C date) provides the narrowest calendrical band width and, hence, the best age range determination possible. However, because of the structure in the [sup 14]C calibration curve, the calendar age range for a given [sup 14]C precision is not constant throughout the calibration range. In this study, they quantify the calendar band widths for a range of [sup 14]C precisions throughout the calibration range. They show that an estimate of the likely calendar band width in years can be obtained from the expression: Band width (yr) = 2.12 x [sup 14]C precision (1 [sigma]) + 54.6. They also show that calendar band widths are widest around 4000 Bp at the start of the Bronze Age, and become narrow through the later Bronze Age and Iron Age and back into the Neolithic.

  4. A color-period diagram for the open cluster M 48 (NGC 2548), and its rotational age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Sydney A.; Weingrill, Joerg; Granzer, Thomas; Spada, Federico; Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2015-11-01

    Rotation periods are increasingly being used to derive ages for cool single field stars. Such ages are based on an empirical understanding of how cool stars spin down, acquired by constructing color-period diagrams (CPDs) for a series of open clusters. Our main aims here are to construct a CPD for M 48, to compare this with other clusters of similar age to check for consistency, and to derive a rotational age for M 48 using gyrochronology. We monitored M 48 photometrically for over 2 months with AIP's STELLA I 1.2 m telescope and the WiFSIP 4K imager in Tenerife. Light curves with 3 mmag precision for bright (V ~ 14 mag) stars were produced and then analysed to provide rotation periods. A cluster CPD has then been constructed. We report 62 rotation periods for cool stars in M 48. The CPD displays a clear slow/I-sequence of rotating stars, similar to those seen in the 625 Myr-old Hyades and 590 Myr-old Praesepe clusters, and below both, confirming that M 48 is younger. A similar comparison with the 250 Myr-old M 34 cluster shows that M 48 is older and does not possess any fast/C-sequence G or early K stars like those in M 34, although relatively fast rotators do seem to be present among the late-K and M stars. A more detailed comparison of the CPD with rotational evolution models shows that the cluster stars have a mean age of 450 Myr, and its (rotating) stars can be individually dated to ± 117 Myr (26%). Much of this uncertainty stems from intrinsic astrophysical spread in initial periods, and almost all stars are consistent with a single age of 450 Myr. The gyro-age of M 48 as a whole is 450 ± 50 Myr, in agreement with the previously determined isochrone age of 400 ± 100 Myr. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescopes in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC; this paper presents results for the STELLA Open Cluster Survey (SOCS).Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe cluster photometry

  5. Time, Calendars, and the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a list of resources that focus on the concept of time, telling time, and calendars. Includes nonfiction books for librarians, teachers and older readers; books for younger readers; poems; trivia; Web sites; and search sites. (AEF)

  6. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001-2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951-2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%: Betula, Urtica, Pinus, Poaceae, and Alnus. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany) than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia). PMID:25292125

  7. Age and sex influence marmot antipredator behavior during periods of heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Lea, Amanda J; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2011-08-01

    Animals adjust their antipredator behavior according to environmental variation in risk, and to account for their ability to respond to threats. Intrinsic factors that influence an animal's ability to respond to predators (e.g., age, body condition) should explain variation in antipredator behavior. For example, a juvenile might allocate more time to vigilance than an adult because mortality as a result of predation is often high for this age class; however, the relationship between age/vulnerability and antipredator behavior is not always clear or as predicted. We explored the influence of intrinsic factors on yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) antipredator behavior using data pooled from 4 years of experiments. We hypothesized that inherently vulnerable animals (e.g., young, males, and individuals in poor condition) would exhibit more antipredator behavior prior to and immediately following conspecific alarm calls. As expected, males and yearlings suppressed foraging more than females and adults following alarm call playbacks. In contrast to predictions, animals in better condition respond more than animals in below average condition. Interestingly, these intrinsic properties did not influence baseline time budgets; animals of all ages, sexes, and condition levels devoted comparable amounts of time to foraging prior to alarm calls. Our results support the hypothesis that inherent differences in vulnerability influence antipredator behavior; furthermore, it appears that a crucial, but poorly acknowledged, interaction exists between risk and state-dependence. Elevated risk may be required to reveal the workings of state-dependent behavior, and studies of antipredator behavior in a single context may draw incomplete conclusions about age- or sex-specific strategies.

  8. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  9. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  10. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.

  11. Age, period and cohort trends in drug abuse hospitalizations within the total Swedish population (1975-2010)*

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Giuseppe N.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The societal consequences of drug abuse (DA) are severe and well documented, the World Health Organization recommending tracking of population trends for effective policy responses in treatment of DA and delivery of health care services. However, to correctly identify possible sources of DA change, one must first disentangle three different time-related influences on the need for treatment due to DA: age effects, period effects and cohort effects. Methods: We constructed our main Swedish national DA database (spanning four decades) by linking healthcare data from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register to individuals, which included hospitalisations in Sweden for 1975-2010. All hospitalized DA cases were identified by ICD codes. Our Swedish national sample consisted of 3,078,129 men and 2,921,816 women. We employed a cross-classified multilevel logistic regression model to disentangle any net age, period and cohort effects on DA hospitalization rates. Results: We found distinct net age, period and cohort effects, each influencing the predicted probability ofhospitalisation for DA in men and women. Peak age for DA in both sexes was 33-35 years; net period effects showed an increase in hospitalisation for DA from 1996 to 2001; and in birth cohorts 1968-74, we saw a considerable reduction (around 75%) in predicted probability of hospitalisation for DA. Conclusions: The use of hospital admissions could be regarded as a proxy of the population's health service use for DA. Our results may thus constitute a basis for effective prevention planning, treatment and other appropriate policy responses. PMID:24300899

  12. Lithocholic acid extends longevity of chronologically aging yeast only if added at certain critical periods of their lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Michelle T.; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Beach, Adam; Richard, Vincent R.; Koupaki, Olivia; Gomez-Perez, Alejandra; Leonov, Anna; Levy, Sean; Noohi, Forough; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-01-01

    Our studies revealed that LCA (lithocholic bile acid) extends yeast chronological lifespan if added to growth medium at the time of cell inoculation. We also demonstrated that longevity in chronologically aging yeast is programmed by the level of metabolic capacity and organelle organization that they developed before entering a quiescent state and, thus, that chronological aging in yeast is likely to be the final step of a developmental program progressing through at least one checkpoint prior to entry into quiescence. Here, we investigate how LCA influences longevity and several longevity-defining cellular processes in chronologically aging yeast if added to growth medium at different periods of the lifespan. We found that LCA can extend longevity of yeast under CR (caloric restriction) conditions only if added at either of two lifespan periods. One of them includes logarithmic and diauxic growth phases, whereas the other period exists in early stationary phase. Our findings suggest a mechanism linking the ability of LCA to increase the lifespan of CR yeast only if added at either of the two periods to its differential effects on various longevity-defining processes. In this mechanism, LCA controls these processes at three checkpoints that exist in logarithmic/diauxic, post-diauxic and early stationary phases. We therefore hypothesize that a biomolecular longevity network progresses through a series of checkpoints, at each of which (1) genetic, dietary and pharmacological anti-aging interventions modulate a distinct set of longevity-defining processes comprising the network; and (2) checkpoint-specific master regulators monitor and govern the functional states of these processes. PMID:22894934

  13. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system.

  14. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    PubMed

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research.

  15. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    PubMed

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. PMID:26568224

  16. Globular cluster ages determined from the Oosterhoff period-metallicity effect using oxygen-enhanced isochrones. III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Allan

    1993-08-01

    The new brighter calibration of absolute luminosities of RR Lyrae stars by about 0.25 mag as a function of metallicity via the Oosterhoff period effect gives a revised age of the Galactic globular cluster system as 14 Gyr when used with the oxygen-enhanced main-sequence termination models of Bergbush and VandenBerg (1992). There is no correlation of cluster age with metallicity. The presence or absence of age differences between any two clusters is neither proof nor disproof of the Eggen-Lynden Bell-Sandage model of the formation of the Galaxy by collapse. If there were different density regimes within the initial density fluctuation that was the protogalaxy, then there has been a hierarchy of collapse times for the various parts of the present Galaxy. The age of the universe is 15 Gyr, based on the age of the Galaxy at 14 Gyr, to which 1 Gyr is added for the gestation time of the galaxies. The ratio of this age to the inverse Hubble constant with H(0) about 45 km/s Mpc, based on a recent concordant determination using supernovae of type Ia, is close to the critical value of 2/3 required if the deceleration is caused by a mean density just equal to that needed for closure. For the first time, these new data give the possibility that Omega = 1 from this timing test.

  17. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Fortunati, Ilaria; Carnevali, Luca; Baruffi, Silvana; Mastorci, Francesca; Trombini, Mimosa; Sgoifo, Andrea; Corradi, Domenico; Callegari, Sergio; Miragoli, Michele; Macchi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.

  18. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year....

  19. Trends in U.S. Adult Chronic Disease Mortality, 1960–1999: Age, Period, and Cohort Variations

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I examine temporal changes in U.S. adult mortality by chronic disease cause of death and by sex over a 40-year period in the second half of the twentieth century. I apply age-period-cohort (APC) analyses that combine conventional approaches and a new method of model estimation to simultaneously account for age, period, and cohort variations in mortality rates for four leading causes of deaths, including heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and breast cancer. The results show that large reductions in mortality since the late 1960s continued well into the late 1990s and that these reductions were predominately contributed by cohort effects. Cohort effects are found to differ by specific causes of death examined, but they generally show substantial survival improvements. Implications of these results are discussed with regard to demographic theories of mortality reductions, differential cohort accumulation of health capital and lifetime exposures to socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors, and period changes in diagnostic techniques and medical treatment. PMID:18613487

  20. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants.

  1. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants. PMID:2631593

  2. Time trend and age-period-cohort effect on kidney cancer mortality in Europe, 1981–2000

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Background The incorporation of diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, as well as the different smoking patterns, may have had an influence on the observed variability in renal cancer mortality across Europe. This study examined time trends in kidney cancer mortality in fourteen European countries during the last two decades of the 20th century. Methods Kidney cancer deaths and population estimates for each country during the period 1981–2000 were drawn from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Age- and period-adjusted mortality rates, as well as annual percentage changes in age-adjusted mortality rates, were calculated for each country and geographical region. Log-linear Poisson models were also fitted to study the effect of age, death period, and birth cohort on kidney cancer mortality rates within each country. Results For men, the overall standardized kidney cancer mortality rates in the eastern, western, and northern European countries were 20, 25, and 53% higher than those for the southern European countries, respectively. However, age-adjusted mortality rates showed a significant annual decrease of -0.7% in the north of Europe, a moderate rise of 0.7% in the west, and substantial increases of 1.4% in the south and 2.0% in the east. This trend was similar among women, but with lower mortality rates. Age-period-cohort models showed three different birth-cohort patterns for both men and women: a decrease in mortality trend for those generations born after 1920 in the Nordic countries, a similar but lagged decline for cohorts born after 1930 in western and southern European countries, and a continuous increase throughout all birth cohorts in eastern Europe. Similar but more heterogeneous regional patterns were observed for period effects. Conclusion Kidney cancer mortality trends in Europe showed a clear north-south pattern, with high rates on a downward trend in the north, intermediate rates on a more marked rising trend in the east than in the

  3. Age-dependent changes in porcine alveolar macrophage function during the postnatal period of alveolarization

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, R.; Tasat, D.R.; Fernandez Alanis, E.; Delfosse, V.; Tsuda, A.

    2008-01-01

    During early postnatal ontogeny in most mammals, the lung is structurally and functionally immature. In some species with relatively altricial lung morphology, there is evidence of a coupling between functional maturity of the pulmonary cellular immune system and alveolar maturation. Herein, we examine changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) number and function occurring during alveolarization in a more precocial species, the pig, to determine if heightened oxidative metabolism and phagocytic ability is similarly delayed until completion of lung morphogenesis. We assessed cell differential in lavage fluid and evaluated two main functional parameters of AM phagocytic response, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and particle internalization. AM functional maturation occurred mainly during the first postnatal week: the proportion of AMs, ROS generation, and phagocytosis all increased significantly. These results suggest maturational improvement of the impaired AM-based pulmonary immune system of the neonate piglet occurs during the postnatal period of rapid alveolarization. PMID:18775449

  4. Necessity of Periodic Ophthalmological Examinations in Binocular B Class Driving Licence Holders Over 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ali; Öktem, Çağlar; Karabıçak Acer, Ayşe; Kocamış, Özkan; Taşdemir, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether binocular B class driving licence (BBCDL) holders over 50 years old are in compliance with the BBCDL criteria for visual acuity, to determine the age-based prevalence of ophthalmological disorders reducing visual acuity in this group, and to investigate whether periodic ophthalmological examinations are needed in licence holders over 50 years of age. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 451 adults over 50 years old having a BBCDL. The study subjects were categorized into 3 age groups as group 1 (51-60 years), group 2 (61-70 years), and group 3 (over 71 years). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.02±7.27 years; 338 (74.9%) were male and 113 (25.1%) were female. The BBCDL criteria were met by 353 (78.3%) subjects whereas 98 (21.7%) subjects did not meet them. Eighty-four (85.7%) of 98 patients not meeting BBCDL criteria still drove. The mean age of the subjects meeting BBCDL criteria (58.82±6.77 years) was significantly lower than the subjects not meeting them (64.34±7.40 years) (p<0.001). The most common pathologies in the individuals still driving despite not meeting BBCDL criteria were senile cataract (38.5%) and diabetic retinopathy (23.1%) in group 1, senile cataract (55.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (14.9%) in group 2, and senile cataract (63.6%) and senile macular degeneration+senile cataract (18.2%) in group 3. Conclusion: More than a fifth of individuals over 50 years old did not meet the BBCDL criteria, due predominantly to senile cataract, and the majority of these individuals continue to drive. Therefore, we believe that individuals over 50 years old who have a BBCDL should undergo periodic ophthalmological examinations.

  5. Social contact patterns of school-age children in Taiwan: comparison of the term time and holiday periods.

    PubMed

    Chen, S-C; You, Z-S

    2015-04-01

    School closure is one of the most common interventions in the early weeks of an influenza pandemic. Few studies have investigated social contact patterns and compared individual student contact characteristics during the school term and holiday periods in Taiwan. Here, we conducted a well-used questionnaire survey in a junior high school (grades 7-8) in June 2013. All 150 diary-based effective questionnaires covering conversation and skin-to-skin contact behaviour were surveyed. Two questionnaires for each participant were designed to investigate the individual-level difference of contact numbers per day during the two periods. The questionnaire response rate was 44%. The average number of contacts during term time (20·0 contacts per day) and holiday periods (12·6 contacts per day) were significantly different (P < 0·05). The dominant contact frequencies and duration were everyday contact (89·10%) and contacts lasting less than 5 minutes (37·09%). The greatest differences occurred within the 13-19 years age groups. The result presented in this study provide an indication of the likely reduction in daily contact frequency that might occur if a school closure policy was adopted in the event of an influenza pandemic in Taiwan. Comparing contact patterns during term time and holiday periods, the number of contacts decreased by 40%. This study is the first research to investigate the contact numbers and contact characteristics for school-age children during the school term and a holiday period in Taiwan. With regard to public health, this study could provide the basic contact information and database for modelling influenza epidemics for minimizing the spread of influenza that depends on personal contacts for transmission. PMID:25078611

  6. Structural Aging Program technical progress for period, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1993-07-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program has the overall objective of preparing an expandable handbook or report which will provide potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use by the NRC in nuclear power plant evaluations of continued service. Initial focus of the program is on concrete and concrete-related materials which comprise safety-related (Category I) structures in light-water reactor facilities. The SAG Program is organized into four tasks: Task S.1 -- Program Management, Task S.2 -- Materials Property Data Base, Task S.3 -- Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Task S.4 -- Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. In meeting the individual objectives of these tasks resources are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the four program tasks from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Planned activities under each of these tasks are also presented.

  7. 27 CFR 53.159 - Deposit requirement for deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. 53.159 Section 53.159 Alcohol... calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. (a) Definitions—(1) Definition of tax liability. For... for the semimonthly period July 1-September 15 meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(3) of...

  8. 27 CFR 53.159 - Deposit requirement for deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. 53.159 Section 53.159 Alcohol... calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. (a) Definitions—(1) Definition of tax liability. For... for the semimonthly period July 1-September 15 meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(3) of...

  9. 27 CFR 53.159 - Deposit requirement for deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. 53.159 Section 53.159 Alcohol... calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. (a) Definitions—(1) Definition of tax liability. For... for the semimonthly period July 1-September 15 meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(3) of...

  10. 27 CFR 53.159 - Deposit requirement for deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. 53.159 Section 53.159 Alcohol... calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. (a) Definitions—(1) Definition of tax liability. For... for the semimonthly period July 1-September 15 meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(3) of...

  11. 27 CFR 53.159 - Deposit requirement for deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deposits made for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. 53.159 Section 53.159 Alcohol... calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1995. (a) Definitions—(1) Definition of tax liability. For... for the semimonthly period July 1-September 15 meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(3) of...

  12. U-ages in soils and groundwater evidencing wet periods 400-600kyr ago in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, D M; Jiménez-Rueda, J R

    2007-07-01

    (238)U and its radiogenic daughter (234)U have been utilized for dating soil formation and groundwater residence time during the last 1.5 million years, in this case based on the U-dissolution/precipitation occurring during modifications of the oxidation-reduction conditions. In this paper, we report a 400-600kyr proxy of wet periods from sediments occurring in a soil profile developed over rocks outcropping at the Paraná sedimentary basin in Brazil, and from groundwater exploited of Guarani aquifer at the same basin. The approaches indicated successful use of the U-modeled ages for suggesting wet periods exceeding the past 116-210kyr from previous studies.

  13. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    PubMed

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  14. Folk Calendars in the Balkan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Dimiter

    Folk calendars are a good source for studying the knowledge and rituals of peoples from distant epochs. The turbulent history of the cultures in the Balkan Peninsula leads to a mixture of calendar traditions - different calendar types and naming systems of the calendar units (months and weekdays). Despite the differences, they share a common astronomical basis and the seasonal structure is of fundamental importance (i.e., dividing the year into two economic seasons - warm and cold). The Old Bulgarian 12-year calendar is also mentioned briefly.

  15. Unpaid Informal Caregivers in South Australia: Population Characteristics, Prevalence and Age-Period-Cohort Effects 1994–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Tiffany K.; Price, Kay; Warmington, Rosemary; Taylor, Anne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing need for an availability of informal carers is taking on greater relevance as the global burden of disease transitions from acute fatal diseases to long term morbidity. Growing evidence suggests that extra burden on family carers may further impact on their health and ability to provide care. Important as it is to monitor the prevalence of those conditions which influence the burden of disease, it is also important to monitor the prevalence and health profiles of those who provide the informal care. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence and demographics of adult carers aged 15 and over in the state of South Australia over 20 years between 1994 and 2014. Methods Data from nine representative, cross-sectional population surveys, conducted in South Australia, Australia were used, (total N = 26,788 and n = 1,504 carers). The adjusted prevalence estimate of carers and their demographic characteristics were determined. So as to examine whether there were any generational effects on the prevalence of carers, an Age-Period Cohort (APC) analysis was undertaken. Results The prevalence estimates of carers increased during the two decades from 3.7% in 1994 to 6.7% by 2014. Large increases in the proportion of retired carers, those aged 70 years and over, those carers employed, and those with higher educational qualifications were observed. There were also larger proportions of respondents with a country of birth other than Australia, UK, Ireland and European counties. The APC analysis illustrated an increasing prevalence rate over each decade for carers aged 20–80 years, especially for those over the age of 60 years. Conclusions The results illustrate changing carer characteristics and carer prevalence estimates in South Australia as new generations of carers take on the caring role. There is a need to include questions regarding informal carers within ongoing mainstream population surveys, particularly at state levels, so as to plan

  16. Constructing a celestial calendar wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousineau, Sarah M.

    1999-11-01

    When we are asked to consider astronomical monuments of historical significance, we often think of Stonehenge, Mayan cities, or Aztec calendars. Few of us in the United States are prompted to look in our own backyard, where Native Americans spent centuries monitoring the rhythmic motions of the skies.

  17. Multireligious, Multicultural, and Multiethnic Calendar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korra, Herb, Comp.

    This guide features materials concerning ethnic and religious groups and the annual dates important to those groups. Specifically, the guide contains an index of religious holidays; a list of the historical dates important to Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism; and a calendar that lists, by month, cultural and…

  18. Muses on the Gregorian Calendar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with an exploration of the origins of the Gregorian Calendar. Next it describes the function of school inspector Christian Zeller (1822-1899) used to determine the number of the elapsed days of a year up to and including a specified date and how Zeller's function can be used to determine the number of days that have elapsed in…

  19. Maya Calendars in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Cynthia E.; Rehm, Megan A.; Catepillán, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which least common multiples helps students not only develop a perspective on an ancient culture but also draw on the cultural background of classmates. The Maya calendar received a lot of attention in the years leading up to December 21, 2012, because of the mythological end of "creation." Co-author…

  20. The monaural temporal window based on masking period pattern data in school-aged children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Emily; He, Shuman; Grose, John H.; Hall, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that auditory temporal resolution improves over childhood, whereas other data implicate the development of processing efficiency. The present study used the masking period pattern paradigm to examine the maturation of temporal processing in normal-hearing children (4.8 to 10.7 yrs) compared to adults. Thresholds for a brief tone were measured at 6 temporal positions relative to the period of a 5-Hz quasi-square-wave masker envelope, with a 20-dB modulation depth, as well as in 2 steady maskers. The signal was a pure tone at either 1000 or 6500 Hz, and the masker was a band of noise, either spectrally wide or narrow (21.3 and 1.4 equivalent rectangular bandwidths, respectively). Masker modulation improved thresholds more for wide than narrow bandwidths, and adults tended to receive more benefit from modulation than young children. Fits to data for the wide maskers indicated a change in window symmetry with development, reflecting relatively greater backward masking for the youngest listeners. Data for children >6.5 yrs of age appeared more adult-like for the 6500- than the 1000-Hz signal. Differences in temporal window asymmetry with listener age cannot be entirely explained as a consequence of a higher criterion for detection in children, a form of inefficiency. PMID:23464028

  1. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  2. Origins Rock Art and Calendar in Armenia and Anania Shirakatsi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokhatyan, Karen

    2014-10-01

    A review on the origin of rock art and calendars in Armenia, as well as Anania Shirakatsi's views are given. Astronomy and calendar, formation of the constellations, types of calendars, the Armenian ancient calendar, Armenian Hayk/Orion constellation and corresponding mythological heroes, and further phases of the Armenian calendar are discussed.

  3. The calendar of the future. A world calendar with leap week

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urá, Josef

    There exists a unique perpetual (solar) calendar with leap week that could become the basis for an eventual world calendar reform. Unlike the Universal Calendar considered for such a reform by the UN in 1956, rejected in a vote, it does not interrupt the continuity of weeks, which was the chief objection against this calendar. Except for the mentioned serious chronological defect, the Universal Calendar would otherwise have had many advantages. The leap week concept had been suggested earlier, but was never elaborated properly. Relevant theoretical questions and a suitable form of the calendar based on this concept are discussed. There is also a glimpse of the possible form of our calendar in a very distant future and of a calendar in cosmic space. The new calendar proposed is an optimum compromise for a solar calendar. While preserving advantages of the Universal Calendar, it fulfills all modern requirements: constancy, uniformity, continuity, simplicity and accuracy. With the leap rule derived (with regard to uniform time) an error of one day would occur in the new calendar in an interval longer than 10000 years. It could obtain a global acceptance, because there would be no discordance in the day of the week with respect to other existing calendars having a weekly cycle (such as, e.g., Jewish, Muslim, etc.).

