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  1. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  2. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  3. Cognitive outcomes in school-age children born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss findings in the literature regarding long-term developmental outcomes of infants born prematurely, to examine potential causes of individual differences in these outcomes, and to explore directions for future research. An extensive table summarizes recent (1996-2002) international studies of developmental outcomes among children of school age and older who were born with low birth weight, especially as the studies relate to cognitive development and academic performance. The discussion then examines how characteristics of the child and the environment may interact to produce individual differences in outcomes. Processes of attention regulation within the context of the psychosocial environment are examined as an important possible direction for future research. When designing and implementing interventions aimed at improving outcomes in this and other groups of children at risk for delays and deficits, it is important to consider how various factors affect development. PMID:12795506

  4. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Maria; de Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Wijk, Bernadette C. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 4- to 7-year-old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA) show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth [SGA+; six boys, seven girls; mean age 6.3 year (SD = 0.9)] and children born appropriate for gestational age [AGA; seven boys, three girls; mean age 6.0 year (SD = 1.2)] participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used non-parametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At the time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed significantly lower head circumference (HC) and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth. PMID:24068993

  5. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  6. Maternal Rigidity in Infancy and Level of Intelligence at School Age in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Hegemann, Nicole; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Schoemaker, Marina M.; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Oetomo, Siddartho Bambang

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor development. At 7.5 years, intelligence was measured…

  7. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  8. Neonatal invasive procedures predict pain intensity at school age in children born very preterm

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Beatriz Oliveira; Ranger, Manon; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Synnes, Anne; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Children born very preterm display altered pain thresholds. Little is known about neonatal clinical and psychosocial factors associated with their later pain perception. OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine whether the number of neonatal invasive procedures, adjusted for other clinical and psychosocial factors, was associated with self-ratings of pain during a blood collection procedure in children born very preterm at school age. METHODS 56 children born very preterm (24–32 weeks gestational age) at age 7.5 years, followed longitudinally from birth, and free of major neurodevelopmental impairments, underwent a blood collection by venipuncture. The children’s pain was self-reported using the Coloured Analog Scale and Facial Affective Scale. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Pain exposure (number of invasive procedures) and clinical factors from birth to term-equivalent age were obtained prospectively. Multiple linear regression was used to predict children’s pain self-ratings from neonatal pain exposure after adjusting for neonatal clinical and concurrent psychosocial factors. RESULTS Greater number of neonatal invasive procedures and higher parent trait-anxiety were associated with higher pain intensity ratings during venipuncture at age 7.5 years. Fewer surgeries and lower concurrent child externalizing behaviors were associated with higher pain intensity. CONCLUSION In very preterm children, exposure to neonatal pain was related to altered pain self-ratings at school age, independent of other neonatal factors. Neonatal surgeries and concurrent psychosocial factors were also associated with pain ratings. PMID:26783986

  9. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weight< 1500 g. Their motor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  10. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weight< 1500 g. Their motor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity. PMID:24858787

  11. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions.

  12. [Dutch Preventive Youth Health Care Service guideline on children born too early and/or too small for gestational age].

    PubMed

    van der Pal, Sylvia M; Heerdink, Nen; Kamphuis, Mascha; Pols, Margreet A

    2014-01-01

    In children who are born prematurely or whose birth weight is too low for gestational age (small for gestational age (SGA)) intensive care and follow up are desirable.However, obstacles include the shared care of children born very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) by paediatricians, general practitioners, youth health care service (and other professionals) and the identification of possible late onset health problems in children born late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation). This guideline is multidisciplinary and evidence based and is relevant to all professionals involved in the care of this group of children. The main recommendations are: (a) timely and complete transfer of information after discharge from hospital; (b) structured exchange of information in aftercare; (c) assigning a case manager to each child; (d) monitoring growth and development by adjusting age for preterm birth, and (e) using special growth charts for children born preterm to evaluate growth and development.

  13. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended.

  14. School-Aged Children Born Preterm: Review of Functioning across Multiple Domains and Guidelines for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Keller-Margulis, Milena; Mire, Sarah; Abrahamson, Catherine; Dutt, Sonia; Llorens, Ashlie; Payan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for developmental deficits across multiple functional domains. As the rate of survival for preterm infants increases due to medical advancements, a greater understanding is needed for how to meet the needs of this growing population in schools. Because approximately 50-70% of children born preterm require…

  15. Developmental outcome of school-age children born to mothers with heroin dependency: importance of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ornoy, A; Segal, J; Bar-Hamburger, R; Greenbaum, C

    2001-10-01

    Development of children aged 5 to 12 years born to mothers with heroin dependency raised at home or adopted was studied in comparison with: (1) children with environmental deprivation alone (i.e. low parental socioeconomic status [SES] and evidence of neglect), (2) children born to fathers with heroin dependency fathers, and (3) control individuals of average SES. One hundred and sixty children (84 males and 76 females; average age at examination 8 years) were evaluated between 1998 and 1999. All were attending mainstream schools. All participants were examined by a paediatrician and a psychologist using standard neurological and psychological age-appropriate tests, as well as tests and questionnaires to assess learning ability and attention span. The Conners and Achenbach questionnaires and the Pollack Taper test were used to assess possible presence of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mothers were assessed for ADHD using Wender's questionnaire. Children born to parents with heroin dependency raised at home and those of low SES exhibited intellectual impairment both on verbal and performance skills. They also had impaired reading and arithmetic skills. Children born to mothers with heroin dependency but who were adopted at a young age had normal intellectual and learning abilities, except for some reduced function on the performance Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. We found a high rate of ADHD among all children born to parents with heroin dependency, including those adopted, as well as in children with low parental SES. The highest rate of ADHD was in children born to mothers with heroin dependency raised at home, being twice that observed in the other groups. Mothers of these groups of children also had a high rate of ADHD.

  16. Catch-up growth and catch-up fat in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Kyoung; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature, and metabolic alterations in later life. Recent studies have focused on the association between birth weight (BW) and later body composition. Some reports suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have an inverse programing effect on abdominal adiposity later in life. This inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adults may contribute to insulin resistance. Rapid weight gain during infancy in SGA children seemed to be associated with increased fat mass rather than lean mass. Early catch-up growth after SGA birth rather than SGA itself has been noted as a cardiovascular risk factor in later life. Children who are born SGA also have a predisposition to accumulation of fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to low BW itself, rapid postnatal catch-up growth, or a combination of both. In this report, we review the published literature on central fat accumulation and metabolic consequences of being SGA, as well as the currently popular research area of SGA, including growth aspects. PMID:26893597

  17. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI) on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Nelly; Skiöld, Béatrice; Eklöf, Eva; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Vollmer, Brigitte; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55–80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI. Study Design This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test—Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis. Results DEHSI was detected in 39 (59%) of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years. Conclusion The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm. PMID:26886451

  18. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  19. Copy Number Variants in Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wit, Jan M.; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Caliebe, Janina; Bosch, Cathy A.J.; Lui, Julian C.; Gijsbers, Antoinet C.J.; Bakker, Egbert; Breuning, Martijn H.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Losekoot, Monique; Baron, Jeffrey; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims In addition to Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) height-associated genes may be uncovered by studying individuals with extreme short or tall stature. Methods Genome-wide analysis for copy number variants (CNVs), using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) arrays, was performed in 49 index cases born small for gestational age (SGA) with persistent short stature. Segregation analysis was performed, and genes in CNVs were compared with information from GWAS, gene expression in rodents’ growth plates, and published information. Results CNVs were detected in 13 cases. In 5 children a known cause of short stature was found: UPD7, UPD14, a duplication of the SHOX enhancer region, an IGF1R deletion, and a 22q11.21 deletion. In the remaining 8 cases potential pathogenic CNVs were detected, either de novo (n=1), segregating (n=2), or not segregating with short stature (n=5). Bioinformatic analysis of the de novo and segregating CNVs suggested that HOXD4, AGPS, PDE11A, OSBPL6, PRKRA and PLEKHA3, and possibly DGKB and TNFRSF11B are potential candidate genes. A SERPINA7 or NRK defect may be associated with an X-linked form of short stature. Conclusion SNP arrays detected 5 known causes of short stature with prenatal onset and suggested several potential candidate genes. PMID:25300501

  20. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  1. Neonatal cranial ultrasound versus MRI and neurodevelopmental outcome at school age in children born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Rademaker, K; Uiterwaal, C; Beek, F; van Haastert, I C; Lieftink, A; Groenendaal, F; Grobbee, D; de Vries, L S

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the correlation between neonatal cranial ultrasound and school age magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental outcome. Methods: In a prospective 2 year cohort study, 221 children (gestational age ⩽32 weeks and/or birth weight ⩽1500 g) participated at a median age of 8.1 years (inclusion percentage 78%). Conventional MRI, IQ (subtests of the WISC), and motor performance (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) at school age were primary outcome measurements. Results: Overall, there was poor correspondence between ultrasound group classifications and MRI group classifications, except for the severe group (over 70% agreement). There was only a 1% chance of the children with a normal cranial ultrasound having a major lesion on MRI. Mean IQ (standard deviation) was significantly lower in children with major ultrasound or MRI lesions, but was also lower in children with minor lesions on MRI compared to children with a normal MRI (91±16, 100±13, 104±13 for major lesions, minor lesions, and normal MRI, respectively). Median total impairment score (TIS) was significantly higher in children with major lesions on ultrasound or MRI as well as in children with minor lesions on MRI (TIS 4.0 and 6.25 for normal and minor lesions on MRI, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions: A normal neonatal cranial ultrasound excluded a severe lesion on MRI in 99% of cases. MRI correlated more strongly with mean IQ and median TIS than ultrasound. Subtle white matter lesions are better detected with MRI which could explain the stronger correlation of MRI with IQ and motor performance. PMID:15956095

  2. Growth outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children aged 11 years who were born with intrauterine growth retardation at term gestation.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Susan; Mackerras, Dorothy; Halpin, Stephen; Singh, Gurmeet

    2007-09-01

    Long-term poor growth outcomes are well documented for intrauterine growth-retarded babies (IUGR) in developed populations but there is a paucity of IUGR studies from disadvantaged populations where the greatest burden of IUGR occurs. Using a Northern Territory, Aboriginal cohort recruited at birth and followed up at a mean age of 11.4 years, comparisons of body size were made between children born at term who had been IUGR (n = 121) and those non-IUGR (n = 341), and between those IUGR babies who had an appropriate ponderal index at birth (n = 72) and those with a low ponderal index (n = 49). Compared with non-IUGR children, at follow-up the IUGR children were almost 2 cm shorter (P = 0.10), 4 kg lighter (P < 0.01) and their head circumferences were almost a 1 cm smaller (P < 0.01). For the 121 term IUGR children, there were no significant differences in growth outcomes according to ponderal index measures at birth. These findings from an Australian Aboriginal sample are consistent with other comparisons of IUGR and non-IUGR children in developed populations and suggest there may be no additional effects of IUGR on growth in childhood for disadvantaged populations similar to the Aboriginal population in the Northern Territory.

  3. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  4. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  5. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    PubMed

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  6. "You Are Not Born Being Racist, Are You?" Discussing Racism with Primary Aged-Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Naomi; Walton, Jessica; White, Fiona; Kowal, Emma; Fox, Brandi; Paradies, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic-racial socialisation is broadly described as processes by which both minority and majority children and young people learn about and negotiate racial, ethnic and cultural diversity. This article extends the existing ethnic-racial socialisation literature in three significant ways: (1) it explores ways children make sense of their…

  7. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  8. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  9. How do you think she feels? Vulnerability in empathy and the role of attention in school-aged children born extremely preterm.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Horlin, Chiara; Reid, Corinne; McMichael, Judy; Forrest, Laura; Brydges, Chris; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine empathic competence in children born extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) given vulnerabilities in social relationships. Empathy in typically developing children is mediated by executive functions. Executive functioning is also impaired in preterm children. Of particular interest in this study are the attentional components of executive functioning as mediators of empathic development. Thirty-two 7-year-old EP children and 40 age-matched term children participated in the Project K.I.D.S program and completed the Kids Empathy Development Scale (KEDS), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), and Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch). Children born extremely preterm exhibited poorer performance on all measures. The mediating role of attention in empathy competence was not supported by mediation modelling when FSIQ was controlled. As predicted, the EP group showed weaker empathic development relative to typically developing children. They also showed poorer attentional abilities. However, the effect of preterm birth on empathy was not mediated by executive-level attention. The cognitive mechanisms underpinning poor empathy competence in EP children remain unclear. Future research needs to examine the role of inhibition, social-emotional recognition, and regulation. PMID:26061791

  10. How do you think she feels? Vulnerability in empathy and the role of attention in school-aged children born extremely preterm.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Horlin, Chiara; Reid, Corinne; McMichael, Judy; Forrest, Laura; Brydges, Chris; French, Noel; Anderson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine empathic competence in children born extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) given vulnerabilities in social relationships. Empathy in typically developing children is mediated by executive functions. Executive functioning is also impaired in preterm children. Of particular interest in this study are the attentional components of executive functioning as mediators of empathic development. Thirty-two 7-year-old EP children and 40 age-matched term children participated in the Project K.I.D.S program and completed the Kids Empathy Development Scale (KEDS), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), and Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch). Children born extremely preterm exhibited poorer performance on all measures. The mediating role of attention in empathy competence was not supported by mediation modelling when FSIQ was controlled. As predicted, the EP group showed weaker empathic development relative to typically developing children. They also showed poorer attentional abilities. However, the effect of preterm birth on empathy was not mediated by executive-level attention. The cognitive mechanisms underpinning poor empathy competence in EP children remain unclear. Future research needs to examine the role of inhibition, social-emotional recognition, and regulation.

  11. Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Born Preterm Are Associated with White Matter Properties on Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Heidi M.; Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Yeom, Kristen W.

    2012-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading. They are also at risk for injury to the white matter of the brain. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance in language and reading skills would be associated with white matter properties in children born preterm and full-term. Children born before 36 weeks…

  12. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P<.05); higher parent education (P<.03), lower Parenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (P<.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  13. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Capability in Children Born Prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Trousson, Clémence; Baud, Olivier; Biran, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children. Materials and Methods A platform (from TechnoConcept) was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions) were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition. Results Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively). Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children. Discussion-Conclusions We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality. PMID:25790327

  14. The p53 family member p73 modulates the proproliferative role of IGFBP3 in short children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Flaviana; Ventura, Annamaria; Caratozzolo, Mariano Francesco; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Brunetti, Giacomina; Cavallo, Luciano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Tullo, Apollonia

    2015-08-01

    The regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) gene expression is complex, because it can be induced by agents that both stimulate and inhibit the proliferation. The principal aim of this study was to investigate whether p73, a member of the p53 gene family, has a role in the regulation of the IGFBP3 expression and whether this regulation occurs in a context of cell survival or death. We demonstrate that IGFBP3 is a direct TAp73α (the p73 isoform that contains the trans-activation domain) target gene and activates the expression of IGFBP3 in actively proliferating cells. As IGFBP3 plays a key role in regulating the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor type 1 (GH/IGF1) axis, whose alterations in gene expression appear to have a role in the growth failure of children born small for gestational age (SGA), we measured the mRNA expression levels of p73 and IGFBP3 in a group of SGA children. We found that mRNA expression levels of p73 and IGFBP3 are significantly lower in SGA children compared with controls and, in particular, p73 mRNA expression is significantly lower in SGA children with respect to height. Our results shed light on the intricate GH/IGF pathway, suggesting p73 as a good biomarker of the clinical risk for SGA children to remain short in adulthood. PMID:26063735

  15. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    PubMed

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  16. Young Adult Outcomes of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Effects of Being Born during Their Teen or Later Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Ellen L.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged less than or equal to 20 years…

  17. Predicting Language and Social Outcomes at Age 5 for Later-Born Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malesa, Elizabeth; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Yoder, Paul; Warren, Zachary; Walden, Tedra; Stone, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    The relation between early joint attention (in which a child coordinates attention between another person and an object or event) and later language and social outcomes was examined in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD) and younger siblings of children with typical development (Sibs-TD). Initial levels of joint…

  18. Social Competence of Preschool Children Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelly M.; Champion, Patricia R.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the early social development of children born very preterm despite clear suggestions of later interpersonal difficulties. Aims To compare the social competence of very preterm (VPT) and full term (FT) born children at age 4 and identify infant, social and family factors associated with later risk. Study design Prospective longitudinal study. Subjects A regionally representative cohort of 103 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) children and a comparison group of 105 FT children (36-41 weeks gestation) born between 1998 and 2000. Outcome measures At corrected age 4 years, a range of parent report, observational and laboratory measures assessed children's emotional and behavioral adjustment, emotional regulation, social interactive behavior and theory of mind understanding. Extensive perinatal, social background and family functioning data were also available from birth to age 4. Results Compared to their FT peers, VPT born children had poorer emotional and behavioural adjustment, were less effective in regulating their emotions, had lower levels of positive peer play and had less synchronous interactions with their parents. Within the VPT group, predictors of poor social competence included family socioeconomic disadvantage, extreme prematurity, severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities and early childhood exposure to high levels of maternal anxiety and negative parenting. Conclusions VPT pre-schoolers are characterized by a range of subtle social difficulties likely to adversely affect their ability to establish and maintain positive relationships with others. These difficulties need to be monitored alongside other potential neurodevelopmental concerns and parents supported to actively nurture child social competence. PMID:23870752

  19. The Impact of Early Intervention on the School Readiness of Children Born to Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of participation in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program on the school readiness of children born to teenage mothers versus children born to traditional-age mothers participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program. A 45-item survey was collected from the…

  20. Neonatal Cerebral Morphometry and Later Risk of Persistent Inattention/Hyperactivity in Children Born Very Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bora, Samudragupta; Pritchard, Verena E.; Chen, Zhe; Inder, Terrie E.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention problems are among the most prevalent neurobehavioral morbidities affecting very preterm (VPT) born children. The first study aim was to document rates of persistent attention/hyperactivity problems from ages 4 to 9 years in a regional cohort of VPT born children. The second aim was to examine the extent to which persistent…

  1. Development of Emotional and Behavioral Regulation in Children Born Extremely Preterm and Very Preterm: Biological and Social Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Moor, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the development of emotional and behavioral regulation in a regional cohort of children born extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks gestational age, n = 39), very preterm (less than 34 weeks gestational age, n = 56), and full term (n = 103). At 2 and 4 years, children born at younger gestational ages demonstrated poorer…

  2. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Knol, Dirk L; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general cognitive ability, school performance (need for extra help, repeating a grade, special education), and rates of learning and developmental disorders. No differences were found between IVF and control children on these measures of school functioning. More than 60% of adolescents at secondary school attended high academic levels (with access to high school or university). We conclude that children and adolescents born after IVF show good academic achievement and general cognitive ability. They do not experience any more educational limitations than the naturally conceived children and adolescents of the control group. The tendency of reassuring school functioning already found in younger IVF children has been shown to continue at secondary school age.

  3. Changes in prevalence, aetiology, age at detection, and associated disabilities in preschool children with hearing impairment born in Göteborg.

    PubMed

    Darin, N; Hanner, P; Thiringer, K

    1997-12-01

    The prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) in preschool children born in Göteborg in 1980 to 1984 was 2.0 per 1000. This was significantly lower than the 3.8 per 1000 found in a previous study for 1970 to 1974. The decrease took place in the moderate to severe range of HI, while deafness and mild HI remained unchanged during the period. The cause was considered to be prenatal in 58% with heredity in 33% as the main causative factor. Following the introduction of the MPR (Morbilli-Parotitis-Rubella) vaccination programme in Sweden, no cases of rubella- or mumps-induced HI could be found. The number of HI of perinatal origin decreased by half, in spite of the fact that the figures for preterm baby survival almost doubled during the period. Associated disabilities were diagnosed in 62% of the children with HI; speech retardation in 33%, visual abnormalities in 30%, mental retardation in 12% and neuropsychiatric disorders in 9% of the cases. The importance of collaborative efforts between the otolaryngologist and the neurologically and neuropsychiatrically interested paediatrician in the complete evaluation of additional difficulties in the HI child is emphasized.

  4. An Analysis of Self-Concept among Ethiopian Immigrant and Israeli-Born Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study comparing self-concept among 114 immigrant children and adolescents of Ethiopian origin in Israel and among 164 native-born Israelis, including an exploration of how age, gender, and first-language proficiency affect various dimensions of this construct. For the younger children (aged 8-9 years), self-concept was found…

  5. Patterns of Functioning and Predictive Factors in Children Born Moderately Preterm or at Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cserjesi, Renata; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Timmerman, Marieke; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bouma, Anke; Bos, Arend F.; Geuze, Reint H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of children born moderately preterm (MPT) and term with distinctive levels and patterns of functioning, and the perinatal and demographic factors that predict subgroup membership. Method: A total of 378 children aged 7 years, 248 MPT (138 males, 110 females; gestational age 32-36 wks) and a…

  6. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) <−2) took longer to run 20 m (0.52 s, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70; p<0.001) and had greater odds of a failing score on the ASQ (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.38, p=0.004). Greater arm muscle area was associated with faster run time, and the ability to perform more stands and squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  7. Weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age in children born to mothers with a high intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Hagmar, Lars

    2007-03-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) is through consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea (off the eastern coast). The present study aimed to investigate whether intrauterine exposure for POP may have negative impact on children's weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age, respectively. The study included 174 fishermen's wives from the Swedish east coast who had given birth to an infant with either low (n=55) or normal (n=119) birth weight, and 88 and 206 corresponding women from the Swedish west coast (where the fish is less polluted). Comparisons between the east and west coast cohorts were performed. In addition, blood samples were collected among the east coast women and the concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in plasma was analyzed and estimated for the year of childbirth. There were no significant differences between the east and west coast cohorts regarding weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age. There were, however, significant negative associations between the estimated plasma concentrations of CB-153 during year of childbirth and weight at 4 and 7 years of age, respectively, among the normal birth weight children. The study gives only very weak support for the hypothesized association.

  8. Differential Socialization of Only and First-Born Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, B. G.; Hyde, Janet S.

    To examine socialization practices of mothers and fathers toward first-born children with and without a sibling, this study surveyed 151 adult first-born children (22 only-child females, 59 females with a sibling, 25 only-child males, and 45 males with a sibling) who completed a child-rearing practices report for each of their parents. The…

  9. Long term prognosis of children born to lupus patients

    PubMed Central

    Murashima, A; Fukazawa, T; Hirashima, M; Takasaki, Y; Oonishi, M; Niijima, S; Yamashiro, Y; Yamataka, A; Miyano, T; Hashimoto, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long term prognosis of children of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: Children of patients with SLE were invited to attend our clinic for physical examination and laboratory tests. A total of 195 children (aged 4 months to 26 years; male = 82, female = 113) were examined in 1991, 1995, 1997, and 1998. Results: Two cases were diagnosed as SLE at the first visit and were excluded from the second visit. A significantly higher percentage (52/195 (27%)) of patients were positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) at a cut off serum dilution of 1/40 compared with controls (4/57 (7%)). ANA were detected more frequently in female subjects than in men (p<0.05). Forty four subjects were examined on more than two occasions. Nine of the 10 patients who were positive for ANA at the second visit were girls aged 4–8 years. The incidence of anti-DNA and antiphospholipid antibodies in children of patients with SLE was similar to that in the controls. Conclusions: The finding that children, especially girls, born to maternal lupus patients had a high positive rate for ANA suggests that a genetic factor is involved in SLE pathogenesis. Longitudinal observation of these patients may provide important clinical information and clues to the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:14672891

  10. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  11. Against Their Wills: Children Born Affected by Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.; Outtz, Janice Hamilton

    There is no national policy on assisting drug-using pregnant mothers nor on the children they produce. This paper looks at the issue of "crack-cocaine" and mothers who give birth to children after using drugs during pregnancy. It attempts to lay out what is known, and it puts forth "best guesses" regarding helping children born affected by drugs.…

  12. Representational Momentum in Children Born Preterm and at Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole M.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2010-01-01

    The term "representational momentum" (RM) refers to the idea that our memory representations for moving objects incorporate information about movement--a fact that can lead us to make errors when judging an object's location (the RM effect). In this study, we explored the RM effect in a sample of children born very prematurely and a sample born at…

  13. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis in the age of general mobility.

    PubMed

    Süss, Jochen; Kahl, Olaf; Aspöck, Horst; Hartelt, Kathrin; Vaheri, Antii; Oehme, Rainer; Hasle, Gunnar; Dautel, Hans; Kunz, Christian; Kupreviciene, Nerija; Randolph, Sarah; Zimmermann, Hans-Peter; Atkinson, Barry; Dobler, Gerhard; Kutsar, Kuulo; Heinz, Franz X; Steffen, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The 11th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) was conducted under the title of, "From childhood to golden age: increased mobility - increased risk of contracting TBE?" Participants from 26 countries, including the United States of America and China, presented reports on the latest developments and trends in local TBE cases, vaccination coverage and risk factors. In particular, the situation of children and the elderly (the "golden agers") was discussed. As the current evidence suggests, the location and extension of endemic areas for TBE have changed over the last few years, along with global warming and the shift of infected ticks to higher altitudes. The increased mobility of the human population adds to the heightened exposure; outdoor activities and international travel are on the rise also, and especially, amongst the 50+ generation, who are already per se at higher risk of disease manifestation, complications and case fatality. Most Europeans travel within Europe, often without sufficient awareness of endemic areas. Only high immunization rates can ensure low disease rates in the long run. To achieve this goal, public education is the sole effective approach for raising the level of awareness. Overall, the risk of any given person to contract TBE should not be regarded as a fixed entity, but rather it must be estimated individually, on the basis of knowledge of the TBE virus endemic areas and risk factors.

  15. Foreign Born Children in the United States in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes information on the numbers of foreign-born children in the United States in 1980 and data on immigrant children 1980-85. Examines census data on the language characteristics, educational attainment, and economic status of recent immigrants from Mexico and 11 other countries. Contains 8 data tables. (Auth/SV)

  16. Tick-borne relapsing fever in children.

    PubMed

    Le, C T

    1980-12-01

    Three cases of tick-borne fever diagnosed during the summer of 1979 are reported and the ecoepidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of this infection are reviewed. Although challenging, the diagnosis can be made easily if specific historical clues are sought and the patient's blood smear is carefully examined. The diagnosis of this condition early in its course can save clinicians and patients the anxiety and cost of the work-up of a "fever of unknown origin." Since vacationing in the national parks and forests has become increasingly popular among many American families, tick-borne relapsing fever should be considered in any patient with an acute or recurrent fever of unknown origin who exhibits nonspecific symptoms of an undifferentiated "viral illness," and who gives a history of sleeping overnight in log cabins in the coniferous forests of the Western mountains of the United States.

  17. Degree of Perceived Accent in Finnish as a Second Language for Turkish Children Born in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzal, Melike; Peltonen, Teemu; Huotilainen, Minna; Aaltonen, Olli

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether children born in a second language (L2) environment pronounce their L2 with foreign accents and, if so, when foreign accents first emerge. This study also examined the latest age of onset (AO) of extensive L2 experience at which native L2 pronunciation is possible and explored several factors that affect the degree…

  18. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-09-29

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0-12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7-40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7-41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term.

  19. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L.; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0–12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7–38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7–40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7–41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term. PMID:25263327

  20. Effect of primary language on developmental testing in children born extremely preterm

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jean R.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Vohr, Betty; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Duncan, Andrea F.; Watterberg, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Aim To better understand the impact of non-English language spoken in the home on measures of cognition, language, and behavior in toddlers born extremely preterm. Methods Eight hundred and fifty children born at <28 weeks gestational ages were studied. 427 male and 423 female participants from three racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic) were evaluated at 18-22 months adjusted age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition and the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). Children whose primary language was Spanish (n=98) were compared with children whose primary language was English (n=752), using multivariable regression adjusted for medical and psychosocial factors. Results Cognitive scores were similar between groups; however, receptive, expressive and composite language scores were lower for children whose primary language was Spanish. These differences remained significant after adjustment for medical and socio-economic factors. Spanish speaking children scored worse on the BITSEA competence and problem scores using univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for medical and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our finding that preterm children whose primary language was Spanish had similar cognitive but lower language scores than those whose primary language was English suggests that using English language-based testing tools may introduce bias against non-English speaking children born preterm. PMID:23735043

  1. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  2. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  3. Protecting Adults and Children from Blood-Borne Pathogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Nancy K.; Corning, Lisa L.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends universal precautions policies and procedures to minimize for children and adults in early childhood settings the risk of infection from exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B or HIV. Outlines symptoms of hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Discusses legal and ethical implications related to inclusion. Lists resources for teachers…

  4. Cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functions in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether children aged between 8 and 12 years born very preterm (VPT) and/or at very low birth weight (VLBW) performed lower than same-aged term-born controls in cognitive and behavioral aspects of three executive functions: inhibition, working memory, and shifting. Special attention was given to sex differences. Fifty-two VPT/VLBW children (26 girls, 50%) born in the cohort of 1998-2003 and 36 same-aged term-born children (18 girls, 50%) were recruited. As cognitive measures, children completed tasks of inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001), working memory (digit span backwards, HAWIK-IV; Petermann & Petermann, 2008), and shifting (Trail Making Test, number-letter-switching, D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001). As behavioral measures, mothers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). Scales of interest were inhibit, working memory, and shift. Analyses of the cognitive aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children performed significantly lower than controls in the shifting task but not in the working memory and inhibition tasks. Analyses of behavioral aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children displayed more problems than the controls in working memory in everyday life but not in inhibition and shifting. No sex differences could be detected either in cognitive or behavioral aspects of executive functions. To conclude, cognitive and behavioral measures of executive functions were not congruent in VPT/VLBW children. In clinical practice, the combination of cognitive and behavioral instruments is required to disclose children's executive difficulties.

  5. Children Born Through Reproductive Donation: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Roman, Gabriela; Jadva, Vasanti

    2012-01-01

    Background Parenting and children’s adjustment were examined in 30 surrogacy families, 31 egg donation families, 35 donor insemination families, and 53 natural conception families. Methods Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and marital quality. Children’s adjustment was assessed at ages 3, 7 and 10 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Although children born through reproductive donation obtained SDQ scores within the normal range, surrogacy children showed higher levels of adjustment difficulties at age 7 than children conceived by gamete donation. Mothers who had kept their child’s origins secret showed elevated levels of distress. However, maternal distress had a more negative impact on children who were aware of their origins. Conclusions The absence of a gestational connection to the mother may be more problematic for children than the absence of a genetic link. PMID:23176601

  6. Early Indications of Delayed Cognitive Development in Preschool Children Born Very Preterm: Evidence from Domain-General and Domain-Specific Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola; Johnson, Samantha; Scerif, Gaia; Marlow, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment often follows preterm birth but its early underlying nature is not well understood. We used a novel approach by investigating the development of colour cognition in 54 very preterm children born less than or equal to 30 weeks gestational age without severe neurosensory impairment and 37 age-matched term-born controls, aged 2-5…

  7. Beyond height and weight: a programme of school nurse assessed skinfold measurements from white British and South Asian origin children aged 4–5 years within the Born in Bradford cohort study

    PubMed Central

    West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Bradford, UK. Participants 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. Main outcome measures The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Results Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference −1.8 mm, 95% CI −2.1 to −1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI −0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. Conclusions We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. PMID:26610758

  8. Normal intellectual development in children born from women with hypothyroxinemia during their pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grau, Gema; Aguayo, Anibal; Vela, Amaia; Aniel-Quiroga, Angeles; Espada, Mercedes; Miranda, Gorka; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Martul, Pedro; Castaño, Luis; Rica, Itxaso

    2015-01-01

    Proper maternal thyroid function is known to be essential for neural differentiation and migration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between thyroxin levels, in pregnant women with no thyroid disease and the intellectual development of their offspring in a non-iodine-deficient area, and to know specifically whether or not isolated hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy was associated with a lower intelligence in the offspring. Previously we had publicated values TSH, FT4, free T3 (FT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Abs) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in 1322 pregnant women in our hospital area. Now we presented results of intelligence quotient in children born from these pregnancies. We assessed 455 children at one year of age using Brunet-Lezine scale. Of these, 289 children were evaluated again at 6-8 years of age using the WISC-IV. From the total group of children recruited, we established as control subgroup, children born of rigorously normal pregnancies (women with UIC > 150 μg/L, FT4>10th percentile and TPO-Ab negative in both trimesters). The remaining children were divided into two subgroups: those born to mothers with FT4 below the 10th percentile and the rest. No correlation was found between FT4 maternal levels, in either of trimesters studied, and the intellectual scores of offspring. No differences were found in intellectual scores comparing children born to mothers with hypothyroxinemia and those whose mothers were euthyroxinemic in both trimesters, or with the control subgroup. As conclusions we did not find any association between the levels of maternal FT4 during pregnancy and the subsequent intellectual development the offspring from these pregnancies. We attribute this result to the fact that all the pregnant women included had normal thyroid function. PMID:26004887

  9. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  10. Korean-Immigrant Parents' Support of Their American-Born Children's Development and Maintenance of the Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Korean-immigrant parents' language ideologies and practices with respect to their American-born children's language development. Participants were seven ethnic Korean families composed of immigrant parents and their American-born children, aged between five and seven, in Midwestern America. Interviews in the medium of…

  11. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, AJ Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (<36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks) and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six timepoints across 3 years. Additionally, children’s emerging effortful control skills, cognitive development, and mother-reported behavior and attention problems were assessed at 24- and 36-months. Analyses documented links between effortful control skills, cognitive skills, and concurrent attention problems in children born preterm. The study also found that preterm children’s effortful control skills improved over time. In addition, neonatal health risks, family sociodemographic risks, and angry parenting interactions were associated with less optimal effortful control skills. PMID:20589563

  12. Both extrauterine and intrauterine growth restriction impair renal function in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Justine; Harambat, Jérôme; Dubourg, Laurence; Guy, Brigitte; Liutkus, Aurélia; Canterino, Isabelle; Kassaï, Behrouz; Putet, Guy; Cochat, Pierre

    2009-08-01

    A single-center prospective cohort study was designed to identify alterations of renal function during childhood in children born prematurely. A cohort of 143 such babies born over a 4-year period (birth weight less than 1000 g and/or less than 30 weeks of gestation) was prospectively included at birth. A mailing was sent to all parents to propose renal evaluation. Among the 50 included children, 23 had intra-uterine and 16 had extrauterine growth retardation. When comparing both of these groups to 11 children with appropriate pre- and postnatal growth at a mean follow-up of 7.6 years, both groups of growth-restricted children had slightly but significantly lower glomerular filtration rates, measured by inulin clearance, although both groups were still within the normal range for their ages. There were no differences for other renal parameters, neonatal therapies or complications, except for postnatal corticosteroid exposure. Children with extrauterine growth restriction were found to have significantly lower protein-energy intake during their first week of life than the intrauterine growth-restricted or the normotrophic children. Our study found that children with either intra- or extrauterine growth retardation are at risk of decreased glomerular filtration rates during childhood. Extrauterine growth restriction represents a new risk factor for long-term renal impairment in premature children.

  13. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  14. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment is associated with diurnal cortisol regulation in term-born children.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, M N; Sandman, C A; Glynn, L M; Wing, D A; Davis, E P

    2016-10-01

    Due to the rapid developmental changes that occur during the fetal period, prenatal influences can affect the developing central nervous system with lifelong consequences for physical and mental health. Glucocorticoids are one of the proposed mechanisms by which fetal programing occurs. Glucocorticoids pass through the blood-brain barrier and target receptors throughout the central nervous system. Unlike endogenous glucocorticoids, synthetic glucocorticoids readily pass through the placental barrier to reach the developing fetus. The synthetic glucocorticoid, betamethasone, is routinely given prenatally to mothers at risk for preterm delivery. Over 25% of the fetuses exposed to betamethasone will be born at term. Few studies have examined the lasting consequences of antenatal treatment of betamethasone on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The purpose of this study is to examine whether antenatal exposure to betamethasone alters circadian cortisol regulation in children who were born full term. School-aged children prenatally treated with betamethasone and born at term (n=19, mean (SD)=8.1 (1.2) years old) were compared to children not treated with antenatal glucocorticoids (n=61, mean (SD)=8.2 (1.4) years old). To measure the circadian release of cortisol, saliva samples were collected at awakening; 30, 45, and 60min after awakening; and in the evening. Comparison children showed a typical diurnal cortisol pattern that peaked in the morning (the cortisol awakening response) and gradually decreased throughout the day. In contrast, children exposed to antenatal betamethasone lacked a cortisol awakening response and had a flatter diurnal slope (p's<0.01). These data suggest that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment may disrupt the circadian regulation of the HPA axis among children born at term. Because disrupted circadian regulation of cortisol has been linked to mental and somatic health problems, future research is needed to determine

  15. Mortality rate in children born to mothers and fathers with celiac disease: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2013-06-15

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with increased mortality rate and adverse pregnancy outcome, but little is known about offspring mortality rate. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we identified persons whose biopsy-verified CD was diagnosed in Sweden in 1969-2008. We compared mortality rates in children born to mothers with and without CD (n = 16,121 vs. n = 61,782) and children born to fathers with and without CD (n = 9,289 vs. n = 32,984). Median age of offspring at end of follow-up was 28.7 (range, 16.7-39.7) years. We also examined mortality rates in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD (later CD diagnosis; n = 12,919) and diagnosed CD (n = 3,202) to determine if intrauterine exposures associated with CD could affect offspring mortality rate. We estimated hazard ratios for death by using Cox regression. Death rates were independent of maternal CD (60 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of mothers with CD, vs. 54 in controls) and paternal CD (53 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of fathers with CD, vs. 53 in controls). Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.26) for maternal CD and 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.23) for paternal CD. Death rates were similar in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD and in children whose mothers had diagnosed CD during pregnancy. Parental CD does not seem to influence mortality rate in offspring, which suggests that neither genetic influences of CD nor intrauterine conditions have adverse effects on offspring mortality rate.

  16. Risk and Resilience in Preterm Children at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Gerstein, Emily D.; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay; Bolt, Daniel M.; Maleck, Sarah; Schwichtenberg, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for experiencing significant deleterious developmental outcomes throughout their childhood and adolescence. However, individual variation and resilience are hallmarks of the preterm population. The present study examined pathways to resilience across multiple domains (e.g. social activities, peer relations, ADHD symptomology, externalizing and internalizing behavior, sleep quality) as children born preterm reached school age. The study also examined early child and family predictors of resilience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 173 infants born preterm and without significant neurological complications were assessed at 5 timepoints: NICU discharge, 9 months, 16 months, 24 months, and 6 years. Three pathways of adaptation emerged at 6 years: children who were resilient, those who remained at-risk, and children who exhibited significant difficulties. Resilient children were less likely to have experienced negative parenting at 9 and 16 months, more likely to delay gratification at 24 months, and more likely to experience neonatal health complications than non-resilient children. PMID:25196017

  17. Among overweight middle-aged men, first-borns have lower insulin sensitivity than second-borns.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine M; Biggs, Janene B; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether birth order affects metabolism and body composition in overweight middle-aged men. We studied 50 men aged 45.6 ± 5.5 years, who were overweight (BMI 27.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy in Auckland, New Zealand. These included 26 first-borns and 24 second-borns. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Matsuda method from an oral glucose tolerance test. Other assessments included DXA-derived body composition, lipid profiles, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness. First-born men were 6.9 kg heavier (p = 0.013) and had greater BMI (29.1 vs 27.5 kg/m(2); p = 0.004) than second-borns. Insulin sensitivity in first-born men was 33% lower than in second-borns (4.38 vs 6.51; p = 0.014), despite adjustment for fat mass. There were no significant differences in ambulatory blood pressure, lipid profile or carotid intima-media thickness between first- and second-borns. Thus, first-born adults may be at a greater risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24503677

  18. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anselm Chi-wai; Siao-ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets. PMID:22184532

  19. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  20. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets. PMID:22184532

  1. [The cytokine profile in the acute period of tick-borne neuroinfections in children].

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Clinical peculiarities and blood levels of several cytokines were studied in 199 children, aged from 1 to 15 years, in the acute period of different tick-borne infections. The mixed infection manifested itself by the more severe progression of general clinical presentations compared to monoinfections. Etiologically unspecific changes of blood concentrations of cytokines in the acute period of the disease were found. These data were associated with different clinical forms of tick-borne infections. The decrease in the interferon gamma production was associated with the most severe disease progression with focal nervous system disorders. The use of cycloferon as immune modulator in the complex therapy led to the increase in the interferon gamma level and the decrease of general clinical manifestations during tick-borne encephalitis and mixed infection.

  2. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symbolic play and parent reported play at age 12 months and communicative gestures at age 15 months explained 61% of the variance in productive language at 24 months in the FR group. These early nonlinguistic measures seem to be potentially interesting markers of later language development in children born at risk for dyslexia.

  3. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symbolic play and parent reported play at age 12 months and communicative gestures at age 15 months explained 61% of the variance in productive language at 24 months in the FR group. These early nonlinguistic measures seem to be potentially interesting markers of later language development in children born at risk for dyslexia. PMID:24773268

  4. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  5. White matter abnormalities and impaired attention abilities in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrea L; Thompson, Deanne K; Pascoe, Leona; Leemans, Alexander; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Jacqueline F I; Anderson, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    While attention impairments are commonly observed in very preterm (<32weeks' gestational age) children, neuroanatomical correlates of these difficulties are unclear. We aimed to determine whether the microstructural organization of key white matter tracts thought to be involved in attention (cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculi, reticular activating system, and corpus callosum) were altered in very preterm children compared with term-born controls. We also aimed to determine whether alterations in microstructural organization of these tracts were associated with attention functioning in very preterm children. One hundred and forty-nine very preterm children and 36 term-born controls underwent neuroimaging and assessment of their attention abilities at 7years. Constrained spherical deconvolution and probabilistic tractography was used to identify the key white matter tracts. Altered microstructural organization and reduced tract volume within reticular activating system and corpus callosum were found in the very preterm group compared with the control group. Diffusion and volume changes in the cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculi, reticular activating system, and corpus callosum were related to variations in attention functioning in the very preterm children. These findings emphasize that white matter tract integrity is associated with later attentional abilities in very preterm children.

  6. Variations in the neurobiology of reading in children and adolescents born full term and preterm

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Katherine E.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Myall, Nathaniel J.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion properties of white matter tracts have been associated with individual differences in reading. Individuals born preterm are at risk of injury to white matter. In this study we compared the associations between diffusion properties of white matter and reading skills in children and adolescents born full term and preterm. 45 participants, aged 9–17 years, included 26 preterms (born < 36 weeks' gestation) and 19 full-terms. Tract fractional anisotropy (FA) profiles were generated for five bilateral white matter tracts previously associated with reading: anterior superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF), arcuate fasciculus (Arc), corticospinal tract (CST), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Mean scores on reading for the two groups were in the normal range and were not statistically different. In both groups, FA was associated with measures of single word reading and comprehension in the aSLF, AF, CST, and UF. However, correlations were negative in the full term group and positive in the preterm group. These results demonstrate variations in the neurobiology of reading in children born full term and preterm despite comparable reading skills. Findings suggest that efficient information exchange required for strong reading abilities may be accomplished via a different balance of neurobiological mechanisms in different groups of readers. PMID:27158588

  7. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever in Children in the North-west of Iran, Qazvin.

    PubMed

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Nooroozi, Sadralnesa

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing fever is caused by the Borrelia species of spirochetes. Louse-borne epidemics of the disease may happen but the endemic disease is generally transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodorus). Clinical and laboratory findings of tick-borne relapsing fever in children in the north-west of Iran, Qazvin, were evaluated. This study was conducted from September 1992 to September 2012. Records from 53 cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were reviewed. In positive cases, febrile illness, and spirochetes were recognized in peripheral blood preparations. Of the 53 children younger than 12 years, fifty two percent were male and about one third (34%) of the patients were in the age range of 7-12 years. The disease is recorded through the whole year but its peak occurs during summer (52.8%) and autumn (32.1%). Sixty eight percent of patients were living in urban areas but had frequent travel to rural area. Thirty two percent of the cases were living in rural areas where their dwellings were close to animal shelters. All (100%) of the 53 subjects were febrile. Travellers to the rural areas with high prevalence of the disease should be attentive of the risk of tick-borne relapsing fever and use suitable control measures. Consequently relapsing fever should be considered when patients who live in or have vacationed in north-west of Iran show a recurring febrile illness. PMID:26445390

  8. Memory Processes in Learning Disability Subtypes of Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual. PMID:22375897

  9. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  10. Health care utilisation of prematurely born, preschool children related to hospitalisation for RSV infection

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Alexander, J; Burgess, S; Bytham, J; Chetcuti, P; Hagan, J; Lenney, W; Melville, S; Shaw, N; Boorman, J; Coles, S; Turner, J; Pang, F

    2004-01-01

    Background: In prematurely born infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), RSV hospitalisation is associated with increased health service utilisation and costs in the first two years after birth. Aims: To determine whether RSV hospitalisation in the first two years was associated with chronic respiratory morbidity during the preschool years in prematurely born children who had had CLD. Methods: Retrospective review of readmissions, outpatient attendances, and community care in years 2–4 and, at age 5 years, assessment of the children's respiratory status and their health related quality of life. Comparison was made of the results of children who had had at least one hospitalisation in the first two years after birth for RSV infection (RSV group) to those of the rest of the cohort. Participants were 190 of an original cohort of 235 infants with CLD and a median gestational age 27 (range 22–33) weeks. Results: The 33 children in the RSV group, compared to the rest of the cohort, had a greater duration of hospital stay and more outpatient appointments. The RSV group had required more prescriptions for all treatments and respiratory medications, and more had used an inhaler. The cost of care of the RSV group was higher (median £2630 [€4000, US$4800], range £124–18 091 versus £1360 [€2500, US$3000], range £5–18 929) and their health related quality of life was lower. Conclusion: In prematurely born children who had developed CLD, RSV hospitalisation in the first two years was associated with chronic respiratory morbidity and increased cost of care. PMID:15210503

  11. Effortful Control, Positive Emotional Expression, and Behavior Problems in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Burnson, Cynthia; Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on the role of high effortful control in the expression of positive emotion and development of behavior problems in children born preterm (mean gestational age = 31.4 weeks). Using data from a prospective longitudinal study, the present study assessed effortful control and behavior problems at 24 and 36 months and positive emotional expression at 24 months in a sample of 173 children born preterm. Less positive emotional expression was associated with higher effortful control for boys but not girls. Higher effortful control was associated with fewer total behavior problems, but this relation was attenuated when socioeconomic assets were included in the model. More socioeconomic assets were associated with fewer behavior problems for both boys and girls and higher effortful control for girls. Socioeconomic assets appear to be an important factor in the development of effortful control and behavior problems in children born preterm regardless of gender, whereas positive emotional expression was important for boys. Future intervention research should examine fostering adaptive levels of effortful control in high-risk populations as a means to facilitate resilience processes. PMID:23810984

  12. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children. PMID:26052156

  13. The Role of Parental Attitudes and the Quality of the Home Learning Environment in the Mental Development of Prematurely Born Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Magda; Boronkai, Judit

    Data are presented from a long-term follow-up study investigating the interplay of various factors contributing to the developmental outcome of prematurely born children. Fifty-eight low-risk pre-term Hungarian children are compared to 100 full-term children, from birth to age 6, on socioeconomic status, family climate, and intellectual…

  14. Children with cerebral palsy and periventricular white matter injury: does gestational age affect functional outcome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrienne R; Randall, Melinda; Reid, Susan M; Lee, Katherine J; Imms, Christine; Rodda, Jillian; Eldridge, Beverley; Orsini, Francesca; Reddihough, Dinah