  4. Different assessment tasks produce different estimates of handedness stability during the eight to 14 month age period.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Latta, Jonathan; Michel, George F

    2015-05-01

    Using 150 infants (57% males), two common tasks for assessing infant hand-use preferences for acquiring objects were compared for their ability to detect stable preferences during the age period of eight to 14 months. One task assesses the preference using nine presentations of objects; the other uses 32 presentations. Monthly classifications of hand preference for each task were determined by either a commonly used a decision criterion in which one hand is used 50% more often than the other or a criterion based on proportion of hand-use difference that exceeds a conventional alpha probability of 0.05. The seven monthly assessments provided by the two tasks also were examined for latent classes in their developmental trajectories. The two tasks were significantly different for both their identification of latent classes and their monthly classification of the infant's hand-use preference. The 32 presentations yielded three developmental trajectories (45% right preferring, 5% left preferring, and 50% no clear preference) whereas the nine presentations revealed only two trajectories (70% right, 30% no preference). The nine presentations task, with the 50% proportion decision criterion, was very generous in classifying right and left-preferring infants at each month but produced greater fluctuations across months compared to the 32 presentation task with an alpha decision criterion. Both tasks revealed that a large proportion of infants are still developing a hand-use preference during this age period. Recommendations are made for examining the development of hand-use preferences and their relation to the development of other neuropsychological functions. PMID:25769115

  5. Time trend and age-period-cohort effects on gastric cancer incidence in Zaragoza and Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Aragonés, N; Pollán, M; López-Abente, G; Ruiz, M; Vergara, A; Moreno, C; Moreo, P; Ardanaz, E

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe time trends in gastric cancer incidence in Zaragoza and Navarre, and to investigate time period and birth cohort as determinants of such trends. DESIGN: Cases from two registries were grouped into five year intervals and the following were calculated: age specific and sex specific incidence rates, and the male to female ratio. Log linear models including age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohort were fitted. SETTING: The Zaragoza Cancer Registry covers the province of Zaragoza, which has a population of 824,776 (403,755 men and 421,021 women). The Navarre Cancer Registry covers the province of Navarre which has 512,512 inhabitants (254,786 men and 257,726 women). In both cases population figures were based on the late census. PATIENTS: These comprised incident cases of gastric cancer reported to the Zaragoza Cancer Registry in 1963-87 and to the Navarre Cancer Registry in 1973-87. MAIN RESULTS: Navarre registered higher adjusted and cumulative rates than Zaragoza for both sexes. In both provinces, there were relative declines in the rates for men and women of 3% and 4% respectively per year. In Zaragoza, the risk of developing stomach cancer fell in generations born between 1888 and 1933, and rose in subsequent birth cohorts in both sexes, while in Navarre the cohort effect showed an approximately linear risk for both sexes. Both provinces recorded increases in risk associated with cohorts born between 1933 and 1943. CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of gastric cancer fell in both Zaragoza and Navarre. The reason for the greater incidence of gastric cancer in Navarre remains unknown. Trends in rates seem to be mainly linked to birth cohort. Increases in risk in generations born after 1933 may be ascribable to nutritional deficiencies in the early years of life. PMID:9328549

  6. Testing Persistence of Cohort Effects in the Epidemiology of Suicide: an Age-Period-Cohort Hysteresis Model

    PubMed Central

    Chauvel, Louis; Leist, Anja K.; Ponomarenko, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Birth cohort effects in suicide rates are well established, but to date there is no methodological approach or framework to test the temporal stability of these effects. We use the APC-Detrended (APCD) model to robustly estimate intensity of cohort effects identifying non-linear trends (or ‘detrended’ fluctuations) in suicide rates. The new APC-Hysteresis (APCH) model tests temporal stability of cohort effects. Analysing suicide rates in 25 WHO countries (periods 1970–74 to 2005–09; ages 20–24 to 70–79) with the APCD method, we find that country-specific birth cohort membership plays an important role in suicide rates. Among 25 countries, we detect 12 nations that show deep contrasts among cohort-specific suicide rates including Italy, Australia and the United States. The APCH method shows that cohort fluctuations are not stable across the life course but decline in Spain, France and Australia, whereas they remain stable in Italy, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. We discuss the Spanish case with elevated suicide mortality of cohorts born 1965–1975 which declines with age, and the opposite case of the United States, where the identified cohort effects of those born around 1960 increase smoothly, but statistically significant across the life course. PMID:27442027

  7. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Divergent Phenotypes for Water Holding Capacity across the Post Mortem Ageing Period in Porcine Muscle Exudate.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth M; Mullen, Anne Maria; Slavov, Nikolai; Elia, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate the changes in metabolic proteins that occur over a seven day (day 1, 3 and 7) post mortem ageing period in porcine centrifugal exudate from divergent meat quality phenotypes. The objectives of the research were to enhance our understanding of the phenotype (water holding capacity) and search for biomarkers of this economically significant pork quality attribute. Major changes in protein abundance across nine phenotype-by-time conditions were observed. Proteomic patterns were dominated by post mortem ageing timepoint. Using a machine learning algorithm (l1-regularized logistic regression), a model was derived with the ability to discriminate between high drip and low drip phenotypes using a subset of 25 proteins with an accuracy of 63%. Models discriminating between divergent phenotypes with accuracy of 72% and 73% were also derived comparing respectively, high drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus low drip and comparing low drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus high drip. In all comparisons, the general classes of discriminatory proteins identified include metabolic enzymes, stress response, transport and structural proteins. In this research we have enhanced our understanding of the protein related processes underpinning this phenotype and provided strong data to work toward development of protein biomarkers for water holding capacity.

  8. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Divergent Phenotypes for Water Holding Capacity across the Post Mortem Ageing Period in Porcine Muscle Exudate

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth M.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Slavov, Nikolai; Elia, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate the changes in metabolic proteins that occur over a seven day (day 1, 3 and 7) post mortem ageing period in porcine centrifugal exudate from divergent meat quality phenotypes. The objectives of the research were to enhance our understanding of the phenotype (water holding capacity) and search for biomarkers of this economically significant pork quality attribute. Major changes in protein abundance across nine phenotype-by-time conditions were observed. Proteomic patterns were dominated by post mortem ageing timepoint. Using a machine learning algorithm (l1-regularized logistic regression), a model was derived with the ability to discriminate between high drip and low drip phenotypes using a subset of 25 proteins with an accuracy of 63%. Models discriminating between divergent phenotypes with accuracy of 72% and 73% were also derived comparing respectively, high drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus low drip and comparing low drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus high drip. In all comparisons, the general classes of discriminatory proteins identified include metabolic enzymes, stress response, transport and structural proteins. In this research we have enhanced our understanding of the protein related processes underpinning this phenotype and provided strong data to work toward development of protein biomarkers for water holding capacity. PMID:26950297

  9. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Haustead, Daniel J; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  10. Transcriptome analysis of human ageing in male skin shows mid-life period of variability and central role of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Haustead, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Andrew; Saxena, Vishal; Marriage, Fiona; Firth, Martin; Silla, Robyn; Martin, Lisa; Adcroft, Katharine F.; Rea, Suzanne; Day, Philip J.; Melton, Phillip; Wood, Fiona M.; Fear, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Age is well-known to be a significant factor in both disease pathology and response to treatment, yet the molecular changes that occur with age in humans remain ill-defined. Here, using transcriptome profiling of healthy human male skin, we demonstrate that there is a period of significantly elevated, transcriptome-wide expression changes occurring predominantly in middle age. Both pre and post this period, the transcriptome appears to undergo much smaller, linear changes with increasing age. Functional analysis of the transient changes in middle age suggest a period of heightened metabolic activity and cellular damage associated with NF-kappa-B and TNF signaling pathways. Through meta-analysis we also show the presence of global, tissue independent linear transcriptome changes with age which appear to be regulated by NF-kappa-B. These results suggest that aging in human skin is associated with a critical mid-life period with widespread transcriptome changes, both preceded and proceeded by a relatively steady rate of linear change in the transcriptome. The data provides insight into molecular changes associated with normal aging and will help to better understand the increasingly important pathological changes associated with aging. PMID:27229172

  11. Folk Astronomy and Calendars in Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varisco, Daniel Martin

    A rich folk tradition of star lore evolved in the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, especially during the Islamic era. Some of this lore was recorded in Yemeni Arabic texts, especially during the 13th and 14th centuries. Among the calendars in use are solar, lunar, and stellar varieties. The most significant folk calendars are the system of agricultural marker stars, often correlated with the 28 lunar stations, and the Pleiades conjunction calendar.

  12. Mapping time. The calendar and its history.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, E. G.

    This book, a paperback version of the 1998 hardcover edition, is an account for the general reader of the history and underlying basis of each of the most important calendars of the world, from antiquity to modern times. There are descriptions of prehistoric calendars, of those devised by the Egyptians, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and other civilizations, of the short-lived French Republican calendar.

  13. Social-Cognitive Behaviors and Playmate Preferences in Same-Age and Mixed-Age Classrooms over a 6-Month Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Observations of mixed-age classrooms of three and four year olds (n=36), of three year olds (n=27), and four year olds (n=31) found significant age differences in social and cognitive play for same-age, but not mixed-age, classes. Implications for early childhood education are discussed. (SLD)

  14. 7 CFR 1221.3 - Calendar year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.3 Calendar...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.3 - Calendar year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.3 Calendar...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.3 - Calendar year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.3 Calendar...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.3 - Calendar year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.3 Calendar...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.3 - Calendar year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.3 Calendar...

  19. Differentiation of Period, Age, and Cohort Effects on Drug Use 1976-1986. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series, Paper 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; And Others

    Conducted as part of the Monitoring the Future project, this study used a cohort-sequential design to examine period, age, and cohort effects on substance use among American youth between the ages of 18 and 28 from the high school classes of 1976 to 1986. This manuscript supersedes Paper 14 in the series which reported on American youth from 18-24…

  20. 76 FR 24496 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Rate Calendar Year 2011 Lower 48 States 443 Alaska 756 Outpatient Surgery Rate (Medicare) Established Medicare rates for freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers. Effective Date for Calendar Year 2011...

  1. Age, Period and Cohort Effects on Adult Body Mass Index and Overweight from 1991 to 2009 in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Background Contributions of age-period-cohort effects to increases in BMI and overweight among Chinese adults must be resolved in order to design appropriate interventions. The objectives were to (i) describe the period effect on BMI and overweight among Chinese adults from 1991 to 2009 and assess modification of this effect by age (e.g. cohort effect) and gender, and (ii) quantify the influence of household income and community urbanicity on these effects. Methods Data are from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a prospective sample across nine provinces in China; 53 298 observations from 18 059 participants were collected over a 19-year period. A series of mixed effects models was used to explicitly assess differences in BMI within individuals over time (age effect) and population-wide differences in BMI over time (period effect), and implicitly assess differences in the experienced period effect across individuals of varying ages (cohort effect). Results Stronger period effects on BMI and overweight were observed among males compared with females; and younger cohorts had higher BMIs compared with older cohorts. Simulations predicted that increases in income and urbanicity in the order of magnitude of that observed from 1991 to 2009 would correspond to shifts in the BMIs of average individuals of 0.07 and 0.23 kg/m2, respectively. Conclusions Although period effects had a stronger influence on the BMI of males, interventions should not overlook younger female cohorts who are at increased risk compared with their older counterparts. PMID:23771721

  2. Should age-period-cohort analysts accept innovation without scrutiny? A response to Reither, Masters, Yang, Powers, Zheng and Land.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew; Jones, Kelvyn

    2015-03-01

    This commentary clarifies our original commentary (Bell and Jones, 2014c) and illustrates some concerns we have regarding the response article in this issue (Reither et al., 2015). In particular, we argue that (a) linear effects do not have to be produced by exact linear mathematical functions to behave as if they were linear, (b) linear effects by this wider definition are extremely common in real life social processes, and (c) in the presence of these effects, the Hierarchical Age Period Cohort (HAPC) model will often not work. Although Reither et al. do not define what a 'non-linear monotonic trend' is (instead, only stating that it isn't a linear effect) we show that the model often doesn't work in the presence of such effects, by using data generated as a 'non-linear monotonic trend' by Reither et al. themselves. We then question their discussion of fixed and random effects before finishing with a discussion of how we argue that theory should be used, in the context of the obesity epidemic.

  3. Evaluating gyrochronology on the zero-age-main-sequence: rotation periods in the southern open cluster Blanco 1 from the Kelt-South survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cargile, P. A.; Pepper, J.; Siverd, R.; Stassun, K. G.; James, D. J.; Kuhn, R. B.

    2014-02-10

    We report periods for 33 members of Blanco 1 as measured from Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope-South light curves, the first reported rotation periods for this benchmark zero-age-main-sequence open cluster. The distribution of these stars spans from late-A or early-F dwarfs to mid-K with periods ranging from less than a day to ∼8 days. The rotation period distribution has a morphology similar to the coeval Pleiades cluster, suggesting the universal nature of stellar rotation distributions. Employing two different gyrochronology methods, we find an age of 146{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr for the cluster. Using the same techniques, we infer an age of 134{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr for the Pleiades measured from existing literature rotation periods. These rotation-derived ages agree with independently determined cluster ages based on the lithium depletion boundary technique. Additionally, we evaluate different gyrochronology models and quantify levels of agreement between the models and the Blanco 1/Pleiades rotation period distributions, including incorporating the rotation distributions of clusters at ages up to 1.1 Gyr. We find the Skumanich-like spin-down rate sufficiently describes the rotation evolution of stars hotter than the Sun; however, we find cooler stars rotating faster than predicted by a Skumanich law, suggesting a mass dependence in the efficiency of stellar angular momentum loss rate. Finally, we compare the Blanco 1 and Pleiades rotation period distributions to available nonlinear angular momentum evolution models. We find they require a significant mass dependence on the initial rotation rate of solar-type stars to reproduce the observed range of rotation periods at a given stellar mass and are furthermore unable to predict the observed over-density of stars along the upper envelope of the clusters' rotation distributions.

  4. Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan - Calendar and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Trejo, Jesús

    The Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan was the principal symbol of political power and religious control of the Mexicas. Its orientation was chosen according to ancestral calendrical traditions that considered the Mesoamerican calendar as a sacred concern. The solar alignments incorporated into this emblematic building symbolized moments that divided the solar year according to basic properties of the Mesoamerican calendar.

  5. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  6. The lost Roman calendars of ancient Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.

    2006-08-01

    As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the lunisolar Macedonian calendar became the most widely circulated among all the lunisolar Greek calendars. However, despite its spread, two Roman calendars, generally unknown in the scientific community, were developed and used inside Macedonia itself during the Roman occupation of Greece. The older calendar used the so-called ‘Macedonian year’. This system started in 148 BC to emphasize the importance of the victory of the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus against Pseudo-Philippus Andriscus, King of Macedonia. The newer calendrical system, which absorbed the older system, used the ‘Augustian or respectable year’ bearing its name from Octavius Augustus; its starting point was the date of the catalytic victory of Octavius over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra at Actium (31 BC). The solar Octavian calendar survived until the sixth or seventh century in the Macedonian Territory.

  7. Crop calendars for the US, USSR, and Canada in support of the early warning project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, T.; Sestak, M. L.; Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    New crop calendars are produced for U.S. regions where several years of periodic growth stage observations are available on a CRD basis. Preexisting crop calendars from the LACIE are also collected as are U.S. crop calendars currently being created for the Foreign Commodities Production Forecast project. For the U.S.S.R. and Canada, no new crop calendars are created because no new data are available. Instead, LACIE crop calendars are compared against simulated normal daily temperatures and against the Robertson wheat and Williams barley phenology models run on the simulated normal temperatures. Severe inconsistencies are noted and discussed. For the U.S.S.R., spring and fall planting dates can probably be estimated accurately from satellite or meteorological data. For the starter model problem, the Feyerherm spring wheat model is recommended for spring planted small grains, and the results of an analysis are presented. For fall planted small grains, use of normal planting dates supplemented by spectral observation of an early stage is recommended. The importance of nonmeteorological factors as they pertain to meteorological factors in determining fall planting is discussed. Crop calendar data available at the Johnson Space Center for the U.S., U.S.S.R., Canada, and other countries are inventoried.

  8. Influence of Reproductive Aging of the Cow on Luteal Function and Period 1 mRNA Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rodents, disruption of the circadian clock genes results in increased incidence of anovulation, irregular estrous cycles, decreased luteal function, and accelerated reproductive ageing. In cattle, reproductive ageing is associated with decreased numbers of follicles in the ovary, decreased lutea...

  9. Tooth Loss in the United Kingdom – Trends in Social Inequalities: An Age-Period-and-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed trends in social inequalities in tooth loss in the United Kingdom between 1988 and 2009. Data from 20,126 adults who participated in the latest three national Adult Dental Health Surveys in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were used. Social class was determined using the 6-point Registrar General’s Social Class. Three indicators of tooth loss were analysed; the proportion of edentate people among all adults and the number of teeth and the proportion with functional dentition (defined as having 20+ teeth) among dentate adults. Trends were modelled within an age, period and cohort framework using partial least squares regression (PLSR). Confidence intervals for PLSR estimates were obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. The Slope and Relative Index of Inequality (SII and RII) were used to quantify social inequalities in tooth loss. Between 1988 and 2009, absolute inequalities in total tooth loss narrowed (SII changed from −28.4% to −15.3%) while relative inequalities widened (RII from 6.21 to 20.9) in the whole population. On the other hand, absolute and relative social inequality in tooth loss remained fairly stable over time among dentate adults. There was an absolute difference of 2.5–2.9 in number of teeth and 22–26% in the proportion with functional dentition between the lowest and highest social classes. In relative terms, the highest social class had 10–11% more teeth and 25–28% higher probability of having functional dentition than the lowest social class. The findings show pervasive inequalities in tooth loss by social class among British adults despite marked improvements in tooth retention in recent years and generations. In the whole adult population, absolute inequalities in tooth loss have narrowed while relative inequalities have increased steadily. Among dentate adults, absolute and relative inequalities in number of teeth and proportion of people with functional dentition have remained significant but

  10. [Gender and age characteristics and the trends in prevalence of obesity in the adult population in Russia during the 1994-2012 period].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Keshabyants, E E; Peskova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult age and sex groups of the Russian population in the dynamics of observation from 1994 to 2012 was based on anthropometric measurements of weight and height in Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of obesity (BMI > 30.0) of the entire population have been increased during the observation period. The analyzing the data by gender revealed a significant increase in the frequency of obesity mainly among men, especially in the period 2005-2012, whereas among women increased incidence of obesity was negligible. The most rapid increase in the frequency of overweight and obesity in men noted in the age period of 20-30 years, and further increase in frequency of overweight and obesity with age were negligible. The rate of overweight and obesity in women had almost linear increase in the age period of 20-60 years. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of obesity showed that the obtained values for the 2000-2012 period were close to those characteristic of the developed world in recent decades. The growth of obesity rate in the general adult population in 2000-2005 and the 2005-2012 was 0.4% per year. At the same time, men showed a significant acceleration of the growth rate of obesity in the period 2005 to 2012 (0.61% per year) compared with the period 2000-2005 (0.44% per year). Increase in the frequency of obesity was observed in all regions in 2000 to 2012. The data should be considered as a rationale for research into the causes of gender differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first place to find differences in the peculiarities of dietary intake between men and women at different ages of life, leading to the development of overweight and obesity.

  11. Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the diaphyseal length of the long bones in the postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Abrantes, Joana; Humphrey, Louise T

    2014-09-01

    Age at death in immature human skeletal remains has been estimated from the diaphyseal length of the long bones, but few studies have actually been designed specifically for the purpose of age estimation and those which have, show important caveats. This study uses regression and classical calibration to model the relationship between age and diaphyseal length of the six long bones, in a sample of 184 known sex and age individuals (72 females and 112 males), younger than 13 years of age, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. Age estimation models based on classical calibration were obtained for each of the six long bones, and separately for each sex and for the sexes combined, and also for the entire sample and when it is subdivided into two subsamples at the age of 2 years. Comparisons between inverse and classical calibration show there is a systematic bias in age estimations obtained from inverse calibration. In the classical calibration models, the length of the femur provides the most accurate estimates of age. Age estimates are more accurate for the male subsample and for individuals under the age of 2 years. These results and a test of previously published methods caution against inverse calibration as a technique for developing age estimation methods even from the immature skeleton. Age estimation methods developed using cemetery collections of identified human skeletons should not be uncritically applied to present-day populations from the same region since many populations have experienced dramatic secular trends in growth and adult height over the last century.

  12. Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    MAY 2004 GARP's 3rd Credit & Counterparty Risk Summit, London, UK 21-23 May 2004 Andreas Simou (andreas.simou@garp.com), +44 (0)20 7626 9301, www.garp.com/events/3rdcred IMA Workshop 9: Financial Data Analysis and Applications, University of Minnesota, MN, USA 24-28 May 2004 www.ima.umn.edu/complex/spring/c9.html Global Derivatives & Risk Management 2004, NH Eurobuilding, Madrid, Spain 25-28 May 2004 Aden Watkins, ICBI (awatkins@iirltd.co.uk), +44 (0)20 7915 5198, www.icbi-uk.com/globalderivatives/ WEHIA'04 9th Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, Kyodai-Kaikan, Kyoto, Japan 27-29 May 2004 www.nda.ac.jp/cs/AI/wehia04/ JUNE 2004 Semimartingale Theory and Practice in Finance, Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, Vancouver, BC, Canada 5-10 June 2004 www.pims.math.ca/birs/workshops/2004/04w5032/ MC2QMC 2004 International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods, Juan-les-Pins, Côte d'Azur, France 7-10 June 2004 Monique Simonetti (Monique.Simonetti@sophia.inria.fr), +33 4 92 38 78 64, www-sop.inria.fr/omega/MC2QMC2004/ GAIM'04 10th Annual Global Alternative Investment Management Forum, The Beaulieu Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland 8-11 June 2004 +44 (0)20 7915 5103, www.icbi-uk.com/gaim/ 3rd Annual Conference Ri$k Management 2004, Fairmont Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 12-15 June 2004 www.iirme.com/risk/ 10th Annual Risk USA Congress, Boston, MA, USA 21-24 June 2004 Aristotle Liu (aliu@riskwaters.com), +44 (0)207 484 9700, www.riskusa.com Mannheim Empirical Research Summer School, Mannheim University, Germany 22 June-2 July 2004 oliver@kirchkamp.de, www.sfb504.uni-mannheim.de/merss 9th Annual Conference on Econometric Modelling for Africa, Cape Town, South Africa 30 June-2 July 2004 aesinfo@commerce.uct.ac.za, www.commerce.uct.ac.za/economics/AES2004Conference/ 4th Congress of Nonlinear Analysts. Special Session on Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Finance, Hyatt Grand Cypress Resort, Orlando, FL, USA 30 June-7 July 2004 dkermani@fit.edu, +1 321 674 7412, http://kermani.math.fit.edu/ JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=13 DECEMBER 2004 Quantitative Methods in Finance 2004, Sydney, Australia 15-18 December 2004 Andrea Schnaufer (qmf@uts.edu.au), +61 2 9514 7737, www.business.uts.edu.au/finance/resources/qmf2004/

  13. Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04. 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004. 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=13 DECEMBER 2004 Quantitative Methods in Finance 2004, Sydney, Australia 15-18 December 2004 Andrea Schnaufer (qmf@uts.edu.au), +61 2 9514 7737, www.business.uts.edu.au/finance/resources/qmf2004/ JANUARY 2005 Developments in Quantitative Finance, Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, UK 24 January-22 July 2005 www.newton.cam.ac.uk/programmes/DQF/index.html

  14. An investigation of the calendar calculation ability of a Chinese calendar savant.

    PubMed

    Ho, E D; Tsang, A K; Ho, D Y

    1991-09-01

    A Chinese calendar savant was investigated on his exceptional proficiency in calendar calculation and his culture-specific talent of converting the Gregorian calendar to the Chinese calendar. Results did not support any one of the hypotheses of eidetic imagery, high-speed calculation, rote memorization, keying-off (anchoring) strategy, use of calendar regularities or monthly configuration as the only explanation proposed in earlier investigations. The savant's calculation ability is hypothesized to be brought about by his familiarity of the 14 calendar templates and the knowledge of matching the templates to every year. For dates that are beyond the 20th century, the calculation is by regressing the date to a corresponding year in the 20th century by additions or subtractions of 28 or 700 years with his accurate use of the simple operations in arithmetic. PMID:1938777

  15. An investigation of the calendar calculation ability of a Chinese calendar savant.

    PubMed

    Ho, E D; Tsang, A K; Ho, D Y

    1991-09-01

    A Chinese calendar savant was investigated on his exceptional proficiency in calendar calculation and his culture-specific talent of converting the Gregorian calendar to the Chinese calendar. Results did not support any one of the hypotheses of eidetic imagery, high-speed calculation, rote memorization, keying-off (anchoring) strategy, use of calendar regularities or monthly configuration as the only explanation proposed in earlier investigations. The savant's calculation ability is hypothesized to be brought about by his familiarity of the 14 calendar templates and the knowledge of matching the templates to every year. For dates that are beyond the 20th century, the calculation is by regressing the date to a corresponding year in the 20th century by additions or subtractions of 28 or 700 years with his accurate use of the simple operations in arithmetic.

  16. [Disturbances of lipid metabolism in the period of age androgen deficit in middle-aged and elderly men with ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Doronin, B M; Denisova, O A

    2010-01-01

    Blood concentrations of total cholesterol, beta-lipoproteins, triglycerides and testosterone were studied in 73 men (mean age 65.9 +/- 8.6 years) with acute ischemic stroke. The concentrations of testosterone and triglycerides in men decrease with age and those of cholesterol and beta-lipoproteins do not depend on the age. In middle-aged patients, the negative correlations were found between concentrations of testosterone and beta-lipoproteins (r = -0.404; p < 0.05); testosterone and cholesterol (r = -0.273; p < 0.001). In elderly patients, there were negative correlations between concentrations of testosterone and triglycerides (r = -0.348; p < 0.05). In middle-aged and elderly patients, concentrations of triglycerides and testosterone were negatively correlated (r = -0.478; p < 0.001). The lower blood testosterone level was associated with the higher risk of the development of atherosclerotic lesions of major arteries that allowed to estimate risks of ischemic stroke in middle-aged and elderly men.

  17. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-12-04

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors.