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine differences in functional profiles and movement disorder patterns in children aged 4-12 years with cerebral palsy (CP) and periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) born >34 weeks gestation compared with those born earlier. Eligible children born between 1999 and 2006 were recruited through the Victorian CP register. Functional profiles were determined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF). Movement disorder and topography were classified using the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) classification. 49 children born >34 weeks (65% males, mean age 8 y 9 mo [standard deviation (SD) 2 y 2 mo]) and 60 children born ≤ 34 weeks (62% males, mean age 8 y 2 mo [SD 2 y 2 mo]) were recruited. There was evidence of differences between the groups for the GMFCS (p=0.003), FMS 5, 50 and 500 (p=0.003, 0.002 and 0.012), MACS (p=0.04) and CFCS (p=0.035), with a greater number of children born ≤ 34 weeks more severely impaired compared with children born later. Children with CP and PWMI born >34 weeks gestation had milder limitations in gross motor function, mobility, manual ability and communication compared with those born earlier.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (CA)n repeats and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene in Brazilian children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Rocio R D; Jorge, Alexander A L; D' Alva, Catarina Brasil; Pinto, Emília M; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa C; Pachi, Paulo R; Longui, Carlos A; Garcia, Ricardo M; Boguszewski, Margaret; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Mendonca, Berenice B; Costa, Elaine M F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of (CA)n repeats in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene on birth size in children who are small or adequate-sized for gestational age and to correlate these polymorphisms with serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and insulin sensitivity in children who are small for gestational age, with and without catch-up growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 439 infants: 297 that were adequate-sized for gestational age and 142 that were small for gestational age (66 with and 76 without catch-up). The number of (CA)n repeat in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats in the insulin gene were analyzed using GENESCAN software and polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion, respectively. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from all patients. RESULTS: The height, body mass index, paternal height, target height and insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels were higher in children who were small for gestational age with catch-up. There was no difference in the allelic and genotypic distributions of both polymorphisms between the adequate-sized and small infants or among small infants with and without catch-up. Similarly, the polymorphisms were not associated with clinical or laboratory variables. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of the (CA)n repeats of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene, separately or in combination, did not influence pre- or postnatal growth, insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels or insulin resistance. PMID:23778474

  16. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  17. Executive Functioning and Learning Skills of Adolescent Children Born at Fewer than 26 Weeks of Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, A.; Adamsson, M.; Serenius, F.; Hägglöf, B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functioning (EF) and learning skills in extremely preterm (EPT) children compared with term control children aged 10 to 15 years. Methods A total of 132 of 134 (98% of all eligible survivors) EPT children born at the 2 Swedish regional tertiary care centers from 1992 to 1998 (mean age = 12 years, mean birth weight = 718 g, and mean gestational age = 24.4 weeks) and 103 matched term controls were assessed. General intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III-R), and cognitive aspects of EF were analyzed using EF-sensitive subscales of the WISC-III-R and Tower test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale (D-KEFS). Behaviors related to EF and learning skills were assessed using the Five to Fifteen questionnaire, which is a validated parent and teacher instrument. Academic performance in school was assessed by teachers’ responses on Achenbach’s Teachers Report Form. Analyses performed included multivariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA and MANCOVA) and logistic regression analyses. Results The EPT children displayed significant deficits in cognitive aspects of EF compared with the controls, exhibiting decreases on the order of 0.9 SD to 1.2 SD for tasks of verbal conceptual reasoning, verbal and non-verbal working memory, processing speed and planning ability (P <0.001 for all). After excluding the children with major neurosensory impairment (NSI) or a Full Scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of < 70, significant differences were observed on all tests. Compared with controls, parents and teachers of EPT children reported significantly more EF-related behavioral problems. MANCOVA of teacher-reported learning skills in children with FSIQ >70 and without major NSI revealed no interactions, but significant main effects were observed for the behavioral composite executive function score, group status (EPT vs control) and FSIQ, for which all effect sizes were

  18. Cognitive outcome varies in adolescents born preterm, depending on gestational age, intrauterine growth and neonatal complications

    PubMed Central

    Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225

  19. Obesity and systolic blood pressure in young adult men born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Laganović, Mario; Lela, Ivana Vuković; Premuzić, Vedran; Karanović, Sandra; Vrdoljak, Ana; Jelaković, Bojan

    2013-09-01

    Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are supposed to be at higher risk to develop cardiovascular disorders, and recent report showed that concurrent obesity influences blood pressure (BP) in SGA children. Our aim was to investigate the impact of obesity and birth weight on blood pressure values in young adult men born SGA and controls born after normal pregnancy, Normotensive, non-treated adult men were enrolled (N = 185; mean age 21.29 +/- 0.9 years). Birth parameters were obtained from medical records and SGA was defined as birth weight (BW) under 10th percentile for gestational age and obesity as BMI > 25 kg/m2. According to the presence or absence of obesity and BW the subjects were divided into four groups: (1) non-obese with normal BW (N = 50), (2) non-obese SGA (N = 67), (3) obese with normal BW (N = 40), (4) obese SGA (N = 28). BP was measured using Omron M6 and Spacelab 90207 device following the ESH/ESC guidelines. Systolic BP, 24-hour BP variability and pulse pressure were significantly higher in SGA subjects than in those with normal BW (p < 0.05). The highest 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values as well as 24-hour pulse pressure were found in the subgroup of obese SGA subjects (p < 0.001). Significant differences for the above parameters were observed between obese SGA group and non-obese SGA group (p < 0.05). Obese SGA subjects had higher 24-hour and daytime systolic BP values compared to obese normal BW group. No difference was found in BP between non-obese SGA and non-obese group with normal BW (p > 0.05). In addition to BW and shorter pregnancy duration, obesity concurrently and significantly determines systolic BP in young normotensive men and point to a need for more aggressive implementation of healthy lifestyle as early as possible.

  20. 77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of... Attachment for Certain Children with Disabilities Born of Vietnam and Certain Korea Service Veterans, VA...

  1. Academic Outcomes for Children Born Preterm: A Summary and Call for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; Dempsey, Allison; Llorens, Ashlie

    2011-01-01

    The developmental outcomes for children born preterm have been examined by many, with results unequivocally indicating that children born preterm tend to have poorer cognitive outcomes and more developmental difficulties. Less attention has been paid to academic outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the academic skills assessment of…

  2. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. There are many causes of school failure, including: ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. SAFETY Safety is important for school-age children. ...

  3. Neurodevelopmental outcomes and neural mechanisms associated with non-right handedness in children born very preterm

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, L; Scratch, SE; Burnett, AC; Thompson, DK; Lee, KJ; Doyle, LW; Cheong, JLY; Inder, TE; Anderson, PJ

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-right handedness (NRH) is reportedly more common in very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks’ gestation) children compared with term-born peers, but it is unclear whether neonatal brain injury or altered brain morphology and microstructure underpins NRH in this population. Given that NRH has been inconsistently reported to be associated with cognitive and motor difficulties, this study aimed to examine associations between handedness and neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT 7 year-olds. Further, the relationship between neonatal brain injury and integrity of motor tracts (corpus callosum and corticospinal tract) with handedness at age 7 years in VPT children was explored. Method One hundred and seventy-five VPT and 69 term-born children completed neuropsychological and motor assessments and a measure of handedness at 7 years’ corrected age. At term-equivalent age, brain injury on MRI was assessed and diffusion tensor measures were obtained for the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule. Results There was little evidence of stronger NRH in the VPT group compared with term controls (regression coefficient [b] −1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] −5.67 to 1.77). Poorer academic and working memory outcomes were associated with stronger NRH in the VPT group. While there was little evidence that neonatal unilateral brain injury was associated with stronger NRH, increased area and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum splenium were predictive of stronger NRH in the VPT group. Conclusions VPT birth may alter the relationship between handedness and academic outcomes, and neonatal corpus callosum integrity predicts hand preference in VPT children at school age. PMID:26328609

  4. Children in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendov, Blagovest

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the main themes and presents recommendations of the international conference, "Children in an Information Age: Tomorrow's Problems Today," that was held in Bulgaria in 1985. Topics discussed include computer training for children; the need for well designed research; the teacher-computer relationship; artificial intelligence; and reform…

  5. Self-Regulation: A New Perspective on Learning Problems Experienced by Children Born Extremely Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates are increasing for children born extremely preterm, yet despite the majority of these children having IQ scores within the average range, 50-70% of these children have later school difficulties. This paper reviews factors associated with academic difficulties in these children, emphasizing the contributions of executive functions…

  6. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p < 0.05) between the PT and FT groups. Further, spatially localized clusters with inward and outward deformation were found to be associated with lower gestational age. The results from this study present a shape analysis method for pediatric MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  7. Brain imaging and neurodevelopment in HIV-uninfected Thai children born to HIV-infected mothers

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; Couture, Marie-Claude; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Nir, Talia M.; Aurpibul, Linda; Thompson, Paul M.; Pruksakaew, Kanchana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Catella, Stephanie; Desai, Akash; Kerr, Stephen J.; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Paul, Robert; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal use of combination antiretroviral therapy dramatically reduces vertical (mother-to-child) transmission of HIV, but has led to a growing population of children with perinatal HIV-exposure but uninfected (HEU). HIV can cause neurological injury among children born with infection, but the neuroanatomical and developmental effects in HEU children are poorly understood. Methods We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare brain anatomy between 30 HEU and 33 age-matched HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children from Thailand. Maps of brain volume and microstructural anatomy were compared across groups; associations were tested between neuroimaging measures and concurrent neuropsychological test performance. Results Mean (SD) age of children was 10.3 (2.8) years and 58% were male. All were enrolled in school and lived with family members. Intelligence quotient (IQ) did not differ between groups. Caretaker education levels did not differ, but income was higher for HUU (p<0.001). We did not detect group differences in brain volume or DTI metrics, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. The mean (95% confidence interval) fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum was 0.375 (0.368–0.381) in HEU compared to 0.370 (0.364–0.375) in HUU. Higher FA and lower mean diffusivity were each associated with higher IQ scores in analyses with both groups combined. Conclusions No differences in neuroanatomical or brain integrity measures were detectable in HEU children compared to age- and sex-matched controls (HUU children). Expected associations between brain integrity measures and IQ scores were identified suggesting sufficient power to detect subtle associations that were present. PMID:26090574

  8. Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1) and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2). The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests) showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup, and 1.7 for G1 and 1.1 for G2 in the 4-6 age subgroup. Differences were significant between G1 and G2 only in the 0-3 age subgroup (p = 0.047). Caries evaluation showed that, of the 96 children in G1, 75 were caries free, while in G2, 84 did not have the disease. These differences were not significant (p = 0.088). The lower mean dmft found in the 0-3 age subgroup in G2 may be attributed to routines established by the hospital's neonatology staff, such as frequent dental visits and preventive instructions about oral habits, oral hygiene and diet. After this age, with the completion of the primary dentition, values increased and became similar between the G1 and G2 groups. Results also suggested a highly skewed distribution since most caries were found in only a small number of children. PMID:17242798

  9. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    PubMed

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  10. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    PubMed

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges.

  11. Thalamocortical Connectivity Predicts Cognition in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Gareth; Pazderova, Libuse; Chew, Andrew; Tusor, Nora; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Allsop, Joanna M.; Cowan, Frances M.; Edwards, A. David; Counsell, Serena J.

    2015-01-01

    Thalamocortical connections are: essential for brain function, established early in development, and significantly impaired following preterm birth. Impaired cognitive abilities in preterm infants may be related to disruptions in thalamocortical connectivity. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis: thalamocortical connectivity in the preterm brain at term-equivalent is correlated with cognitive performance in early childhood. We examined 57 infants who were born <35 weeks gestational age (GA) and had no evidence of focal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Infants underwent diffusion MRI at term and cognitive performance at 2 years was assessed using the Bayley III scales of Infant and Toddler development. Cognitive scores at 2 years were correlated with structural connectivity between the thalamus and extensive cortical regions at term. Mean thalamocortical connectivity across the whole cortex explained 11% of the variance in cognitive scores at 2 years. The inclusion of GA at birth and parental socioeconomic group in the model explained 30% of the variance in subsequent cognitive performance. Identifying impairments in thalamocortical connectivity as early as term equivalent can help identify those infants at risk of subsequent cognitive delay and may be useful to assess efficacy of potential treatments at an early age. PMID:25596587

  12. Obesity and diabetes genes are associated with being born small for gestational age: Results from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA) and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important. PMID:20712903

  13. Psychiatric Outcomes at Age Seven for Very Preterm Children: Rates and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treyvaud, Karli; Ure, Alexandra; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains about the rate of specific psychiatric disorders and associated predictive factors for very preterm (VPT) children. The aims of this study were to document rates of psychiatric disorders in VPT children aged 7 years compared with term born children, and to examine potential predictive factors for psychiatric…

  14. 77 FR 74280 - Agency Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0577.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Award Attachment...

  15. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... automatically gain U.S. citizenship. The child must first be legally acknowledged by the father. Marriage to...

  16. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... automatically gain U.S. citizenship. The child must first be legally acknowledged by the father. Marriage to...

  17. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... automatically gain U.S. citizenship. The child must first be legally acknowledged by the father. Marriage to...

  18. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... automatically gain U.S. citizenship. The child must first be legally acknowledged by the father. Marriage to...

  19. 32 CFR 584.5 - U.S. citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true U.S. citizenship determinations on children born.... citizenship determinations on children born out of wedlock in a foreign country. (a) General. (1) A child born... automatically gain U.S. citizenship. The child must first be legally acknowledged by the father. Marriage to...

  20. Risk of Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, and Eczema in Children Born to Mothers with Gum Inflammation during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Liu, Chin-Chen; Hsiao, Yu-Chen; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study. Methods We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control) by mother’s age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks. Results Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control) for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15–1.20; 1.27, 1.24–1.31; 1.14, 1.12–1.17, respectively). Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother’s residential area. Conclusions Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care. PMID:27224053

  1. The Living Conditions of U.S.-Born Children of Mexican Immigrants in Unmarried Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…

  2. Mathematics difficulties in children born very preterm: current research and future directions.

    PubMed

    Simms, Victoria; Cragg, Lucy; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm have poorer attainment in all school subjects, and a markedly greater reliance on special educational support than their term-born peers. In particular, difficulties with mathematics are especially common and account for the vast majority of learning difficulties in this population. In this paper, we review research relating to the causes of mathematics learning difficulties in typically developing children, and the impact of very preterm birth on attainment in mathematics. Research is needed to understand the specific nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children to target the development of effective intervention strategies.

  3. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  4. Mature maternity: long term associations in first children born to older mothers in 1970 in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, J I

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify the physical, behavioural, medical, and educational outcomes in first children born to women aged 30 or more compared with those born to younger women. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study design employing logistic regression analysis of data obtained from the British births survey of 1970 and the child health and education study follow ups to this cohort at ages 5 and 10. SETTING: One week birth cohort covering the whole of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: The carers of 4315 first children born to women during the week of April 5th-11th 1970 inclusive in the whole of the United Kingdom except Northern Ireland, and followed up at both 5 and 10 years of age. In addition, information was obtained from health visitors, the child's teacher at 10, and the medical officer who completed an examination. At 10 the child also completed a questionnaire. MEASUREMENTS: Data were obtained from questionnaires administered to the carers of the child at each time point, from their teacher at age 10, and from the results of a medical examination at age 10. Educational tests were also conducted at this age. MAIN RESULTS: Having adjusted for the effects of confounding factors, late primiparity was significantly associated with a number of events in labour and delivery involving obstetric interventions ranging from induction to operative deliveries and general anaesthesia. At 5 years of age, controlling additionally for family size at that time, associations were found between late primiparity and fewer adverse measures of behaviour in the child. Both the child's head circumference and the score on a picture based vocabulary test at this age were slightly greater in the index group. At 10 years of age, adjusting for background factors and present family size, late primiparity was associated with few outcome measures. Children born to older mothers, however, scored slightly higher on a broad range of educational tests administered at school. CONCLUSIONS: No

  5. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  6. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Age Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Zachary E.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Malesa, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Evon Batey; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Crittendon, Julie; Stone, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    Later-born siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD as well as qualitatively similar traits not meeting clinical cutoffs for the disorder. This study examined age five neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes of 39 younger siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and 22 younger siblings of typically…

  7. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  8. Low vaccine coverage among children born to HIV infected women in Niamey, Niger

    PubMed Central

    Tchidjou, Hyppolite Kuekou; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Sanou Sobze, Martin; Souleyman, Animata; Stefanelli, Paola; Mbabia, Adalbert; Moussa, Ide; Gentile, Bruno; Colizzi, Vittorio; Rezza, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of mother’s HIV-status on child vaccination is an important public health issue in countries with high HIV prevalence. We conducted a study in a primary healthcare center located in Niamey, the capital of Niger, which offers free of charge services to HIV positive and/or underprivileged mothers, with the aim of assessing: 1) vaccination coverage for children 0–36 months old, born to HIV-infected mothers, and 2) the impact of maternal HIV status on child vaccination. Methods: Mothers of children less than 36 months old attending the center were interviewed, to collect information on vaccines administered to their child, and family’s socio-demographic characteristics. Results: Overall, 502 children were investigated. Children of HIV-seropositive mothers were less likely to receive follow up vaccinations for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTP) than those of HIV-seronegative mothers, with a prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.03 (95%CI: 1.58–2.61). Children born to HIV-seropositive mothers were less likely to miss vaccination for MMR than those born to HIV negative mothers, with a RR of 0.46 (95%CI: 0.30–0.72). Conclusions: Vaccine coverage among children born to HIV infected mothers was rather low. It is important to favor access to vaccination programs in this population. PMID:26237156

  9. Eye-movement disorders and visual-perceptual impairment in diplegic children born preterm: a clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, E; Anderloni, A; Bono, R; Bova, S; Farinotti, M; Inverno, M; Savoiardo, S

    1998-10-01

    The visual-motor behaviour of 15 preterm diplegic children and 50 control children (age range 4 to 7 years) was recorded on video as they performed a visual-perceptual task (an adaptation of the Animal House subtest of the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence). The following parameters were analysed and scored: time to perform task; omissions; figure-colour association; sequence direction; sequential scanning order; accuracy of fitting target; and number of anticipatory saccadic movements to next target. The ability of the control children to perform the task improved significantly with age, as measured by performance time, mistakes in sequence direction and scanning order, accuracy of target fitting, and number of anticipatory saccadic movements. The scores of children with diplegia were not related to age and were poorer overall than those of the control group. Children with diplegia made significantly more mistakes of sequence direction and scanning order, and significantly fewer anticipatory saccadic movements than the control group. These results indicate that visual-perceptual impairment in diplegic children born preterm is not attributable only to sensory visual loss and to fine manipulation difficulties but is also related to difficulties in eye movements and in using anticipatory control to process information.

  10. The Influence of Immigrant Parent Legal Status on U.S.-Born Children's Academic Abilities: The Moderating Effects of Social Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…

  11. When Children Have Something to Say, Writers Are Born

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonier, Francis W.

    2009-01-01

    Stonier, a second grade inclusion teacher, wanted to instill a love of writing in all 25 of the children in his class while offering a challenging curriculum for everyone. He made the children's writing meaningful by setting up a writing exchange with high school students. The project, beginning with the second-graders offering critiques of the…

  12. Ontogeny of autonomic regulation in late preterm infants born at 34-37 weeks postmenstrual age.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Carl E

    2006-04-01

    Late preterm infants (34-37 weeks postmenstrual age at birth) are intermediate between less mature preterm infants and infants born at 38 weeks or more in regard to autonomic brain stem maturation. Ventilatory responses to CO(2) in preterm infants born at 33 to 36 week are significantly higher than in infants born at 29 to 32 weeks both at 3 to 4 and 10 to 14 days postnatal age, but do not differ from full-term reference levels. The ventilatory response to hypoxia in preterm infants is biphasic; initial transient hyperventilation is followed by a return to baseline and then a decrease below baseline. In infants born at 32 to 37 weeks, parasympathetic maturation appears significantly less than in full-term infants based on diminished increases in high frequency heart rate variability in quiet sleep, suggesting that late preterm infants are still more susceptible to bradycardia than full-term infants. Both the presence and severity of apnea of prematurity progressively decrease the higher the postmenstrual age. Late preterm infants, however, are still at risk, with prevalence rates as high as 10% compared with about 60% in infants born at <1500 g. The incidence of apparent life-threatening events is more common in preterm infants (8-10%) than full-term infants (1% or less). In the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation studies, the frequency of conventional and extreme events in near term infants is intermediate between preterm infants <34 weeks at birth and full-term infants. The relative risk for at least one extreme event in late preterm infants is increased (5.6 and 7.6, respectively, P < 0.008) compared with full-term infants and remains higher until 43 weeks postmenstrual age. The rate for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in preterm infants born at 33 to 36 weeks is 1.37/1000 live births compared with 0.69 in infants born full term. Affected late preterm infants die at a older mean postmenstrual age compared with less mature infants (48 and 46 weeks

  13. [Follow-up of children born by ICSI].

    PubMed

    Wittemer, Christiane; Machev, Nadejda; Viville, Stéphane

    2004-03-01

    The debate concerning the health of children conceived by artificial reproduction technology (ART) continues. Among these techniques, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the subject of most attention. Indeed, several studies have concentrated on the evaluation of risks associated with ICSI. The publication of a few recent articles on the subject is providing an opportunity to reconsider the situation. Generally, women conceiving via ART are older, more often primipar and present increased rates of uterine pathologies compared to women conceiving naturally. Furthermore, ART pregnancies are sources of anxiety resulting in a significant increase rates of caesarean section. ART children present an increased risk of low birth rate often linked to multiple pregnancy, but this is also true for singleton pregnancy. Major studies have not revealed a significantly increased rate of malformations in ICSI children. However, sporadic observations of errors in genomic imprinting or of rare tumors in children conceived by ICSI point to a need for increased vigilance of ICSI practices. Finally, the mental development, the family and social life of ICSI children appears similar to children conceived naturally.

  14. A longitudinal group study of speech development in Danish children born with and without cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Hutters, B; Bau, A; Brøndsted, K

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on contoid vocalization by Danish 1-year-old unrepaired toddlers born with cleft lip and palate, and how they differ from their non-cleft peers. Furthermore, we focus on how the same children master Danish consonants at 3 years of age compared with their non-cleft peers in terms of their ability to produce consonants in accordance with adult target. Also, with the 3 year olds, we look at cleft speech characteristics as well as developmental speech characteristics found in both groups of children. Based on phonetic transcription, it was found that Danish unoperated cleft palate children at 1 year of age produced few types of contoids and preferably contoids that did not require closure of the velopharyngeal port in their prespeech. In addition, the data suggest that consonants produced by cleft children who are treated with one-stage surgery after speech onset, at 3 years of age differ from speech produced by non-cleft children, not only as regards cleft speech characteristics, but also as regards developmental speech characteristics.