  18. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors. PMID:26690183

  19. Statistical analysis of life history calendar data.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Mervi; Helske, Satu

    2016-04-01

    The life history calendar is a data-collection tool for obtaining reliable retrospective data about life events. To illustrate the analysis of such data, we compare the model-based probabilistic event history analysis and the model-free data mining method, sequence analysis. In event history analysis, we estimate instead of transition hazards the cumulative prediction probabilities of life events in the entire trajectory. In sequence analysis, we compare several dissimilarity metrics and contrast data-driven and user-defined substitution costs. As an example, we study young adults' transition to adulthood as a sequence of events in three life domains. The events define the multistate event history model and the parallel life domains in multidimensional sequence analysis. The relationship between life trajectories and excess depressive symptoms in middle age is further studied by their joint prediction in the multistate model and by regressing the symptom scores on individual-specific cluster indices. The two approaches complement each other in life course analysis; sequence analysis can effectively find typical and atypical life patterns while event history analysis is needed for causal inquiries.

  20. Midlife as a Pivotal Period in the Life Course: Balancing Growth and Decline at the Crossroads of Youth and Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Teshale, Salom; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence for multidirectionality, variability, and plasticity in the nature and direction of change in physical health, cognitive functioning, and well-being during the middle years of the life course. The picture of well-being in midlife based on longitudinal data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study is a more positive one than portrayed in previous cross-sectional studies. We present middle age as a pivotal period in the life course in terms of balancing growth and decline, linking earlier and later periods of life, and bridging younger and older generations. We highlight the role of protective factors and multisystem resilience in mitigating declines. Those in middle age play a central role in the lives of those who are younger and older at home, in the workplace, and in society at large. Thus, a focus on promoting health and well-being in middle age can have a far-reaching impact. PMID:25580043

  1. Temporal trends of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangkok, Thailand from 1981 to 2000: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Kongsomboon, K; Singhasivanon, P; Kaewkungwal, J; Nimmannitya, S; Mammen, M P; Nisalak, A; Sawanpanyalert, P

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of age, time period, and birth cohorts with dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) in Bangkok, Thailand over the period 1981-2000. The age group at greatest risk for DF/DHF was 5-9 years old. The period effect shows a remittent pattern, with significant increases in 1986-1990 and 1996-2000. The birth cohort group showed a significant decreasing trend from the 1961-1965 group to the 1991-1995 group (R2 = 0.7620) with a decreasing rate of 0.1. We concluded that the temporal trend of DF/DHF is decreasing; especially for DHF.

  2. 21 CFR 10.100 - Public calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... feasible, significant events of the previous week, including significant meetings with persons outside the...) Public calendar entries will include: (i) Significant meetings with members of the judiciary... case, administrative hearing, or other regulatory action or decision; (ii) Significant...

  3. 21 CFR 10.100 - Public calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... feasible, significant events of the previous week, including significant meetings with persons outside the...) Public calendar entries will include: (i) Significant meetings with members of the judiciary... case, administrative hearing, or other regulatory action or decision; (ii) Significant...

  4. 21 CFR 10.100 - Public calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... feasible, significant events of the previous week, including significant meetings with persons outside the...) Public calendar entries will include: (i) Significant meetings with members of the judiciary... case, administrative hearing, or other regulatory action or decision; (ii) Significant...

  5. 21 CFR 10.100 - Public calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... feasible, significant events of the previous week, including significant meetings with persons outside the...) Public calendar entries will include: (i) Significant meetings with members of the judiciary... case, administrative hearing, or other regulatory action or decision; (ii) Significant...

  6. 21 CFR 10.100 - Public calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... feasible, significant events of the previous week, including significant meetings with persons outside the...) Public calendar entries will include: (i) Significant meetings with members of the judiciary... case, administrative hearing, or other regulatory action or decision; (ii) Significant...

  7. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care. PMID:17238511

  8. Astronomical Expiration Date of the Gregorian Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Heiner

    Until now celestial mechanicists have not been able to calculate an astronomical expiration date for the Gregorian Calendar. Why? Because one still has difficulties with the long-term prediction of the duration of the average day d, the average synodical month msyn and the average tropical year atrop. But at least the question can be put clearly now. From the calendar equations of the Gregorian Calendar [1] one obtains a domain, in which the values of atrop/d and msyn/d should remain. This domain is called th e leap-parameter trapezoid and will be presented. [1] Lichtenberg, H., and Richter, P.H., Calendars in the Gregorian Spirit, Poster-Abstract, this vol., p. 95

  9. Decreasing period-length of the endogenous circadian rhythm of oxygen evolution in Acetabularia and its possible relation to aging.

    PubMed

    von Lindern, L; Berger, S

    1996-11-01

    Endogenous circadian rhythms observed under constant conditions normally show period length variations. However, a general trend is difficult to identify when cells or organisms are entrained with the usual 24-h-period light/dark cycles. Therefore, these variations in time have been considered as fluctuations. In order to gain more insight into this phenomenon, individual Acetabularia cells were exposed to light/dark cycles of 16 h (LD 8:8) and 33.6 h (LD 16.8:16.8), respectively, i.e., periods which lie distinctly outside the range of the normal circadian entrainment. Employing a high-resolution procedure for data analysis, decreasing period lengths could consistently be detected when cells were kept under constant conditions for several weeks. Possible causes of this decrease are discussed.

  10. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections

    PubMed Central

    Frenk, Steven M.; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon. PMID:25392566

  11. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Steven M; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon.

  12. Estimating survival of precocial chicks during the prefledging period using a catch-curve analysis and count-based age-class data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Ryan, M.R.; Kruse, C.D.; Pavelka, G.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating reproductive success for birds with precocial young can be difficult because chicks leave nests soon after hatching and individuals or broods can be difficult to track. Researchers often turn to estimating survival during the prefledging period and, though effective, mark-recapture based approaches are not always feasible due to cost, time, and animal welfare concerns. Using a threatened population of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) that breeds along the Missouri River, we present an approach for estimating chick survival during the prefledging period using long-term (1993-2005), count-based, age-class data. We used a modified catch-curve analysis, and data collected during three 5-day sampling periods near the middle of the breeding season. The approach has several ecological and statistical assumptions and our analyses were designed to minimize the probability of violating those assumptions. For example, limiting the sampling periods to only 5 days gave reasonable assurance that population size was stable during the sampling period. Annual daily survival estimates ranged from 0.825 (SD = 0.03) to 0.931 (0.02) depending on year and sampling period, with these estimates assuming constant survival during the prefledging period and no change in the age structure of the population. The average probability of survival to fledging ranged from 0.126 to 0.188. Our results are similar to other published estimates for this species in similar habitats. This method of estimating chick survival may be useful for a variety of precocial bird species when mark-recapture methods are not feasible and only count-based age class data are available. ?? 2009 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  13. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L

    2015-08-15

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  14. The Contribution of Mammography Screening to Breast Cancer Incidence Trends in the United States: An Updated Age-period-cohort Model

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Alagoz, Oguz; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Holford, Theodore R.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of screening mammography on breast cancer incidence is difficult to disentangle from cohort- and age-related effects on incidence. Methods We developed an age-period-cohort model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer incidence in U.S. females using cancer registry data. Five functions were included in the model to estimate stage-specific effects for age, premenopausal birth cohorts, postmenopausal birth cohorts, period (for all years of diagnosis), and a mammography period effect limited to women aged ≥40 years after 1982. Incidence with and without the mammography period effect was calculated. Results More recent birth cohorts have elevated underlying risk compared to earlier cohorts for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Comparing models with and without the mammography period effect showed that overall breast cancer incidence would have been 23.1% lower in the absence of mammography in 2010 (95% CI 18.8, 27.4), including 14.7% (9.5, 19.3) lower for invasive breast cancer and 54.5% (47.4, 59.6) lower for DCIS. Incidence of distant-staged breast cancer in 2010 would have been 29.0% (13.1, 48.1) greater in the absence of mammography screening. Conclusions Mammography contributes to markedly elevated rates of DCIS and early stage invasive cancers, but also contributes to substantial reductions in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer. Impact Mammography is an important tool for reducing the burden of breast cancer, but future work is needed to identify risk factors accounting for increasing underlying incidence and to distinguish between indolent and potentially lethal early stage breast cancers that are detected via mammography. PMID:25787716

  15. An experiment using a month-by-month calendar in a family planning survey in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Sosa, D

    1992-01-01

    Recent demographic surveys have incorporated a month-by-month calendar for the five-year reference period before the survey for the recording of fertility-related events (sexual unions, contraceptive use, pregnancies, and breastfeeding). In the 1986 survey of Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning in Costa Rica, approximately one-half of the 3,527 women interviewed were administered a questionnaire with traditional fertility and family planning questions; the other half were asked virtually the same questions, but the women's responses were entered in a month-by-month calendar. The assignment of questionnaire type was randomly alternated by cluster. Comparisons of the number of events (live births, pregnancy losses, and contraceptive use) showed that more events were recorded among the women in the calendar group. Significantly less erroneous superposition of events (contraceptive use in the last trimester of pregnancy and hormonal contraceptive use in the first month postpartum) was noted when the calendar was used.

  16. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer. PMID:21425256

  17. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer.

  18. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models for forecasting time series data with calendar variation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartono, Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Prastyo, Dedy Dwi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a calendar variation model for forecasting retail sales data with the Eid ul-Fitr effect. The proposed model is based on two methods, namely two levels ARIMAX and regression methods. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models are built by using ARIMAX for the first level and regression for the second level. Monthly men's jeans and women's trousers sales in a retail company for the period January 2002 to September 2009 are used as case study. In general, two levels of calendar variation model yields two models, namely the first model to reconstruct the sales pattern that already occurred, and the second model to forecast the effect of increasing sales due to Eid ul-Fitr that affected sales at the same and the previous months. The results show that the proposed two level calendar variation model based on ARIMAX and regression methods yields better forecast compared to the seasonal ARIMA model and Neural Networks.

  19. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2003 and inclusion of registered nurses in the personnel provision of the critical access hospital emergency services requirement for frontier areas and remote locations. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2002-12-31

    physician fee schedule rates could and should be recalculated prospectively in the event that Congress provides the Department with legal authority to revise estimates used to establish the sustainable growth rates (SGR) and for 1998 and 1999 and the NVPS for 1990-1996. The other policy changes concern: the pricing of the technical component for positron emission tomography (PET) scans, Medicare qualifications for clinical nurse specialists, a process to add or delete services to the definition of telehealth, the definition for ZZZ global periods, global period for surface radiation, and an endoscopic base for urology codes. In addition, this rule updates the codes subject to physician self-referral prohibitions. We are expanding the definition of a screening fecal-occult blood test and are modifying our regulations to expand coverage for additional colorectal cancer screening tests through our national coverage determination process. We also make revisions to the sustainable growth rate, the anesthesia conversion factor, and the work values for some gastroenterologic services. We are making these changes to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. This final rule also clarifies the enrollment of physical and occupational therapists as therapists in private practice and clarifies the policy regarding services and supplies incident to a physician's professional services. In addition, this final rule discusses physical and occupational therapy payment caps and makes technical changes to the definition of outpatient rehabilitation services. In addition, we are finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2002 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for calendar year (CY) 2003. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2003 is -4.4 percent, the initial estimate of the sustainable growth rate for CY 2003 is 7.6 percent, and

  20. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2003 and inclusion of registered nurses in the personnel provision of the critical access hospital emergency services requirement for frontier areas and remote locations. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2002-12-31

    physician fee schedule rates could and should be recalculated prospectively in the event that Congress provides the Department with legal authority to revise estimates used to establish the sustainable growth rates (SGR) and for 1998 and 1999 and the NVPS for 1990-1996. The other policy changes concern: the pricing of the technical component for positron emission tomography (PET) scans, Medicare qualifications for clinical nurse specialists, a process to add or delete services to the definition of telehealth, the definition for ZZZ global periods, global period for surface radiation, and an endoscopic base for urology codes. In addition, this rule updates the codes subject to physician self-referral prohibitions. We are expanding the definition of a screening fecal-occult blood test and are modifying our regulations to expand coverage for additional colorectal cancer screening tests through our national coverage determination process. We also make revisions to the sustainable growth rate, the anesthesia conversion factor, and the work values for some gastroenterologic services. We are making these changes to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. This final rule also clarifies the enrollment of physical and occupational therapists as therapists in private practice and clarifies the policy regarding services and supplies incident to a physician's professional services. In addition, this final rule discusses physical and occupational therapy payment caps and makes technical changes to the definition of outpatient rehabilitation services. In addition, we are finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2002 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for calendar year (CY) 2003. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2003 is -4.4 percent, the initial estimate of the sustainable growth rate for CY 2003 is 7.6 percent, and

  1. Understanding the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification in Spanish Students Aged 16-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…

  2. Bayesian age-period-cohort models with versatile interactions and long-term predictions: mortality and population in Finland 1878-2050.

    PubMed

    Havulinna, Aki S

    2014-02-28

    Age-period-cohort (APC) models are widely used for studying time trends of disease incidence or mortality. Model identifiability has become less of a problem with Bayesian APC models. These models are usually based on random walk (RW1, RW2) smoothing priors. For long and complex time series and for long predicted periods, these models as such may not be adequate. We present two extensions for the APC models. First, we introduce flexible interactions between the age, period and cohort effects based on a two-dimensional conditional autoregressive smoothing prior on the age/period plane. Our second extension uses autoregressive integrated (ARI) models to provide reasonable long-term predictions. To illustrate the utility of our model framework, we provide stochastic predictions for the Finnish male and female population, in 2010-2050. For that, we first study and forecast all-cause male and female mortality in Finland, 1878-2050, showing that using an interaction term is needed for fitting and interpreting the observed data. We then provide population predictions using a cohort component model, which also requires predictions for fertility and migration. As our main conclusion, ARI models have better properties for predictions than the simple RW models do, but mixing these prediction models with RW1 or RW2 smoothing priors for observed periods leads to a model that is not fully consistent. Further research with our model framework will concentrate on using a more consistent model for smoothing and prediction, such as autoregressive integrated moving average models with state-space methods or Gaussian process priors. PMID:24105769

  3. Polyphenol Intake from Beverages in Japan over an 18-Year Period (1996-2013): Trends by Year, Age, Gender and Season.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Yoshida, Daishi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An association between the dietary intake of polyphenols and human health has been shown in many epidemiological studies. Since beverages are rich sources of polyphenols, we aimed to evaluate the polyphenol intake from beverages in Japanese individuals with a focus on differences according to year, age, gender and season. More than 10,000 Japanese male and female subjects aged 1-99 y old participated in this survey every year from 1996 to 2013, and their beverage consumption and amount of polyphenol intake were calculated. Polyphenol intake from beverages in Japan showed no tendency to increase or decrease over the 18-y period, and the major sources of polyphenols in Japanese daily life were coffee and green tea. Polyphenol intake was larger in participants with higher age up to 59 y old in both male and female subjects. There was a slight difference in polyphenol intake by gender, with adult males consuming more polyphenols than adult females. Polyphenols were consumed slightly more in the winter than the summer, although the seasonal difference in polyphenol intake was not large. Our results suggest that polyphenol intake from beverages is influenced by age rather than gender or season in Japan, and may not have changed over time, at least over the 18-y period beginning in 1996 in Japan.

  4. Changes in infestation rate and age structure of Dermanyssus hirundinis and Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acarina) during nidification and breeding period of penduline tit.

    PubMed

    Masán, P

    1997-11-01

    Populations of 2 parasitic mites, Dermanyssus hirundinis (Hermann) (63,169 collected individuals) and Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini et Fanzago) (3,425 collected individuals), in 305 penduline tit, Remiz pendulinus L., nests were studied in 1993 and 1994. The nests were divided into 4 groups: nests without eggs, nests with eggs, nests with nestlings, and nests just after fledging. The average percentage of infested nests increased from the nests without eggs to the nests after fledging (at 20% in both years of investigation), and the increase of mite abundance was exponential. Presence of nestlings in the nests stimulated intensive reproduction of parasitic mites. An increasing infestation intensity in nests was observed during the host breeding period. The 2 mite species exhibited similar age structure patterns in the nests of all the groups and during the entire penduline tit breeding period as well. A decrease in the proportion of adult mites (mainly females) and an increase of nymphs (above all of protonymphs) occurred at the time of fledging and at the end of host breeding period. The percentage of the ovigerous females increased in the individual nests, but decreased during the breeding period of penduline tit. The quantitative parameters of D. hirundinis populations in the highly infested nests depended on the individual nidification and nidobiology of the host, whereas the qualitative parameters (age structure) of these populations depended more on abiotic factors and life strategy of the ectoparasite. PMID:9439114

  5. Sensitive periods for the effect of peer victimization on self-cognition: moderation by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Kathryn M; Cole, David A; Sinclair, Keneisha R; Dukewich, Tammy L; Preacher, Kristopher J; Felton, Julia W; Jacky, Amy; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The link between the experience of peer victimization (PV) and future psychological maladjustment has been consistently documented; however, little is known about intermediary cognitive processes that underlie this relation or how these processes vary across childhood. The present study examined the prospective relations between physical and relational PV and the development of negative and positive automatic thoughts and self-cognitions. Self-reports of cognitions and peer nomination measures of victimization were obtained from 1,242 children and young adolescents (Grades 3 through 6) in a two-wave longitudinal study. The results revealed that PV predicted significant increases in negative views of the self, world, and future and decreases in self-perceived competence for girls under 11 years of age, with the effect being stronger for younger girls. PV was not significantly associated with changes in positive or negative self-cognitions for older girls or for boys of any age. These findings support the hypothesis that PV may be linked to future psychopathology through its influence on self-cognitions, but only for girls. PMID:24969338

  6. Astronomy, Community, and Modern Calendar Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will look at Avon Tyrrell House, a “calendar house” dating from 1891 and an example of nineteenth-century astronomical architecture in England. The paper will suggest that “calendar buildings” may represent a genre of modern astronomical architecture which has, so far, not been studied, were designed to create stronger communities precisely because of their astronomical connections, and indicates scope for further investigation. The paper will contextualize the modern “calendar building” within the tradition of constructing cities and sacred sites as reflections or embodiments of the sky. By creating spaces which were connected to the celestial bodies, it was possible to create human communities which were linked to celestial ones, encouraging social stability and harmony. Such ideas underpinned traditions of the foundation of cities from China, through India, the Middle East, and Mesoamerica.

  7. 45 CFR 2102.14 - Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. 2102... § 2102.14 Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. (a) The Commission shall review applications scheduled on its Meeting Agenda, Consent Calendar, or Appendices (Old Georgetown Act and Shipstead-Luce...

  8. Calendar and cycle life study of Li(NiMnCo)O2-based 18650 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Nieto, Nerea; Käbitz, Stefan; Schmalstieg, Johannes; Blanke, Holger; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-02-01

    An extensive set of accelerated aging tests has been carried out employing a Li-ion high energy 18650 system (2.05 Ah), negative electrode: carbon, positive electrode: Li(NiMnCo)O2). It is manufactured by Sanyo, labeled UR18650E, and is a commercial off-the-shelf product. The tests comprise both calendar life tests at different ambient temperatures and constant cell voltages and cycle life tests operating the cells within several voltage ranges and levels using standard test profiles. In total, 73 cells have been tested. The calendar life test matrix especially investigates the influence of SOC on aging in detail, whereas the cycle life matrix focuses on a detailed analysis of the influence of cycle depth. The study shows significant impact of the staging behavior of the carbon electrode on cycle life. Furthermore a strong influence of the carbon potential on calendar aging has been detected. Observed relations between aging and the different influence factors as well as possible degradation mechanisms are discussed. Analysis of C/4 discharge voltage curves suggests that cycle aging results in different aging processes and changes in material properties compared to calendar aging. Cycling, especially with cycles crossing transitions between voltage plateaus of the carbon electrode seems to destroy the carbon structure.

  9. Newton's Universal Calendar and Discovery of Linear Regression Analysis: Newton's Analysis of Hipparchus' Equinox Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenkiy, Ari

    2007-08-01

    Among the Newtonian manuscripts, owned by the Jewish National and University Library at Jerusalem and known as MS Yahuda 24, there is a proposal for the reform of the Julian and Ecclesiastical calendars, written in three drafts in early 1700. This was Newton's response to the challenge suggested by Continental mathematicians and astronomers, G.W. Leibniz in particular. This calendar, if implemented in England, would have become a formidable rival to the Gregorian calendar. Despite having a different algorithm, its solar part agrees with the latter until 2400 AD and is more precise in the long run, within a period of 5,000 years. Its lunar algorithm is simpler than the Gregorian, but remained incomplete. Though the calendar was buried under a pile of theological papers, were it now to be implemented it would have a glorious future, since it includes the most characteristic features of the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim calendars and can aspire to become the universal calendar. Looking for the best astronomical parameters Newton attempted to compute the length of the tropical year using the ancient equinox observations reported by Hipparchus of Rhodes. Though Newton had a very thin sample of data, he obtained a tropical year only a few seconds longer than the correct length. We show that the reason lies in Newton's application of a technique similar (though not identical) to the modern ordinary least squares method. Newton also had a clear understanding of qualitative variables. Open historic-astronomical problems related to inclination of the Earth's axis of rotation are discussed. In particular, ignorance about the long-range variation in inclination and nutation is likely responsible for the wide variety in the lengths of the tropical year assigned by different 17th century astronomers - the problem that led Newton to Hipparchus.

  10. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  11. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  12. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  13. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  14. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  15. Age, period, and cohort effects in motor vehicle mortality in the United States, 1980–2010: the role of sex, alcohol involvement, and position in vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Bae, Jin Yung

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although substantive declines in motor vehicle fatalities 1980–2010 have been observed, declines by position in the vehicle and alcohol involvement have not been well elucidated. Method Analyses of FARS data use the Intrinisic Estimator (IE) to produce estimates of all age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously by position in the car and by alcohol involvement. Results Declines in MVC deaths by position in the car vary for men and women by age and cohort over time. Cohorts born before 1970 had higher risks than those born later. Analyses using proxy indicators of alcohol involvement found highest risks for those aged 16–24. By period, these risks declined more rapidly than non- alcohol related traffic fatalities. Conclusion Changes in risk patterns are consistent with evidence regarding the contributions of new technologies and public policy efforts to reduce fatalities, but gains have not been shared evenly by sex or position in the car. Practical Application Greater attention is needed to reducing deaths among older drivers and pedestrians. Gender differences should be addressed in prevention efforts aimed at reducing MVCs due to alcohol involvement. PMID:25662882

  16. 7 CFR 1217.10 - Fiscal period or year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period or year. 1217.10 Section 1217.10... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.10 Fiscal period or year. Fiscal period or year means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as recommended by...

  17. 7 CFR 1217.10 - Fiscal period or year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period or year. 1217.10 Section 1217.10... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.10 Fiscal period or year. Fiscal period or year means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as recommended by...

  18. Use of an age-period-cohort model to reveal the impact of cigarette smoking on trends in twentieth-century adult cohort mortality in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael; Di Cesare, Mariachiara

    2012-11-01

    We use an age-period-cohort (APC) model to estimate the contribution of smoking-related mortality to cohort changes in adult mortality in Britain since 1950. We show that lung cancer and overall mortality can be satisfactorily modelled using cohort relative risk and a fixed age pattern. The results of the model suggest that smoking by itself can account for a substantial fraction of change in cohort mortality for those born around the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, smoking provides an explanation for the higher-than-average improvement in the mortality of both males and females born around 1930. Our confidence in the correctness of the results of the models is strengthened by the fact that they are very similar to those of the Peto-Lopez and Preston-Glei-Wilmoth models that estimate the contribution of smoking-related to overall mortality.

  19. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular. PMID:25215933

  20. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular.

  1. Using the 1989 Calendar as a Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen

    1989-01-01

    Presents 10 space-related ideas, thoughts, and questions represented on the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT) calendar. The ideas are on impossible shapes, fractals, space itself, galaxy, tesselated pigs, spirals, helices, black holes and three-dimensional surfaces, tesseracts, and mobius bands. (YP)

  2. Annual Site Environmental Report. Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1997. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs.

  3. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  4. Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)

  5. Tibaldo and the Hole in the Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimony, Abner; Shimony, J.

    Tibaldo and the Hole in the Calendar is the story of how an eleven-year old boy growing up in 16th century Italy loses his birthday when the Gregorian calendar replaces the Julian calendar in 1582, and how he fights to prevent this loss. The author cleverly weaves elements of the cultural and scientific milieu of his time into an engaging and intelligent tale. Tibaldo's father is a medical assistant, and his sister is a midwife. He grows up learning about current medical practices by watching his father and sister and by listening to the great Professor Turisanus, for whom his father works. Tibaldo is fascinated by medicine and proves himself to be a fast learner, quickly gaining the respect of Professor Turasanus, who becomes a mentor for Tibaldo and sends him to the very best of schools. However, when Tibaldo learns that the Julian calendar is about to be revised, he realizes that he is about to lose his 13th birthday and determines to do something about this. The result is amusing and informative.

  6. Comparison of adolescents' reports of sexual behavior on a survey and sexual health history calendar.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.

  7. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging.