  15. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  16. Region-Specific Slowing of Alpha Oscillations is Associated with Visual-Perceptual Abilities in Children Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Doesburg, Sam M.; Moiseev, Alexander; Herdman, Anthony T.; Ribary, Urs; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestational age) without major intellectual or neurological impairments often express selective deficits in visual-perceptual abilities. The alterations in neurophysiological development underlying these problems, however, remain poorly understood. Recent research has indicated that spontaneous alpha oscillations are slowed in children born very preterm, and that atypical alpha-mediated functional network connectivity may underlie selective developmental difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in this group. The present study provides the first source-resolved analysis of slowing of spontaneous alpha oscillations in very preterm children, indicating alterations in a distributed set of brain regions concentrated in areas of posterior parietal and inferior temporal regions associated with visual perception, as well as prefrontal cortical regions and thalamus. We also uniquely demonstrate that slowing of alpha oscillations is associated with selective difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in very preterm children. These results indicate that region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations contribute to selective developmental difficulties prevalent in this population. PMID:24298250

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates long-term changes in brain structure in children born preterm and exposed to chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Tamera; Wing, Deborah A.; Buss, Claudia; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if children born preterm and exposed to chorioamnionitis have differences in brain structure measured at 6 to10 years of age using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Structural MRI was performed with11 preterm children (8.5 ± 1.7 yrs) with chorioamnionitis and 16 preterm children (8.7±1.4 yrs) without chorioamnionitis. Cortical surface reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with FreeSurfer image analysis software. Subcortical structures were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Results Widespread regional differences in cortical thickness were observed. With chorioamnionitis, the frontal and temporal lobes were primarily affected by decreased cortical thickness, and, the limbic, parietal and occipital lobes were primarily affected by increased cortical thickness when compared to the comparison group. Subcortical differences were observed in the hippocampus and lateral ventricle. Conclusion Using MRI, chorioamnionitis is associated with long term widespread regional effects on brain development in children born prematurely. Our study is limited by its small sample size. PMID:21987595

  18. Maternal Relationships and Nonresidential Father Visitation of Children Born outside of Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 781), I examined how father visitation for children born outside of marriage is affected by subsequent maternal relationship formation, focusing on the timing, type, and stability of maternal relationships. Results showed that fathers were most likely to have not seen their child…

  19. Language Development of Children Born Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Combined with Assisted Oocyte Activation (AOA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Bettens, Kim; Luyten, Anke; Gysels, Hannelore; Thienpont, Ylenia; De Witte, Griet; Heindryckx, Björn; Oostra, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Sutter, Petra; van Lierde, Kristiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. Aims: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old children born following ART using intracytoplasmic…

  20. Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in Children's Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Hu, Bi Ying

    2011-01-01

    This introductory qualitative study sought to explain American and Chinese-born mothers' personal beliefs and experiences with mathematics, views of U.S. mathematics curriculum, and how these factors influenced motivation regarding roles played in their children's mathematical learning through expectancy-value and attribution theories. The…

  1. No Preschooler Left Behind: The Need for High Quality Early Intervention for Children Born into Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schippers, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    It is a sad fact that children born into poverty are far less likely to perform well in school and to finish school. Their inadequate schooling then negatively affects their degree of economic success at a large cost to society. The author--a professional tutor for underachieving students at PS 8 and Brooklyn High School for Leadership and…

  2. Marching Is for Soldiers: Russian-Born Buriat Children in a Chinese Bilingual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartor, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines the educational struggles of Russian-born Buriat Mongolian children studying in China at a Mongolian/Mandarin school, by emphasizing conflicting educational paradigms between the Russian and Chinese systems. Educational practices are compared. Standardized assessment, teacher-centered classrooms, and group-…

  3. The Early Academic Success of Children Born to Low-Income Teenage Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Angela; Luster, Tom; Bates, Laura; Vandenbelt, Marcia

    This study focused on family influences on the academic success of first-grade children born to low-income, adolescent mothers. The families in this study were participants in a family support program for teen mothers called Family TIES (Trust, Information, Encouragement, and Support). Families were eligible for services provided by…

  4. Specific Relations between Neurodevelopmental Abilities and White Matter Microstructure in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counsell, Serena J.; Edwards, A. David; Chew, Andrew T. M.; Anjari, Mustafa; Dyet, Leigh E.; Srinivasan, Latha; Boardman, James P.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rutherford, Mary A.; Cowan, Frances M.

    2008-01-01

    Survivors of preterm birth have a high incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment which is not explained by currently understood brain abnormalities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the neurodevelopmental abilities of 2-year-old children who were born preterm and who had no evidence of focal abnormality on conventional MR…

  5. Pathogenesis, Neuroimaging and Management in Children with Cerebral Palsy Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, Alexander H., Jr.; Faria, Andreia Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    With advances in obstetric and perinatal management, the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants has declined, while periventricular leukomalacia remains a significant concern. It is now known that brain injury in children born preterm also involves neuronal-axonal disease in supratentorial and infratentorial structures. The…

  6. Breastfeeding Among U.S. Children Born 2000 - 2009, CDC National Immunization Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... Any" and "exclusive" breastfeeding rates by socio-demographics Breastfeeding among U.S. Children Born 2002–2013, CDC National ... Were Breastfed, by Birth Year a,b Any Breastfeeding Exclusive Breastfeeding c a Breastfeeding rates through 2008 ...

  7. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  8. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment. PMID:12806505

  9. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  10. Public Assistance Receipt among Native-Born Children of Immigrants. Policy Brief. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew; Fomby, Paula; Angel, Ronald; Henrici, Jane

    The 1996 welfare reform law restricted immigrants' eligibility for public assistance, although many states have at least partially restored their eligibility. However, about three-fourths of the children of non-citizen immigrants were born in the United States and are therefore eligible for all government benefits. This brief examines whether…

  11. Vitamin A and vitamin B-12 concentrations in relation to mortality and morbidity among children born to HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bosch, Ronald J; Hunter, David J; Manji, Karim; Msamanga, Gernard I; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2010-02-01

    Vitamin A supplementation starting at 6 months of age is an important child survival intervention; however, not much is known about the association between vitamin A status before 6 months and mortality among children born to HIV-infected women. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A and B-12 were available at 6 weeks of age (n = 576 and 529, respectively) for children born to HIV-infected women and they were followed up for morbidity and survival status until 24 months after birth. Children in the highest quartile of vitamin A had a 49% lower risk of death by 24 months of age compared to the lowest quartile (HR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29-0.90; P-value for trend = 0.01). Higher vitamin A levels were protective in the sub-groups of HIV-infected and un-infected children but this was statistically significant only in the HIV-uninfected subgroup. Higher vitamin A concentrations in plasma are protective against mortality in children born to HIV-infected women.

  12. Iatrogenic blood-borne viral infections in refugee children from war and transition zones.

    PubMed

    Goldwater, Paul N

    2013-06-01

    Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war-work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care-all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.

  13. Effect of socioeconomic status on psychosocial problems in 5- to 6-year-old preterm- and term-born children: the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Sanne A A; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial problems in preterm- and term-born children. Scores of mothers and teachers on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) regarding 217 preterm-born children (<37 weeks' gestation, mean 34 weeks) were compared with 4336 term-born children in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort at age 5-6 years. Associations between SDQ scores and SES (maternal education and perceived income adequacy) were examined with multivariate linear regression analysis. The mean mother-reported total difficulties score was significantly higher for preterm children (6.1 ± 4.7) than for term children (5.2 ± 4.1). After covariate adjustment, this difference was 0.5 (95 % CI 0.0-1.0). For preterm children 16.1 % of the mothers reported psychosocial problems compared with 10.1 % for term children. Lower maternal education and lower income adequacy were significantly related to higher SDQ scores of mothers and teachers. Differences in mothers' SDQ score between preterm and term children were larger in the high-education (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.2-1.5) and high-income group (Δ0.9, 95 % CI 0.3-1.6). No significant differences were found between preterm and term children in the SDQ scores reported by teachers. Low level of maternal education and inadequate income showed a much stronger association with psychosocial problems than preterm birth. No combined effect of low SES and preterm birth was found. This study corroborates the evidence for the strength of the disadvantageous effects of low SES on early psychosocial development.

  14. [Information, transmission, secrecy: What kind of discourse for children born by gamete donation?].

    PubMed

    Canneaux, M; Kobilinsky, N; Wolf, J P; Golse, B; Beauquier-Maccotta, B

    2016-01-01

    The number of children born through gamete donation grows by the conceptions made abroad. All the couples engaging in this process do not benefit from of the same support around the issues raised by the information to the child and its terms. Through a literature review, the authors explore the data on information intentions from parents to child and to entourage, the influence of the issue of anonymity, the effective rate information, the influences of the age of the child, the terms information and links with family dynamics. The quantitative findings underscore the complexity of this task, since 10-90 % of couples report an intention to inform their child from conception through donation, while 5-30 % actually inform them after birth. Fifty-nine to 93 % of the relatives are nevertheless informed. The authors will highlight the psychopathological tracks that support the possibility of narration for parents: the internalization of their infertility, the representation of the gift, the development of rivalry towards donors, the secrecy and privacy. The objective of this article is to enable carers to accompany this reflection among future parents, a better listening of the issues raise by the couples allowing shoring their process. PMID:27318771

  15. [Information, transmission, secrecy: What kind of discourse for children born by gamete donation?].

    PubMed

    Canneaux, M; Kobilinsky, N; Wolf, J P; Golse, B; Beauquier-Maccotta, B

    2016-01-01

    The number of children born through gamete donation grows by the conceptions made abroad. All the couples engaging in this process do not benefit from of the same support around the issues raised by the information to the child and its terms. Through a literature review, the authors explore the data on information intentions from parents to child and to entourage, the influence of the issue of anonymity, the effective rate information, the influences of the age of the child, the terms information and links with family dynamics. The quantitative findings underscore the complexity of this task, since 10-90 % of couples report an intention to inform their child from conception through donation, while 5-30 % actually inform them after birth. Fifty-nine to 93 % of the relatives are nevertheless informed. The authors will highlight the psychopathological tracks that support the possibility of narration for parents: the internalization of their infertility, the representation of the gift, the development of rivalry towards donors, the secrecy and privacy. The objective of this article is to enable carers to accompany this reflection among future parents, a better listening of the issues raise by the couples allowing shoring their process.

  16. Dietary intake in young adults born small or appropriate for gestational age: data from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Compare the dietary intake of young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) versus those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Data at the 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France). Data from 229 AGA-born adults and 172 SGA-born adults with available dietary information are presented. Methods Dietary intake was based on a food questionnaire including 19 items. The χ2 test was run to compare intake between SGA-born and AGA-born individuals. An a priori score was calculated based on the adherence to recommendations from the French Nutrition and Health Program and included 8 components with the lowest value indicating a lower adherence to recommendations. The score was then divided into quartiles. Relative risks and 95% CIs, controlling for age and sex in multivariate analysis, were calculated in order to determine the risk of belonging to the first versus the second to the fourth quartiles in SGA-born and AGA-born individuals. Results Intakes of SGA-born adults indicated that they consumed more meat, sugar and less fish than AGA-born individuals (all p<0.05). Multivariate analyses with adjustment for age and sex showed that the relative risk of belonging to the first quartile versus the other three quartiles did not disclose any significant difference in SGA-born versus AGA-born participants: RR=0.92 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.30). Conclusions Aside from the differences found by univariate analyses, no significant differences were obtained in multivariate analyses. Findings suggest that parameters of fetal programming are more associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in adulthood rather than dietary patterns. PMID:27473954

  17. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    PubMed

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  18. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child's and caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children's age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child's or the caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population.

  19. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, Marta; Urban, Beata; Chrzanowska-Grenda, Beata; Oziębło-Kupczyk, Monika; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years) and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years). The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children. PMID:26417461

  20. Mild mental retardation in Gothenburg children born between 1966-70. Changes between two points of time.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, G; Lewerth, A; Olsson, E; Westerberg, B

    1987-01-01

    Changes between two points of time in prevalence rates and distribution of IQ values in mentally retarded children resident in Gothenburg, Sweden, and born between 1966-70 were analysed. The children at the first census date in 1978 were aged 8-12 years and at the second in 1984 aged 14-18 years. The population-based prevalence rates were 3.7 per 1,000 in 1978 and 3.9 in 1984 for mild mental retardation (MMR; IQ 50-70) and 3.0 and 3.3 respectively for severe mental retardation (SMR; IQ less than 50). The majority (82%) of the MMR children remained on the same intellectual and educational level. The changes that occurred were mainly downwards. Thirteen of the 91 MMR children in the 1978 series demonstrated IQ values below 50 by 1984. Ten of these 13 children had a clear biomedical origin for their retardation, e.g. six with cerebral palsy syndromes. The IQ level of three MMR children had improved to 71-85. Nineteen newcomers were identified as MMR. 14 of these had IQ test scores above 70 in 1978 including one with cerebral palsy and 5 with minimal brain dysfunction syndromes. The prevalence of children registered in the Board for Provisions and Services to the Mentally Retarded, all IQ categories included, increased from 6.7 per 1,000 in 1978 to 8.1 in 1984. One third of this increase was due to the greater recording of youths with an IQ above 75.

  1. Extremely Preterm Born Children at Very High Risk for Developing Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghe, Liedewij; Dereu, Mieke; Warreyn, Petra; De Groote, Isabel; Vanhaesebrouck, Piet; Roeyers, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive picture of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a geographic cohort of extremely preterm born adolescents by using established diagnostic instruments in addition to screening instruments. 53 participants passed a screening procedure with two screening instruments and a diagnostic evaluation with a semi-structured assessment and a parent interview. 28 % of the adolescents had a community based clinical diagnosis of ASD. When research diagnoses were also taken into account, this rate increased to 40 %. Intellectual disability, language impairment and behavioural difficulties are characteristic for these children with ASD. This study is to our knowledge the first to use ASD-specific diagnostic instruments to confirm ASD diagnoses in extremely preterm born children in early adolescence. The study expands findings of previous research and raises the need for follow-up into late childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26546379

  2. Neurodevelopmental disorders in children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Vinet, É; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fombonne, É; Platt, R W; Bernatsky, S

    2014-10-01

    Children born to women with systemic lupus erythematosus seem to have a potentially increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared to children born to healthy women. Recent experimental data suggest in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, women with systemic lupus erythematosus display high levels of autoantibodies and cytokines, which have been shown, in animal models, to alter fetal brain development and induce behavioral anomalies in offspring. Furthermore, subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus and neurodevelopmental disorders share a common genetic predisposition, which could impair the fetal immune response to in utero immunologic insults. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse obstetrical outcomes and medication exposures, which have been implicated as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge on neurodevelopmental disorders and their potential determinants in systemic lupus erythematosus offspring.

  3. Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Hayward, Adam D; Htut, Win; Htut-Aung, Ye; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Senescent declines in reproduction and survival are found across the tree of life, but little is known of the factors causing individual variation in reproductive ageing rates. One contributor may be variation in early developmental conditions, but only a few studies quantify the effects of early environment on reproductive ageing and none concern comparably long-lived species to humans. We determine the effects of 'stressful' birth conditions on lifetime reproduction in a large semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We categorise birth month into stressful vs. not-stressful periods based on longitudinal measures of glucocorticoid metabolites in reproductive-aged females, which peak during heavy workload and the start of the monsoon in June-August. Females born in these months exhibit faster reproductive senescence in adulthood and have significantly reduced lifetime reproductive success than their counterparts born at other times of year. Improving developmental conditions could therefore delay reproductive ageing in species as long-lived as humans.

  4. Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Hannah S.; Mar, Khyne U.; Hayward, Adam D.; Htut, Win; Htut-Aung, Ye; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Senescent declines in reproduction and survival are found across the tree of life, but little is known of the factors causing individual variation in reproductive ageing rates. One contributor may be variation in early developmental conditions, but only a few studies quantify the effects of early environment on reproductive ageing and none concern comparably long-lived species to humans. We determine the effects of ‘stressful’ birth conditions on lifetime reproduction in a large semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We categorise birth month into stressful vs. not-stressful periods based on longitudinal measures of glucocorticoid metabolites in reproductive-aged females, which peak during heavy workload and the start of the monsoon in June-August. Females born in these months exhibit faster reproductive senescence in adulthood and have significantly reduced lifetime reproductive success than their counterparts born at other times of year. Improving developmental conditions could therefore delay reproductive ageing in species as long-lived as humans. PMID:26365592

  5. Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Hayward, Adam D; Htut, Win; Htut-Aung, Ye; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Senescent declines in reproduction and survival are found across the tree of life, but little is known of the factors causing individual variation in reproductive ageing rates. One contributor may be variation in early developmental conditions, but only a few studies quantify the effects of early environment on reproductive ageing and none concern comparably long-lived species to humans. We determine the effects of 'stressful' birth conditions on lifetime reproduction in a large semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We categorise birth month into stressful vs. not-stressful periods based on longitudinal measures of glucocorticoid metabolites in reproductive-aged females, which peak during heavy workload and the start of the monsoon in June-August. Females born in these months exhibit faster reproductive senescence in adulthood and have significantly reduced lifetime reproductive success than their counterparts born at other times of year. Improving developmental conditions could therefore delay reproductive ageing in species as long-lived as humans. PMID:26365592

  6. Mortality of Foreign-Born and US-Born Hispanic Adults at Younger Ages: A Reexamination of Recent Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Eschbach, Karl; Stimpson, Jim P.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether mortality rates among immigrant and US-born Hispanic young adults were higher or lower compared with non-Hispanic Whites. We also sought to identify which causes of death accounted for the differences in mortality rates between groups. Measures. We used Texas and California vital registration data from 1999 to 2001 linked to 2000 census denominators. We calculated cause-specific, indirectly standardized rates and ratios and determined excess/deficit calculations comparing mortality rates among US- and foreign-born Hispanic men and women with rates among non-Hispanic White men and women. Results. Mortality rates were substantially lower among Hispanic immigrant men (standardized mortality ratio [SMR]=0.79) and women (SMR=0.59) than among non-Hispanic White men and women. Most social and behavioral and chronic disease causes in Texas and California other than homicide were noteworthy contributors to this pattern. Mortality rates among US-born Hispanics were similar to or exceeded those among non-Hispanic Whites (male SMR=1.17, female SMR=0.91). Conclusions. Mortality rates among younger Hispanic immigrants in Texas and California were lower than rates among non-Hispanic Whites. This pattern was not observed among US-born Hispanics, however. PMID:17538049

  7. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chronological age. When we evaluate the development or linear growth of a child born prematurely, we may use a... infants. We generally use chronological age (that is, a child's age based on birth date) when we decide... children until the child's prematurity is no longer a relevant factor; generally no later than...

  8. 20 CFR 416.924b - Age as a factor of evaluation in the sequential evaluation process for children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chronological age. When we evaluate the development or linear growth of a child born prematurely, we may use a... infants. We generally use chronological age (that is, a child's age based on birth date) when we decide... children until the child's prematurity is no longer a relevant factor; generally no later than...

  9. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  10. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain.

  11. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  12. Identification of an obese eating style in 4-year-old children born at high and low risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Robert I; Moore, Renee' H; Faith, Myles S; Stallings, Virginia A; Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-03-01

    This study tested whether children's eating behavior and parental feeding prompts during a laboratory test meal differ among children born at high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) for obesity and are associated with excess child weight gain. At 4 years of age, 32 HR children (mean maternal prepregnancy BMI = 30.4 kg/m(2)) and 29 LR children (maternal BMI = 19.6 kg/m(2)) consumed a test meal in which their eating behavior was assessed, including rate of caloric consumption, mouthfuls/min, and requests for food. Parental prompts for the child to eat also were measured at year 4, and child body composition was measured at ages 4 and 6 years. T-tests, and logistic and multiple regression analyses tested study aims. Results indicated that HR and LR children did not differ in eating rate or parental feeding prompts. Greater maternal BMI, child mouthfuls of food/min, and total caloric intake/min during the test meal predicted an increased risk of being overweight or obese at age 6, whereas greater active mealtime was associated with a reduced risk of being overweight or obese. Regression analyses indicated that only mouthfuls of food/min predicted changes in BMI from 4 to 6 years, and mouthfuls of food/min and gender predicted 2-year changes in sum of skinfolds and total body fat. Thus, a rapid eating style, characterized by increased mouthfuls of food/min, may be a behavioral marker for the development of childhood obesity. PMID:19779474

  13. Neuropsychological development in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and impact of postnatal head growth.

    PubMed

    Klaric, Andrea Simić; Galić, Slavka; Kolundzić, Zdravko; Bosnjak, Vlatka Mejaski

    2013-07-01

    Neuropsychological development and the impact of postnatal head growth were studied in preschool children with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction. Examinees born at term with a birth weight below the 10th percentile were matched to the control group according to chronological and gestational age, gender, and maternal education. Fifty children were in each group, with a mean age of 6 years, 4 months. The Touwen neurological examination, the Čuturić developmental test, an imitative hand positions test, and a visual attention test were performed. There were significant differences (P< .03) in motor variables, the developmental quotient, and the imitative hand positions test. Fine motor skills had the most discriminative power. Relative growth of the head in relation to weight gain was positively correlated to neurocognitive outcome. Intrauterine growth-restricted children with a current head circumference ≤10th percentile had poorer outcomes. Conclusively, intrauterine growth restriction has a negative impact on neurocognitive development. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with a poorer neuropsychological outcome.

  14. Maternal Schooling and Children's Relative Inequalities in Developmental Outcomes: Evidence from the 1947 School Leaving Age Reform in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…

  15. Guidelines for evaluating and managing children born with disorders of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ganka; Axelrad, Marni E; Brandt, Mary L; Crabtree, Elizabeth; Dietrich, Jennifer E; French, Shannon; Gunn, Sheila; Karaviti, Lefkothea; Lopez, Monica E; Macias, Charles G; McCullough, Laurence B; Suresh, Deepa; Austin, Elise; Reid Sutton, V

    2012-04-01

    Children born with disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) pose numerous challenges for the parents, family, and treating physicians. The pediatrician is usually the first medical contact for newborns with DSD or for toddlers and children who present with DSD at a later time. Several years ago, we formed a Gender Medicine Team (GMT) at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) to explore and evaluate the most appropriate management strategies, which had long been a matter of concern and contention. Subsequently, the GMT, composed of experts in the fields of endocrinology, ethics, genetics, gynecology, psychology, pediatric surgery, and urology, formed a Task Force to evaluate the information available from our own experiences and from reviews of the literature. Utilizing the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the evidence and recommendations, the Task Force developed a consensus statement for clinical management of DSD and for making appropriate sex assignments.

  16. Nutritional Predictors of Acute Respiratory Infections Among Children Born to HIV-Infected Women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Duggan, Christopher; Msamanga, Gernard; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively determined the association between undernutrition and incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among 711 children born to HIV-infected women. Overall, underweight was associated with a 58% increased risk of ARI. Similarly, wasting (54%), very low birth weight (88%) and child HIV infection (62%) were significantly associated with increased risk of ARI during the first 2 years. Breastfeeding was associated with 52% reduction in risk of ARI only during the first 12 months of life. Among HIV-exposed, but uninfected, children, underweight, wasting and stunting were associated with 73%, 61% and 33% increased risk of ARI, respectively. Very low birthweight and advanced maternal disease stage were also associated with increased risk of ARI. Similar results were observed among HIV-infected children, except for stunting and very low birth weight. Prevention of child undernutrition could have major impact in reducing child ARI morbidity in settings of high HIV prevalence. PMID:23400399

  17. Early Parenting, Represented Family Relationships, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A.

    2015-01-01

    Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm. PMID:24580068

  18. Prevalence rates of otitis media with effusion from 0 to 2 years of age: healthy-born versus high-risk-born infants.

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Anteunis, L; Volovics, A; Hendriks, J; Marres, E

    1999-03-15

    In a prospective-longitudinal study, prevalence rates of otitis media with effusion (OME) were analysed in 150 healthy-born and 100 high-risk-born infants, aged 0-2 years. In order to determine OME, otoscopy and tympanometry were performed at 3-monthly intervals beginning at term date. The Maastricht Otitis Media with Effusion Study (MOMES) algorithm was used to standardize the diagnosis. The distribution of relevant background characteristics was similar in both groups except for gestational age and birth weight, which were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the high-risk-born group. The ratio of unilateral:bilateral OME was 2:3. Prevalence rates of OME were strongly associated with age (P < 0.001). During the first months of life, OME prevalence rates increased rapidly in both groups, but did not differ significantly. However, from the age of 6 months on, OME prevalence rates of the high-risk group became significantly higher compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). The peak prevalence of OME (59% in the high-risk group versus 49% in the normal group) was observed around the age of 10 months. Although gradually decreasing prevalence rates were noted in both groups with aging, the differences between high-risk and normal infants remained, at least up to 24 months. In conclusion, OME is a very prevalent, age-dependent disorder during infancy, especially in high-risk infants. Peak prevalence of OME was found in the second half of the first year of life.