  8. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. PMID:26374140

  9. Developing a cuts-based system to improve consumer acceptability of pork: Impact of gender, ageing period, endpoint temperature and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; D'Souza, D N; Dunshea, F R

    2016-11-01

    The effect of gender (entire male, female and castrate), ageing period (2 or 7days) and endpoint temperature (70 or 75°C) on consumer perceptions of cuts from the loin (Musculuslongissimus thoracis et lumborum), silverside (Musculus biceps femoris) and shoulder (Musculus triceps brachii (roast) and Musculus supraspinatus (stir fry)) when roasted or stir fried (all primals) or grilled as steaks (loin only) was investigated. Higher scores for juiciness (P=0.035), flavour (P=0.017), overall liking (P=0.018), quality grade (P=0.026) were obtained from castrates than entire males, with females intermediate. Neither ageing period nor endpoint temperature, as main effects, influenced sensory scores. Loin steaks and silverside roasts obtained lower (P<0.001) scores for all sensory traits except aroma; scores for shoulder cuts were highest (P<0.001). Cooking to 70°C improved (P<0.05) juiciness, flavor and overall liking scores of loin steaks compared with 75°C. Different pathway interventions are required to optimize eating quality of different pork cuts and the cooking methods used to prepare them. PMID:27348320

  10. Developing a cuts-based system to improve consumer acceptability of pork: Impact of gender, ageing period, endpoint temperature and cooking method.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; D'Souza, D N; Dunshea, F R

    2016-11-01

    The effect of gender (entire male, female and castrate), ageing period (2 or 7days) and endpoint temperature (70 or 75°C) on consumer perceptions of cuts from the loin (Musculuslongissimus thoracis et lumborum), silverside (Musculus biceps femoris) and shoulder (Musculus triceps brachii (roast) and Musculus supraspinatus (stir fry)) when roasted or stir fried (all primals) or grilled as steaks (loin only) was investigated. Higher scores for juiciness (P=0.035), flavour (P=0.017), overall liking (P=0.018), quality grade (P=0.026) were obtained from castrates than entire males, with females intermediate. Neither ageing period nor endpoint temperature, as main effects, influenced sensory scores. Loin steaks and silverside roasts obtained lower (P<0.001) scores for all sensory traits except aroma; scores for shoulder cuts were highest (P<0.001). Cooking to 70°C improved (P<0.05) juiciness, flavor and overall liking scores of loin steaks compared with 75°C. Different pathway interventions are required to optimize eating quality of different pork cuts and the cooking methods used to prepare them.

  11. Neural mechanisms of savant calendar calculating in autism: an MEG-study of few single cases.

    PubMed

    Dubischar-Krivec, Anna Milena; Bölte, Sven; Braun, Christoph; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Neumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    This study contrasted the neurological correlates of calendar calculating (CC) between those individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals. CC is the ability to correctly and quickly state the day of the week of a given date. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we presented 126 calendar tasks with dates of the present, past, and future. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) of 3000ms duration and brain activation patterns were compared in three savant calendar calculators with ASD (ASDCC) and three typically developing calendar calculators (TYPCC). ASDCC outperformed TYPCC in correct responses, but not in answering speed. Comparing amplitudes of their ERFs, there was a main effect of group between 1000 and 3000ms, but no further effects of hemisphere or sensor location. We conducted CLARA source analysis across the entire CC period in each individual. Both ASDCC and TYPCC exhibited activation maxima in prefrontal areas including the insulae and the left superior temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with verbal fact retrieval and working memory as well as monitoring and coordination processes. In ASDCC, additional activation sites at the right superior occipital gyrus, the right precuneus, and the right putamen point to visual-spatial strategies and are in line with the preference of autistic individuals for engaging posterior regions relatively more strongly in various reasoning and problem solving tasks. PMID:25108822

  12. Neural mechanisms of savant calendar calculating in autism: an MEG-study of few single cases.

    PubMed

    Dubischar-Krivec, Anna Milena; Bölte, Sven; Braun, Christoph; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Neumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    This study contrasted the neurological correlates of calendar calculating (CC) between those individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals. CC is the ability to correctly and quickly state the day of the week of a given date. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we presented 126 calendar tasks with dates of the present, past, and future. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) of 3000ms duration and brain activation patterns were compared in three savant calendar calculators with ASD (ASDCC) and three typically developing calendar calculators (TYPCC). ASDCC outperformed TYPCC in correct responses, but not in answering speed. Comparing amplitudes of their ERFs, there was a main effect of group between 1000 and 3000ms, but no further effects of hemisphere or sensor location. We conducted CLARA source analysis across the entire CC period in each individual. Both ASDCC and TYPCC exhibited activation maxima in prefrontal areas including the insulae and the left superior temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with verbal fact retrieval and working memory as well as monitoring and coordination processes. In ASDCC, additional activation sites at the right superior occipital gyrus, the right precuneus, and the right putamen point to visual-spatial strategies and are in line with the preference of autistic individuals for engaging posterior regions relatively more strongly in various reasoning and problem solving tasks.

  13. Brain cancer mortality in an agricultural and a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a population-based, age-period-cohort study, 1996–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals who live in rural areas are at greater risk for brain cancer, and pesticide exposure may contribute to this increased risk. The aims of this research were to analyze the mortality trends and to estimate the age-period-cohort effects on mortality rates from brain cancer in two regions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods This descriptive study examined brain cancer mortality patterns in individuals of both sexes, >19 years of age, who died between 1996 and 2010. They were residents of a rural (Serrana) or a non-rural (Metropolitan) area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We estimated mortality trends using Joinpoint Regression analysis. Age-period-cohort models were estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Results The estimated annual percentage change in mortality caused by brain cancer was 3.8% in the Serrana Region (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8–5.6) and -0.2% (95% CI: -1.2–0.7) in the Metropolitan Region. The results indicated that the relative risk was higher in the rural region for the more recent birth cohorts (1954 and later). Compared with the reference birth cohort (1945–49, Serrana Region), the relative risk was four times higher for individuals born between 1985 and 1989. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that there is an increasing trend in brain cancer mortality rates in the rural Serrana Region in Brazil. A cohort effect occurred in the birth cohorts born in this rural area after 1954. At the ecological level, different environmental factors, especially the use of pesticides, may explain regional disparities in the mortality patterns from brain cancers. PMID:24884498

  14. Influence of different periods of the year and age on the parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in the blood serum of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-06-01

    The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years). Blood samples for biochemical analyses were collected from jugular vein in cold (CP) and warm periods (WP) of the year. Reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) serum concentration were determined, as well as activities of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT). Serum values of SeGSH-Px, MnSOD, UA and TP in OB were significantly higher compared to those in YB during CP of the year. Significantly higher PCC concentration in serum of YB and OB were established in CP of the year than in WP. TBARS serum concentration in YB was significantly higher in comparison to that in OB during CP of the year. It can be concluded that both OB and YB show a great sensitivity to climate condition alterations during CP in comparison to WP of the year and that YB show even greater sensitivity.

  15. The influence of chronological age on periods of accelerated adaptation of stretch-shortening cycle performance in pre and postpubescent boys.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael G; Williams, Craig A

    2011-07-01

    Although it is suggested that periods of naturally occurring accelerated adaptation may exist for various physical parameters, it would appear that no such evidence exists for stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) development. Two hundred and fifty male youths aged 7-17 years were tested for squat (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height, reactive strength index (RSI), and leg stiffness, with analyses of variance used to establish any significant between-group differences. Additionally, to ascertain the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation, inferences were made about the magnitudes of change between consecutive chronological age groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change. The largest mean differences (±90% confidence limits) occurred between age groups 10 and 11 (G10-G11) for squat jump (SJ) height (21.61 ± 12.08-31.94%), CMJ height (20.80 ± 11.1-44.1%), and RSI (26.51 ± 11.07-44.10%); and between G12 and G13 for SJ (15.31 ± 7.47-23.73%) and CMJ (16.09 ± 7.50-25.38%) height. Negative mean differences occurred between G11 and G12 for SJ height (-1.32 ± -9.30 to 7.37%), CMJ jump height (-7.68 ± -15.15 to 0.45%) and RSI (-11.48 ± -22.21 to 0.74%); and between G10 and G11 for leg stiffness (-8.87 ± -18.85 to 2.34%). It would appear almost certain that windows of accelerated adaptation may exist for SJ and CMJ height and RSI in male youths; however, leg stiffness results would suggest that fast-SSC function may follow a different developmental trend.

  16. Bidirectional regulation of Munc13-3 protein expression by age and dark rearing during the critical period in mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Yang, C B; Kiser, P J; Zheng, Y T; Varoqueaux, F; Mower, G D

    2007-12-12

    Rearing in darkness slows the time course of the visual cortical critical period, such that at 5 weeks of age normal cats are more plastic than dark-reared cats, while at 20 weeks dark-reared cats are more plastic [Mower GD (1991) The effect of dark rearing on the time course of the critical period in cat visual cortex. Dev Brain Res 58:151-158]. Thus, genes that are important for visual cortical plasticity should show differences in expression between normal and dark-reared visual cortex that are of opposite direction in young versus older animals. Previously, we showed by differential display polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting that mRNA for Munc13-3, a mammalian homologue of the C. elegans uncoordinated (unc) gene, shows such bidirectional regulation in cat visual cortex [Yang CB, Zheng YT, Li GY, Mower GD (2002) Identification of Munc13-3 as a candidate gene for critical period neuroplasticity in visual cortex. J Neurosci 22:8614-8618]. Here, the analysis is extended to Munc13-3 protein in mouse visual cortex, which will provide the basis for gene manipulation analysis. In mice, Munc13-3 protein was elevated 2.3-fold in dark-reared compared with normal visual cortex at 3.5 weeks and 2.0-fold in normal compared with dark-reared visual cortex at 9.5 weeks. Analysis of variance of protein levels showed a significant interaction, indicating that the effect of dark rearing depended on age. This bidirectional regulation was restricted to visual cortex and did not occur in frontal cortex. Bidirectional regulation was also specific to Munc13-3 and was not found for other Munc13 family members. Munc13 proteins serve a central priming function in synaptic vesicle exocytosis at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses and this work contributes to the growing evidence indicating a role of Munc13 genes in synaptic plasticity.

  17. A Comparision of the Effect of Sugammadex on the Recovery Period and Postoperative Residual Block in Young Elderly and Middle-Aged Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Emine; Yılmaz, Canan; Bilgin, Hülya; Karasu, Derya; Bayraktar, Selcan; Apaydın, Yılmaz; Sayan, Halil Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of the characteristics of anesthesia and postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in the elderly population should be a growing concern in this century. Aims: To investigate the effect of sugammadex on the duration of the recovery from neuromuscular blocking agents and postoperative residual curarization in the young elderly and middle-aged elderly patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed by a train of four (TOF) watch monitorization. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial study. Methods: Sixty patients over the age of 65 with American Society of Anesthesiologists I–III were divided into two groups according to their age (65–74 years old and ≥75 years old). Patients received sugammadex (2.0 mg/kg iv) at the reappearance of the second twitch of the TOF as an agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockage at the end of surgery. Patients were extubated at the time of TOF ≥0.9. The patients’ TOF responses were evaluated with regards to PORC in at the 5th minute and were followed up for one hour in the recovery room. Reintubation was applied for those patients who developed PORC and had peripheric oxygen saturation <90% despite being given 6 L oxygen per min with a face mask. Results: The onset time of neuromuscular blocking agent and time from T2 to achieve TOF ratio 90% (the duration of sugammadex effect) or over were found to be longer in the middle-aged elderly group than in the young elderly group. A statistically significant relationship was found between age and the duration of TOF ratio to reach 0.9 in the same direction. The PORC incidence and rate of reintubation were found to be 1.7% in all patients. Conclusion: In our opinion, it is necessary to remember that the duration of sugammadex effect on the recovery period is prolonged for patients who are aged ≥75 years compared to patients aged between 65–74 years. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12615000758505) PMID:27403387

  18. The Phaistos disk: A solar calendar. Contribution to a decipherment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matossian, M. K.

    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the decipherment of the Phaistos Disk. The present assumption is that the Disk was a solar calendar. The proposed method is used to recreate the night sky over Crete in the year 1613 B.C., beginning on September 1, and to follow the astral phenomena for a year thereafter. In addition, the figures on the Disk are interpreted by what is known about Bronze Age Cretan culture, especially agriculture. The result was a set of plausible interpretations of most of the icons found on the Disk. The conclusion is that the Phaistos Disk Unknown Script was created primarily to serve as a guide to the timing of agricultural activities and religious rituals.

  19. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal/Calendar Year 2004 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to Nevada Test Site biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during the Fiscal Year 2004 and the additional months of October, November, and December 2004, reflecting a change in the monitoring period to a calendar year rather than a fiscal year as reported in the past. This change in the monitoring period was made to better accommodate information required for the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report, which reports on a calendar year rather than a fiscal year. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center.

  20. Changes in the histochemical properties and meat quality traits of porcine muscles during the growing-finishing period as affected by feed restriction, slaughter age, or slaughter weight.

    PubMed

    Bee, G; Calderini, M; Biolley, C; Guex, G; Herzog, W; Lindemann, M D

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the degree of contractile and metabolic development of myofibers in porcine LM, rectus femoris (RF), and dark and light portions of the semitendinosus (STD and STL, respectively) was determined, and their impact on meat quality was compared at the same age but different BW (trial 1) or at a given BW but different age (trial 2) in 48 Swiss Large White barrows from 12 litters after the growing and finishing period. The barrows had ad libitum (A) or restricted (R, 80% of A) feed access. In trial 1, at 113 and 154 d of age, 6 barrows in treatment A (62.1 and 99.5 kg of BW, respectively) and 6 siblings in treatment R (51.0 and 86.6 kg of BW, respectively) were slaughtered. In trial 2, a similar protocol was used except that the barrows were slaughtered at 61.3 (104 or 119 d of age, respectively) or 101.3 kg of BW (145 or 167 d of age, respectively). Muscle fibers were stained and classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), or fast glycolytic (FG), and fiber area and distribution were determined. At 113 and 154 d of age, R barrows had smaller (P < or = 0.04) SO fibers in the LM, STD, and STL, smaller (P < 0.01) FOG fibers in the STL, smaller (P = 0.03) FG fibers in the LM, and smaller (P < or = 0.04) overall mean area in the LM, STD, and STL. In the STL and RF, R barrows had fewer (P < or = 0.06) FG and more (P < or = 0.08) FOG fibers than A barrows at 113 and 154 d of age. Except for smaller FOG fibers in the STD of R compared with A barrows slaughtered at the same BW, the myofiber size did not differ (P > or = 0.11). However, the LM tended to have fewer (P = 0.06) SO and more (P < 0.01) FG fibers, and the STD had more (P < 0.01) FOG fibers in R barrows. Regardless of whether R barrows were slaughtered at the same age or the same BW as the A barrows, shear force values and cooking losses were greater (P < or = 0.08) in the STD and STL of R barrows. These findings revealed that myofiber hypertrophy was impaired by feed restriction

  1. 40 CFR 79.5 - Periodic reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodic reporting requirements. 79.5...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 79.5 Periodic reporting requirements. (a) Fuel... table: Table 1 to § 79.5—Quarterly Reporting Deadlines Calendar quarter Time period covered...

  2. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  3. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. PMID:24784325

  4. Dendroclimatic transfer functions revisited: Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period summer temperatures reconstructed using artificial neural networks and linear algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helama, S.; Makarenko, N. G.; Karimova, L. M.; Kruglun, O. A.; Timonen, M.; Holopainen, J.; Meriläinen, J.; Eronen, M.

    2009-03-01

    Tree-rings tell of past climates. To do so, tree-ring chronologies comprising numerous climate-sensitive living-tree and subfossil time-series need to be "transferred" into palaeoclimate estimates using transfer functions. The purpose of this study is to compare different types of transfer functions, especially linear and nonlinear algorithms. Accordingly, multiple linear regression (MLR), linear scaling (LSC) and artificial neural networks (ANN, nonlinear algorithm) were compared. Transfer functions were built using a regional tree-ring chronology and instrumental temperature observations from Lapland (northern Finland and Sweden). In addition, conventional MLR was compared with a hybrid model whereby climate was reconstructed separately for short- and long-period timescales prior to combining the bands of timescales into a single hybrid model. The fidelity of the different reconstructions was validated against instrumental climate data. The reconstructions by MLR and ANN showed reliable reconstruction capabilities over the instrumental period (AD 1802-1998). LCS failed to reach reasonable verification statistics and did not qualify as a reliable reconstruction: this was due mainly to exaggeration of the low-frequency climatic variance. Over this instrumental period, the reconstructed low-frequency amplitudes of climate variability were rather similar by MLR and ANN. Notably greater differences between the models were found over the actual reconstruction period (AD 802-1801). A marked temperature decline, as reconstructed by MLR, from the Medieval Warm Period (AD 931-1180) to the Little Ice Age (AD 1601-1850), was evident in all the models. This decline was approx. 0.5°C as reconstructed by MLR. Different ANN based palaeotemperatures showed simultaneous cooling of 0.2 to 0.5°C, depending on algorithm. The hybrid MLR did not seem to provide further benefit above conventional MLR in our sample. The robustness of the conventional MLR over the calibration

  5. Royal Belgium observatory calendar: 156th year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A multitude of astronomical dates and information for the year 1993 are presented and include the following: important dates in the Israelite, Gregorian, Julian, and Muslim calendars; religions and civil holidays and saints' days; astronomical seasons; the situation, rising, setting etc. of the Sun; the dates and times of certain positions of the Moon; planetary orbits and visibility; and conditions of observations of comets and meteorites.

  6. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  7. Environmental releases for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1995 from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). WHC provides effluent monitoring services for BHI, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate,comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  8. Centaur Chiron's Calendar in our era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Centaur Chiron's Calendar is an educational activity incorporated in environmental education which combines the principles of inter-scientific approach with fundamental astronomy conception. It is performed in school as a yearly environmental project. The famous centaur was teaching the hero Jason (and others) navigation based on stellar observation and medicine based on Pelion herbs collected at the right time of the year. Students are guided to discover his method of determination of the right time. The project evolves the creation of a photographic calendar based on collected pictures from the sunset during the various seasons of the year. It is developed in the same region that Chiron lived (Mount Pelion) according to mythology but it can be modified for use in other regions. Sunset positions are recorded daily or weekly and plotted on a wide-angle picture of the western hill crest. Students are then called to predict the date of a given sunset position. Students also record sunset time and duration of the day in order to relate it with the photographic calendar. The activity combines knowledge from various scientific fields such as history, geography and astronomy. Development of practical skills such as accurate observation, photography techniques and digital image processing is a welcomed side effect of this educational activity.

  9. [Homicide in the elderly. A study of homicide in the aged based on an Aachen autopsy sample of the 10-year period 1976-1985].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1989-01-01

    Investigations on the peculiarities of homicides of the elderly are missing in the German literature up to the present date. Therefore we undertook an evaluation of the case files collected at the Aachen Institute of Forensic Medicine from the ten-year-period 1976-1985. Among 3736 autopsies we found 183 cases of homicide with 35 victims of 60 years and older. We collected peculiarities of modus operandi related to victim, suspect and offence and compared the data with such from police criminal statistics and partially with German population statistics. Two types of homicide of the elderly can be differentiated: One is independent of the victim's age whereas the other exploits the living conditions in the higher age (living alone, socially isolated, ailing, helpless etc.) For these latter cases the name "Gerontocide" is proposed. The paper deals with the peculiar difficulties of criminal investigation and clarification in such cases, resulting on the one hand from the lack of suspicion if elderly people die, on the other hand from the more difficult detection of causal relationship between offence and death--especially in the presence of severe illness of the victim.

  10. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture.

  11. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture. PMID:25186458

  12. A Model for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in an Age-Structured Forest: Predicting Severity and Outbreak-Recovery Cycle Period.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacob P; Powell, James A; Gordillo, Luis F; Eason, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), a tree-killing bark beetle, has historically been part of the normal disturbance regime in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests. In recent years, warm winters and summers have allowed MPB populations to achieve synchronous emergence and successful attacks, resulting in widespread population outbreaks and resultant tree mortality across western North America. We develop an age-structured forest demographic model that incorporates temperature-dependent MPB infestations. Stability of fixed points is analyzed as a function of (thermally controlled) MPB population growth rates and indicates the existence of periodic outbreaks that intensify as growth rates increase. We devise analytical methods to predict outbreak severity and duration as well as outbreak return time. After incorporating a spatial aspect and controlling initial stand demographic variation, the model predicts cycle periods that fall within observed outbreak return time ranges. To assess future MPB impact on forests, we use climate model projected temperatures with our model-based approximation methods to predict potential severity of future outbreaks that reflect the effects of changing climate. PMID:25976694

  13. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time.

  14. A Model for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in an Age-Structured Forest: Predicting Severity and Outbreak-Recovery Cycle Period.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacob P; Powell, James A; Gordillo, Luis F; Eason, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), a tree-killing bark beetle, has historically been part of the normal disturbance regime in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests. In recent years, warm winters and summers have allowed MPB populations to achieve synchronous emergence and successful attacks, resulting in widespread population outbreaks and resultant tree mortality across western North America. We develop an age-structured forest demographic model that incorporates temperature-dependent MPB infestations. Stability of fixed points is analyzed as a function of (thermally controlled) MPB population growth rates and indicates the existence of periodic outbreaks that intensify as growth rates increase. We devise analytical methods to predict outbreak severity and duration as well as outbreak return time. After incorporating a spatial aspect and controlling initial stand demographic variation, the model predicts cycle periods that fall within observed outbreak return time ranges. To assess future MPB impact on forests, we use climate model projected temperatures with our model-based approximation methods to predict potential severity of future outbreaks that reflect the effects of changing climate.

  15. Mating activity of domestic geese ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus) during breeding period in relation to age, testosterone and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2013-11-30

    In breeding geese, natural mating applies. The objective of this study was to determine seasonal- and age-related changes in the sexual activity of ganders. Moreover, T, T4 and T3 plasma levels were evaluated. The study was conducted on 2/3-year-old males (n=15) and 1- or 2/3-year-old females (1♂:4♀). Sexual activity of ganders was characterized through the frequency of: courtship, attempts at and successful copulations and total mating activity (MA). Reproductive results manifested by egg production and fertility were recorded. Laying percentage (January-June) was 37.1 and 28.6% for 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. MA was noted before the sexual maturity of females and the T level peak. MA was highest at the onset and during peak production (March) for ganders kept with 1-, and 2/3-year-old geese, respectively. From April to May a decrease in fertility with a reduction of the frequency of copulations was observed. At this time low levels of T were noted. The effect of goose age on the MA was shown, with higher frequency of copulations for ganders kept with 1-year-old geese. We suggest that in the successful seasonal mating in geese, social factors such as the presence of females and female age play an important role. The reduction in fertility during the spring period may be associated with decreases in the efficiency of successive mating sequences. The higher frequency of copulations without affecting fertility, for ganders kept with young geese, may be because of differences in sperm transfer or storage/transport efficiency.

  16. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  17. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations.

  18. 77 FR 33470 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Ancillary Per Diem Rate Calendar Year 2012 Lower 48 States: $477 Alaska: $811 Outpatient Surgery Rate (Medicare) Established Medicare rates for freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers. Effective Date...

  19. Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Hajdas, Irka; Culleton, Brendan J.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Martin, Simon; Neff, Hector; Awe, Jaime; Graham, Heather V.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Newsom, Lee; Lentz, David L.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Robinson, Mark; Marwan, Norbert; Southon, John; Hodell, David A.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2013-04-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resolution AMS 14C dates on a wooden lintel collected from the Classic Period city of Tikal bearing Maya calendar dates. The radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a Bayesian statistical model and indicate that the dates were carved on the lintel between AD 658-696. This strongly supports the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the hypothesis that climate change played an important role in the development and demise of this complex civilization.

  20. Correlating the ancient Maya and modern European calendars with high-precision AMS 14C dating.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Douglas J; Hajdas, Irka; Culleton, Brendan J; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Martin, Simon; Neff, Hector; Awe, Jaime; Graham, Heather V; Freeman, Katherine H; Newsom, Lee; Lentz, David L; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Robinson, Mark; Marwan, Norbert; Southon, John; Hodell, David A; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-01-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resolution AMS (14)C dates on a wooden lintel collected from the Classic Period city of Tikal bearing Maya calendar dates. The radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a Bayesian statistical model and indicate that the dates were carved on the lintel between AD 658-696. This strongly supports the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the hypothesis that climate change played an important role in the development and demise of this complex civilization.

  1. Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Hajdas, Irka; Culleton, Brendan J.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Martin, Simon; Neff, Hector; Awe, Jaime; Graham, Heather V.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Newsom, Lee; Lentz, David L.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Robinson, Mark; Marwan, Norbert; Southon, John; Hodell, David A.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2013-01-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resolution AMS 14C dates on a wooden lintel collected from the Classic Period city of Tikal bearing Maya calendar dates. The radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a Bayesian statistical model and indicate that the dates were carved on the lintel between AD 658-696. This strongly supports the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the hypothesis that climate change played an important role in the development and demise of this complex civilization. PMID:23579869

  2. Non-Algorithmic Access to Calendar Information in a Calendar Calculator with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottron, L.; Lemmens, K.; Gagnon, L.; Seron, X.