  19. Use of polymerase chain reaction and quantitative antibody tests in children born to human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Newell, M L; Loveday, C; Dunn, D; Kaye, S; Tedder, R; Peckham, C; De Maria, A; Giaquinto, C; Omeñaca, F; Canosa, C

    1995-12-01

    The diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers is complicated by the presence of passively acquired maternal antibodies, and exclusion of infection in these infants remains problematic. The use of genome detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and the quantification of anti-HIV-1 antibodies were examined as methods for early diagnosis. Blood samples were taken from 84 non-breast-fed infants of HIV-infected mothers in five Italian and Spanish centres, a subgroup of children enrolled in the European Collaborative Study (ECS) for whom clinical and immunological information has been documented from birth. Whole blood was added to glycigel cryopreservative, stored, and tested in the United Kingdom by a nested PCR method. Antibody to HIV-1 was detected and quantified by titration using a gelatin particle agglutination test. PCR sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Twenty-one of the 84 children tested were infected. The estimated PCR sensitivity ranged from 0% (95% CI 0-26%) on day 1, 57% (19-85) on day 7, to 63% (33-92) on day 30. The negative predictive value of PCR ranged from 85% (83-88) on day 0 to 98% (94-100) at 3 months of age. On average, the level of maternal antibody halved every 33 days (31-36.5) in uninfected children. Between 6 and 9 months of age, increases in antibody titres in infected children were not more informative than absolute levels. These findings suggest that antibody measurement may supplement genomic diagnosis and that this collection method provides an alternative to the use of dried blood spots.

  20. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angharad R; Thompson, John M D; Waldie, Karen E; Cornforth, Christine M; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-06-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined - that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems. PMID:27625810

  1. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angharad R; Thompson, John M D; Waldie, Karen E; Cornforth, Christine M; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-06-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined - that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems.

  2. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Angharad R.; Thompson, John M.D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Cornforth, Christine M.; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined – that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems.

  3. Altered Brain Function, Structure, and Developmental Trajectory in Children Born Late Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Lee, Jessica K.; DeVolder, Ian J.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Axelson, Eric D.; Nopoulos, Peggy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Late preterm birth (34-36 weeks’ gestation) is a common occurrence with potential for altered brain development. Methods This observational cohort study compared children at age 6-13 years based on the presence or absence of the historical risk factor of late preterm birth. Children completed a battery of cognitive assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results Late preterm children (n=52) demonstrated slower processing speed (p=0.035) and scored more poorly in visual-spatial perception (p=0.032) and memory (p=0.007) than full term children (n=74). Parents of late preterm children reported more behavioral difficulty (p=0.004). There were no group differences in cognitive ability or academic achievement. Imaging revealed similar intracranial volumes but less total tissue and more cerebrospinal fluid (p=0.004) for late preterm children compared to full term children. The tissue difference was driven by differences in the cerebrum (p=0.028) and distributed across cortical (p=0.051) and subcortical tissue (p=0.047). Late preterm children had a relatively smaller thalamus (p=0.012) than full term children. Only full term children demonstrated significant decreases in cortical tissue volume (p<0.001) and thickness (p<0.001) with age. Conclusion Late preterm birth may affect cognition, behavior, and brain structure well beyond infancy. PMID:27064239

  4. Risk determinants in early intervention use during the first postnatal year in children born very preterm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early interventions (EI) are recognised for their potential risk-reduction capacity. Although developmental delay is common in children born very preterm reports continue to suggest poor uptake of EI services. This study examined the risk determinants of EI in Australian children born less than 32 weeks gestation during the first year of life. Methods As part of a multi-centre-randomised-trial, 195 children were prospectively studied during their first year of life and EI use, type of follow-up, perinatal, social and parental psychosocial risk factors were collected using questionnaires. Child neurodevelopmental disability-status was assessed at 12-months (cerebral palsy, blind, deaf, developmental quotient 1standard deviation (SD) below mean). The associations between EI and variables were examined using Pearson’s chi-squared test (χ2) and regression techniques. Results A total of 55% of children received EI, 51% attended post discharge neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the remainder attended exclusive primary health care. Risk factors included, 50% perinatal, 19% social and 34% psychosocial and at 12-months 23% were categorised as disabled. Low social risk and NICU follow-up attendance were significantly associated with EI use but only perinatal risk (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7, 5.6, p = <0.01) and disability (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.7, p = 0.04) independently predicted EI use. Conclusions It is reassuring that children with perinatal risk receive EI, opportunity remains to improve EI uptake in families with social and parental psychosocial risk during the first year of life. PMID:24304976

  5. Mental Health of Aging Immigrants and Native-Born Men Across 11 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Though working-age immigrants exhibit lower mortality compared with those domestic-born immigrants, consequences of immigration for mental health remain unclear. We examine whether older immigrants exhibit a mental advantage and whether factors believed to underlie immigrant vulnerability explain disparities. Method. The sample includes 12,247 noninstitutionalized men more than 50 years in 11 European countries. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated the impact of physical health, health behaviors, availability of social support, social participation, citizenship, time since immigration, socioeconomic status (SES), and employment on the mental health of immigrants. Results. Immigrants face 1.60 increased odds of depression despite a physical health advantage, evidenced by 0.74 lower odds of chronic illness. SES and availability of social support were predictive, though acculturation measures were not. Decomposition analysis revealed that only approximately 20% of the variation in depression rates between immigrants and native-born peers were explained by commonly cited risk factors. Conclusions. Despite physical health advantages, older immigrants suffer substantially higher depression rates. Time since immigration does not appear to mitigate depressive symptoms. PMID:23325505

  6. Can the Home Environment Promote Resilience for Children Born Very Preterm in the Context of Social and Medical Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treyvaud, Karli; Inder, Terrie E.; Lee, Katherine J.; Northam, Elisabeth A.; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the home environment and early developmental outcomes were examined in 166 children born very preterm in one tertiary maternity hospital to explore whether a more optimal home environment could promote resilience. In particular, we explored whether this effect was apparent over and above social risk and children's biological…

  7. Self-Regulation in Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight at 2 Years Old: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; Gray, Peter H.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Survival rates for children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are increasing; however, many of these children experience later problems with learning. This study adopted an integrated approach to these problems, involving the self-regulatory tasks of inhibition and delay of gratification and relevant individual factors including…

  8. Social Perception in Children Born at Very Low Birthweight and Its Relationship with Social/Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kathryn E.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that children born very prematurely are at substantially elevated risk for social and behavioral difficulties similar to those seen in full-term children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Methods: To gain insight into core deficits that may underlie these difficulties, in this study, we assessed the social…

  9. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children born in 2008-2009 by questionnaire survey in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Chen, Enfu; Li, Qian; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the determinants of immunization coverage in children born in 2008-2009, living in Zhejiang Province. The World Health Organization's cluster sampling technique was applied. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines was assessed: BCG vaccine, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliomyelitis vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine. Determinants for age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were explored using logistic regression models. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines were all greater than 90%, but the age-appropriate immunization coverage rates for 3 months and for first dose of measles-containing vaccine was 41.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Siblings in household, mother's education level, household registration, socioeconomic level of resident areas, satisfaction with clinical immunization service, and convenient access to local immunization clinic were associated with age-appropriate coverage rates. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates should be given more attention and should be considered as a benchmark to strive for in the future intervention.

  10. ADHD and Infant Disorganized Attachment: A Prospective Study of Children Next-Born after Stillbirth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Carmen; Turton, Penelope; Hughes, Patricia; White, Sarah; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether infant disorganized attachment predicts ADHD at school age. Method: A cohort of 53 children who had been identified as having significant levels of disorganized attachment in infancy is compared to a control group. Symptoms and signs of ADHD at age 7 are evaluated together with a range of relevant maternal variables.…

  11. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, K. E.; Jakobson, L. S.; Saunders, D. R.; Troje, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and matched, full-term controls completed tasks that required the extraction of local motion cues, the ability to perceptually group these cues to extract information about body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children—a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = −.36, p < .05), but positively correlated with the ability to extract identity, r(30) = .45, p < .05). These findings extend previous reports of vulnerability in systems involved in processing dynamic cues in preterm children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools. PMID:25103588

  12. An overview of studies on psychological well-being in children born following assisted reproductive technologies*

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qi-tao; Pan, Pei-pei; Xu, Xiang-rong; Lou, Hang-ying; Lou, Yi-yun; Jin, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of the past 35 years, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been increasingly used worldwide, while debates on their safety have been generated. Birth defects and imprinting disorders were reported in previous research. Thus, the psychological development of children born following ARTs has become a major concern nowadays. This review gives a systematic view of psychological well-being of children conceived by different types of ART, including in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening, and in vitro maturation. The previous studies are analyzed in three sections: (1) cognitive, motor, and language developments, (2) behavior problems and socio-emotional development, and (3) parent-child relationship. We conclude that although the majority of the studies on cognitive, motor, and language developments reported comparable achievements in the ART group vs. the naturally conceived group, lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, worse visual-motor ability or locomotor development, and delayed receptive language competence were found in the ART group. The results on the socio-emotional development were reassuring. As for the behavior problems, a higher prevalence of behavior problems existed in ART children; moreover, ICSI children were found to be at a higher risk of autism than the general population. Meanwhile, ART parents tended to have positive parental attitudes and be more protective of their children. Some suggestions for further research are also given in this review. PMID:24190441

  13. [The possibility of registering in the Spanish Civil Registry children born abroad from surrogate mothers].

    PubMed

    De Barrón Arniches, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    In the Spanish Civil Registry it is now possible to register "natural" children of a homosexual marriage born overseas through surrogate pregnancy. And this is despite article 10.1 of the current Spanish law regarding assisted human reproduction techniques, which declares fully null and void contracts renouncing maternal relationship, and orders imperatively that in these cases, the relationship of children is determined by birth. This article analyses and formulates a criticism regarding the Resolution of the Office of Registries and Notaries, of February 18, 2009, insisting on some relevant issues such as legal security and greater interest of the minor, in the context of the analysis of the facts of the case and the arguments put forward in the resolution.

  14. [LIFE QUALITY OF CHILDREN WITH SMALL ANOMALIES OF HEART DEVELOPMENT, BORN TO PARENTS IRRADIATED IN CHILDHOOD IN THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT].

    PubMed

    Kondrashova, V G; Dombrovskaya, N S

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 162 children with small anomalies of heart development (SAHD) in core group (children born to parents evacuated from the 30-km zone in childhood) and 39 children in the control group. Quality of life of adolescents was assessed by questionnaire MOS-SF-36 in the Russified version (changed by International reseach centre of life quality, Russia, St. Petersburg, 1998). In children of main group with SAHD, was established systemic pathological process involving not only the cardiovascular system, but also an autonomic nervous systems, hemostasis, upper gastro-intestinal tract, hepatobiliary, urinary system, musculoskeletal system and others, which causes polymorphic clinical picture. Quality of life in children with SAHD, born from parents evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone in childhood was reduced in comparison with practically healthy children. The quality life reduction relate, primarily, physical functioning. Clinical polymorphism and reduced quality of life require the development of approaches to improve diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of these patients.

  15. [LIFE QUALITY OF CHILDREN WITH SMALL ANOMALIES OF HEART DEVELOPMENT, BORN TO PARENTS IRRADIATED IN CHILDHOOD IN THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT].

    PubMed

    Kondrashova, V G; Dombrovskaya, N S

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 162 children with small anomalies of heart development (SAHD) in core group (children born to parents evacuated from the 30-km zone in childhood) and 39 children in the control group. Quality of life of adolescents was assessed by questionnaire MOS-SF-36 in the Russified version (changed by International reseach centre of life quality, Russia, St. Petersburg, 1998). In children of main group with SAHD, was established systemic pathological process involving not only the cardiovascular system, but also an autonomic nervous systems, hemostasis, upper gastro-intestinal tract, hepatobiliary, urinary system, musculoskeletal system and others, which causes polymorphic clinical picture. Quality of life in children with SAHD, born from parents evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone in childhood was reduced in comparison with practically healthy children. The quality life reduction relate, primarily, physical functioning. Clinical polymorphism and reduced quality of life require the development of approaches to improve diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:26118021

  16. Autism spectrum disorder in children born preterm—role of exposure to perinatal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Suzanne J.; Strunk, T.; Currie, A.; Prescott, S. L.; Simmer, K.; Whitehouse, A. J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the collective term for neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. Many countries, including Australia, have reported a dramatic increase in the number of diagnoses over the past three decades, with current prevalence of ASD at 1 in every 110 individuals (~1%). The potential role for an immune-mediated mechanism in ASD has been implicated by several studies, and some evidence suggests a potential link between prenatal infection-driven inflammation and subsequent development of ASD. Furthermore, a modest number of contemporary studies have reported a markedly increased prevalence of ASD in children born preterm, who are at highest risk of exposure to perinatal inflammation. However, the mechanisms that underpin the susceptibility to infection-driven inflammation during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth, and how these intersect with the subsequent development of ASD in the offspring, is not understood. This review aims to summarize and discuss the potential mechanisms and evidence for the role of prenatal infection on the central nervous system, and how it may increase the susceptibility for ASD pathogenesis in children born preterm. PMID:23885233

  17. MATERNAL GRIEVING AND THE PERCEPTION OF AND ATTACHMENT TO CHILDREN BORN SUBSEQUENT TO A PERINATAL LOSS.

    PubMed

    Al-Maharma, Dua' Yousef; Abujaradeh, Hiba; Mahmoud, Khadejah Fahmi; Jarrad, Reem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal grieving for perinatal loss (PL) and the perception of and attachment to children born subsequent to a recent PL among mothers in Jordan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 190 mothers of full-term, healthy newborns born subsequent to a recent PL was recruited from seven Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Jordan. These mothers were assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale (L.J. Toedter, J.N. Lasker, & J.M. Alhadeff), 1988, the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (J.T. Condon & C.J. Corkindale, 1998), and the Neonatal Perception Inventory II (E. Broussard, 1979). Results showed a significant negative relationship between grief intensity and the attachment level, r = -.37, p = .000, and a significant positive relationship between the attachment level and neonatal perception, r = .28, p = .000. Mothers' grief intensity was significantly affected by their demographic characteristics; however, there was no significant relationship between grief intensity and neonatal perception, r = .23, p = .23. Perinatal grief was negatively related to maternal attachment to the subsequent child. Nurses should address bereaved mothers and their children who might be at risk for developing attachment disturbances to facilitate positive adaptation to the subsequent pregnancy and parenthood.

  18. MATERNAL GRIEVING AND THE PERCEPTION OF AND ATTACHMENT TO CHILDREN BORN SUBSEQUENT TO A PERINATAL LOSS.

    PubMed

    Al-Maharma, Dua' Yousef; Abujaradeh, Hiba; Mahmoud, Khadejah Fahmi; Jarrad, Reem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal grieving for perinatal loss (PL) and the perception of and attachment to children born subsequent to a recent PL among mothers in Jordan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 190 mothers of full-term, healthy newborns born subsequent to a recent PL was recruited from seven Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Jordan. These mothers were assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale (L.J. Toedter, J.N. Lasker, & J.M. Alhadeff), 1988, the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (J.T. Condon & C.J. Corkindale, 1998), and the Neonatal Perception Inventory II (E. Broussard, 1979). Results showed a significant negative relationship between grief intensity and the attachment level, r = -.37, p = .000, and a significant positive relationship between the attachment level and neonatal perception, r = .28, p = .000. Mothers' grief intensity was significantly affected by their demographic characteristics; however, there was no significant relationship between grief intensity and neonatal perception, r = .23, p = .23. Perinatal grief was negatively related to maternal attachment to the subsequent child. Nurses should address bereaved mothers and their children who might be at risk for developing attachment disturbances to facilitate positive adaptation to the subsequent pregnancy and parenthood. PMID:27333264

  19. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  20. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  1. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  2. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Rock, K S; Wood, D A; Keeling, M J

    2015-09-01

    The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host-vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought. PMID:26342239

  3. Antecedents and correlates of visual field deficits in children born extremely preterm

    PubMed Central

    Msall, Michael E.; Skranes, Jon; Dammann, Olaf; Allred, Elizabeth; Leviton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Aim We sought to identify the antecedents and correlates of visual field deficits (VFDs) at age 2 years among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Methods The visual fields of 1023 infants were assessed by confrontation at age 2 years. We compared the ante-and postnatal characteristics and exposures of the 65 infants with a VFD to their peers who did not have a VFD. We used time-oriented logistic regression risk models to assess the associations of potential antecedents and correlates with a VFD. Results In the final regression model, VFD was associated with maternal consumption of aspirin during the current pregnancy, recurring/persistent acidemia during the first 3 postnatal days, cerebral ventriculomegaly seen on neonatal ultrasound, prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and supplemental oxygen and ventilator dependence at 36 weeks post-menstrual age. Birth before the 27th week was also associated with increased risk, but its significance was diminished by the addition of postnatal variables. Conclusion In this sample of extremely preterm born infants, antenatal as well as early and late postnatal characteristics and exposures are associated with an increased risk of having a VFD. Our study adds to our knowledge about the complex etiology of visual deficits of prematurity, and supports a multifactorial cause of these deficits. PMID:25455711

  4. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  5. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  6. Salivary and hair glucocorticoids and sleep in very preterm children during school age.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Natalie; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Stalder, Tobias; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wellmann, Sven; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm birth involves increased stress for the child, which may lead to programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and poor sleep in later life. Moreover, there is evidence for a relationship between HPA axis activity and sleep. However, research with objective sleep measures in very preterm children during school-age is rare. Eighty-five healthy children born very preterm (<32nd gestational week) and 91 full-term children aged 7-12 years were recruited for the present study. To assess HPA axis activity, salivary cortisol was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. In addition, hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to assess cumulative endocrine activity over the preceding months. One night of in-home polysomnographic sleep assessment was conducted to assess sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture. Children born very preterm showed significantly lower levels of cortisol at awakening and lower overall post-awakening cortisol secretion, lower cortisone in hair, and earlier sleep onset than full-term children. Across the whole sample, overall post-awakening cortisol secretion was positively related to sleep onset time and negatively to sleep duration. The association between prematurity status and post-awakening cortisol secretion was partially mediated by earlier sleep onset time. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a possible down-regulation of the HPA axis activity and slightly earlier sleep phase in very preterm children during school age. PMID:27434634

  7. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  8. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.

  9. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases. PMID:25991677

  10. Children Born through Reproductive Donation: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Roman, Gabriela; Jadva, Vasanti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parenting and children's adjustment were examined in 30 surrogacy families, 31 egg donation families, 35 donor insemination families, and 53 natural conception families. Methods: Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression,…

  11. Lyme disease: an increasing health risk for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D B; Pinger, R R; Hahn, E J

    1987-08-01

    Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with noticeable short-term and serious long-term consequences, is the most common tick-borne disease. First described in 1977, Lyme disease poses a significant health threat to school-age children exposed to the tick vector primarily in three specific regions of the United States. This article describes Lyme disease and its clinical signs and symptoms, and discusses the school nurse's role in identification, management, and prevention of this new health risk.

  12. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  13. The Lineage of Children Born by Sperm Donation: A Shiite Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Saeid Nazari

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the meager role of the masculine agent in infertility (the low number of infertile men than women infertile), there are men whose wives are unable to become pregnant due to the absence of sperm, decreased numbers of sperm or lack of sufficient motile sperm. Utilizing donated sperm is a method that enables these families to have children. The use of this method prompts us to ask different questions, among which is the quality of the child’s relation to the sperm donor, the sterile man and his wife. In this research we intend to study the issue of lineage of those who use heterogeneous insemination. Materials and Methods This analytical-descriptive research gathered relevant data in a Literature search. After a description of the fundamentals and definitions, juridical texts were subsequently analyzed and one of the viewpoints regarding lineage related to infertility treatment by donated sperm was selected. Results There are three persons that have a possible legal relationship to the child born from this method -the sperm donor (biological father), the wife’s husband (social father) and the wife (mother). In treating infertility with donated sperm, there is neither a third party to make the possibility of attribution of the child nor is there a doubt that the child is the result of insemination of the woman’s egg with the donated sperm rather than the husband’s sperm as he has a lack of sperm. Conclusion The child born by heterogeneous insemination only has a relation with the sperm donor and the woman contributing her egg. This child is eligible for all parental rights and obligations. These children are not related to the sterile man. PMID:26644865

  14. High intake of dietary long-chain ω-3 fatty acids is associated with lower blood pressure in children born with low birth weight: NHANES 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Skilton, Michael R; Raitakari, Olli T; Celermajer, David S

    2013-05-01

    Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Recently, we found an inverse association between serum ω-3 fatty acids and systolic blood pressure in young adults born with impaired fetal growth. We investigated the associations of dietary intake in childhood of the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with blood pressure parameters in children born with reduced birth weight. We analyzed data from 3457 children aged 8 to 15 years participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls, birth weight by questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured. Systolic blood pressure was 1.1 mm Hg higher in those with reduced (<10th centile) compared with normal birth weight (≥ 10th centile), consistent with previous findings, although not statistically significant (P=0.40); however, pulse pressure was significantly higher in these children (3.4 mm Hg). In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4]). High-dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in children born with reduced birth weight. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure in those with impaired fetal growth. PMID:23460284

  15. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  16. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  17. Children Born from Artificial Reproductive Technology: Implications for Children, Parents, and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michelle Fryer; Gilkerson, Deanna

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes information on possible infertility treatments and discusses the needs they create and the issues they raise for children and parents. Offers ideas on what early childhood caregivers and educators can do to help families who are engaging in these treatments. (JW)

  18. [Ideal ages for marriage and having children].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1994-01-01

    Referring to a 1992 study by Freedman and Blanc, the author of this paper states that during the 15-year period between 1965-70 and 1980-85 the fertility rate in developing countries dropped by 30% and reports that in Turkey the drop for the same period was around 46%, based on analysis using data from a 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey. Using the same data, the author looks at what women consider the ideal age for marriage; bearing their first and last children and the ideal intervals between pregnancies, by region; settlement type; level of education and age groups. These ideals are examined to determine their effect on fertility rates, and it is found that women both get married and give birth to their first child sooner than they would prefer. It is also observed that the interval between births is shorter than women would wish. According to the study, Turkish women would like to have an average of 2.1 children, although the actual figure is higher. It is also noted that, on the average, women would like to have their last child at age 30 and would like to prevent pregnancy after this age. However, many women, despite this wish, do not actually use modern birth control techniques. It is therefore concluded that by increasing the awareness and availability of effective modern family planning, there is potential to further reduce Turkey's fertility rates.

  19. [Chromosome aberration frequency in children with chronic thyroiditis born before and after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor].

    PubMed

    Shemetun, O V; Talan, O O; Pilins'ka, M A

    2004-01-01

    Children with chronic thyroiditis born before and after Chernobyl accident have been investigated cytogenetically using G-banding staining. It was shown that the chromosome instability and sensitivity to cesium radioisotopes increased and the pathological process in a thyroid gland implemented in persons exposed to 131I in their childhood and living in iodine-deficient territories.

  20. Return Migration, Investment in Children, and Intergenerational Mobility: Comparing Sons of Foreign- and Native-Born Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native- and foreign-born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return…

  1. Psychological Vulnerability in Children Next-Born after Stillbirth: A Case-Control Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Penelope; Badenhorst, William; Pawlby, Susan; White, Sarah; Hughes, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Background: Case studies and anecdotal accounts suggest that perinatal loss may impact upon other children in the family, including those born subsequent to loss. However, there is a dearth of systematically collected quantitative data on this potentially vulnerable group. Methods: Case-controlled follow-up of 52 mothers with history of stillbirth…

  2. The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Judith A.; Pollack, Harold

    This study used linked maternal-child data from the 1997-1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the wellbeing of children born to teenage mothers. Two econometric techniques explored the causal impact of early childbearing on subsequent child and adolescent outcomes. First, a fixed-effect, cousin-comparison analysis controlled for…

  3. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    PubMed

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  4. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants.