    2006-01-01

    The possible use of a calendar algorithm was assessed in DBC, an autistic "savant" of normal measured intelligence. Testing of all the dates in a year revealed a random distribution of errors. Re-testing DBC on the same dates one year later shows that his errors were not stable across time. Finally, DBC was able to answer "reversed" questions that…

  3. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  4. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  5. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  6. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  7. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  8. 46 CFR 280.6 - Calendar year accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calendar year accounting. 280.6 Section 280.6 Shipping... Calendar year accounting. Except as provided in § 280.9 (relating to the final year of an ODS agreement), the calculations required under this part for years after 1973 shall be on the basis of...

  9. 46 CFR 280.6 - Calendar year accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calendar year accounting. 280.6 Section 280.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND... Calendar year accounting. Except as provided in § 280.9 (relating to the final year of an ODS...

  10. Academic Calendar Task Force Report to the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This report presents the findings of a study done by a college-wide task force at the College of DuPage (Illinois) on academic calendar formats in an effort to determine whether to retain the quarter system or convert to another calendar. A brief introduction gives the background to the issue at DuPage. A section on procedures explains that the…

  11. The Saptarishis Calendar: 'The Indian tropical Zodiac'!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrasena, Buddhike S. H.

    2015-07-01

    The Saptarishis Calendar of ancient India is based on precession of the equinoxes. It employs the tropical zodiac of the Greeks and the precessional rate of Hipparchus. The Saptarishis era has to be determined by naked eye observation of the sky. Currently, the line of reference goes through the stars Dubhe and Merak in the constellation of Ursa Major, touching both of them, and crosses the ecliptic in the sidereal Purvaphalguni Nakshatra of Simha Rashi at a point close to the star 59 Leonis. The angular difference between this 'Saptarishis pointer' and the vernal equinox gives the tropical lunar mansion in which Saptarishis resides at a given point in time.

  12. Environmental releases for calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.P.; Curn, B.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1993 from facilities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. As part of this executive summary, comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1993 are displayed in tables. These tables represent the following: radionuclide air emissions data; data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil; radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River; nonradioactive air emissions data; total volumes and flow rates of 200/600 area liquid effluents. Both summary and detailed presentations of these data are given. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  13. 26 CFR 31.3401(b)-1 - Payroll period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; or if, instead, that employee is sent on a 3-week trip by his employer and receives at the end of the trip a single wage payment for three weeks' services, the payroll period is still the calendar week... the purpose of section 3402, an employee can have but one payroll period with respect to wages paid...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3401(b)-1 - Payroll period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; or if, instead, that employee is sent on a 3-week trip by his employer and receives at the end of the trip a single wage payment for three weeks' services, the payroll period is still the calendar week... the purpose of section 3402, an employee can have but one payroll period with respect to wages paid...

  15. Configuring calendar variation based on time series regression method for forecasting of monthly currency inflow and outflow in Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Suhartono, Ahmad, Imam Safawi; Rahmawati, Noorgam Ika

    2015-12-01

    Bank Indonesia (BI) as the central bank of Republic Indonesiahas a single overarching objective to establish and maintain rupiah stability. This objective could be achieved by monitoring traffic of inflow and outflow money currency. Inflow and outflow are related to stock and distribution of money currency around Indonesia territory. It will effect of economic activities. Economic activities of Indonesia,as one of Moslem country, absolutely related to Islamic Calendar (lunar calendar), that different with Gregorian calendar. This research aims to forecast the inflow and outflow money currency of Representative Office (RO) of BI Semarang Central Java region. The results of the analysis shows that the characteristics of inflow and outflow money currency influenced by the effects of the calendar variations, that is the day of Eid al-Fitr (moslem holyday) as well as seasonal patterns. In addition, the period of a certain week during Eid al-Fitr also affect the increase of inflow and outflow money currency. The best model based on the value of the smallestRoot Mean Square Error (RMSE) for inflow data is ARIMA model. While the best model for predicting the outflow data in RO of BI Semarang is ARIMAX model or Time Series Regression, because both of them have the same model. The results forecast in a period of 2015 shows an increase of inflow money currency happened in August, while the increase in outflow money currency happened in July.

  16. 16 CFR 1011.4 - Forms of advance public notice of meetings; Public Calendar/Master Calendar and Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of advance public notice of meetings; Public Calendar/Master Calendar and Federal Register. 1011.4 Section 1011.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1012 and Commission meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1013: (a)...

  17. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  18. A Calendar Savant with Episodic Memory Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Berryhill, Marian E.; Drowos, David B.; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures as well as retaining some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient’s memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable. PMID:20104390

  19. Generating crop calendars with Web search data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Marijn; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen; Verheijen, Frank G. A.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of using Web search volumes for generating crop specific planting and harvesting dates in the USA integrating climatic, social and technological factors affecting crop calendars. Using Google Insights for Search, clear peaks in volume occur at times of planting and harvest at the national level, which were used to derive corn specific planting and harvesting dates at a weekly resolution. Disaggregated to state level, search volumes for corn planting generally are in agreement with planting dates from a global crop calendar dataset. However, harvest dates were less discriminatory at the state level, indicating that peaks in search volume may be blurred by broader searches on harvest as a time of cultural events. The timing of other agricultural activities such as purchase of seed and response to weed and pest infestation was also investigated. These results highlight the future potential of using Web search data to derive planting dates in countries where the data are sparse or unreliable, once sufficient search volumes are realized, as well as the potential for monitoring in real time the response of farmers to climate change over the coming decades. Other potential applications of search volume data of relevance to agronomy are also discussed.

  20. Uranium-series ages of corals, sea level history, and palaeozoogeography, Canary Islands, Spain: an exploratory study for two Quaternary interglacial periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Meco, Joaquín; Simmons, Kathleen R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first U-series ages of corals from emergent marine deposits on the Canary Islands. Deposits at + 20 m are 481 ± 39 ka, possibly correlative to marine isotope stage (or MIS) 11, while those at + 12 and + 8 m are 120.5 ± 0.8 ka and 130.2 ± 0.8 ka, respectively, correlative to MIS 5.5. The age, elevations, and uplift rates derived from MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands allow calculations of hypothetical palaeo-sea levels during the MIS 11 high sea stand. Estimates indicate that the MIS 11 high sea stand likely was at least + 9 m (relative to present sea level) and could have been as high as + 24 m. The most conservative estimates of palaeo-sea level during MIS 11 would require an ice mass loss equivalent to all of the modern Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets; the more extreme estimates would require additional ice mass loss from the East Antarctic ice sheet. Extralimital southern species of mollusks, found in both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands, imply warmer-than-modern sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 11 and much warmer sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 5.5. Both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 marine deposits on the Canary Islands contain extralimital northern species of mollusks as well, indicating cooler-than-present waters at times during these interglacial periods. We hypothesize that the co-occurrence of extralimital southern and northern species of marine invertebrates in the fossil record of the Canary Islands reflects its geographic location with respect to major synoptic-scale controls on climate and ocean currents. Previous interglacials may have been characterized by early, insolation-forced warming, along with northward migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), accompanied by weakened trade winds and diminished upwelling. This allowed the arrival of extralimital southern taxa from the tropical Senegalese faunal province. During later parts of the MIS 11 and 5

  1. Calendar-effects and temperature-impacts in migratory waterbirds at three tropical Indian wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Prantik; Sinha, Anirban; Mondal, Payal; Khan, T. N.

    2012-08-01

    We analysed the relationships of the arrival and departure, abundance and assemblages of 13 migratory waterbirds in three tropical wintering abodes, with calendar-effect and air temperature. The birds arrive at the wetlands in October-November and most of the long-distance migrants spent 4-5 months, while the short-distance local migrants stayed there for almost 7 months. Much like the onset of autumn migration from the breeding ground, the period of arrival at these wintering abodes was influenced by photoperiod confounded with other calendar-date effects. There was a significant negative relationship between this variable and the abundance of all the 13 species and their maximum abundances corresponded closely with the shortest day length. The temperature tended to fine-tune the migration schedule. The migration phenology and abundances of all the species exhibited strong negative correlations with this environmental variable and maximum abundances were observed during the middle of January, which experienced the coldest temperatures of the region. The long-distance migrants left the wetlands earlier than the short-distance local migrants. Both the photoperiod confounded with other calendar-date effects and temperature affected dissolved oxygen concentration and phytoplanktonic productivity of the wetlands, which influenced the waterbirds. Dissolved oxygen concentration affected the abundances of most of these waterbirds probably through its impact on their food resources. Phytoplanktonic productivity might also influence overall food supply to the waterbirds.

  2. [Electronic calendar as an organization element in Internal Medicine services].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-García, R; Blasco-Fontecilla, H; Legido-Gil, T; López-Castromán, J; Montoya-Ferrer, A; Baca-García, E

    2011-02-01

    The growing volume of information and introduction of new technologies in the Internal Medicine hospital department mare making the traditional updating «methods» of knowledge and organization obsolete. The development of new tools could help the management of information and organization of the medical departments is outdated. Electronic calendar such as the Google calendar facilitate adequate coordination among health care professionals. Our experience suggests that the Google calendar is a simple and useful tool that helps planning and organization of the clinical, educational, and research activities of the different medical departments, limits loss of information and improves efficacy with a close to zero cost of infrastructure. PMID:21315331

  3. Introducing Astronomy Through Solar and Lunar Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raharto, Moedji

    Lack of competence teachers to educate basic science astronomy and space science in Indonesia implies that knowledge of astronomy and space science will be transmitted to the young generation improperly. Priority in curriculum of basic science include only small amount of general astronomy and public perception that astronomy is less importance than basic science both are disadvantage for developing astronomical community in Indonesia a country with more than 230 million people. Muslim community in Indonesia has a tradition to use a lunar calendar and a tradition to determine the first day the important month Ramadhan Syawal and Dzulhijjah. Recent disputeof determining the first day of the three important month partly due to the lack of knowledge the first visibility of lunar crescent. The challenge of introducing astronomy on wider community with less background on astronomical education will be discussed in this paper

  4. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities.

  5. Insect photoperiodic calendar and circadian clock: independence, cooperation, or unity?

    PubMed

    Koštál, Vladimír

    2011-05-01

    The photoperiodic calendar is a seasonal time measurement system which allows insects to cope with annual cycles of environmental conditions. Seasonal timing of entry into diapause is the most often studied photoperiodic response of insects. Research on insect photoperiodism has an approximately 80-year-old tradition. Despite that long history, the physiological mechanisms underlying functionality of the photoperiodic calendar remain poorly understood. Thus far, a consensus has not been reached on the role of another time measurement system, the biological circadian clock, in the photoperiodic calendar. Are the two systems physically separated and functionally independent, or do they cooperate, or is it a single system with dual output? The relationship between calendar and clock functions are the focus of this review, with particular emphasis on the potential roles of circadian clock genes, and the circadian clock system as a whole, in the transduction pathway for photoperiodic token stimulus to the overt expression of facultative diapause.

  6. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2008.

  7. Engineering Research Division publication report, calendar year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.K.; Livingston, P.L.; Rae, D.C.

    1980-06-01

    Each year the Engineering Research Division of the Electronics Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has issued an internal report listing all formal publications produced by the Division during the calendar year. Abstracts of 1980 reports are presented.

  8. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  9. Diversity and Periodicity: An Inorganic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huheey, James; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching inorganic chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified science. Contents include: (1) "Periodicity: A Chemical Calendar"; (2)…

  10. 11 CFR 9032.6 - Matching payment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching payment period. 9032.6 Section 9032.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY... beginning January 1 of the calendar year in which a Presidential general election is held and may not...

  11. 11 CFR 9032.6 - Matching payment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Matching payment period. 9032.6 Section 9032.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY... beginning January 1 of the calendar year in which a Presidential general election is held and may not...

  12. Calendar Pluralism and the Cultural Heritage of Domination and Resistance (Tuareg and Other Saharans)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxby, Clare

    This article is about Saharan calendars from precolonial times to the present. It shows that multiple calendar use has been a constant feature throughout the centuries, that the distinction between indigenous and imported has little meaning in this region of long-standing cultural exchange, and that many Saharan communities still simultaneously use differing official state, literate specialist, and local popular calendars. Social and political explanations of calendar pluralism are presented, contrasting the center view whereby calendars constitute a means of social control and the periphery view whereby communities may affirm their cultural autonomy through particular calendar choices.

  13. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  14. Site environmental report for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.I.

    1986-05-01

    This report summarizes the environmental activities and their results at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) for Calendar Year (CY-) 1985. Fermilab performed environmental monitoring in CY-1985 on three types of accelerator-produced radiation: penetrating, airborne, and waterborne. The penetrating radiation of concern was muons. Neutrons and gamma-rays were also monitored. The airborne radionuclide was /sup 11/C and the primary waterborne radionuclide was /sup 3/H (tritium). The highest off-site penetrating radiation level was 1.5% of the relevant standard. The highest airborne radionuclide concentration was 0.1% of the standard and the highest waterborne concentration was less than 0.6% of the standard. Monitoring for chemical pollutants in drinking water systems on the site indicated good water quality in all the wells sampled. The only parameters which exceeded the standard in any sample were iron, total dissolved solids, and in one well, sulfate. Monitoring results are also reported for non-radioactive pollutants. Included as pollutants are pesticides used in weed, insect, rodent, and algae control. In addition, results are included from monitoring the performance of the sewage treatment plant (Village Oxidation Pond) on-site.

  15. Site Environmental Report-Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Kayser

    2002-09-03

    The Laboratory's mission is to conduct fundamental research in the physical, chemical, materials, mathematical sciences and engineering which underlie energy generating, conversion, transmission and storage technologies, environmental improvement, and other technical areas essential to national needs. These efforts will be maintained so as to contribute to the achievement of the Department of Energy's Missions and Goals; more specifically, to increase the general levels of scientific knowledge and capabilities, to prepare engineering and physical sciences students for future scientific endeavors, and to initiate nascent technologies and practical applications arising from our basic scientific programs. The Laboratory will approach all its operations with the safety and health of all workers as a constant objective and with genuine concern for the environment. Ames Laboratory does not conduct classified research. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the performance of Ames Laboratory's environmental programs, present highlights of significant environmental activities, and confirm compliance with environmental regulations and requirements for calendar year 2001. This report is a working requirement of Department of Energy Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''.

  16. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  17. Differential effects of mild therapeutic exercise during a period of inactivity on power generation in soleus type I single fibers with age.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Thompson, LaDora V

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mild therapeutic exercise (treadmill) in preventing the inactivity-induced alterations in contractile properties (e.g., power, force, and velocity) of type I soleus single fibers in three different age groups. Young adult (5- to 12-mo-old), middle-aged (24- to 31-mo-old), and old (32- to 40-mo-old) F344BNF1 rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: weight-bearing control (CON), non-weight bearing (NWB), and NWB with exercise (NWBX). NWB rats were hindlimb suspended for 2 wk, representing inactivity. The NWBX rats were hindlimb suspended for 2 wk and received therapeutic exercise on a treadmill four times a day for 15 min each. Peak power and isometric maximal force were reduced following hindlimb suspension (HS) in all three age groups. HS decreased fiber diameter in young adult and old rats (-21 and -12%, respectively). Specific tension (isometric maximal force/cross-sectional area) was significantly reduced in both the middle-aged (-36%) and old (-23%) rats. The effects of the mild therapeutic exercise program on fiber diameter and contractile properties were age specific. Mild treadmill therapeutic exercise attenuated the HS-induced reduction in fiber diameter (+17%, 93% level of CON group) and peak power (μN·fiber length·s(-1)) (+46%, 63% level of CON group) in young adult rats. In the middle-aged animals, this exercise protocol improved peak power (+60%, 100% level of CON group) and normalized power (kN·m(-2)·fiber length·s(-1)) (+45%, 108% level of CON group). Interestingly, treadmill exercise resulted in a further reduction in shortening velocity (-42%, 67% level of CON group) and specific tension (-29%, 55% level of CON group) in the old animals. These results suggest that mild treadmill exercise is beneficial in attenuating and preventing inactivity-induced decline in peak power of type I soleus single fibers in young adult and middle-aged animals, respectively. However, this

  18. Survival of a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the 60-day aging period of cheddar cheese made from unpasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Schlesser, J E; Gerdes, R; Ravishankar, S; Madsen, K; Mowbray, J; Teo, A Y L

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Standard of Identity for Cheddar cheeses requires pasteurization of the milk, or as an alternative treatment, a minimum 60-day aging at > or =2 degrees C for cheeses made from unpasteurized milk, to reduce the number of viable pathogens that may be present to an acceptable risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the adequacy of the 60-day minimum aging to reduce the numbers of viable pathogens and evaluate milk subpasteurization heat treatment as a process to improve the safety of Cheddar cheeses made from unpasteurized milk. Cheddar cheese was made from unpasteurized milk inoculated with 10(1) to 10(5) CFU/ml of a five-strain cocktail of acid-tolerant Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were collected during the cheese manufacturing process. After pressing, the cheese blocks were packaged into plastic bags, vacuum sealed, and aged at 7 degrees C. After 1 week, the cheese blocks were cut into smaller-size uniform pieces and then vacuum sealed in clear plastic pouches. Samples were plated and enumerated for E. coli O157:H7. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 increased during the cheese-making operations. Population of E. coli O157:H7 in cheese aged for 60 and 120 days at 7 degrees C decreased less than 1 and 2 log, respectively. These studies confirm previous reports that show 60-day aging is inadequate to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 during cheese ripening. Subpasteurization heat-treatment runs were conducted at 148 degrees F (64.4 degrees C) for 17.5 s on milk inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 at 10(5) CFU/ml. These heat-treatment runs resulted in a 5-log E. coli O157: H7 reduction.

  19. [Eighteenth century calendars as a source of Polish medical history].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The general decline of science which took place in the first half of the 18th century was a cause of a huge quantity of calendars editing. Calendars substituted for the former scientific literature. Up to 1763 over 800 calendars appeared. A half of them was published in Cracov. Those calendars differed from the contemporary ones. Apart from dates, they included not only basic information in history, geography agriculture economy but, not seldom, medicine as well. Most often they were written by university professors with a few physicians among them. Obviously, the level of the presented medical knowledge was very low. There wenadductions to astrology, wizardry and Provinience. But some diagnoses and therapeutic advice being a kind of doctor's manual, useful to so-called domestic medicine are still worth of the attention. First of all, phytotherapy chapter based on the folk empiricism, was the most rational. Thought 18th century calendars did not have much in common with real medicine, they make an interesting source to search for history of the Polish medicine of the Saxon times. PMID:9245110

  20. Mishmarot Calendars from Qumran Cave 4: Congruence and Divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, George, Jr.

    1997-09-01

    This study examines the calendar observed by the sect whose writings have been found in the caves of the Judean desert. Chapter I introduces the Qumran calendar as an outgrowth of the 364-day pseudo-solar year described in the astronomical chapters of 1 Enoch and defended in the Book of Jubilees. The Temple Scroll completes a calendric foundation by making canonical several summer harvest festivals not found in the Hebrew Scriptures. Chapters II through VII detail the eight mishmarot manuscripts, providing text, translation, and analysis toward understanding the fully developed calendric structure. These investigations manifest arguments that establish the beginning of the sect's lunar month at the full moon, present coordination methodologies that balance the 364-day solar year with the 354-day lunar one, and reveal two different arrangements of the festival cycle. The Conclusion gathers under the heads of Enoch and Jubilees evidence to propose two sectarian calendar traditions and brings forward other texts which could be similarly categorized. Three appendices and a glossary support the discussion from non-mishmarot calendars and presenting an eclectic six-year calendar in full detail.

  1. Normal crop calendars. Volume 3: The corn and soybean states of Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The state and crop reporting district crop calendars for Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana are presented. Crop calendars for corn, soybeans, sorghum, oats, wheat, barley, clover, flax, sugar beets, and tobacco are included.

  2. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.S.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1995-07-01

    Data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1993. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median or mean water-level altitudes, and the average or standard deviation of the water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992 and 1993.

  3. Substance use and Violence among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14–24; n=599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results Conflict over ‘personal belongings’ was a common reason for violence among males; ‘jealousy’/’rumors’ were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

  4. Environmental report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.R.; Turrin, R.P.

    1991-03-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for Calendar Year 1989 (CY89). The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations. The objective of the environmental report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. During CY89, there were no accidents, incidents, or occurrences that had a significant impact on PPPL facilities or program operations. The accidental overfilling of an underground storage tank (UST) during 1988, along with the discovery of residual hydrocarbons in the soil of an area used for unloading fuel oil trucks over the last 30 years, has the potential for a minor environmental impact and has resulted in a costly clean up in this area. Surface water analyses for both radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants have shown nothing above normally expected background values. Ambient tritium levels at less than 100 pCi/liter (3.7 Bq/liter) were measured in D-site well water. New groundwater monitoring wells were added in 1989 as a requirement for the groundwater part of our New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NJPDES) permit. Initial sampling of these wells indicated the presence of lead in two shallow wells next to the detention basin. Radiation exposure via airborne effluents into the environment is still at insignificant levels; however, a stack monitor for tritium is planned for 1990 to ensure compliance with new EPA regulations. Off-site surface water, soils, and biota continued to be analyzed for radioactive baselines in CY89. 51 refs., 27 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. Environmental releases for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-08-25

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (PNNL-11795). The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public concerning the impact of Hanford Site operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1997. Comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1997 are displayed in Tables ES-1 through ES-5. These tables represent the following: Table ES-1--Radionuclide air emissions data (detailed data on emissions are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-2--Data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-3--Radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-4--Nonradioactive air emissions data (detailed data are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-5--Total Volumes and Flow Rates of 200/600 Area Radioactive Liquid Effluents (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0).

  6. Environmental data for calendar year 1992: Surface and Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1992 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1992 by PNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface and river monitoring data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. Ground-water monitoring data are available in a separate volume (Hanford Site Environmental Data for Calendar Year 1992--Ground Water).

  7. The ancient Armenian calendars' connection with the celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutian, G. H.

    2015-07-01

    The two oldest Armenian calendars - the Haykian and Protohaykian calendars were connected with observations of celestial bodies. Particularly since 2341 B.C. the heliacal rising of the first star of Orion was used to determine the day of the main holiday - Nawasard. Before that the observations of the same star were used in Protohaykian calendar to determine both the beginning and the end of the year. The year was determined as the duration of visibility of the star Betelgeuse. The year started with the heliacal rising of this star and ended with its heliacal setting. The remaining duration was considered to be out of the year. There are also evidences in Armenian medieval literary sources concerning the observations of heliacal rising and setting of Pleiades. An attempt was made to substantiate that the large symbol carved on the rock platform of the small hill in Metzamor also concerns to the Pleiades and shows the direction of heliacal rising of Pleiades.

  8. Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force measurements of 3 beef muscles in response to various aging periods after trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, A J; Knobel, S M; Spivey, K S; Hightower, L F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Parr, S L; Rathmann, R J; Starkey, J D; Yates, D A; Hodgen, J M; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F

    2011-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the release rate of trenbolone acetate and estradiol-17β on the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL) and the WBSF of gluteus medius (GM) and psoas major (PM) in response to various aging periods. British × Continental steers (n = 168) were assigned to treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial. The main effects of treatment were implant (no implant, Revalor-S, Revalor-XS, Intervet/Schering Plough Animal Health, De Soto, KS) and ZH (0 or 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d). Slaughter group was included as a random effect to account for the variation in days on feed (153 or 174 d). Loins (n = 96) were fabricated to obtain strip loin, top sirloin butt, and tenderloin subprimals. Five 2.54-cm steaks were cut from each subprimal and assigned to 1 of 5 aging periods (7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d postmortem). Feeding ZH increased (P ≤ 0.01) LL WBSF and SSF values at each aging period compared with controls. Implanting increased (P < 0.05) LL WBSF values at 14 and 21 d, but did not affect LL SSF values (P > 0.05). Only Revalor-S increased (P ≤ 0.05) WBSF values at 28 and 35 d compared with no implant or Revalor-XS. The percentage of LL steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period, and by d 28, more than 99% of LL steaks registered WBSF values below 4.6 kg. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.05) GM WBSF values only on d 21. Implant had no effect (P > 0.05) on GM WBSF values. The percentage of GM steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period. Neither ZH nor implant strategy affected PM WBSF values (P > 0.05). All PM WBSF values were below 4.6 kg on d 7. The results of this study indicated that feeding ZH increased WBSF and SSF of LL steaks, regardless of the aging period; however, the percentage of

  9. Improving estimates of surface water radiocarbon reservoir ages in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Rae, James; Austin, William; Reimer, Paula; Blaauw, Maarten; Crocker, Anya; Chalk, Thomas; Barker, Stephen; Knutz, Paul; Hall, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from foraminifera in marine sediment cores are widely used to constrain age models and the timing of paleoceanographic events, as well as past changes in ocean circulation and carbon cycling. However, the use of radiocarbon for both dating and palaeoceanographic applications is limited in sediment cores by a lack of knowledge about the surface ocean radiocarbon reservoir age and how it varies in both space and time. Typically, to convert a planktic radiocarbon age into a calendar age, an assumed constant reservoir age is applied. However, there is mounting evidence to suggest that this assumption of constant reservoir age through time is an oversimplification, particularly for the high latitude oceans during the cold climates of the last glacial and deglacial periods. Here we present new high-resolution radiocarbon records together with tephra tie points and 230-thorium (230Th) constrained sedimentation rates to improve estimates of radiocarbon reservoir age in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. In addition we will explore the impact of the new reservoir ages for both the age models of the cores studied, as well as the palaeoceanographic implications of these reservoir age changes during intervals of rapid climate change over the past 40,000 years.