  5. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  6. Preterm birth and behaviour problems in infants and preschool-age children: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Arpi, Elena; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The behaviour problems of children born preterm at school age are well known, but there have been few studies on the behaviour problems of preterm-born infants during infancy and at preschool age. Fourteen cohort studies published in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed with a focus on the type, occurrence, comorbidity, stability, prediction, perinatal, social, and relational risk factors for behaviour problems of preterm-born children in infancy (0-2y) and at preschool age (3-5y). The relational risk factor was considered in an additional four papers. Very-preterm, very-low-birthweight, and moderately-preterm children, in both age groups, show more behaviour problems than term-born comparison children even after perinatal and social risk factors and cognitive performance have been controlled for. Poor social/interactive skills, poor behavioural and emotional self-regulation, emotional difficulties, and reduced attention are the most common behaviour problems. Behaviour problems in infancy are predictive of later behaviour problems and they should be included in follow-up programmes.

  7. Home drowning among preschool age Mexican children.

    PubMed Central

    Celis, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619

  8. At What Age Should Children Engage in Agricultural Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jingzhen; O'Gara, Erin; Cheng, Gang; Kelly, Kevin M.; Ramirez, Marizen; Burmeister, Leon F.; Merchant, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared parents' perceived-as-appropriate ages with actual-performance ages for their children engaging in selected agricultural tasks or practices, and we examined the factors associated with age discrepancy. Methods: We analyzed data from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study collected among parents of children age 17 or younger.…

  9. Measuring inappropriate medical diagnosis and treatment in survey data: The case of ADHD among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Morrill, Melinda S; Parente, Stephen T

    2010-09-01

    We exploit the discontinuity in age when children start kindergarten generated by state eligibility laws to examine whether relative age is a significant determinant of ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Using a regression discontinuity model and exact dates of birth, we find that children born just after the cutoff, who are relatively old-for-grade, have a significantly lower incidence of ADHD diagnosis and treatment compared with similar children born just before the cutoff date, who are relatively young-for-grade. Since ADHD is an underlying neurological problem where incidence rates should not change dramatically from one birth date to the next, these results suggest that age relative to peers in class, and the resulting differences in behavior, directly affects a child's probability of being diagnosed with and treated for ADHD.

  10. Examining Play among Young Children in Single-Age and Multi-Age Preschool Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youhne, Mia Song

    2009-01-01

    Advocates for multi-age classrooms claim multi-age groupings benefit children (Brynes, Shuster, & Jones, 1994). Currently, there is a lack of research examining play among students in multi-age classrooms. If indeed there is a positive benefit of play among children, research is needed to examine these behaviors among and between young children in…

  11. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  12. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Kunoee, Asja; Nielsen, Jens; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the children were vaccinated within 48 hours of birth, with considerable variation between birthplaces. Only 64% (306/475) of the children had received all four vaccinations through their general practitioner (GP) at the age of two years, and 10% (47/475) of the children had received no hepatitis B vaccinations at all. Enhanced surveillance was correlated positively with coverage of birth vaccination but not with coverage at the GP. No or few prenatal examinations were a risk factor for incomplete vaccination at the GP. Maternity wards and GPs are encouraged to revise their vaccination procedures and routines for pregnant women, mothers with chronic HBV infection and their children.

  13. An initial investigation of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a moderator of treatment outcome for young children born premature with externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Bagner, Daniel M; Graziano, Paulo A; Jaccard, James; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Vohr, Betty R; Lester, Barry M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the moderating effect of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a behavioral parent-training intervention, for young children born premature. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 28 young children (mean age of 37.79 months), who were born <37 weeks gestation and presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems, were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. RSA, which provides an approximate marker of individual differences in cardiac vagal tone, was measured during a baseline period. Past research has generally shown that higher levels of baseline RSA correlate with various positive psychological states (e.g., empathy, sustained attention), whereas lower levels of baseline RSA correlate with less optimal psychological states (e.g., higher externalizing behavior problems). Results indicated that baseline RSA significantly interacted with treatment condition in predicting changes in child disruptive behavior. Specifically, low levels of baseline RSA were associated with greater improvements in child disruptive behavior following PCIT. While acknowledging the caveats of measuring and interpreting RSA and the need to include a sympathetic-linked cardiac measure in future research, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with lower capacity for emotion regulation receive even greater treatment gains. Future research should also examine the moderating effect of RSA in larger samples and explore the potential mediating role of RSA on behavioral parenting interventions.

  14. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  15. Infants born large-for-gestational-age display slower growth in early infancy, but no epigenetic changes at birth

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Valentina; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Derraik, José G. B.; Pan, Zengxiang; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan; Craigie, Susan; Stone, Peter; Sadler, Lynn; Ahlsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the growth patterns of infants born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) from birth to age 1 year compared to those born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). In addition, we investigated possible epigenetic changes associated with being born LGA. Seventy-one newborns were classified by birth weight as AGA (10th–90th percentile; n = 42) or LGA (>90th percentile; n = 29). Post-natal follow-up until age 1 year was performed with clinical assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analysed on umbilical tissue in 19 AGA and 27 LGA infants. At birth, LGA infants had greater weight (p < 0.0001), length (p < 0.0001), ponderal index (p = 0.020), as well as greater head (p < 0.0001), chest (p = 0.044), and abdominal (p = 0.007) circumferences than AGA newborns. LGA infants were still larger at the age of 3 months, but by age 6 months there were no more differences between groups, due to higher length and weight increments in AGA infants between 0 and 6 months (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Genome-wide analysis showed no epigenetic differences between LGA and AGA infants. Overall, LGA infants had slower growth in early infancy, being anthropometrically similar to AGA infants by 6 months of age. In addition, differences between AGA and LGA newborns were not associated with epigenetic changes. PMID:26419812

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  17. Age Banding and Its Impact on Children and Their Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Claire; Maynard, Sally

    2012-01-01

    The study described here investigates the thoughts and opinions of young readers related to age banding on children's books. Emphasizing the views of children themselves, rather than adults such as parents, librarians, teachers and authors, the research involved a series of three focus groups involving children aged 11-13 years. The discussions…

  18. Poverty among Children Born Outside of Marriage: Preliminary Findings from the National Survey of America's Families. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Ariel

    This study examines whether children born outside of marriage and currently living in single-mother families are more likely to be poor than children in single-mother families who were born to married parents. Using the 1997 National Survey of America's Families, the study finds that among children living with single mothers, those born outside of…

  19. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  20. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Zera, Chloe A; Edwards, Janet W Rich; Oken, Emily; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether delivery by caesarean section is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Design Prospective pre-birth cohort study (Project Viva). Setting Eight outpatient multi-specialty practices based in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants We recruited women during early pregnancy between 1999 and 2002, and followed their children after birth. We included 1255 children with body composition measured at 3 years of age. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) z-score, obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile), and sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses, at 3 years of age. Results 284 children (22.6 percent) were delivered by caesarean section. At age 3, 15.7% of children delivered by caesarean section were obese, compared with 7.5% of children born vaginally. In multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, birth weight, and other covariates, birth by caesarean section was associated with a higher odds of obesity at age 3 (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.36 to 3.23), higher mean BMI z-score (0.20 units, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33), and higher sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses (0.94 mm, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51). Conclusions Infants delivered by caesarean section may be at increased risk of childhood obesity. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:22623615

  1. Prevalence of enamel defects and associated risk factors in both dentitions in preterm and full term born children

    PubMed Central

    CRUVINEL, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; GRAVINA, Danuze Batista Lamas; AZEVEDO, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; de REZENDE, Catharina Siqueira; BEZERRA, Ana Cristina Barreto; de TOLEDO, Orlando Ayrton

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of enamel defects and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely born children and full-term born children born at Regional Hospital of Asa Sul, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Material and Methods Eighty 5-10-year-old children of both genders were examined, being 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born full term (G2). The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were retrieved using a questionnaire and data obtained from clinical examination were recorded. The teeth were examined and the presence of enamel defects was diagnosed according to the DDE Index and registered in odontograms. Subsequently, the defects were categorized in four groups according to one of the criteria proposed in 1992 by the FDI Commission on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology. Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, Kappa, Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results 75% of total sample had enamel defects. There was a major prevalence of hypoplasia of the enamel in G1 (p<0.001). There was a significant relationship between low weight and presence of the imperfections on the enamel in G1 on the primary dentition. The logistic regression model showed that the other risk factors such as monthly per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases were not associated with enamel defects and caries. Conclusions Pre-term labor can be a predisposing factor for the presence of the enamel hypoplasia in the primary dentition. PMID:22858696

  2. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  3. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  4. [Demands of home care of children born exposed to HIV in the perspective of the environmental theory].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Aguiar, Larissa de Fátima Pontes; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of home care of children born exposed to HIV in the perspective of the environmental theory. It consists of an exploratory descriptive qualitative study, developed between January and April of 2011. Study participants were ten HIV-infected mothers with infants exposed to the virus, living in Fortaleza, Ceará. The data collection instruments included a disposable digital camera and forms to obtain information on health associated with the home environment. Results were contextualized according to the theory and organized into the following categories: vulnerabilities associated with the physical structure of the house; contaminated intra and peridomestic air; unclean water used for drinking; sanitation and sewerage system; lighting and ventilation of the house. In conclusion, the home environment offers unfavorable environmental conditions for the child. Targeted interventions in the home environment are necessary so as to promote the health of children born exposed to HIV. PMID:24344586

  5. [Demands of home care of children born exposed to HIV in the perspective of the environmental theory].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Aguiar, Larissa de Fátima Pontes; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of home care of children born exposed to HIV in the perspective of the environmental theory. It consists of an exploratory descriptive qualitative study, developed between January and April of 2011. Study participants were ten HIV-infected mothers with infants exposed to the virus, living in Fortaleza, Ceará. The data collection instruments included a disposable digital camera and forms to obtain information on health associated with the home environment. Results were contextualized according to the theory and organized into the following categories: vulnerabilities associated with the physical structure of the house; contaminated intra and peridomestic air; unclean water used for drinking; sanitation and sewerage system; lighting and ventilation of the house. In conclusion, the home environment offers unfavorable environmental conditions for the child. Targeted interventions in the home environment are necessary so as to promote the health of children born exposed to HIV.

  6. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  7. Socio-Economic Achievements of Individuals Born Very Preterm at the Age of 27 to 29 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Rene; Hansen, Bo M.; Anderson, Anne-Marie Nybo; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To describe the socio economic achievement of individuals born very preterm (VPT) at the age of 27 to 29 years. Method: Demographic and social data were extracted from national registers for all individuals born between 1974 and 1976 in Denmark (n = 208 656). Of these, 203 283 individuals were alive in 2006. We compared VPT individuals…

  8. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  9. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  10. Speech and language skills in children who required neonatal intensive care. II. Linguistic skills at 6 1/2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jennische, M; Sedin, G

    1999-04-01

    Linguistic skills at 6 1/2 y of age were examined in a cohort of 284 children requiring neonatal intensive care (NIC) and in 40 controls. Ten linguistic areas were assessed. The results are presented for gestational age groups. The 10th percentile score of the controls was identified in each linguistic area. Seventy percent of the controls and <27% of the NIC children had no score lower than the 10th percentile score. Scores lower than the 10th percentile score were more common in NIC children born at term or at 23-31 wk, and within the latter group in those born at 28-31 wk, than in those born at 32-36 wk gestational age. The linguistic areas of auditory discrimination, imitation of articulatory positions and imitation of sentences were most frequently affected. NIC children born at 32-36 wk performed better in the last two areas than those born at <32 wk. To be a twin and born at 28-31 wk was associated with an increased risk of having more than five scores lower than the 10th percentile score of the controls.

  11. Routine vaccination and vaccine-preventable infections in children born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers. European Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Dunn, D T; Newell, M L; Peckham, C S; Vanden Eijden, S

    1998-04-01

    Information on vaccinations and vaccine-preventable infections collected in a prospective study of children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers was analysed for reports of adverse reactions and to estimate the clinical efficacy of vaccines. No vaccinated, HIV-infected child developed measles (56 child-years' follow-up), mumps (33), rubella (33) or pertussis (239), and only one adverse reaction - to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) - was reported. These findings provide limited evidence of the safety and efficacy of routine vaccination of HIV-infected children. PMID:9628307

  12. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  13. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior…

  14. Children who were very low birth weight: development and academic achievement at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1989-02-01

    Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ.

  15. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24–32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38–41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children’s behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end - study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime - diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at

  16. National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ≥10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children. PMID:25196167

  17. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  18. Temperament and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…

  19. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  20. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  1. Measuring Children's Age Stereotyping Using a Modified Piagetian Conservation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong See, Sheree T.; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pertman, S. Quinn

    2012-01-01

    We examined five-year-old-children's age stereotyping using a modified Piagetian conservation task. Children were asked if two lines of objects were the "same" after one line had been made longer (transformed). A conversational account posits that children's answers reflect assumptions about the asker's motivation for the question (Schwarz, 1996).…

  2. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  3. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  4. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  5. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  6. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  7. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  8. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  9. Hearing Levels of Children by Age and Sex: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Huber, Paul

    This report contains estimates of hearing levels for children 6 to 11 years of age in the United States as determined in the second cycle of the Health Examination Survey, conducted during 1963-1965. A probability sample (N=7,119) was selected to represent the 24 million children 6 to 11 years of age in the noninstitutional population. Hearing…

  10. Specific language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents are associated with prematurity after controlling for IQ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

    2011-04-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N=100) included 9-16-year old children born before 36 weeks gestation and weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n=65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n=35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β=-.27, p<.05, R(2)=.07, verbal memory, β=.31, p<.05, R(2)=.09, and reading comprehension, β=.28, p<.05, R(2)=.08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm.

  11. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 weeks gestation weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n = 65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n = 35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β = −.27, p < .05, R2 = .07, verbal memory, β = .31, p < .05, R2 = .09, and reading comprehension, β = .28, p < .05, R2 = .08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-age children and adolescents born preterm. PMID:21195100

  12. Parent-reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in US-born children: an assessment of changes within birth cohorts from the 2003 to the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Boyle, Coleen A; Kogan, Michael D; Drews, Carolyn; Devine, Owen

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) was twice the 2003 NSCH estimate for autism. From each NSCH, we selected children born in the US from 1990 to 2000. We estimated autism prevalence within each 1-year birth cohort to hold genetic and non-genetic prenatal factors constant. Prevalence differences across surveys thus reflect survey measurement changes and/or external identification effects. In 2003, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with autism. In 2007, parents were asked whether their child was ever diagnosed with an ASD and whether s/he currently had an ASD. For the 1997-2000 birth cohorts (children aged 3-6 years in 2003 and 7-10 years in 2007), relative increases between 2003 autism estimates and 2007 ASD estimates were 200-600 %. For the 1990-1996 birth cohorts (children aged 7-13 years in 2003) increases were lower; nonetheless, differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "ever ASD" estimates were >100 % for 6 cohorts and differences between 2003 estimates and 2007 "current ASD" estimates were >80 % for 3 cohorts. The magnitude of most birth cohort-specific differences suggests continuing diagnosis of children in the community played a sizable role in the 2003-2007 ASD prevalence increase. While some increase was expected for 1997-2000 cohorts, because some children have later diagnoses coinciding with school entry, increases were also observed for children ages ≥ 7 years in 2003. Given past ASD subtype studies, the 2003 "autism" question might have missed a modest amount (≤ 33 %) of ASDs other than autistic disorder. PMID:22476793

  13. Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2011-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. PMID:20872057

  14. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  15. Comparisons of levels and predictors of mothers’ and fathers’ engagement with their preschool aged children

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers’ and fathers’ engagement with their preschool aged children: socialization, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialization, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved than mothers in physical play. Mothers’ greatest engagement was in caregiving, whereas fathers were about equally engaged in didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers who contributed more to family income were less engaged in socialization and caregiving, whereas fathers with nontraditional beliefs about their roles were more engaged in didactic and caregiving. Children with greater temperamental effortful control received more didactic and physical play engagement from mothers. Fathers were more likely to engage in socialization activities with earlier-born children, whereas mothers were more likely to engage in socialization with girls high in effortful control. Mothers were more likely to engage in physical play with boys and with later-born children. PMID:23645966

  16. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  17. Clearance of HBV DNA in immunized children born to HBsAg-positive mothers, years after being diagnosed with occult HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, A; Yahyapour, Y; Poortahmasebi, V; Shahmoradi, S; Roggendorf, M; Karimzadeh, H; Alavian, S M; Jazayeri, S M

    2016-04-01

    In a previous study, we observed immunoprophylaxis failure due to occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) despite the presence of adequate levels of anti-HBs in 21 (28%) of 75 children born to HBsAg-positive mothers. The aim of the study was to explore the maintenance of this cryptic condition in this population. Of 21 OBI-positive children, 17 were enrolled. HBV serological profiles were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Highly sensitive real-time and standard PCR followed by direct sequencing were applied in positive cases. The mean age (±SD) of studied patients was 6.57 ± 2.75 years. All children still were negative for HBsAg. All but one (94%) were negative for HBV DNA. Only two children were positive for anti-HBc. The results of the most recent anti-HBs titration showed that 4 (23.5%) and 13 (76.5%) had low (<10 IU/mL) and adequate (>10 IU/mL) levels of anti-HBs, respectively. The only still OBI-positive patient had an HBV DNA level of 50 copy/mL, carried the G145R mutation when tested in 2009 and again in 2013 in the 'a' determinant region of the surface protein. Further follow-up showed that after 18 months, he was negative for HBV DNA. In high-risk children, the initial HBV DNA positivity early in the life (vertical infection) does not necessarily indicate a prolonged persistence of HBV DNA (occult infection). Adequate levels of anti-HBs after vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin immunoprophylaxis following birth could eventually clear the virus as time goes by. Periodic monitoring of these children at certain time intervals is highly recommended.

  18. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  19. Children Born After Unplanned Pregnancies and Cognitive Development at 3 Years: Social Differentials in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de La Rochebrochard, Elise; Joshi, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Children born after an unplanned pregnancy have poorer developmental scores. This could arise from less favorable parenting but also could reflect confounding from the socioeconomic circumstances. In a large representative sample in the United Kingdom, the Millennium Cohort Study (2001–2005), cognitive delay at 3 years was explored with the Bracken Assessment. Its association with unplanned pregnancy was studied in logistic models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the family, the child's characteristics, and parenting behavior. Stratification by the mother's educational level (grouped into 3 categories) was explored. Of 12,182 children included in the analysis, 41% were born after a pregnancy reported by the mother to have been a “surprise.” Such unplanned pregnancies were associated in univariate analysis with more cognitive delay. Among mothers with a low or middle level of education, this association vanished when socioeconomic circumstances were controlled. Among mothers with a high level of education, the risk of cognitive delay remained significantly and unexplainedly raised after unplanned pregnancies, despite controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and parental behavior. In conclusion, for socially disadvantaged children, having resulted from an unplanned pregnancy does not seem to increase their already disproportionate risk of cognitive delay. Births after unplanned conceptions are mainly a symptom rather than a source of disadvantage. PMID:23887043

  20. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction. PMID:26915737

  1. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  2. A Profile of Single Parents: A Descriptive Study of Single Parents Whose Children Were Born Out of Wedlock, Fiscal Year 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Nancy S.

    Births occurring each year in North Dakota of children born out of wedlock impacts the state both financially and in terms of the utilization of social services. The Department of Human Services provides financial assistance as well as services to parents of out of wedlock children in order to help the mother and/or father develop better parenting…

  3. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium—SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge – 270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05). The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development. PMID:27008092

  4. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05). The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development.

  5. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  6. Placental Insufficiency in Fetuses That Slow in Growth but Are Born Appropriate for Gestational Age: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bardien, Nadia; Whitehead, Clare L.; Tong, Stephen; Ugoni, Antony; McDonald, Susan; Walker, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether fetuses that slow in growth but are then born appropriate for gestational age (AGA, birthweight >10th centile) demonstrate ultrasound and clinical evidence of placental insufficiency. Methods Prospective longitudinal study of 48 pregnancies reaching term and a birthweight >10th centile. We estimated fetal weight by ultrasound at 28 and 36 weeks, and recorded birthweight to determine the relative change in customised weight across two timepoints: 28–36 weeks and 28 weeks-birth. The relative change in weight centiles were correlated with fetoplacental Doppler findings performed at 36 weeks. We also examined whether a decline in growth trajectory in fetuses born AGA was associated with operative deliveries performed for suspected intrapartum compromise. Results The middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI) showed a linear association with fetal growth trajectory. Lower MCA-PI readings (reflecting greater diversion of blood supply to the brain) were significantly associated with a decline in fetal growth, both between 28–36 weeks (p = 0.02), and 28 weeks-birth (p = 0.0002). The MCA-PI at 36 weeks was significantly higher among those with a relative weight centile fall <20%, compared to those with a moderate centile fall of 20–30% (mean MCA-PI 1.94 vs 1.61; p<0.05), or severe centile fall of >30% (mean MCA-PI 1.94 vs 1.56; p<0.01). Of 43 who labored, operative delivery for suspected intrapartum fetal compromise was required in 12 cases; 9/18 (50%) cases where growth slowed, and 3/25 (12%) where growth trajectory was maintained (p = 0.01). Conclusions Slowing in growth across the third trimester among fetuses subsequently born AGA was associated with ultrasound and clinical features of placental insufficiency. Such fetuses may represent an under-recognised cohort at increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:26730589

  7. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  8. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  9. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  10. Increased Risk of Mortality Due to Interpersonal Violence in Foreign-Born Women of Reproductive Age: A Swedish Register-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Essén, Birgitta; Esscher, Annika; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    Violence against women is an increasing public health concern, with assault leading to death as the most extreme outcome. Previous findings indicate that foreign-born women living in Sweden are more exposed to interpersonal violence than Swedish-born women. The current study investigates mortality due to interpersonal violence in comparison with other external causes of death among women of reproductive age in Sweden, with focus on country of birth. Foreign-born women and especially those from countries with low and very low gender equity levels had increased risk of mortality due to interpersonal violence, thus implicating lack of empowerment as a contributing factor.

  11. Racial Differences in Obesity-Related Risk Factors Between 2-Year-Old Children Born of Overweight Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Stroo, Marissa; Lee, Chien-Ti; Bazemore, Sharnail; Blocker, Brooke; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigate racial differences in a range of obesity-related socio-behavioral risk factors in children born of obese mothers. Methods 142 Black and 151 White 2-year-old children and their parents were surveyed on their physical activity environment, food environment, parental role modeling, eating behaviors, feeding practices, child physical activity, dietary intake, and eating behaviors; body mass index (BMI) for parents and children (BMI z-score) were calculated. Results In bivariate analyses, Black families reported significantly more risk factors for early-childhood obesity than White families, including greater availability of soda, more television viewing, and poorer dietary intake. In multivariate analyses adjusting for maternal and socioeconomic factors, the differences between Black and White families on factors including television watching and dietary intake remained significant. Conclusion These data show a greater number of risk factors for obesity among Black children and their families compared with White children even after adjustment for maternal BMI and socioeconomic status. PMID:25797946

  12. Evolving Identities among Russian-Born Buriat Mongolian Children in a Chinese Bilingual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartor, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses identity issues among a specific group of Indigenous youth, young Buriat Mongolian students, born in Russia, who struggled to understand their sense of cultural identity while living and studying in Chinese Inner Mongolia. This qualitative research project employed ethnographic methodology. Sociocultural theory, specifically…

  13. Federal Act on the Equalization of the Status of Children Born Outside of Marriage with Respect to Inheritance Law and the Safeguarding of the Marital Home for the Surviving Spouse (Inheritance Law Amendment Act 1989), 13 December 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Act removes the last major Austrian legal provisions discriminating against children born out of marriage by repealing sections of the Inheritance Law making distinctions between such children and children born within marriage. The Act also increases the power of a surviving spouse to live in the marital home even if the home has not been inherited by that spouse.

  14. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  15. Sustained attention and unintentional injury among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bennett Murphy, L; Caroline, E; Rose, C L

    2001-06-01

    This study examined vigilance in preschool-aged children and explored the relationship between vigilance and unintentional injury. There were 28 participating children, aged 4 and 5 years, who completed a computerized vigilance task for two 5-min sessions. The task generated measures of correct detections, false alarms, reaction time, and the signal detection indices of d' and c. Primary caregivers completed daily injury phone journals for a 4-week period. Results indicated that age and signal probability affected vigilance. Older children made more correct detections, had greater perceptual sensitivity, and performed in patterns similar to adults. Performance was enhanced in the high signal probability condition. In addition, vigilance indicators of perceptual sensitivity and response bias were predictive of injury, while age was not. Specifically, children with lower perceptual sensitivity scores, and who were less responsive to the vigilance task, experienced more unintentional injuries over the course of the study.

  16. Morning cortisol secretion in school-age children is related to the sleep pattern of the preceding night.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance in childhood is common and a risk factor for poor mental health. Evidence indicates that disturbed sleep is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity. Knowledge regarding the association between HPAA-activity and objective sleep measures particularly regarding sleep architecture in school-age children is missing. Sleep-electroencephalography was administered to 113 children aged 6-10 years (including 58 children born very preterm and 55 born at term) during one night at the children's homes and sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture were assessed. To assess the cortisol awakening response at the following morning, cortisol secretion was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Regression analyses controlling child age, gender, prematurity status, and the awakening time revealed that morning cortisol secretion was negatively associated with sleep duration and slow wave sleep and positively associated with the relative amount of Stage 2 sleep during the preceding night. In addition, morning cortisol secretion linearly increased with age. In conclusion, associations of sleep disturbance with poor mental health may be confounded with altered HPAA-activity.

  17. Oligosaccharide Composition of Breast Milk Influences Survival of Uninfected Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Lusaka, Zambia12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Bode, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have multiple immunomodulatory functions that influence child health. Objective: In this study we investigated whether HMO composition influences survival to 2 y of age in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children during and after breastfeeding. Methods: In the context of an early weaning trial in 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, we conducted a nested case-cohort analysis of mortality to 2 y of age among 103 HIV-infected and 143 HEU children. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo postpartum were analyzed for HMO content. Samples were selected to include mothers of all HIV-infected children detected by 6 wk of age, of whom 63 died at <2 y of age; mothers of all HEU children who died at <2 y of age (n = 66); and a random sample of 77 HEU survivors. Associations before and after weaning in HIV-infected and HEU infants separately were investigated by using Cox models. Results: Among HEU children, higher maternal breast-milk concentrations of 2-linked fucosylated HMOs [2′-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I] (HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) as well as non–2-linked fucosylated HMOs (3-fucosyllactose and LNFP II/III; HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67) were significantly associated with reduced mortality during, but not after, breastfeeding after adjustment for confounders. Breastfeeding was protective against mortality only in HEU children with high concentrations of fucosylated HMOs. Among HIV-infected children, no consistent associations between HMOs and mortality were observed, but breastfeeding was protective against mortality. Conclusions: The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk may explain some of the benefits of breastfeeding in HEU children. HIV infection may modulate some of the consequences of HMOs on child survival. PMID:25527660

  18. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  19. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  20. Attitudes Toward Animals: Age-Related Development Among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a study's findings on children's (N=267) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward animals and natural habitats. Research results indicate that existence of three stages in the development of children's perceptions of animals. Major differences in age, sex, ethnicity and urban/rural residence were also noted. (ML)

  1. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  2. Sentence Completion to Assess Children's Views about Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Lee, Shuko; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Sentence completion exercises require students to give open-ended responses to prompts. The first purpose of this article is to describe the method of sentence completion to assess middle-school children's attitudes and beliefs about aging. The second purpose is to describe the patterns of characteristics that children associate with…

  3. Population based, controlled study of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders in low birthweight children at 11 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Elgen, I; Sommerfelt, K; Markestad, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the risk of long term behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders associated with being born with low birth weight. Design/study groups: A population based, controlled follow up study at 11 years of age of 130 low birthweight (LBW) children weighing less than 2000 g at birth who were without major handicaps, and a random sample of 131 normal birthweight (NBW) children born at term weighing over 3000 g. Main outcome measures: Validated questionnaires addressing behaviour completed by mothers and teachers and child evaluation by child psychiatrist using a semistructured interview. Results: Behavioural problems, as defined by abnormal scores on more than four of 32 measures, were found in 40% of LBW children compared with 7% of NBW children (odds ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3 to 25, p = 0001). A psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 27% of the LBW children compared with 9% of the NBW children (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.5, p = 0.001). The LBW children were more often inattentive, had social problems, and low self esteem. None of the pre-, neo-, or peri-natal variables in the LBW group were statistically significant predictors of behavioural outcomes or the presence of psychiatric disorders. Behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders were as common in those with birth weight less than 1500 g as those with birth weight 1500–2000 g. Conclusion: An increased risk of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders persists in LBW adolescents. PMID:12193521

  4. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  5. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often

  6. Age-specific risk factors for lead absorption in children

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, S.D.; Yankel, A.J.; von Lindern, I.H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of blood lead levels to environmental and individual characteristics is analyzed in a large sample of children residing near a lead smelting complex, with particular emphasis on the identification of age-related risk factors. Exceptional variation in both blood leads and its determinants within the study region facilitated the simultaneous detection of several significant risk factors for each year of age from 1 to 9 y. The strongest predictor of blood lead at all ages was air lead, but the secondary risk factors were age dependent. Household dustiness was significantly related to blood lead in young children, especially those under 2 y of age; soil lead may be an important source of ingested lead for children between 2 and 7 y. Other significant effects included that of pica at about 2 y of age, a slight effect of the occupational category of the fathers of 5- to 8-y-old children, and a tendency for 8- and 9-y-old boys to have higher blood leads than girls of the same age. Lead concentration in household paint was not a significant risk factor. These results suggest that a multifactorial approach to the prevention of excessive lead absorption by children is required.

  7. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  8. Space-borne polarimetric SAR sensors or the golden age of radar polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, E.

    2010-06-01

    SAR Polarimetry represents an active area of research in Active Earth Remote Sensing. This interest is clearly supported by the fact that nowadays there exists, or there will exist in a very next future, a non negligible quantity of launched Polarimetric SAR Spaceborne sensors. The ENVISAT satellite, developed by ESA, was launched on March 2002, and was the first Spaceborne sensor offering an innovative dualpolarization Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) system operating at C-band. The second Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is ALOS, a Japanese Earth-Observation satellite, developed by JAXA and was launched in January 2006. This mission includes an active L-band polarimetric radar sensor (PALSAR) whose highresolution data may be used for environmental and hazard monitoring. The third Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor is TerraSAR-X, a new German radar satellite, developed by DLR, EADS-Astrium and Infoterra GmbH, was launched on June 2007. This sensor carries a dual-polarimetric and high frequency X-Band SAR sensor that can be operated in different modes and offers features that were not available from space before. At least, the Polarimetric Spaceborne sensor, developed by CSA and MDA, and named RADARSAT-2 was launched in December 2007 The Radarsat program was born out the need for effective monitoring of Canada’s icy waters, and some Radarsat-2 capabilities that benefit sea- and river ice applications are the multi-polarization options that will improve ice-edge detection, ice-type discrimination and structure information. The many advances in these different Polarimetric Spaceborne platforms were developed to respond to specific needs for radar data in environmental monitoring applications around the world, like : sea- and river-ice monitoring, marine surveillance, disaster management, oil spill detection, snow monitoring, hydrology, mapping, geology, agriculture, soil characterisation, forestry applications (biomass, allometry, height…), urban mapping etc

  9. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  10. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  11. Resistance Training for Elementary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, George A.; McCurdy, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for physical education teachers to utilize a foundation of physiological principles to design and monitor appropriate, safe, and effective exercise for their students. Adult training programs are not appropriate for children. Teachers should consider individual levels of maturation, motor skill ability, and affective needs when…

  12. Prevalence of Autism in Children Born to Somali Parents Living in Sweden: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    In a geographical area of Stockholm, with a relatively large Somali immigrant population, parents as well as teachers in special schools and staff at habilitation centres have raised concerns over whether children with a Somali background are over-represented in the total group of children with autism. The aim of the study was, therefore, to…

  13. Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

  14. Children Bicyclists: Should a Minimum Age be Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Dept. of Public Works, CA. Div. of Transportation.

    This paper reports on a Santa Barbara, California study to determine the need for establishing a minimum age for bicyclists using the public roadways, examining the proposition that children below a certain age are developmentally unable to perform safely in traffic. Data on the disproportionate incidence of accident involvement among young…

  15. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parent Information Pregnancy Infants (Ages 0-3) Diseases & Conditions Safety in the Home & ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  17. Foster Children: Risk Factors and Development at a Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, A. C.; Duyme, M.; Tomkiewicz, S.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the family backgrounds, health and developmental characteristics of 127 children from disadvantaged and deprived environments adopted after age 4. Found that parental psychosocial antecedents, medical and health problems and difficulties in infancy were more prevalent in this group than in the general population. Late age of placement,…

  18. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  19. Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before or after the Age of 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Antonsdottir, Ingibjorg Sif; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Olason, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared children with early and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children in four consecutive birth cohorts in Iceland diagnosed with ASD were divided into two groups based on their age at initial ASD diagnosis: 58 children were diagnosed before age 6 (group 1) and 41 children after age 6 (group 2). Children in…

  20. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age... to children under age 19 whose household income is at or below the income standard established by...

  1. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age...

  2. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age...

  3. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Subjects Born with Thalidomide Embryopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nicotra, Alessia; Newman, Claus; Johnson, Martin; Eremin, Oleg; Friede, Tim; Malik, Omar; Nicholas, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital malformation that emerged as one extreme of a range of defects resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide. Individuals with thalidomide embryopathy (TE) have reported developing symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the mal-developed limbs in later life. Methods Case control study comparing TE subjects with upper limb anomalies and neuropathic symptoms with healthy controls using standard neurophysiological testing. Other causes of a peripheral neuropathy were excluded prior to assessment. Results Clinical examination of 17 subjects with TE (aged 50.4±1.3 [mean±standard deviation] years, 10 females) and 17 controls (37.9±9.0 years; 8 females) demonstrated features of upper limb compressive neuropathy in three-quarters of subjects. Additionally there were examination findings suggestive of mild sensory neuropathy in the lower limbs (n = 1), L5 radiculopathic sensory impairment (n = 1) and cervical myelopathy (n = 1). In TE there were electrophysiological changes consistent with a median large fibre neuropathic abnormality (mean compound muscle action potential difference -6.3 mV ([-9.3, -3.3], p = 0.0002) ([95% CI], p-value)) and reduced sympathetic skin response amplitudes (-0.8 mV ([-1.5, -0.2], p = 0.0089)) in the affected upper limbs. In the lower limbs there was evidence of sural nerve dysfunction (sensory nerve action potential -5.8 μV ([-10.7, -0.8], p = 0.0232)) and impaired warm perception thresholds (+3.0°C ([0.6, 5.4], p = 0.0169)). Conclusions We found a range of clinical features relevant to individuals with TE beyond upper limb compressive neuropathies supporting the need for a detailed neurological examination to exclude other treatable pathologies. The electrophysiological evidence of large and small fibre axonal nerve dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs may be a result of the original insult and merits further investigation. PMID:27100829

  4. Accuracy of methods of age estimation in predicting dental age of preadolescents in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Balla, Sudheer B; Venkat Baghirath, P; Hari Vinay, B; Vijay Kumar, J; Babu, D B Gandhi

    2016-10-01

    Age estimation in forensic context is of prime importance for criminal, civil and administrative laws. The objective of this study is to test the accuracy of 3 methods of age estimation in South Indian children (preadolescents) aged between 7 and 15 years. It is a retrospective study of orthopantamograms (OPGs) of 150 children among which 79 were boys and 71 were girls. Cameriere's, Willems and Acharya's age estimation methods were used to predict chronological age. Paired t-test was used to compare all data and relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Cameriere's method Underestimated the real age by -0.62 years in boys and -0.54 years in girls. Both Willems and Acharya's methods overestimated age in both sexes by 0.41, 0.18 years and 0.41, 0.47 years respectively.

  5. Accuracy of methods of age estimation in predicting dental age of preadolescents in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Balla, Sudheer B; Venkat Baghirath, P; Hari Vinay, B; Vijay Kumar, J; Babu, D B Gandhi

    2016-10-01

    Age estimation in forensic context is of prime importance for criminal, civil and administrative laws. The objective of this study is to test the accuracy of 3 methods of age estimation in South Indian children (preadolescents) aged between 7 and 15 years. It is a retrospective study of orthopantamograms (OPGs) of 150 children among which 79 were boys and 71 were girls. Cameriere's, Willems and Acharya's age estimation methods were used to predict chronological age. Paired t-test was used to compare all data and relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Cameriere's method Underestimated the real age by -0.62 years in boys and -0.54 years in girls. Both Willems and Acharya's methods overestimated age in both sexes by 0.41, 0.18 years and 0.41, 0.47 years respectively. PMID:27428567

  6. Behavior management for preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Williford, Amanda P; Shelton, Terri L

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes behavior management strategies for preschool children who are at high risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder that have found to be effective in improving child behavior. Both parent and teacher training programs are reviewed, as these have been backed by substantial research evidence. In addition, multimodal treatments that include some combination of parent training, teacher training, and social skills training are also reviewed. Interventions emphasize the need for a strong adult-child relationship combined with proactive behavior management strategies to improve child behavior. PMID:25220082

  7. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools.

  8. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  9. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    PubMed Central

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0–15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  10. Dental age estimation in Egyptian children, comparison between two methods.

    PubMed

    El-Bakary, Amal A; Hammad, Shaza M; Mohammed, Fatma

    2010-10-01

    The need to estimate age of living individuals is becoming increasingly more important in both forensic science and clinical dentistry. The study of the morphological parameters of teeth on dental radiographs of adult humans is more reliable than most other methods for age estimation. Willems and Cameriere methods are newly presented methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of using these methods for Egyptian children. Digitalized panoramas taken from 286 Egyptian children (134 boys, 152 girls) with age range from 5 to 16 years were analyzed. The seven left permanent mandibular teeth were evaluated using the two methods. The results of this research showed that dental age estimated by both methods was significantly correlated to real age. However, Willems method was slightly more accurate (98.62%) compared to Cameriere method (98.02%). Therefore, both methods can be recommended for practical application in clinical dentistry and forensic procedures on the Egyptian population.

  11. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  12. Deficient speech-sound processing, as shown by the electrophysiologic brain mismatch negativity response, and naming ability in prematurely born children.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Ceponiene, Rita; Valkama, Marita; Vainionpää, Leena; Laitakari, Kyösti; Alku, Paavo; Suominen, Kalervo; Näätänen, Risto

    2003-09-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) preterm birth has been associated with anatomic abnormalities in brain development and cognitive and language disorders. We examined object naming ability, and an electrophysiologic index of auditory sensory discrimination of speech sounds (the mismatch negativity, MMN) in 4-year-old VLBW prematurely born children. We found that half of the VLBW children were inferior to their controls in the object naming ability. Also the MMN amplitudes were smaller in the preterm group as compared with the controls. Further, the MMN amplitude varied as a function of children's performance on object naming, such that the weaker object-naming performance of the preterm group was paralleled by the diminished MMN amplitudes. Therefore, difficulties in auditory discrimination seem to be implicated in language difficulties encountered in VLBW prematurely born children.

  13. Childhood Depression in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sandra M.

    At any one time, between 2 percent and 17 percent of the school-age population in the United States experiences moderate to severe depression. Too often, depression goes unrecognized, damaging self-esteem, ruining academic achievement, and disrupting families. This paper discusses childhood depression and treatment. Following an introduction…

  14. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  15. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  16. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  17. Sleep disturbance in preschool-aged hyperactive and nonhyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B J; McNicol, J; Conte, R A; Moghadam, H K

    1987-12-01

    In spite of inadequate laboratory demonstrations of sleep problems in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, the belief persists that such problems exist. Sleep restlessness is, in fact, one of the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 3, definition of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and sleep problems are listed on two major checklists often used for describing the symptoms of this disorder. In a series of three studies, sleep problems were investigated in preschool-aged children with attention deficit disorder relative to control children without the disorder. Results of the first two studies demonstrated clearly that parents of hyperactive children considered their children to have many more sleep problems than did parents of the control children. Parental daily documentation, which is less likely to be affected by reporting bias, was used in the third study. Although the results of the third study supported the finding of increased frequency of night wakings in these children, there was no difference in total sleep time or sleep onset latency between the two groups. Two other significant group differences (enuresis and night sweats) were primarily due to subgroups of children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The greater number of sleep wakings, which disrupt parents' sleep, may be responsible for the clinical reports that these children are poor sleepers. PMID:3684394

  18. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  19. Poverty among Young Children in Black Immigrant, US-Born Black, and Non-Black Immigrant Families: The Role of Familial Contexts. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and US-born Blacks, and among Black and non-Black children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than US-born Black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among…

  20. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined. Methods—A 10% sample of Dublin National Schools were selected. Parents of children in second class were surveyed. The questionnaire used was a modification of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Teachers of second class were questioned about the time and facilities for physical education in schools. Results—Some 39% of children were participating in hard exercise for at least 20 minutes three or more times a week, with fewer girls (28%) than boys (53%) contributing to this result. A further 57% of children were engaging in at least 20 minutes of light exercise three or more times a week, with no sex differences. Estimated energy expenditure in regular activity was higher in boys than girls. Most (78%) of the children were spending one to three hours a day sedentary in front of a screen. Conclusions—This study provides comprehensive data on physical activity levels in Dublin schoolchildren aged 7–9 years. The amount of inactivity is of concern. Even at this young age, boys are reported to participate in more physical activity than girls. Key Words: physical activity; exercise; children PMID:11477025

  1. Association between Age and Severity to Leptospirosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Guerrier, Gilles; Hie, Pauline; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Huguon, Emilie; Polfrit, Yann; Goarant, Cyrille; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Missotte, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Background In endemic areas, leptospirosis is more common and more severe in adults compared with children. Reasons to explain this discrepancy remain unclear and limited data focusing on adolescents are available. The objective of the study was to describe disease spectrum and outcome differences in children and adolescents admitted for leptospirosis in a large at-risk population. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were obtained on hospitalized cases in New Caledonia from 2006 to 2012. Results Data of 60 patients <18 years of age (25 children under 14 and 35 adolescents aged 14 to 17) with confirmed leptospirosis were analyzed. Compared with children, adolescents presented more often with classic features of Weil disease (p = 0.02), combining hepatic and renal involvement with or without pulmonary participation. Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions were observed more often among adolescents (p<0.01). The overall case fatality rate was low (1 adolescent versus 0 children). Conclusion Severe leptospirosis in adolescents may be more likely to show adults' characteristics compared with children. Further studies are required to explore age-dependant host factors, including puberty-related physiological changes. PMID:24086780

  2. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  3. Impaired delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in school-age children with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; Stanton, Mark E.; Dodge, Neil C.; Pienaar, Mariska; Fuller, Douglas S.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Robinson, Luther K.; Khaole, Nathaniel; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. Methods Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by expert dysmorphologists in a large sample of Cape Coloured, South African children. Delay EBC was examined in a new sample of 63 children at 11.3 years, and trace conditioning in 32 of the same children at 12.8 years. At each age, two sessions of 50 trials each were administered on the same day; two more sessions the next day, for children not meeting criterion for conditioning. Results 6 of 34 (17.6%) children born to heavy drinkers were diagnosed with FAS, 28 were heavily exposed nonsyndromal (HE), and 29 were non-exposed controls. Only 33.3% with FAS and 42.9% of HE met criterion for delay conditioning, compared with 79.3% of controls. The more difficult trace conditioning task was also highly sensitive to fetal alcohol exposure. Only 16.7% of the FAS and 21.4% of HE met criterion for trace conditioning, compared with 66.7% of controls. The magnitude of the effect of diagnostic group on trace conditioning was not greater than the effect on short delay conditioning, findings consistent with recent rat studies. Longer latency to onset and peak eyeblink CR in exposed children indicated poor timing and failure to blink in anticipation of the puff. Extended training resulted in some but not all of the children reaching criterion. Conclusions These data showing alcohol-related delay and trace conditioning deficits extend our earlier findings of impaired EBC in 5-year-olds to school-age. Alcohol-related impairment in the cerebellar circuitry required for both forms of conditioning may be sufficient to account for the deficit in both tasks. Extended training was beneficial for some exposed children. EBC provides a well

  4. Behavior and Learning Difficulties in Children of Normal Intelligence Born to Alcoholic Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Children referred to the Learning Disorders Unit of the Yale-New Haven Hospital were evaluated for indications of prenatal exposure to ethanol. Our results suggest a continuum of teratogenic effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. Journal availability The C. V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141. (Author)

  5. Prenatal and Family Risks of Children Born to Mothers with Epilepsy: Effects on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Karl; Koch, Sabine; Helge, Hans; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Rauh, Hellgard; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49…

  6. Multigenerational Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R. Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether…

  7. Determinants and Predictors of School Adaptation and Academic Achievement in Prematurely Born Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Magda; Varga, Magdolna Estefan

    The study followed up 30 premature Hungarian infants of low birthweight (less than 2500 grams) but no other major perinatal complications. Subjects were tested at age 6 on the Budapest-Binet IQ test, the Goodenough's "Draw a Person" test, the Bender Gestalt test, and a school entry test battery. Test performances at age 6 found that the…

  8. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  9. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  10. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) are at increased risk for developing later psychopathology, the mechanisms contributing to this association are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined a putative cognitive link to psychopathology in a cohort of ELBW survivors. These individuals were followed up prospectively at age 8 and again at ages 22-26. At 8 years, participants completed measures of fluid and general intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) showed the highest level of externalizing behaviors. These findings provide support for a cumulative risk model and suggest that fluid intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  11. Standards of Fair Play in Same- and Mixed-Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that children do not use the same standards of fair play in mixed-age situations as in same-age situations. It was further hypothesized that in mixed-age encounters, younger children would use cues associated with older children (i.e., physical size) as a basis for reward deservingness. Older children,…

  12. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes of Infants Born Moderately and Late Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odd, David Edward; Emond, Alan; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether infants born late preterm have poorer cognitive outcomes than term-born infants. Method: A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Cognitive measures were assessed between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Exposure groups were defined as moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation) or term…

  13. Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pynoos, R S; Frederick, C; Nader, K; Arroyo, W; Steinberg, A; Eth, S; Nunez, F; Fairbanks, L

    1987-12-01

    One hundred fifty-nine children (14.5% of the student body) were sampled after a fatal sniper attack on their elementary school playground. Systematic self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were obtained by use of a child PTSD Reaction Index. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences by exposure but not by sex, ethnicity, or age. Additional analyses were conducted of individual item response, overall severity of PTSD reaction, symptom grouping, and previous life events. The results provide strong evidence that acute PTSD symptoms occur in school-age children with a notable correlation between proximity to the violence and type and number of PTSD symptoms. Sampling at approximately one month after the trauma provided adequate delineation among exposure groups. The symptom profile of highly exposed children lends validity to the diagnosis of acute PTSD in childhood.

  14. How Elementary-Age Children Read Polysyllabic Polymorphemic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…

  15. The Impact of Parental Death on Middle Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the impact of the loss of a parent on middle-aged children. A lifelong process of anticipatory orphanhood is suggested as helping to prepare for the impact of a parent's death. Reaction involves the dialectic between the persistence and breaking of the bond and between finitude and personal growth. (JAC)

  16. Education of Children Aged One to Three: A Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furfey, Paul Hanly, Ed.