  10. Recycling Academic Calendars. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, October 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Margot Sanders

    The experiences of a variety of postsecondary institutions using different academic calendar options are examined. Several calendar options are described: the traditional semester, the early semester, 4-1-4, the quarter system, the trimester plan, composite plans, and year-round plans. The traditional semester calendar begins in mid-September and…

  11. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  12. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  13. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  14. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  15. 7 CFR 5.3 - Selection of calendar year price data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of calendar year price data. 5.3 Section 5.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.3 Selection of calendar year price data. In computing the adjusted base price for those commodities for which calendar...

  16. Report and Recommendation of the Ad Hoc Committee to Review the College Calendar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Joaquin Delta Coll., Stockton, CA.

    A study was conducted at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) to determine whether its present calendar, based on the traditional semester system, should be abandoned in favor of either the quarter or the early semester calendars. The study involved: (1) contacting employers to determine the effect of a calendar change on student employment, (2)…

  17. Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Duncan

    2000-12-01

    "If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time."--American Scientist "No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium."--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years. Acclaimed author Duncan Steel explores each major step in creating the current calendar along with the many different systems for defining the number of days in a week, the length of a month, and the number of days in a year. From the definition of the lunar month by Meton of Athens in 432 b.c. to the roles played by Julius Caesar, William the Conqueror, and Isaac Newton to present-day proposals to reform our calendar, this entertaining read also presents "timely" tidbits that will take you across the full span of recorded history. Find out how and why comets have been used as clocks, why there is no year zero between 1 b.c. and a.d. 1, and why for centuries Britain and its colonies rang in the New Year on March 25th. Marking Time will leave you with a sense of awe at the haphazard nature of our calendar's development. Once you've read this eye-opening book, you'll never look at the calendar the same way again.

  18. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  19. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1990 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data for calendar year 1990 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, reported Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1990 (Evans et al. 1992) and mental Report for Calendar Year 1990 (Woodruff and Hanf 1991). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  20. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1991 -- Ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Bates, D.J.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    This report tabulates ground-water radiological and chemical data reported for calendar year 1991 by the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Monitoring, and Operational Monitoring. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the RCRA and Operational Monitoring Projects are conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company. This document supplements the reports Hanford Site Ground-Water Monitoring for 1991 (Evans et al. 1992) and Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991 (Woodruff and Hanf 1992). The data listings provided here were generated from the Hanford Environmental Information System database.

  1. [Rotaviral diarrheas in children 0-14 years of age in Zyrardow district in period 2000-2002 with special reference to nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Korycka, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Dissertation is devoted to rotavirus infections in children 0-14 years of age hospitalized in the hospital of Zyrardów in 2000-2002. The first part of the work describes epidemiology of rotaviral infection in children, rotaviral vaccines and also presents data of rotaviral infections in the foreign and polish literature. The second part is concerning the data of rotaviral infection in children hospitalized in Zyrardów. Stool samples were examined in Bacteriological Laboratory of Powiatowa Stacja Sanitamo-Epidemiologiczna in Zyrardów for bacteria and for rotavirus by means of agglutination latex test Slidex Rota-Kit 2. All children with acute gastroenteritis rotaviral were hospitalized. The most of children were 0-4 years old. They had 89,1% of participation in the whole group of admitted children. In dissertation there were represented data in tables, concerning number of rotaviral diarrhea episodes in children 0-14 years with division into age groups, sex and urban-rural children, seasonality of infections and nosocomial rotaviral infections. The next part of the work is the anonymous survey containing five questions about social and family conditions of these children, which have fallen ill the rotaviral infection. The survey served to carry out the case-control research intending detection the risk factors for incidence of rotaviral infections in children. Conclusions of the survey: risk factors - sleeping with children in one room, more than three persons and improper sanitary conditions (lack of own bathroom in the apartment). PMID:17682758

  2. Age peculiarities of reproductive morbidity in female participants of the ChNPP accident consequences clean up (according to the figures from SRU, 1988-2012 survey period).

    PubMed

    Mayevska, I O; Buzunov, V O

    2015-12-01

    Meta: vyznachyty ta otsinyty osoblyvosti zakhvoriuvanosti statevoI systemy u zhinok uchasnyts' likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI na ChAES 1986–1987 rr. zalezhno vid reproduktyvnogo viku na moment oprominennia ta chasu pislia opromi nennia.Materialy i metody. U statti predstavleno dani Derzhavnogo reiestru UkraIny osib, iaki postrazhdaly vnaslidok Chornobyl's'koI katastrofy. Provedeno analiz rivnia i struktury zakhvoriuvanosti statevoI systemy u 17237 zhinok uchasnyts' likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI na ChAES 1986–1987 rr. zalezhno vid chasu perebuvannia pid ryzykom pislia oprominennia i reproduktyvnogo viku v moment oprominennia. Period monitoryngu 1988–2012 rr. Dlia vyz nachennia rivnia zakhvoriuvanosti, dovirchykh intervaliv i virogidnosti riznytsi vykorystano probnu versiiu programy OpenEpiversion 2.3.1., virogidnist' riznytsi vyznachalas' z vykorystanniam kryteriIv z score i t.Rezul'taty. Rezul'taty kogortnogo epidemiologichnogo doslidzhennia vyiavyly osoblyvosti rozvytku khvorob zhino choI statevoI systemy zalezhno vid reproduktyvnogo viku na moment oprominennia ta chasu perebuvannia pid ryzy kom pislia oprominennia. Provedeno porivnial'nyy statystychnyy analiz rivnia i struktury zakhvoriuvanosti state voI systemy za riznyy period chasu sposterezhennia.Vysnovok. Faktorom ryzyku zbil'shennia zakhvoriuvanosti na leyomiomy matky, dobroiakisni dysplaziI molochnoI zalozy, sal'pingooforyty mozhe buty oprominennia u reproduktyvnomu vitsi (18–45 r.). Mozhna prypustyty, shcho tkanyny matky ta molochnoI zalozy u zhinok, oprominenykh u reproduktyvnomu vitsi bil'sh chutlyvi na vplyv radiatsiynogo oprominennia, nizh u zhinok, iaki buly oprominenni u premenopauzi ta menopauzi.

  3. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  4. Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Kayser-Ames Laboratory

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2007. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies 11 buildings owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). See the Laboratory's Web page at www.external.ameslab.gov for locations and Laboratory overview. The Laboratory also leases space in ISU owned buildings. In 2007, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled according to all applicable EPA, State, Local and DOE Orders. In 2006 the Laboratory reduced its generator status from a Large Quantity Generator (LQG) to a Small Quantity Generator (SQG). EPA Region VII was notified of this change. The Laboratory's RCRA hazardous waste management program was inspected by EPA Region VII in April 2006. There were no notices of violations. The inspector was impressed with the improvements of the Laboratory's waste management program over the past ten years. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2007. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2007. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. As indicated in prior SERs, pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs have been in practice since 1990, with improvements implemented most recently in 2003. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, styrofoam peanuts

  5. Variation in fecal testosterone levels, inter-male aggression, dominance rank and age during mating and post-mating periods in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Ziegler, T E

    2007-12-01

    In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period. PMID:17427976

  6. National strategy for prevention of oral diseases in children from 0 to 14 years old age in the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2008-2018.

    PubMed

    Sarakinova, Olivera; Carcev, Mile; Getova, Biljana; Carceva Salja, Sofija; Janevska, Sevdalina

    2013-01-01

    Human principles and the fundamental values are the main principles stipulated in the Constitution of Republic of Macedonia. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia, within its program objectives, implementing the laws in the country, the international standards and the global health care as the worlds objective of the Constitution of WHO. According to the information received through the health monitoring system, as well as the results from target and selective studies, they have shown that the condition of oral health, especially the condition with the dental caries is serious health problem of all groups. The alarm was activated by the state of increase of the caries incidence, showing a value of DMFT=6.88 in children at 12 years of age, which is considered as a high value compared to the WHO recommendations for oral health (DMFT=3). The experience from the developed countries, as well as the knowledge based on scientific and professional evidence in RM, prove that this desease may be successfully prevented, eliminated and eradicated by conduction of primary preventive measures. The program objectives of the National Strategy for prevention of oral deseases are shared in shorth term, medium term and long term objectives, which aim is eradication of the caries. The Strategy include a prevention of periodontal desease and orthodontic anomalies. The prevention of the caries will be performed by using a five preventive measures: 1. mechanical and chemical control of the dental plaque 2. Discipline of sugar take regime 3. Application of fluorides (systemic and topic) 4. sealing fissures and cavities 5. Education and motivation for sustainnability of oral health. In the frame of the Strategy, we planed a dental dispensarisation of children through registering data in the patients file, as propose by WHO, and arrangement of preventive teams and professional assistance of paediatrics and gynecologists. The evaluation of the effects from the preventive program shall

  7. National strategy for prevention of oral diseases in children from 0 to 14 years old age in the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2008-2018.

    PubMed

    Sarakinova, Olivera; Carcev, Mile; Getova, Biljana; Carceva Salja, Sofija; Janevska, Sevdalina

    2013-01-01

    Human principles and the fundamental values are the main principles stipulated in the Constitution of Republic of Macedonia. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia, within its program objectives, implementing the laws in the country, the international standards and the global health care as the worlds objective of the Constitution of WHO. According to the information received through the health monitoring system, as well as the results from target and selective studies, they have shown that the condition of oral health, especially the condition with the dental caries is serious health problem of all groups. The alarm was activated by the state of increase of the caries incidence, showing a value of DMFT=6.88 in children at 12 years of age, which is considered as a high value compared to the WHO recommendations for oral health (DMFT=3). The experience from the developed countries, as well as the knowledge based on scientific and professional evidence in RM, prove that this desease may be successfully prevented, eliminated and eradicated by conduction of primary preventive measures. The program objectives of the National Strategy for prevention of oral deseases are shared in shorth term, medium term and long term objectives, which aim is eradication of the caries. The Strategy include a prevention of periodontal desease and orthodontic anomalies. The prevention of the caries will be performed by using a five preventive measures: 1. mechanical and chemical control of the dental plaque 2. Discipline of sugar take regime 3. Application of fluorides (systemic and topic) 4. sealing fissures and cavities 5. Education and motivation for sustainnability of oral health. In the frame of the Strategy, we planed a dental dispensarisation of children through registering data in the patients file, as propose by WHO, and arrangement of preventive teams and professional assistance of paediatrics and gynecologists. The evaluation of the effects from the preventive program shall

  8. Low reservoir ages for the surface ocean from mid-Holocene Florida corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druffel, E.R.M.; Robinson, L.F.; Griffin, S.; Halley, R.B.; Southon, J.R.; Adkins, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The 14C reservoir age of the surface ocean was determined for two Holocene periods (4908-4955 and 3008-3066 calendar (cal) B.P.) using U/Th-dated corals from Biscayne National Park, Florida, United States. We found that the average reservoir ages for these two time periods (294 ?? 33 and 291 ?? 27 years, respectively) were lower than the average value between A.D. 1600 and 1900 (390 ?? 60 years) from corals. It appears that the surface ocean was closer to isotopic equilibrium with CO2 in the atmosphere during these two time periods than it was during recent times. Seasonal ??18O measurements from the younger coral are similar to modern values, suggesting that mixing with open ocean waters was indeed occurring during this coral's lifetime. Likely explanations for the lower reservoir age include increased stratification of the surface ocean or increased ??14C values of subsurface waters that mix into the surface. Our results imply that a more correct reservoir age correction for radiocarbon measurements of marine samples in this location from the time periods ???3040 and ???4930 cal years B.P. is ???292 ?? 30 years, less than the canonical value of 404 ?? 20 years. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. mtDNA from the early Bronze Age to the Roman period suggests a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian cradle of civilization.

    PubMed

    Witas, Henryk W; Tomczyk, Jacek; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Płoszaj, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today's Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5.

  10. mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian Cradle of Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Witas, Henryk W.; Tomczyk, Jacek; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Płoszaj, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today’s Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5. PMID:24040024

  11. mtDNA from the early Bronze Age to the Roman period suggests a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian cradle of civilization.

    PubMed

    Witas, Henryk W; Tomczyk, Jacek; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Płoszaj, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today's Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5. PMID:24040024

  12. Changes in dietary practices and social organization during the pivotal late iron age period in Norway (AD 550-1030): isotope analyses of Merovingian and Viking Age human remains.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Elise; Price, T Douglas; Richards, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    Human remains representing 33 individuals buried along the coast in northern Norway were analyzed for diet composition using collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. Where possible, both teeth and bone were included to investigate whether there were dietary changes from childhood to adulthood. A general shift was documented from the Merovingian Age 550-800 AD to the Viking Age AD 800-1050 (VA), with a heavier reliance on marine diet in the VA. Dietary life history data show that 15 individuals changed their diets through life with 11 of these having consumed more marine foods in the later years of life. In combination with (87) Sr/(86) Sr data, it is argued that at least six individuals possibly originated from inland areas and then moved to the coastal region where they were eventually interred. The trend is considered in relation to the increasing expansion of the marine fishing industry at this time, and it is suggested that results from isotope analyses reflect the expanding production and export of stockfish in this region. PMID:24898189

  13. Changes in dietary practices and social organization during the pivotal late iron age period in Norway (AD 550-1030): isotope analyses of Merovingian and Viking Age human remains.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Elise; Price, T Douglas; Richards, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    Human remains representing 33 individuals buried along the coast in northern Norway were analyzed for diet composition using collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. Where possible, both teeth and bone were included to investigate whether there were dietary changes from childhood to adulthood. A general shift was documented from the Merovingian Age 550-800 AD to the Viking Age AD 800-1050 (VA), with a heavier reliance on marine diet in the VA. Dietary life history data show that 15 individuals changed their diets through life with 11 of these having consumed more marine foods in the later years of life. In combination with (87) Sr/(86) Sr data, it is argued that at least six individuals possibly originated from inland areas and then moved to the coastal region where they were eventually interred. The trend is considered in relation to the increasing expansion of the marine fishing industry at this time, and it is suggested that results from isotope analyses reflect the expanding production and export of stockfish in this region.

  14. Telling Tales over Time: Constructing and Deconstructing the School Calendar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Joel; Brown, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    The September-to-June school calendar has been a fixture of North America for almost a century. Its origins have usually been told as an unexamined tale attributed to features of nineteenth century rural society. We challenge this interpretation by suggesting that multiple pressures arising from increasing urbanization influenced its roots. We…

  15. 45 CFR 2102.14 - Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. 2102.14 Section 2102.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS MEETINGS AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Procedures on Submissions of Plans or...

  16. El Calendario Azteca - para Colorear. (The Aztec Calendar - for Coloring.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    The Aztec calendar had a different god representing each month of the year. This color-by-number book illustrates each god and gives its name and the month it represents in Spanish. Each part of the god is numbered from 1 to 20 with a color corresponding to each number. (NQ)

  17. Brief Report: Error Pattern in an Autistic Savant Calendar Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iavarone, Alessandro; Patruno, Maria; Galeone, Filomena; Chieffi, Sergio; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Special ability in computing the day of the week from given dates was observed in a 18 years old male, L.E., suffering from autism. Neuropsychological testing revealed severe deficits in all cognitive domains and poor explicit knowledge of calendar structure. The subject scored well above the chance level on dates of the past and future decades.…

  18. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  19. Ames Laboratory site environmental report, calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1995. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs.

  20. 78 FR 22890 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... other Federal programs, and for recoveries under the Federal Medical Care Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 2651... are provided. Inpatient Hospital Per Diem Rate (Excludes Physician/Practitioner Services) Calendar Year 2013 Lower 48 States: $2,272 Alaska: $2,591 Outpatient Per Visit Rate (Excluding...

  1. [Studies of the biological age in adult taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus (Ixodinae)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The history of studies of the biological age in ixodid ticks is discussed. A method of estimation of the biological age in adult ticks of the genus Ixodes by the degree of fat inclusions in midgut cells and in the fat body is developed. An "age scale" for the determination of the calendar age was assumed.

  2. Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Dan

    2011-01-31

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2010. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. In 2010, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled according to all applicable EPA, State, Local regulations and DOE Orders. In 2006 the Laboratory reduced its generator status from a Large Quantity Generator (LQG) to a Small Quantity Generator (SQG). EPA Region VII was notified of this change. The Laboratory's RCRA hazardous waste management program was inspected by EPA Region VII in April 2006. There were no notices of violations. The inspector was impressed with the improvements of the Laboratory's waste management program over the past ten years. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2010. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2010. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. As indicated in prior SERs, pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs have been in practice since 1990, with improvements implemented most recently in 2010. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, miscellaneous electronic office equipment, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling and corrugated cardboard recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, foamed polystyrene peanuts, batteries, fluorescent lamps and telephone books. Ames Laboratory reported to DOE-Ames Site Office (AMSO), through the Laboratory's Performance Evaluation Measurement Plan, on its Affirmative

  3. Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Kayser

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2005. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies 11 buildings owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). See the Laboratory's Web page at www.external.ameslab.gov for locations and Laboratory overview. The Laboratory also leases space in ISU owned buildings. In 2005, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled accordingly to all applicable EPA, State, Local and DOE Orders. The most recent RCRA inspection was conducted by EPA Region VII in January 1999. The Laboratory received a notice of violation (NOV) which included five citations. There have been no inspections since then. The citations were minor and were corrected by the Laboratory within the time allocated by the EPA. See correspondence in Appendix D. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2005. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2005. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. Pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs were implemented in 1990 and updated in 2003. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, styrofoam peanuts, batteries, CRTs, fluorescent lamps and telephone books. Ames Laboratory reported to DOE-CH, through the Laboratory's Self Assessment Report, on its Affirmative

  4. SACRA - global data sets of satellite-derived crop calendars for agricultural simulations: an estimation of a high-resolution crop calendar using satellite-sensed NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-01-01

    To date, many studies have performed numerical estimations of food production and agricultural water demand to understand the present and future supply-demand relationship. A crop calendar (CC) is an essential input datum to estimate food production and agricultural water demand accurately with the numerical estimations. CC defines the date or month when farmers plant and harvest in cropland. This study aims to develop a new global data set of a satellite-derived crop calendar for agricultural simulations (SACRA) and reveal advantages and disadvantages of the satellite-derived CC compared to other global products. We estimate global CC at a spatial resolution of 5 min (≈10 km) using the satellite-sensed NDVI data, which corresponds well to vegetation growth and death on the land surface. We first demonstrate that SACRA shows similar spatial pattern in planting date compared to a census-based product. Moreover, SACRA reflects a variety of CC in the same administrative unit, since it uses high-resolution satellite data. However, a disadvantage is that the mixture of several crops in a grid is not considered in SACRA. We also address that the cultivation period of SACRA clearly corresponds to the time series of NDVI. Therefore, accuracy of SACRA depends on the accuracy of NDVI used for the CC estimation. Although SACRA shows different CC from a census-based product in some regions, multiple usages of the two products are useful to take into consideration the uncertainty of the CC. An advantage of SACRA compared to the census-based products is that SACRA provides not only planting/harvesting dates but also a peak date from the time series of NDVI data.

  5. 16 CFR 1011.4 - Forms of advance public notice of meetings; Public Calendar/Master Calendar and Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1012 and Commission meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1013: (a) Public... meetings, selected staff meetings, advisory committee meetings, and other activities such as speeches and... person or organization will be sent the Public Calendar on a regular basis free of charge. In...

  6. 16 CFR 1011.4 - Forms of advance public notice of meetings; Public Calendar/Master Calendar and Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1012 and Commission meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1013: (a) Public... meetings, selected staff meetings, advisory committee meetings, and other activities such as speeches and... person or organization will be sent the Public Calendar on a regular basis free of charge. In...

  7. 16 CFR 1011.4 - Forms of advance public notice of meetings; Public Calendar/Master Calendar and Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1012 and Commission meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1013: (a) Public... meetings, selected staff meetings, advisory committee meetings, and other activities such as speeches and... person or organization will be sent the Public Calendar on a regular basis free of charge. In...

  8. 16 CFR 1011.4 - Forms of advance public notice of meetings; Public Calendar/Master Calendar and Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1012 and Commission meetings subject to 16 CFR part 1013: (a) Public... meetings, selected staff meetings, advisory committee meetings, and other activities such as speeches and... person or organization will be sent the Public Calendar on a regular basis free of charge. In...

  9. The Educational, Fiscal, and Access Implications of the Fall Academic Calendar. The Report of the Academic Calendar Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, William B.

    In 1991, California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) formed a task force to investigate the effects of adopting academic calendars that end either before or after the winter holidays. To gather information, the task force performed a grade distribution analysis among district college students to determine the impact of fall semester…

  10. Cytomegalovirus infection accelerates epigenetic aging.

    PubMed

    Kananen, Laura; Nevalainen, Tapio; Jylhävä, Juulia; Marttila, Saara; Hervonen, Antti; Jylhä, Marja; Hurme, Mikko

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm) have a central role in the regulation of gene expression and thereby in cellular differentiation and tissue homeostasis. It has recently been shown that aging is associated with profound changes in DNAm. Several of these methylation changes take place in a clock-like fashion, i.e. correlating with the calendar age of an individual. Thus, the epigenetic clock based on these kind of DNAm changes could provide a new biomarker for human aging process, i.e. being able to separate the calendar and biological age. Information about the correlation of the time indicated by this clock to the various aspects of immunosenescence is still missing. As chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is probably one of the major driving forces of immunosenescence, we now have analyzed the correlation of CMV seropositivity with the epigenetic age in the Vitality 90+cohort 1920 (122 nonagenarians and 21 young controls, CMV seropositivity rates 95% and 57%, respectively). The data showed that CMV seropositivity was associated with a higher epigenetic age in both of these age groups (median 26.5 vs. 24.0 (p < 0.02,Mann–Whitney U-test) in the young controls and 76.0 vs. 70.0 (p < 0.01) in the nonagenarians). Thus, these data provide a new aspect to the CMV associated pathological processes. PMID:26485162

  11. [Estimation of the biological age in males of the taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus: Ixodinae) by fat reserves in the midgut].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2012-01-01

    Some criteria for the estimation of the biological and calendar age by the fat storage in midgut cells of Ixodes persulcatus males were established on the basis of examination of ticks from the laboratory culture.

  12. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  13. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... closely-held stock in trust for the benefit of B, A's child. A timely filed a Federal gift tax return..., transfer did not commence to run since that transfer was not adequately disclosed on the 1997 gift...

  14. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). However, A's 2001 transfer was adequately disclosed on a timely filed gift tax return and, thus, under... liability for 2002. A's September 10, 1997, transfer to C was adequately disclosed on a timely filed gift... closely-held stock in trust for the benefit of B, A's child. A timely filed a Federal gift tax...

  15. Hanford Site Environmental data for Calendar Year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, as part of its contract to operate the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy. The data collected provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals. Pacific Northwest Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1990 is a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1990 by PNL's Environmental Monitoring Program. The data summaries included in the annual report were created from individual surface and river monitoring results. This volume contains the individual results used to create those summaries. This volume also includes additional data summaries which do not appear in the annual report.

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Morasch, Launa F.

    2006-09-28

    This report, published annually since 1958, includes information and summary analytical data that (1) provide an overview of activities at the Hanford Site during calendar year 2005; (2) demonstrate the site's compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) policies and directives; (3) characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance; and (4) highlight significant environmental programs.

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2005-09-29

    This report, published annually since 1958, includes information and summary analytical data that (1) provide an overview of activities at the Hanford Site during calendar year 2003; (2) demonstrate the site's compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) policies and directives; (3) characterize Hanford Site environmental management performance; and (4) highlight significant environmental programs.

  18. Canadian crop calendars in support of the early warning project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H.; Hodges, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian crop calendars for LACIE are presented. Long term monthly averages of daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures for subregions of provinces were used to simulate normal daily maximum and minimum temperatures. The Robertson (1968) spring wheat and Williams (1974) spring barley phenology models were run using the simulated daily temperatures and daylengths for appropriate latitudes. Simulated daily temperatures and phenology model outputs for spring wheat and spring barley are given.

  19. Calendar Year 2002 RCRA & CERCLA Groundwater Monitoring Well summary report

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the calendar year 2002 field activities associated with installing four new groundwater monitoring wells in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Two groundwater monitoring wells are located around waste management area (WMA) TX-TY to support the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) and two groundwater monitoring wells are located in the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units (OU) to support the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA).

  20. Global Crop Calendars from Satellite-Derived Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to produce reliable and sustainable food security for human consumption are challenged by a complex set of issues including competition for agricultural lands, climate change impacts, and water scarcity. In the coming decades, population growth and climate change are likely to place significant stress on global food supply. Increasing cropping intensity (the number of crops grown per year) may increase agricultural production on existing agricultural land, but also requires increased inputs of key resources, especially water. Similarly, shifting crop calendars can reduce vulnerability of crops to climate variability. However, the nature and quality of currently available information related to multi-cropping and planting and harvesting dates is highly variable, and efforts focused on assessing the vulnerability of cropping systems to climate change require better information related to crop calendars and cropping intensity. To assist these efforts, we are using remote sensing to develop a database of global crop phenologies. To do this, we use the MODIS Land Dynamics Product (MCD12Q2) to characterize crop planting and harvesting dates at 5-minute spatial resolution globally for the year 2005. To help assess the quality of this database, we present a set of test sites covering the major agricultural regions and compare satellite-derived phenologies with existing crop calendar datasets.

  1. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  2. Radiocarbon Age Offsets in Arctic Lake Sediments Describe the Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon to Past Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaglioti, B.; Mann, D. H.; Pohlman, J.; Kunz, M. L.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M.; Wooller, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    years ago) age offsets nearly doubled to around 4,000 calendar years. Because most of the deepest and oldest organic-rich soils in the LOP watershed are located in topographical lowlands in the northern Brooks Range region today, we hypothesize that these regions are where ancient organic matter was released during the HTM. The thick peat that now covers these lowlands is insulating the permafrost and likely stabilizing permafrost C in the face of recent warming causing lake sediment age offsets to be similar to those offsets during a period of relatively cold, and unproductive soils. The vulnerability of permafrost C is evidenced by the limit of peat stabilization that was apparently crossed during the ~ 2-3° C of rapid warming that occurred at the end of the Younger Dryas.

  3. Dicrocoelium dendriticum found in a Bronze Age cemetery in western Iran in the pre-Persepolis period: The oldest Asian palaeofinding in the present human infection hottest spot region.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mobedi, Iraj; Masoumian, Mohammad; Naseri, Reza; Hoseini, Ghasem; Nekouei, Parisa; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Dicrocoeliasis of animals and humans is caused by trematode species of the genus Dicrocoelium, mainly Dicrocoelium dendriticum in ruminants of the Holarctic region. D. dendriticum may be considered an old parasite, probably related to the appearance and diversification of Eurasian ovicaprines, occurred 14.7-14.5 million years ago. The oldest palaeoparasitological findings of Dicrocoelium in domestic animals and humans date from more than 5000 years BC in Europe. Eggs of D. dendriticum have been found in a burial of a Bronze Age cemetery (2600-2200 BC) close to Yasuj city, southwestern Iran. This is the oldest finding of D. dendriticum in the Near East, where present human infection reports are more numerous than in other world regions where human dicrocoeliasis is rare and sporadic. This palaeofinding in the Zagros mountainous chain area is of interest by its location close to Persepolis, suggesting a narrow relationship between humans and herbivorous animals in these highlands. Domestic ruminant populations of these highlands were following a repeated contact with those of the western flat lowlands of the Fertile Crescent thanks to annual altitudinal transhumance migrations of the nomadic pastoral tribes with their herds living throughout Zagros Mountains in the several millennium period BC. It is concluded that D. dendriticum spread together with sheep and goats westward throughout Europe from the Fertile Crescent during the 8000-6000 year BC period and somewhat later southward into Africa, both spreads facilitated by the low specificity of that trematode species regarding the snail and ant intermediate hosts. PMID:25748277

  4. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  5. Reasons for eliminating the "age 60" regulation for airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1981-08-01

    The calendar age of 60 is no longer medically justifiable as an upper age limit for airline pilots. Advances in gerontologic studies, clinical medicine, and operational flight proficiency evaluations, now allow individual pilot assessments for health status and performance capability. Individualizing the career duration of pilots by eliminating the present age 60 upper limitation will enhance flight safety and efficiency as healthy pilots continue their productive careers.

  6. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  7. 78 FR 68814 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... International Trade Administration Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Year 2015... accepting applications for the International Buyer Program (IBP) for calendar year 2015 (January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015). The announcement also sets out the objectives, procedures and...

  8. 42 CFR 419.30 - Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. 419.30 Section 419.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Outpatient Services § 419.30 Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. (a) CMS estimates the...

  9. 42 CFR 419.30 - Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. 419.30 Section 419.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Outpatient Services § 419.30 Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. (a) CMS estimates the...

  10. 42 CFR 419.30 - Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. 419.30 Section 419.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Services § 419.30 Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. (a) CMS estimates the aggregate...

  11. 42 CFR 419.30 - Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. 419.30 Section 419.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Services § 419.30 Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. (a) CMS estimates the aggregate...

  12. 42 CFR 419.30 - Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. 419.30 Section 419.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Outpatient Services § 419.30 Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. (a) CMS estimates the...

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2007-09-27

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  15. The Works and Days of Hands: Students Share a Classroom Calendar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Describes an urban high school's homeroom classroom calendar that is maintained by students who are deaf and hard of hearing. The calendar is used to record students' schedules, including individualized education program meetings, assemblies, doctor appointments, and other events. It assists students in taking responsibility for their own…

  16. A Report on Flexible Calendar Program at Cosumnes River College, Los Rios Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Howard L.

    As part of the Flexible Calendar Project, Cosumnes River College adopted a school calendar that provided for two 16-week semesters (the fall semester ending prior to Christmas recess) separated by a three-week intersession that was devoted to educational experimentation and professional staff development activities. After the second year…

  17. A Study of the Term and Semester Calendars in a Two Year Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzelle, Raymond; And Others

    In an effort to determine the most effective school calendar system, a task force was formed at Pennsylvania's Reading Area Community College to examine the advantages and disadvantages of converting from the college's current term calendar to a semester system. The task force examined the experiences of 11 other institutions that had undergone…

  18. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-09-28

    This data report contains the actual raw data used to create the tables and summaries in the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2005. In addition to providing raw data collected during routine sampling efforts in 2005, this data report also includes Columbia River shoreline spring data collected by the PNNL Groundwater Performance Assessment Project, and data from collaborative studies performed by the PNNL during 2005 under partial support by the SESP. Some analytical results were not received in time to include in this report or changes may have occurred to the data following publication.

  19. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM CALENDAR YEAR 2005 REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA ECOLOGICAL SERVICES

    2006-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during the Calendar Year 2005. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive and protected/regulated species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  20. Update on EH-23 activities in Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This report briefly describes the activities undertaken by the US DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance (EH-23) of the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environment (EH-20) in Calendar Year (CY) 1993 in seven major areas: (1) regulatory review and analysis; (2) environmental policy and guidance; (3) environmental training courses and workshops; (4) workgroups and committees; (5) environmental regulatory management support; (6) special projects and other activities; and (7) special presentations. A list of selected environmental guidance memoranda and documents distributed by EH-23 in CY 1993 is also included.

  1. Brief report: error pattern in an autistic savant calendar calculator.

    PubMed

    Iavarone, Alessandro; Patruno, Maria; Galeone, Filomena; Chieffi, Sergio; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2007-04-01

    Special ability in computing the day of the week from given dates was observed in a 18 years old male, L.E., suffering from autism. Neuropsychological testing revealed severe deficits in all cognitive domains and poor explicit knowledge of calendar structure. The subject scored well above the chance level on dates of the past and future decades. Error rate and response latency increased with temporal remoteness of dates. Most of errors were in indicating the weekday before or after that of date stimulus. The performance and error pattern suggest that L.E. used "encapsulated" computation algorithm(s) for the day of week task.

  2. Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Years 2009 to 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Virginia Finley

    2012-08-08

    This report presents the results of environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for Calendar Years 2009-2010. The report provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, that are released into the environment as a result of PPPL operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2009-2010. The objective of the Site Environmental Report is to document PPPL's efforts to protect the public's health and the environment through its environmental protection, safety, and health programs. __________________________________________________

  3. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Miltenberger, R.P.; Royce, B.A.; Naidu, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) carries out basic and applied research in the following fields: high-energy nuclear and solid state physics; fundamental material and structure properties and the interactions of matter; nuclear medicine, biomedical and environmental sciences; and selected energy technologies. In conducting these research activities, it is Laboratory policy to protect the health and safety of employees and the public, and to minimize the impact of BNL operations on the environment. This document is the BNL environmental report for the calendar year 1990 for the safety and Environmental Protection division and corners topics on effluents, surveillance, regulations, assessments, and compliance.

  4. Characteristic Age and True Age of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Tanni, Ali; Zhao, Hai-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Age of a pulsar is a useful parameter, but it is difficult to get the age from observation. We can only derive the characteristic age from the observed parameters: spin period (P) and period derivative (Ṗ). In this paper, we discussed the relationship between characteristic age and magnetic field of a pulsar. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to support the idea: it is useless to study the magnetic field evolution using characteristic age. From some observation evidences we get that: the characteristic age cannot be used as true age, especially for millisecond pulsar (MSP). The difference between them is also discussed. From the studying of breaking index and MSP's initial spin period (P0), we get the conclusion that: the problem cannot be resolved using different radiation models.

  5. The relation of 300-day and 360-day years in the oldest Armenian calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutian, G. H.

    2016-09-01

    As we know the two oldest Armenian calendars - the Haykian and Protohaykian calendars have different durations of year. The year in the Haykian calendar consists of 360 days, while the year of Protohaykian calendar has only 300 days. Parallel to the astronomical explanation of this difference another - "ideological" explanation is suggested. These two canonic durations of the year may be developed as a result of comparison of 30-day lunar month and the solar year on the basis of two different calculation systems. The idea of 300-day year was a result of Moon/Sun relation on the basis of decimal system. On the other hand the 360-day year idea was developed as a result of the same relation on the basis of duodecimal notation system. This also means that the conversion from Protohaykian to Haykian calendar must be caused by a serious cultural - religious conversion.

  6. Two-year citations of JAPPL original articles: evidence of a relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Soares de Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ramalho de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; da Matta, Thiago Torres; Viana, Bruno Ferreira; de Souza, Cintia Pereira; Guerreiro, Renato de Carvalho; de Carvalho Guerreiro, Renato; Slama, Fabian Antonio; Portugal, Eduardo da Matta Mello; da Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    Several indicators have been used to analyze scientific journals, with the impact factor and the number of citations in a 2-yr calendar time frame (2-YRC) being the most common factors. However, considering that the Journal of Applied Physiology (JAPPL) appears monthly and that calculations of these indicators are based on citations of papers published in previous years, we hypothesized that articles published at the beginning of the year would be cited more in the 2-YRC compared with those appearing in the last issues of the year, a phenomena known as a relative age effect. Our objective was to confirm the existence of a relative age effect in the 2-YRC for original articles published in JAPPL. From 2005 to 2008, a total of 1,726 original articles were published, according to the Web of Science, and 9,973 citations in 2-YRC, varying from 0 to 45, with a mean of 5.78 for individual papers. Although there were no differences in the number of original articles published in a given month (P = 0.99), the 2-YRC varied considerably throughout the year, being higher for those earlier issues of the year, as shown by the linear regression analysis (r(2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). The 2-YRC began at 6.62 during the first 3 mo of the year, dropping by 10% at each 3-mo period. In summary, the longer an article has been out there, the more citations it collects. The relative age effect is a potential confounding variable for the assessment and interpretation of 2-YRC (using calendar years) from JAPPL original articles.

  7. Evidence of past climate change in the Little Ice Age and of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation periodicity in Africa: comparison between two neighbor stalagmites from Namibia and Botswana (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarintsoa, N. G.; Railsback, L. B.; Liang, F.; Brook, G. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    , when abrupt wet seasons follow drier ones every 30 to 40 years. We propose this cycle would match with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, a pattern of change (warm or cool surface waters) in the Pacific Ocean's climate that occurs every 20 to 30 years. Furthermore, a major climatic shift around the 1600s is also apparent, when both δ18O and δ13C in the Dante Cave stalagmite decrease by ~ 3-4 ‰, indicating a dramatic change from dry to wet conditions. This change is followed by a shift to a drier climate from 1650 to 1950 for both DP1 and BC97-94. The abrupt change in isotopic data is coeval with the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (prior to AD 1600) to the Little Ice Age (~AD 1350-1850), and possibly the onset of the Maunder Sunspot Minimum (1645-1715). The stalagmite data show that major Late Holocene climate events recorded in the Northern Hemisphere also impacted the Southern Hemisphere, including Southern Africa. The rapid changes in isotopic values are also mirrored by changes in stalagmite petrography. Crystals of calcite with a distinctly brownish/yellowish color in DP1 samples reflect the wet period in Namibia, and a Type E (erosional) layer-bounding surface in BC97-14 marks the onset of the very wet period in Botswana.

  8. How to find the sunrise and sunset times from a Sun clock and calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mola, E. E.; Irurzun, I. M.; Dammig Quiña, P. L.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the construction of a Sun clock and calendar (SCandC) that will allow an observer to not only see the time but also the symmetry properties of the Sun-Earth relative movement. A set of circles drawn on the SCandC will allow the observer to see their associated dates as well as to perform a visual interpolation between any pair of consecutive circles to estimate an intermediate date. By introducing the sunrise and sunset horizon lines in the SCandC the observer will be able to find the sunrise and sunset times during most of the year. The observer will also be able to appreciate the difference in time duration between the spring-summer and autumn-winter periods, as a consequence of Kepler's second law, as well as to observe that there is a small difference between the circle radii of equidistant dates from the solstices in the spring-summer versus autumn-winter periods as a consequence also of Kepler's second law. The equations derived in the present article will be tested against data from a particular lighthouse.

  9. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River Water and Sediment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1995 by PNNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface, river monitoring data, and chemical air data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data.

  10. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water and sediment. In addition, Hanford Site wildlife samples were also collected for metals analysis. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by PNNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from river monitoring and sediment data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data.

  11. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  13. Calendar effects in quantum mechanics in view of interactive holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Quantum mechanics in terms of interactive holography appears as `normal' science [1]. With the holography quantum behavior is determined by the interplay of material formations and their conjugate images. To begin with, this effortlessly elucidates the nonlocality in quantum entanglements. Then, it has been shown that Schr"odinger's dynamics for a single particle arises from Bi-Fragmental random walks of the particle itself and its holographic image. For many particles this picture blurs with fragments merging as bosons or fermions. In biomolecules, swapping of particles and their holographic placeholders leads to self-replication of the living matter. Because of broad interpretations of quantum formalism direct experiments attributing it to holography may not be very compelling. The holographic mechanism better reveals as an absolute frame of reference. A number of physical and biological events exhibit annual variations when Earth orbital position changes with respect to the universal holographic mechanism. The well established calendar variations of heart attacks can be regarded as a positive outcome of a generalization of the Michelson experiment, where holography is interferometry and ailing hearts are detectors of pathologically replicated proteins. Also, there have been already observed calendar changes in radioactive decay rates. The same could be expected for various fine quantum experiences, like, e.g., Josephson tunneling. In other words, Quantum Mechanics (February) Quantum Mechanics (August). [1] S. Berkovich, ``A comprehensive explanation of quantum mechanics,'' www.cs.gwu.edu/research/technical-report/170 .

  14. Deriving crop calendar using NDVI time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, J. H.; Oza, M. P.

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural intensification is defined in terms as cropping intensity, which is the numbers of crops (single, double and triple) per year in a unit cropland area. Information about crop calendar (i.e. number of crops in a parcel of land and their planting & harvesting dates and date of peak vegetative stage) is essential for proper management of agriculture. Remote sensing sensors provide a regular, consistent and reliable measurement of vegetation response at various growth stages of crop. Therefore it is ideally suited for monitoring purpose. The spectral response of vegetation, as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and its profiles, can provide a new dimension for describing vegetation growth cycle. The analysis based on values of NDVI at regular time interval provides useful information about various crop growth stages and performance of crop in a season. However, the NDVI data series has considerable amount of local fluctuation in time domain and needs to be smoothed so that dominant seasonal behavior is enhanced. Based on temporal analysis of smoothed NDVI series, it is possible to extract number of crop cycles per year and their crop calendar. In the present study, a methodology is developed to extract key elements of crop growth cycle (i.e. number of crops per year and their planting - peak - harvesting dates). This is illustrated by analysing MODIS-NDVI data series of one agricultural year (from June 2012 to May 2013) over Gujarat. Such an analysis is very useful for analysing dynamics of kharif and rabi crops.

  15. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by cotton: application of the expanded growth model.

    PubMed

    Overman, Allen R; Scholtz, Richard V

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1)) with calendar time (wk) occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements (kg ha(-1)) such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. Field data from literature for the warm-season annual cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are used in this analysis. The expanded growth model is used to describe accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation. The expanded growth model describes field data from California and Alabama rather well. Furthermore, all model parameters were common for the two sites with the exception of the yield factor A which accounts for differences in soil types, environmental conditions, fertilizer levels, and plant population.

  16. Calendar effect on phase study in paleoclimate transient simulation with orbital forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-Shan; Kutzbach, J. E.; Gallimore, R.; Liu, Zhengyu

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have shown that the use of different calendars in paleoclimate simulations can cause artificial phase shifts on insolation forcing and climatic responses. However, these important calendar corrections are still often neglected. In this paper, the phase shifts at the precession band is quantitatively assessed by converting the model data of the transient GCM climate simulation of Kutzbach et al. (Clim Dyn 30:567-579, 2008) from the "fixed-day" calendar to the "fixed-angular" calendar with a new and efficient approach. We find that insolation has a big phase shift in September-October-November (SON) when the vernal equinox (VE) is fixed to March 21. At high latitude, the phase bias is up to 60° (about 3650 years). The insolation phase bias in SON in Southern Hemisphere (SH) is especially important because it can influence the timing of the SH summer monsoon response due to the large heat capacity of ocean. The calendar correction has minor effect (±2°) on the phase relationships between forcing and precipitation responses of the six global summer monsoons studied in Kutzbach et al. (2008). After correcting the calendar effect, especial on SH ocean temperature, the new phase wheel results are more similar for both hemispheres. The results suggest that the calendar effect should be corrected before discussing the dynamics between orbital forcing and climatic responses in phase studies of transient simulations.

  17. School age child development (image)

    MedlinePlus

    School age child development is a range from 6 to 12 years of age. During this time period observable differences in height, ... peers. As always, safety is important in school age children and proper safety rules should be enforced ...

  18. Ceque System of Cuzco: A Yearly Calendar-Almanac in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, R. Tom

    The Incas used for the administration of Cuzco, the capital of their empire, and its valley a system of 41 directions, called ceque, as viewed from their central temple of the Sun. This system registered their concerns with space, including ritual space, hierarchy, and time, the latter in the form of a detailed calendar-almanac of weekly, monthly, seasonal, and yearly activities. From Inca times are also preserved some textiles that represent different regular calendars concerning the sun, moon, and stars. Detailed ethnohistoric evidence allows the reconstruction of the Ceque calendar-almanac.

  19. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-08-11

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008" (PNNL-18427), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  20. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-10-13

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007" (PNNL-17603), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  1. Nevada Test Site environmental data report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations. These mandates require compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection regulations. During calendar year (CY) 1996, environmental protection and monitoring programs were conducted at the Nevada Test Site and other DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV)-managed sites in Nevada and across the US. A detailed discussion of these environmental protection and monitoring programs and summary data and assessments for environmental monitoring results are provided in the DOE/NV Annual Site Environmental Report-1996 (ASER), DOE/NV/11718-137. This document provides summary data results and detailed assessments for the environmental monitoring conducted for all DOE/NV-managed sites in CY1996.

  2. Environmental Monitoring Program summary data report -- First Calendar Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Glines, W.M.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1995-07-01

    During the first calendar quarter of 1995, air samples were collected and analyzed from 47 air particulate/halogen sampling stations, 6 noble gas sampling stations, and 16 tritiated water vapor sampling stations. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed from 1 wastewater containment pond and 10 sewage lagoons. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 potable and 1 non-potable supply wells and 6 drinking water consumption points. Ambient radiation levels were measured at 201 locations. Water sampling was conducted for analysis of bacteria, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inorganic constituents, and water quality as required by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act and state of Nevada regulations. Samples were taken at various locations throughout all drinking water distribution systems on the NTS.

  3. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction annual report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Calendar year 1997 was the third full year of work on the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. Activities are summarized on the following individual project tasks: Task 1 -- Investigation of radioiodine releases from X-10 radioactive lanthanum processing; Task 2 -- Investigation of mercury releases from Y-12 lithium enrichment; Task 3 -- Investigation of PCBs in the environment near Oak Ridge; Task 4 -- Investigation of radionuclides released from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River; Task 5 -- Systematic searching of records repositories; Task 6 -- Evaluation of the quality of uranium monitoring data and a screening evaluation of potential off-site health risks; and Task 7 -- Performance of screening for additional materials not evaluated in the feasibility study.

  4. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  5. Macedonian Calendars in Macedonia during the Roman Occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Danezis, E.; Grammenos, Th.; Stathopoulou, M.

    Two calendrical sye parallely used in Macedonia during the Roman occupation. Both systems had kept the ancient greek names of the months as they were given in the ancient greek Macedonian Calendar. Also, both systems started with the same month Dios but they differed in the starting year. The older one started with the "Macedonian year" in 148 B.C., the year of the victory of the Roman Consul Q.C.Metellus against the revolution of Pseudo-Phillipus Andriscus. The second one started in 31 B.C., which was known as the "respectful" year. This year indicates the victory of Octavian Augustus over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra in Aktion on September 2 of the year 31 B.C.

  6. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  7. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation. PMID:27561629

  8. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation. PMID:27561629

  9. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-08-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  10. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  11. Crossing historical and sedimentary archives to reconstruct an extreme flood event calendar in high alpine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Arnaud, F.; Allignol, F.; Legaz, A.; Melo, A.

    2010-09-01

    Torrential flood hazard is expected to increase in the context of global warming. However, long time-series of climate and gauge data at high-elevation sites are too sparse to assess reliably recurrence times of such events in high mountain areas. Historical documents are an alternative which provide valuable information. However, historic archives are by nature subjective and variable in quality owing to hazard perception and vulnerability according to the banks land-use throughout time. To overcome these limits, natural archives may be used as complementary records. Among the various natural archives lake sediments have the advantage to be continuous records in which particular events are preserved such as earthquakes and especially flood events. Furthermore an objective magnitude of these events can be assessed from the thickness of noteworthy event-triggered deposits. However if the recognition of major event-triggered deposits can be simple, a high-resolution dating of these events is more difficult over the historical period due to a lack of chronological markers. In this paper, we present a sediment record study of a French high alpine lake where an important effort was undertaken to date precisely 56 flood events over the last three centuries from the use of historical archives. The caesium and the lead were measured to detect the fallouts of the Chernobyl accident (1986), the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (1955-1963) and the use of leaded gasoline which culminated in the 70's. In parallel local and regional historical archives were going through in order to correlate the thickest sediment deposits triggered by major floods and earthquakes with their potential triggering historic events. Thus we were able to associate 12 historic flood and 4 earthquake dates to particular sediment deposits. The resulting flood calendar is very well-constrained thanks to 19 chronological marks over the last 270 years, i.e. one mark by 14 years. This method permitted so

  12. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., assume that X is a regulated investment company that computes its income on a calendar year basis, and that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency... period of 1988. X has no post-October currency loss and no post-October capital loss for 1988, and...

  13. Summary of the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, Robert W.; Morasch, Launa F.; Poston, Ted M.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2006-09-28

    This small booklet provides highlights of the environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site during 2005. It is a summary of the information contained in the larger report: Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring for Calendar Year 2005.

  14. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  15. Summary of the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, Robert W.; Morasch, Launa F.; Poston, Ted M.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2005-09-26

    This booklet summarizes the information contained in ''Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2004.'' The Hanford Site environmental report, published annually since 1958, includes information and summary data that provide an overview of the activities at DOE's Hanford Site.

  16. 45 CFR 2102.13 - Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS MEETINGS AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Procedures on Submissions of Plans or Designs § 2102.13 Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar. With respect...

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  18. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This post-closure inspection report includes the results of inspections, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for Calendar Year 2005 for nine Corrective Action Units located on the Tonopah Test Range , Nevada.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Stegen, Amanda; Moon, Thomas W.; Becker, James M.; Raney, Elizabeth A.; Chamness, Michele A.; Mendez, Keith M.

    2013-09-01

    The PNNL Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2012 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Stegen, Amanda; Barnett, J. Matthew; Su-Coker, Jennifer; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Opitz, Brian E.

    2012-09-01

    The PNNL Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2011 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.

  1. Child Mortality Estimation: Appropriate Time Periods for Child Mortality Estimates from Full Birth Histories

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jon; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Child mortality estimates from complete birth histories from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) surveys and similar surveys are a chief source of data used to track Millennium Development Goal 4, which aims for a reduction of under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Based on the expected sample sizes when the DHS program commenced, the estimates are usually based on 5-y time periods. Recent surveys have had larger sample sizes than early surveys, and here we aimed to explore the benefits of using shorter time periods than 5 y for estimation. We also explore the benefit of changing the estimation procedure from being based on years before the survey, i.e., measured with reference to the date of the interview for each woman, to being based on calendar years. Methods and Findings Jackknife variance estimation was used to calculate standard errors for 207 DHS surveys in order to explore to what extent the large samples in recent surveys can be used to produce estimates based on 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-y periods. We also recalculated the estimates for the surveys into calendar-year-based estimates. We demonstrate that estimation for 1-y periods is indeed possible for many recent surveys. Conclusions The reduction in bias achieved using 1-y periods and calendar-year-based estimation is worthwhile in some cases. In particular, it allows tracking of the effects of particular events such as droughts, epidemics, or conflict on child mortality in a way not possible with previous estimation procedures. Recommendations to use estimation for short time periods when possible and to use calendar-year-based estimation were adopted in the United Nations 2011 estimates of child mortality. PMID:22952435

  2. Climate change between the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age: Model-data comparison between CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium simulations and available temperature proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik; Zhang, Qiong; Sundqvist, Hanna S.; Brattström, Gudrun; Moberg, Anders

    2014-05-01

    We present a model-data comparison between the CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium simulations and available individual temperature proxy records from across the globe. Our focus is to investigate the agreement in amplitude of the simulated and the reconstructed temperature difference between the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, here defined as AD 950-1250) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, here defined as AD 1400-1700). An emphasis is placed on analysing to what extent the high latitude and continental amplification of the temperature signal is the same in the model simulations as in the proxies. We further discuss to what extent the models have captured the spatial signatures that is shown in the proxy data. We have collected 125 calibrated proxy records - representing either annual mean, winter or summer temperature - extending back to at least AD 950. The proxies include data from a wide range of archives: ice-cores, marine and terrestrial sediments, tree-rings, speleothems and historical records. Only proxies with at least two observations per century were included. We calculated the amplitude of change between the MWP and the LIA in the individual proxy records using the temperature calibrations by the original authors. The last millennium simulations from 8 different models in CMIP5 database are used to compare with the proxy records. This model-data comparison reveals that the ensemble mean and median of the models mostly underestimate the amplitude of temperature difference between the MWP and the LIA as estimated from the proxy records at those locations where proxy records exist. The relative lack of proxy data from the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere, however, precludes a fully comprehensive model-data comparison. We also note large differences between the model simulations both in amplitude of the temperature change and in their spatial patterns. The use of an ensemble mean or median of the model simulations emphasizes the averaged signature within the model ensemble

  3. Detours to the unification of calendars: The ``Improved Calendar'' (1700 bis 1775) and the foundation of the Berlin Astronomical Observatory. (German Title: Umwege zur Kalendereinheit: Der ``Verbesserte Kalender'' (1700 bis 1775) und die Gründung der Berliner Sternwarte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, Wolfgang

    The refusal of most protestant communities in Germany and other countries to accept the calendar reform decreed by Pope Gregor XIII in 1582 was finally circumvented by the introduction of an ``Improved (Julian) Calendar''. It did provide for astronomical rather than cyclical calculation of the date of Easter. While for most years both calendars were identical except in name, some conflicts did eventually occur. This led finally, in 1775, to a decision in favour of the Gregorian mode of calculation.

  4. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  5. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... recognized medical and dental organizations involved in child health care; (b) Specifies screening services applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age...

  6. On a Resolution Concept Concerning the Calendar Reform submitted to the Pan-Orthodox Congress in Constantinople in 1923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovska, V.; Ninkovic, S.

    2008-10-01

    The present paper deals with a document concerning the calendar reform which was addressed to the Pan-Orthodox Conference in Constantinople in 1923. The document was written in German using the Gothic letters and the author's name is Gustav Baron Bedeus from Hermannstadt (today Sibiu, Romania). Independently of the proposal he considers that the task of calendar regulating belongs to a state and for this reason a world conference gathering all states and churches aimed at calendar reform could be organized.

  7. Pedogenic calcite as evidence for an early Holocene dry period in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rainfall at the site of Union City, California, during early Holocene time appears to have been about half that of today, 470 mm/yr. We base this conclusion on detailed descriptions and particle-size analyses of 12 soil profiles and 1:20 scale logs of the fluvial stratigraphy in two 100-m-long, 5-m-deep excavations dug perpendicular to the axis of an alluvial fan along the Hayward fault. Subsidence and right-lateral movement along the fault allowed an offset stream to produce a nearly continuous alluvial record documented by 35 14C ages on detrital charcoal. Bk (calcitic) horizons in paleosols developed in the fan suggest that a relatively dry climatic period occurred from 10 to 7 ka (calendar-corrected ages). The pedogenic calcite exists primarily as vertically oriented filaments and fine, cavernous nodules formed at ped intersections. Soils and paleosols formed before 10 ka or since 7 ka did not have Bk horizons. Bk horizons that were buried suddenly at 7 ka were overlain by leached zones averaging 41 ?? 3 cm thick - about half the current depth of leaching.

  8. Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, Lauri; Porceddu, Sebastien

    2015-12-01

    The Ancient Egyptians wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned astronomically influenced prognoses for each day of the year. The best preserved of these calendars is the Cairo Calendar (hereafter CC) dated to 1244-1163 B.C. We have presented evidence that the 2.85 days period in the lucky prognoses of CC is equal to that of the eclipsing binary Algol during this historical era. We wanted to find out the vocabulary that represents Algol in the mythological texts of CC. Here we show that Algol was represented as Horus and thus signified both divinity and kingship. The texts describing the actions of Horus are consistent with the course of events witnessed by any naked eye observer of Algol. These descriptions support our claim that CC is the oldest preserved historical document of the discovery of a variable star. The period of the Moon, 29.6 days, has also been discovered in CC. We show that the actions of Seth were connected to this period, which also strongly regulated the times described as lucky for Heaven and for Earth. Now, for the first time, periodicity is discovered in the descriptions of the days in CC. Unlike many previous attempts to uncover the reasoning behind the myths of individual days, we discover the actual rules in the appearance and behaviour of deities during the whole year.

  9. Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed.

    PubMed

    Jetsu, Lauri; Porceddu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The Ancient Egyptians wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned astronomically influenced prognoses for each day of the year. The best preserved of these calendars is the Cairo Calendar (hereafter CC) dated to 1244-1163 B.C. We have presented evidence that the 2.85 days period in the lucky prognoses of CC is equal to that of the eclipsing binary Algol during this historical era. We wanted to find out the vocabulary that represents Algol in the mythological texts of CC. Here we show that Algol was represented as Horus and thus signified both divinity and kingship. The texts describing the actions of Horus are consistent with the course of events witnessed by any naked eye observer of Algol. These descriptions support our claim that CC is the oldest preserved historical document of the discovery of a variable star. The period of the Moon, 29.6 days, has also been discovered in CC. We show that the actions of Seth were connected to this period, which also strongly regulated the times described as lucky for Heaven and for Earth. Now, for the first time, periodicity is discovered in the descriptions of the days in CC. Unlike many previous attempts to uncover the reasoning behind the myths of individual days, we discover the actual rules in the appearance and behaviour of deities during the whole year. PMID:26679699

  10. Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol’s Period Confirmed

    PubMed Central

    Jetsu, Lauri; Porceddu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The Ancient Egyptians wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned astronomically influenced prognoses for each day of the year. The best preserved of these calendars is the Cairo Calendar (hereafter CC) dated to 1244–1163 B.C. We have presented evidence that the 2.85 days period in the lucky prognoses of CC is equal to that of the eclipsing binary Algol during this historical era. We wanted to find out the vocabulary that represents Algol in the mythological texts of CC. Here we show that Algol was represented as Horus and thus signified both divinity and kingship. The texts describing the actions of Horus are consistent with the course of events witnessed by any naked eye observer of Algol. These descriptions support our claim that CC is the oldest preserved historical document of the discovery of a variable star. The period of the Moon, 29.6 days, has also been discovered in CC. We show that the actions of Seth were connected to this period, which also strongly regulated the times described as lucky for Heaven and for Earth. Now, for the first time, periodicity is discovered in the descriptions of the days in CC. Unlike many previous attempts to uncover the reasoning behind the myths of individual days, we discover the actual rules in the appearance and behaviour of deities during the whole year. PMID:26679699

  11. Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed.

    PubMed

    Jetsu, Lauri; Porceddu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The Ancient Egyptians wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned astronomically influenced prognoses for each day of the year. The best preserved of these calendars is the Cairo Calendar (hereafter CC) dated to 1244-1163 B.C. We have presented evidence that the 2.85 days period in the lucky prognoses of CC is equal to that of the eclipsing binary Algol during this historical era. We wanted to find out the vocabulary that represents Algol in the mythological texts of CC. Here we show that Algol was represented as Horus and thus signified both divinity and kingship. The texts describing the actions of Horus are consistent with the course of events witnessed by any naked eye observer of Algol. These descriptions support our claim that CC is the oldest preserved historical document of the discovery of a variable star. The period of the Moon, 29.6 days, has also been discovered in CC. We show that the actions of Seth were connected to this period, which also strongly regulated the times described as lucky for Heaven and for Earth. Now, for the first time, periodicity is discovered in the descriptions of the days in CC. Unlike many previous attempts to uncover the reasoning behind the myths of individual days, we discover the actual rules in the appearance and behaviour of deities during the whole year.

  12. SACRA - a method for the estimation of global high-resolution crop calendars from a satellite-sensed NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-11-01

    To date, many studies have performed numerical estimations of biomass production and agricultural water demand to understand the present and future supply-demand relationship. A crop calendar (CC), which defines the date or month when farmers sow and harvest crops, is an essential input for the numerical estimations. This study aims to present a new global data set, the SAtellite-derived CRop calendar for Agricultural simulations (SACRA), and to discuss advantages and disadvantages compared to existing census-based and model-derived products. We estimate global CC at a spatial resolution of 5 arcmin using satellite-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, which corresponds to vegetation vitality and senescence on the land surface. Using the time series of the NDVI averaged from three consecutive years (2004-2006), sowing/harvesting dates are estimated for six crops (temperate-wheat, snow-wheat, maize, rice, soybean and cotton). We assume time series of the NDVI represent the phenology of one dominant crop and estimate CCs of the dominant crop in each grid. The dominant crops are determined using harvested areas based on census-based data. The cultivation period of SACRA is identified from the time series of the NDVI; therefore, SACRA considers current effects of human decisions and natural disasters. The difference between the estimated sowing dates and other existing products is less than 2 months (< 62 days) in most of the areas. A major disadvantage of our method is that the mixture of several crops in a grid is not considered in SACRA. The assumption of one dominant crop in each grid is a major source of discrepancy in crop calendars between SACRA and other products. The disadvantages of our approach may be reduced with future improvements based on finer satellite sensors and crop-type classification studies to consider several dominant crops in each grid. The comparison of the CC also demonstrates that identification of wheat type (sowing in

  13. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  14. Argonne National Laboratory site enviromental report for calendar year 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Davis, T. M.; Moos, L. P.

    2009-09-02

    This report discusses the status and the accomplishments of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory for calendar year 2008. The status of Argonne environmental protection activities with respect to compliance with the various laws and regulations is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects. To evaluate the effects of Argonne operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and Argonne effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A U.S. Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CAP-88 Version 3 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report.

  15. Argonne National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Davis, T. M.; Moos, L. P.; ESH /QA Oversight

    2008-09-09

    This report discusses the status and the accomplishments of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory for calendar year 2007. The status of Argonne environmental protection activities with respect to compliance with the various laws and regulations is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects. To evaluate the effects of Argonne operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and Argonne effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A U.S. Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CAP-88 Version 3 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report.

  16. Argonne National Laboratory Site Environmental report for calendar year 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Davis, T. M.; Moos, L. P.

    2010-08-04

    This report discusses the status and the accomplishments of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory for calendar year 2009. The status of Argonne environmental protection activities with respect to compliance with the various laws and regulations is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects. To evaluate the effects of Argonne operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and Argonne effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) CAP-88 Version 3 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report.

  17. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  18. Argonne National Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, T. M.; Gomez, J. L.; Moos, L. P.

    2014-09-02

    This report discusses the status and the accomplishments of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory for calendar year 2013. The status of Argonne environmental protection activities with respect to compliance with the various laws and regulations is discussed, along with environmental management, sustainability efforts, environmental corrective actions, and habitat restoration. To evaluate the effects of Argonne operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and Argonne effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable standards intended to protect human health and the environment. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) CAP-88 Version 3 computer code, was used in preparing this report.

  19. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year (CY) 2007. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (number NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  20. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-07

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2009. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit (No. NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO.

  1. Argonne National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Kolzow, R. G.

    2005-09-02

    This report discusses the accomplishments of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for calendar year 2004. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to compliance with the various laws and regulations is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A U.S. Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CAP-88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report.

  2. Argonne National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH /QA Oversight

    2007-09-13

    This report discusses the status and the accomplishments of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory for calendar year 2006. The status of Argonne environmental protection activities with respect to compliance with the various laws and regulations is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects. To evaluate the effects of Argonne operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and Argonne effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A U.S. Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CAP-88 Version 3 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report.

  3. 5 CFR 531.405 - Waiting periods for within-grade increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate of basic pay at step 4 and less than the rate of basic pay at step 7-104 calendar weeks of creditable service; and (iii) Rate of basic pay equal to or greater than the rate of basic pay at step 7-156... of basic pay at step 7-520 days of creditable service in a pay status over a period of not less...

  4. Marking Time:The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staid, Matthew

    The arrival of the new millennium has renewed interest in the evolution of our modern calendar. Unraveling the story of this evolution requires extensive knowledge of science, history, and religion. Most of us have little understanding of how the date of Easter is determined, or why we celebrate the New Year on January 1st. In Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar, Duncan Steel takes readers on a revealing, meandering trip from several millennia B.C. to the present. As the author states, “By the time you finish reading this tome…it will be clear that the calendar has had much greater effect upon human destiny than you may have fondly imagined. It's not just about numbering the days: it's about the rises and falls of empires and religions…about controlling the masses and subverting your rivals. The calendar story is one of human strife and aspirations.” And so Steel reveals how our calendar is based as much on religion and politics as it is on physical science.

  5. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  6. Computer-aided engineering annual report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brockelsby, H.C. Jr.

    1990-03-01

    During calendar year 1989, EG G Idaho completed the initial procurement and implementation of a major new Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) system. Seventy new workstations and associated engineering applications were installed over 100 personal computers (PCs) were integrated into the environment, and communications links to the IBM mainframes and the Cray supercomputer were established. The system achieves integration through sophisticated data communications and application interfaces that allow data sharing across the entire environment. Applications available on the system facilitate engineering relate to full three-dimensional (3-D) piping, heating/ventilating/air conditioning (HAVC), structural and steel design, solids modeling and analysis, desktop publishing, design and drafting, and include automated links to various analysis codes on the Cray supercomputer. The system also provides commonly used engineering tools such as spreadsheets, language compilers, terminal emulation, and file transfer facilities. Although difficult to quantify, recent information has shown that projected annual productivity improvement to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) will be in excess of $2,000,000. This improvement will be generated in a variety of areas including improvement in the efficiency of individual users, checkplot production, data management, file transfers, plotting. design-analysis interfaces, and the benefit of full 3-D design. Current plans call for a significant expansion of the CAE system in 1990 with continued expansion through 1993. Additional workstations, system software and utilities, networking facilities and applications software will be procured and implemented. More than one hundred people will receive training on the various application packages during 1990. Efforts to extend networking throughout the INEL will be continued. 2 refs.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section`s Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance.

  8. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  9. Ames Laboratory annual site environmental report, calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1996. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs. Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies twelve buildings owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory also leases space in ISU owned buildings. Laboratory activities involve less than ten percent of the total chemical use and approximately one percent of the radioisotope use on the ISU campus. In 1996, the Office of Assurance and Assessment merged with the Environment, Safety and Health Group forming the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH and A) office. In 1996, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of wastes under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. Ames Laboratory submitted a Proposed Site Treatment Plan to EPA in December 1995. This plan complied with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA). It was approved by EPA in January 1996. The consent agreement/consent order was issued in February 1996. Pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs, implemented in 1990 and updated in 1994, continued through 1996. Included in these efforts were a waste white paper and green computer paper recycling program. Ames Laboratory also continued to recycle salvageable metal and used oil, and it recovered freon for recycling. All of the chemical and nearly all of the radiological legacy wastes were properly disposed by the end of 1996. Additional radiological legacy waste will be properly disposed during 1997.

  10. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2011. SUMMARY: Each...

  11. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2012. ] SUMMARY: Each...

  12. 75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...: Announcement of the quota quantity of tuna in airtight containers for Calendar Year 2010. SUMMARY: Each...

  13. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1240 - Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A Appendix A to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 1240—Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A. In...

  14. The Effects of a Year-Round School Calendar in a High-Risk Elementary School: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell-Hoefer, Megan D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reports a study of a year-round school in comparison to a traditional calendar school and whether the year-round school calendar was related to higher student achievement in a large, school district in the southeastern United States. The data represented the results of third through fifth grade student state test scores in the…

  15. Normal crop calendars. Volume 2: The spring wheat states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The state crop calendars for the principal spring wheat producing states within the United States are presented. These crop calendars are an update of those produced for the large area crop inventory experiment multilabeling task during 1978and are compiled for the foreign commodity production forecasting (FCPF) project of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing program.

  16. Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Relationship of Modified Year-Round School Calendars with Student Achievement, Student Behavior, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, George Eugene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze demographic and school data, as well as data on the perceptions of teachers regarding the impact that a modified year-round school calendar has on student achievement, student behavior, and teacher efficacy. Prior research and literature examined the impact of year-round school calendars on student…

  17. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T exposure were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of age; T and body mass at this age interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds.

  18. 26 CFR 1.6049-1 - Returns of information as to interest paid in calendar years before 1983 and original issue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calendar years before 1983 and original issue discount includible in gross income for calendar years before... interest paid in calendar years before 1983 and original issue discount includible in gross income for... issue discount (as defined in § 1.6049-2) aggregating $10 or more includible as interest in the...

  19. Detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, Richard A. F.; Rupert, James D.; Goodacre, Alan K.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1988-01-01

    A time-series analysis of model periodic data, where the period and phase are known, has been performed in order to investigate whether a significant period can be detected consistently from a mix of random and periodic impacts. Special attention is given to the effect of age uncertainties and random ages in the detection of a periodic signal. An equivalent analysis is performed with observed data on crater ages and compared with the model data, and the effects of the temporal distribution of crater ages on the results from the time-series analysis are studied. Evidence for a consistent 30-m.y. period is found to be weak.

  20. Combinatorics of the christian calendar (French Title: Combinatoire du calendrier chretien)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoli, J.

    2005-09-01

    The main goal of the Roman calendar of Julius Caesar was to fix the dates of the seasons by introducing leap years. Christians adopted this calendar, but associated to it the Judaic cycle of the week for reference to some events of Christ's life. This paper defines some problems which arose from the empiric association of the two chronological scales. Solutions to these problems can be obtained by exhaustive computer generated enumeration. Here we will solve these problems by matrix analysis which displays all arithmetical operations involved thereby making the solutions verifiable.

  1. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  2. Accuracy of the Chinese lunar calendar method to predict a baby's sex: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Dekker, Louise; Svensson, Tobias; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the accuracy of a non-invasive, inexpensive method (the Chinese lunar calendar, CLC) to predict the sex of a baby from around the time of conception, using 2,840,755 singleton births occurring in Sweden between 1973 and 2006. Maternal lunar age and month of conception were estimated, and used to predict each baby's sex, according to a published algorithm. Kappa statistics were estimated for the actual vs. the CLC-predicted sex of the baby. Overall kappa was 0.0002 [95% CI -0.0009, 0.0014]. Accuracy was not modified by year of conception, maternal age, level of education, body mass index or parity. In a validation subset of 1000 births in which we used a website-customised algorithm to estimate lunar dates, kappa was -0.02 [95% CI -0.08, 0.04]. Simulating the misuse of the method by failing to convert Gregorian dates into lunar did not change the results. We conclude that the CLC method is no better at predicting the sex of a baby than tossing a coin and advise against painting the nursery based on this method's result. PMID:20618730

  3. Accuracy of the Chinese lunar calendar method to predict a baby's sex: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Dekker, Louise; Svensson, Tobias; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the accuracy of a non-invasive, inexpensive method (the Chinese lunar calendar, CLC) to predict the sex of a baby from around the time of conception, using 2,840,755 singleton births occurring in Sweden between 1973 and 2006. Maternal lunar age and month of conception were estimated, and used to predict each baby's sex, according to a published algorithm. Kappa statistics were estimated for the actual vs. the CLC-predicted sex of the baby. Overall kappa was 0.0002 [95% CI -0.0009, 0.0014]. Accuracy was not modified by year of conception, maternal age, level of education, body mass index or parity. In a validation subset of 1000 births in which we used a website-customised algorithm to estimate lunar dates, kappa was -0.02 [95% CI -0.08, 0.04]. Simulating the misuse of the method by failing to convert Gregorian dates into lunar did not change the results. We conclude that the CLC method is no better at predicting the sex of a baby than tossing a coin and advise against painting the nursery based on this method's result.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee`s dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m{sup 2}(4125 ft{sup 2}). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m{sup 2}(56,947 ft{sup 2}). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m{sup 2}(2863 ft{sup 2}). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m{sup 3}(371 ft{sup 3}) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m{sup 3} (14,949 ft{sup 3}) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment.

  5. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  6. Research Project Investigating the 4-1-4 Month Calendar Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, T.L.

    The main purpose of this project was to discover favorable and unfavorable aspects of the 4-1-4 month calendar plan. The report contains information presented in tabular form obtained by questionnaire from 35 colleges and universities. An introduction and summary accompanies each of the 9 tables. Four of the tables summarize responses from 10…

  7. 77 FR 74828 - Call for Applications for the International Buyer Program Calendar Years 2014 and 2015

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... 31, 2014) published at 77 FR 61,740 (Oct. 11, 2012) to extend the deadline for receipt of... and 2015 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice extending... preselected for IBP participation in calendar year 2015 (January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015)...

  8. Annual Site Environmental Report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Pauer, R.O.; Schleimer, G.E.; Javendel, I.

    1992-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes LBL environmental activities in calendar year (CY) 1991. The purpose of this Report is to present summary environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts.

  9. 76 FR 17711 - Notice of Availability of Calendar Year 2012 Competitive Grant Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ..., efficient, and high quality civil legal services to eligible clients in the service area(s) of the States... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Notice of Availability of Calendar Year 2012 Competitive Grant Funds AGENCY: Legal Services...

  10. 77 FR 19738 - Notice of Availability of Calendar Year 2013 Competitive Grant Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ..., efficient and high quality civil legal services to eligible clients in the service area(s) of the states and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Notice of Availability of Calendar Year 2013 Competitive Grant Funds AGENCY: Legal Services...

  11. Teacher Attendance Patterns. Technical Report No. 7 of a Study of School Calendars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    This report, the seventh in a series concerning school calendars, examines teacher attendance patterns. Pupil attendance falls off from the September high point to reach a low point in February, whereupon the trend is reversed through June. Outside temperature and student patterns are similar. A sample of New York State public school districts was…

  12. The neural architecture of expert calendar calculation: a matter of strategy?

    PubMed

    Fehr, Thorsten; Wallace, Gregory L; Erhard, Peter; Herrmann, Manfred

    2011-08-01

    Savants and prodigies are individuals with exceptional skills in particular mental domains. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural correlates of calendar calculation in two individuals, a savant with Asperger's disorder and a self-taught mathematical prodigy. If there is a modular neural organization of exceptional performance in a specific mental domain, calendar calculation should be reflected in a considerable overlap in the recruitment of brain circuits across expert individuals. However, considerable individual differences in activation patterns during calendar calculation were noted. The present results indicate that activation patterns produced by complex mental processing, such as calendar calculation, seem to be influenced strongly by learning history and idiosyncratic strategy usage rather than a modular neural organization. Thus, well-known individual differences in complex cognition play a major role even in experts with exceptional abilities in a particular mental domain and should in particular be considered when examining the neural architecture of complex mental processes and skills. PMID:21547846

  13. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  14. Sexually Active Adolescent Women: Assessing Family and Peer Relationships Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…

  15. Analysis of the calendar C. Ptolemy "Phases of the fixed stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickiforov, M. G.

    The article examines the paper of the Alexandrian astronomer Claudius Ptolemy's "Phases of the fixed stars." By analyzing the calendar dates heliacal risings and settings of stars shows that these dates are the result of calculations, which are based on photometric system of the "Almagest" star catalogue.

  16. 45 CFR 2102.13 - Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar. 2102.13 Section 2102.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... no more than 25,000 sq. ft.; (b) New construction of less than 25,000 sq. ft.; (c) Window...

  17. 45 CFR 2102.13 - Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar. 2102.13 Section 2102.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... no more than 25,000 sq. ft.; (b) New construction of less than 25,000 sq. ft.; (c) Window...

  18. 45 CFR 2102.13 - Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project eligibility criteria for placement on a Consent Calendar. 2102.13 Section 2102.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... no more than 25,000 sq. ft.; (b) New construction of less than 25,000 sq. ft.; (c) Window...

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report contains environmental monitoring information for the following UMTRA sites for the 1992 Calendar Year: Lakeview, OR; Lowman, ID; Mexican Hat, UT; Monument Valley, AZ; Rifle, CO; Riverton, WY; Shiprock, NM; Spook, WY; Tuba City, AZ. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information.

  20. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.