    This curriculum manual for teaching children aged one to three is a spin-off of the Infant Education Research Project, which studied the effect of intellectual stimulation on the growth of intelligence in a group of culturally deprived infants. The project involved the intensive instruction of a group of male, inner-city infants, who were visited…

  17. Loneliness and Support in Children Aged 9 to 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, A.; Strobel, M. G.

    This study examined loneliness, social support, and help-seeking behavior in children, ages 9 to 13. Participating were 330 fourth to sixth graders from middle and low income families from the Montreal, Canada region, who completed two questionnaires measuring feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction and help-seeking. Independent…

  18. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  19. Related Services for School-Aged Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Davis, Judy; Littlejohn, William R.

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview of related services for school aged children with disabilities as required by federal law, especially the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It identifies the personnel associated with delivering various services including audiology, occupational…

  20. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  1. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2010 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Firgens, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality for low-income families. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about infants and toddlers…

  2. Hearing-Impaired Children under Age 6: 1977 and 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildroth, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    A review of annual survey data revealed that hearing impaired children under age 6 reported in 1984, when compared to those reported in 1977, tended to be younger; had higher percentages of heredity, meningitis, and prematurity as causes of hearing loss; and were more likely to have additional handicaps. (CL)

  3. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  4. Cosleeping and sleep behavior in Italian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Sebastiani, Teresa; Vagnoni, Cristina

    2004-02-01

    The prevalence and predictors of cosleeping were investigated in 901 healthy school-aged children. Parent reports on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist were used to assess children's sleep and behavioral problems. Regular, long-lasting cosleeping was present in 5% of our sample. Cosleepers rated higher on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire total score and Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Anxiety, Nightwakings, and Parasomnias subscales than solitary sleepers. No significant behavioral problems were found in cosleepers. Regression results showed that low socioeconomic status, one parent who is a shiftworker, one-parent families, one parent who coslept as a child, prolonged breastfeeding, and previous and current sleep problems significantly predicted cosleeping. The high incidence of parents reporting having coslept as a child also suggested a lifestyle choice. Thus, cosleeping seems to reflect a parent's way to cope with sleep problems, and the long persistence of this practice may be related to the lifestyle of families.

  5. Eruption chronology of the first deciduous teeth in children born prematurely with birth weight less than 1500g

    PubMed Central

    F., Pedro Garcia; Falcão, Mário Cícero

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the eruption chronology of the first deciduous teeth in premature infants with birth weight less than 1500g and to compare it according to gender and nutritional status at birth. Methods: Longitudinal study including 40 low birth weight premature infants of both genders. The tooth was considered erupted when the crown went through the gum and became part of the oral environment. The comparison of the eruption chronology in relation to gender and among children appropriate or small for gestational age was done by Student's t-test, being significant p<0.05. Results: The eruption of the first tooth (teeth) occurred, on average, with 11.0±2.1 months of chronological age and with 9.6±1.9 months corrected for prematurity. The first erupted teeth were the lower central incisors. The average eruption for males was 9.7±1.9 and, for females, 9.5±1.9 months, both corrected for prematurity (p=0.98). The average eruption in children with birth weight appropriate for gestational age was 10.1±1.4 months; for small for gestational age, it was 9.4±2.2, also corrected for prematurity (p=0.07). Conclusions: The average eruption age of the first teeth, corrected for prematurity, was 9.6 months. Sex and nutritional status at birth did not change the eruption chronology. PMID:24676185

  6. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  7. Sleep problems of school-aged children: a complementary view.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E J; Aronen, E T; Moilanen, I; Piha, J; Räsänen, E; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this population-based multicentre study was to evaluate the prevalence rates of sleep problems among 8-9-y-old children. The sample consisted of 5813 Finnish children, making up 10% of the age cohort. Both parents and children provided information. Disturbed sleep was reported by 21.7% of parents. Most of the problems were mild; only 0.3% were serious. Dyssomnias were frequent: 11.1% had difficulties with sleep onset, 7.1% with night waking and 2.3% with waking too early. Multiple sleep problems were present in 9.1% of the children. 17.8% of children reported disturbed sleep, 12.7% had problems many nights and 5.1% every night. In 32.0% of cases, either the parent or the child reported disturbed sleep; 7.4% of these reports came from both the parent and the child, 14.1% from the parent only and 10.3% from the child only. The correspondence between informants was poor (kappa = 0.224). Sleeping problems were associated with somatic and psychiatric problems. It is concluded that by restricting questioning to parents only, one-third of all potential cases of sleep problems may go unnoticed. In order to increase the sensitivity of screening children's sleep problems, both parents and children should provide information in epidemiological settings as well as in clinical work. PMID:10709895

  8. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  9. Development of executive functioning in school-age Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Bellaj, Tarek; Salhi, Imen; Le Gall, Didier; Roy, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding executive functioning (EF) in children rarely focuses on populations in African or Middle-Eastern Arabic-speaking countries. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine the developmental trajectories of school-age Tunisian children in three domains of executive control (inhibition of prepotent responses, cognitive flexibility, and working memory) as well as their mutual interactions and the effects of gender and parents' education level. Inhibitory processes, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were assessed using the Stroop test, a version of the Hayling test adapted for children, simple and alternating tasks of verbal fluency, and verbal and visuospatial span tasks (forward and backward spans). The study population included 120 7- to 12-year-old Tunisian children (60 girls, 60 boys) who were grouped and matched for age, gender, and parents' education level. The results revealed an overall effect of age on executive performance, whereas gender and parents' education level showed non-significant effects. In addition, executive indices were significantly associated with fluid intelligence level. Partial correlation analyses (controlled for age) found significant links between indices that assessed the same executive process, except for inhibitory processes; the temporal indices for inhibitory processes showed relative independence. The correlations between indices that assessed distinct executive processes were weaker (but significant). Overall, the results suggest that executive components in school-age Tunisian children operate according to relatively homogeneous developmental trajectories, marked by peaks of maturity that differ according to the assessed index. A transcultural approach to EF is discussed in terms of the unity and diversity of its components. PMID:26165251

  10. Disentangling chronological age from age of onset in children and adolescents with obsessive--compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Geller, D A; Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Bellordre, C A; Kim, G S; Hagermoser, L; Cradock, K; Frazier, J; Coffey, B J

    2001-06-01

    Although paediatric obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly recognized as a putative developmental subtype of the disorder, it remains uncertain as to whether additional subtyping by age at onset in childhood or adolescence is warranted. Subjects included children and adolescents meeting DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria for OCD referred to a specialized OCD clinic. All youth were systematically evaluated with structured diagnostic interviews and clinical assessment by an OCD expert. Irrespective of current age, an earlier age at onset predicted increased risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, simple phobia, agoraphobia and multiple anxiety disorders. In contrast, mood and psychotic disorders were associated with chronological age and were more prevalent in older subjects. Tourette's disorder showed associations with both chronological age and age at onset. Chronological age and age at onset predicted different patterns of comorbidity and dysfunction in children and adolescents with OCD. Considering the heterogeneity of OCD, age at onset may help identify meaningful developmental subtypes of the disorder beyond chronological age.

  11. Outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Fanaroff, A A

    1999-01-01

    Advances in perinatal care have improved the chances for survival of extremely low birthweight (< 800 g) and gestational age (< 26 weeks) infants. A review of the world literature and our own experience reveals that at 23 weeks gestation survival ranges from 2% to 35%. At 24 weeks gestation the range is 17% to 58%, and at 25 weeks gestation 35% to 85%. Differences in population descriptors, in the initiation and withdrawal of treatment and the duration of survival considered may account for the wide variations in the reported ranges of survival. Major neonatal morbidity increases with decreasing gestational age and birthweight. The rates of severe cerebral ultrasound abnormality range at 23 weeks gestation from 10% to 83%, at 24 weeks from 17% to 64% and at 25 weeks gestation from 10% to 22%. At 23 weeks gestation, chronic lung disease occurs in 57% to 70% of survivors, at 24 weeks in 33% to 89%, and at 25 weeks gestation in 16% to 71% of survivors. When compared to children born prior to the 1990's, the rates of neurodevelopmental disability have, in general, remained unchanged. Of 30 survivors reported at 23 weeks gestation nine (30%) are severely disabled. At 24 weeks gestation the rates of severe neurodevelopmental disability (including subnormal cognitive function, cerebral palsy, blindness and deafness) range from 17% to 45%, and at 25 weeks gestation 12% to 35% are similarly affected. In Cleveland, Ohio, we compared the outcomes of 114 children with birthweight 500-749 g born 1990-1992 to 112 infants born 1993-1995. Twenty month survival was similar (43% vs 38%). The use of antenatal and postnatal steroids increased (10% vs 54% and 43% vs 84%, respectively, P< 0.001), however the rates of chronic lung disease increased from 41% to 63% (P = 0.06). There was a significant increase in the rate of subnormal cognitive function at 20 months corrected age (20% vs 48%, P < 0.02) and a trend to an increase in the rate of cerebral palsy (10% vs 16%) and

  12. [The methodology of therapeutic hypothermia in children born in a state of asphyxia].

    PubMed

    Antonov, A G; Ionov, O V; Kirtbaia, A R; Balashova, E N; Nikitina, I V; Ryndin, A Iu; Miroshnik, E V; Degtiarev, D N

    2014-01-01

    This guideline provides the diagnostic and treatment algorithm for newborns with gestational age over 35 weeks and weighing more than 1800g who has severe asphyxia in birth with the threat of severe or medium-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:25831709

  13. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  14. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  15. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  16. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  17. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  18. Neonatal brain MRI and motor outcome at school age in children with neonatal encephalopathy: a review of personal experience.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Barnett, Anna L

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review (i) the spectrum of neuromotor function at school age in children who had been born full-term and presented with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and low Apgar scores and (ii) the relation between the presence/absence of such difficulties and neonatal brain MRI. Motor outcome appears to be mainly related to the severity of basal ganglia and internal capsule involvement. Severe basal ganglia lesions were always associated with the most severe outcome, microcephaly, tetraplegia, and severe global delay, whereas more discrete basal ganglia lesions were associated with athetoid cerebral palsy, with normal cognitive development, or minor neuro-motor abnormalities. White matter lesions were associated with abnormal motor outcome only if the internal capsule was involved. Children with moderate white matter changes but normal internal capsule had normal motor outcome at school age. PMID:14640307

  19. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Salehi, Mansour; Rasoulain, Maryam; Naserbakht, Morteza; Salarifar, Mohammad Hosien

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. Methods In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. Results Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. Conclusion A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances. PMID:22952526

  20. Parity of indigenous and non-indigenous women in Brazil: does the reported number of children born depend upon who answers national census questions?

    PubMed

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee's color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID

  1. Parity of indigenous and non-indigenous women in Brazil: does the reported number of children born depend upon who answers national census questions?

    PubMed

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee's color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection.

  2. Peer victimization among school-aged children with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Mariane; Arnaud, Catherine; Gavin, Aoife; Molcho, Michal; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among school-aged children, and those with chronic conditions are at an increased risk. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to explore the increased risk of peer victimization among children with chronic conditions compared with others, considering a variety of chronic conditions; and to assess intervention programs designed to reduce negative attitudes or peer victimization at school toward children with chronic conditions. Various data sources were used (PubMed, ERIC, PsycINFO, Web of Science), and 59 studies published between 1991 and 2011 and mainly carried out in North American and European countries were included in the review. A higher level of peer victimization among children with chronic conditions was shown for each type of condition explored in this review (psychiatric diagnoses, learning difficulties, physical and motor impairments, chronic illnesses, and overweight). Despite a substantial number of studies having shown a significant association between chronic conditions and peer victimization, intervention studies aiming to reduce bullying among these children were rarely evaluated. The findings of this review suggest a growing need to develop and implement specific interventions targeted at reducing peer victimization among children with chronic conditions.

  3. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  4. Direction of single obstacle circumvention in middle-aged children.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Van Ruymbeke, Nicole; Bryden, Pamela J; Cinelli, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    When required to walk around a stationary object, adults use the location of the goal to set up their locomotor axis and obstacles presented along the locomotor axis will repel the individual towards the side that affords more space [1]. Research has yet to examine whether children can identify the locomotor axis and choose their paths accordingly. Therefore, the current study examined the factors that influence the direction in which children choose to deviate around a single obstacle and whether the presence or absence of a goal influences path selection and trajectory. Ten children (age: 7.1 years±0.8) walked along a 9 m path and avoided a single obstacle that was located in one of three locations (midline, 15 cm to the right or 15 cm to the left). On half the trials, an end-goal was visible from the start of the path while the other half of the trials had no visible goal. The results demonstrate that: (1) children are able to perceive and move towards more open space but are more variable when the end-goal is not visible; (2) children are capable of maintaining an elliptical-shaped protective envelope when avoiding a single obstacle regardless of whether or not the locomotor axis is established; and (3) although children are capable of choosing paths that afford the most space, the manner in which they arrive at their goal is not driven by factors similar to adults. PMID:24679592

  5. Predictors of RSV LRTI Hospitalization in Infants Born at 33 to 35 Weeks Gestational Age: A Large Multinational Study (PONI)

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Elie; Kosma, Paraskevi; Posfay-Barbe, Klara; Yunis, Khalid; Farstad, Teresa; Unnebrink, Kristina; van Wyk, Jean; Wegzyn, Colleen; Notario, Gerard; Kalus, Stefanie; Campbell, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm infants are at high risk of developing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). This observational epidemiologic study evaluated RSV disease burden and risk factors for RSV-associated LRTI hospitalization in preterm infants 33 weeks+0 days to 35 weeks+6 days gestational age not receiving RSV prophylaxis. Methods Preterm infants ≤6 months of age during RSV season (1 October 2013–30 April 2014) were followed at 72 sites across 23 countries from September 2013–July 2014 (study period). RSV testing was performed according to local clinical practice. Factors related to RSV-associated hospitalization for LRTI were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backward selection. Results Of the 2390 evaluable infants, 204 and 127 were hospitalized for LRTI during the study period and RSV season, respectively. Among these subjects, 64/204 and 46/127, respectively, were hospitalized for confirmed RSV LRTI. Study period and RSV season normalized RSV hospitalization rates (per 100 infant years) were 4.1 and 6.1, respectively. Factors associated with an increased risk of RSV-related LRTI hospitalization in multivariable analyses were smoking of family members (P<0.0001), non-hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease diagnosis (P = 0.0077), maternal age of ≤25 years at delivery (P = 0.0009), low maternal educational level (P = 0.0426), household presence of children aged 4 to 5 years (P = 0.0038), age on 1 October ≤3 months (P = 0.0422), and presence of paternal atopy (P<0.0001). Conclusions During the 2013–2014 RSV season across 23 countries, for preterm infants 33–35 weeks gestation ≤6 months old on 1 October not receiving RSV prophylaxis, confirmed RSV LRTI hospitalization incidence was 4.1 per 100 infant years during the study period and 6.1 per 100 infant years during the RSV season. This study enhances the findings of single-country studies of common risk factors for

  6. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

  7. Late-born intermittently fasted juvenile garden dormice use torpor to grow and fatten prior to hibernation: consequences for ageing processes.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Sylvain; Zahn, Sandrine; Criscuolo, François; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stéphane; Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas

    2014-12-22

    Torpor is thought to slow age-related processes and to sustain growth and fattening of young individuals. Energy allocation into these processes represents a challenge for juveniles, especially for those born late in the season. We tested the hypothesis that late-born juvenile garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) fed ad libitum ('AL', n = 9) or intermittently fasted ('IF', n = 9) use short torpor bouts to enhance growth and fat accumulation to survive winter. IF juveniles displayed more frequent and longer torpor bouts, compared with AL individuals before hibernation. Torpor frequency correlated negatively with energy expenditure and water turnover. Hence, IF juveniles gained mass at the same rate, reached similar pre-hibernation fattening and displayed identical hibernating patterns and mass losses as AL animals. We found no group differences in relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator of ageing, during the period of highest summer mass gain, despite greater torpor use by IF juveniles. Percentage change in RTL was negatively associated with mean and total euthermic durations among all individuals during hibernation. We conclude that torpor use promotes fattening in late-born juvenile dormice prior to hibernation. Furthermore, we provided the first evidence for a functional link between time spent in euthermy and ageing processes over winter.

  8. Late-born intermittently fasted juvenile garden dormice use torpor to grow and fatten prior to hibernation: consequences for ageing processes

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, Sylvain; Zahn, Sandrine; Criscuolo, François; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stéphane; Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Torpor is thought to slow age-related processes and to sustain growth and fattening of young individuals. Energy allocation into these processes represents a challenge for juveniles, especially for those born late in the season. We tested the hypothesis that late-born juvenile garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) fed ad libitum (‘AL’, n = 9) or intermittently fasted (‘IF’, n = 9) use short torpor bouts to enhance growth and fat accumulation to survive winter. IF juveniles displayed more frequent and longer torpor bouts, compared with AL individuals before hibernation. Torpor frequency correlated negatively with energy expenditure and water turnover. Hence, IF juveniles gained mass at the same rate, reached similar pre-hibernation fattening and displayed identical hibernating patterns and mass losses as AL animals. We found no group differences in relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator of ageing, during the period of highest summer mass gain, despite greater torpor use by IF juveniles. Percentage change in RTL was negatively associated with mean and total euthermic durations among all individuals during hibernation. We conclude that torpor use promotes fattening in late-born juvenile dormice prior to hibernation. Furthermore, we provided the first evidence for a functional link between time spent in euthermy and ageing processes over winter. PMID:25377448

  9. Late-born intermittently fasted juvenile garden dormice use torpor to grow and fatten prior to hibernation: consequences for ageing processes.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Sylvain; Zahn, Sandrine; Criscuolo, François; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stéphane; Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas

    2014-12-22

    Torpor is thought to slow age-related processes and to sustain growth and fattening of young individuals. Energy allocation into these processes represents a challenge for juveniles, especially for those born late in the season. We tested the hypothesis that late-born juvenile garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) fed ad libitum ('AL', n = 9) or intermittently fasted ('IF', n = 9) use short torpor bouts to enhance growth and fat accumulation to survive winter. IF juveniles displayed more frequent and longer torpor bouts, compared with AL individuals before hibernation. Torpor frequency correlated negatively with energy expenditure and water turnover. Hence, IF juveniles gained mass at the same rate, reached similar pre-hibernation fattening and displayed identical hibernating patterns and mass losses as AL animals. We found no group differences in relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator of ageing, during the period of highest summer mass gain, despite greater torpor use by IF juveniles. Percentage change in RTL was negatively associated with mean and total euthermic durations among all individuals during hibernation. We conclude that torpor use promotes fattening in late-born juvenile dormice prior to hibernation. Furthermore, we provided the first evidence for a functional link between time spent in euthermy and ageing processes over winter. PMID:25377448

  10. Reading and coherent motion perception in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-07-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium difficulty reading level. The coherent motion perception threshold is determined according to the adaptive psychophysical protocol based on a four-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Three different dot velocities: 2, 5, and 8 deg/s were used for both assemblies of coherent or randomly moving dots. Reading rate score test results exhibit a wide dispersion across all age groups, so much so that the outlier data overlap, for both the 8 and 18-year-old student-participant age groups. Latvian children's reading fluency developmental trajectories reach maturation at 12-13 years of age. After the age of 13, reading rate scores increase slowly; however, the linear regression slope is different from zero and positive: F(1, 827) = 45.3; p < 0.0001. One hundred eighty-one student-participants having results below the 10th percentile were classified as weak readers in our study group. The reading fluency developmental trajectory of this particular group of student-participants does not exhibit any statistically significant saturation until the age of 18 years old. Coherent motion detection thresholds decrease with age and do not reach saturation. Tests with slower moving dots (2 deg/s) yield results that exhibit significant differences between strong and weak readers. PMID:25911276

  11. Ear Infection and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations and Rural School-Aged Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Albritton, William; Rennie, Donna C.; Lawson, Joshua A.; McCallum, Laura; Gardipy, P. Jenny; Seeseequasis, Jeremy; Naytowhow, Arnold; Hagel, Louise; McMullin, Kathleen; Ramsden, Vivian; Abonyi, Sylvia; Episkenew, Jo-Ann; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam; Project Research Team, The First Nations Lung Health; Study Team, The Saskatchewan Rural Health

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ear infections in children are a major health problem and may be associated with hearing impairment and delayed language development. Objective. To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of ear infections in children 6–17 years old residing on two reserves and rural areas in the province of Saskatchewan. Methodology. Data were provided from two rural cross-sectional children studies. Outcome variable of interest was presence/absence of an ear infection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between ear infection and the other covariates. Results. The prevalence of ear infection was 57.8% for rural Caucasian children and 43.6% for First Nations children living on-reserve. First Nations children had a lower risk of ear infection. Ear infection prevalence was positively associated with younger age; first born in the family; self-reported physician-diagnosed tonsillitis; self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma; and any respiratory related allergy. Protective effect of breastfeeding longer than three months was observed on the prevalence of ear infection. Conclusions. While ear infection is a prevalent condition of childhood, First Nations children were less likely to have a history of ear infections when compared to their rural Caucasian counterparts. PMID:26977160

  12. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  13. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients.

  14. The Eraser Challenge Among School-age Children.

    PubMed

    Deklotz, Cynthia M C; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    Skin-related, self-destructive behaviors are being increasingly reported among school-age children. Often disguised as innocuous "challenges," these disturbing actions may have the potential for serious and permanent sequelae. Interest and subsequent participation in these behaviors may also be spread "virally," facilitated by social networking sites that allow participants-regardless of age-to share photographs or videos of the activities in question. Consequently, parents and health care providers must learn to recognize signs and symptoms of these disturbing behaviors and make concerted efforts to protect this uniquely vulnerable population of pediatric patients.

  15. Is Greulich and Pyle standards of skeletal maturation applicable for age estimation in South Indian Andhra children?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Goud, Alampur Srinivas; Sailaja, S.; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Now-a-day age determination has gained importance for various forensic and legal reasons. Skeletal age (SA) of a test population can be estimated by comparing with established standards of Greulich and Pyle (G-P). As this atlas has been prepared using data from upper-class children born between 1917 and 1942 in the USA and the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on Andhra children living in India. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the reliability of bone age calculated by G-P atlas in estimation of age in selected population. Materials and Methods: A total of 660 children (330 girls, 330 boys) between ages 9 and 20 years were randomly selected from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine in GITAM Dental College, Andhra Pradesh. Digital hand-wrist radiographs were obtained and assessed for SA using G-P atlas and the difference between estimated SA and chronological age (CA) were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: G-P method underestimated the SA by 0.23 ± 1.53 years for boys and overestimated SA by 0.02 ± 2 years in girls and mild underestimation was noted in the total sample of about 0.1 ± 1.78 years. Spearman rank test showed significant correlation between SA and CA (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that G-P standards were reliable in assessing age in South Indian Andhra children of age 9–20 years with unknown CA. PMID:26229357

  16. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  17. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  18. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  19. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  20. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  1. Head circumferences of children born to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in Zimbabwe during the preantiretroviral therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ceri; Chasekwa, Bernard; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean H.; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the head growth of children according to maternal and child HIV infection status. Design: Longitudinal analysis of head circumference data from 13 647 children followed from birth in the ZVITAMBO trial, undertaken in Harare, Zimbabwe, between 1997 and 2001, prior to availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: Head circumference was measured at birth, then at regular intervals through 24 months of age. Mean head circumference-for-age Z-scores (HCZ) and prevalence of microcephaly (HCZ < −2) were compared between HIV-unexposed children, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and children infected with HIV in utero (IU), intrapartum (IP) and postnatally (PN). Results: Children infected with HIV in utero had head growth restriction at birth. Head circumference Z-scores remained low throughout follow-up in IP children, whereas they progressively declined in IU children. During the second year of life, HCZ in the PN group declined, reaching a similar mean as IP-infected children by 21 months of age. Microcephaly was more common among IU and IP children than HIV-uninfected children through 24 months. HEU children had significantly lower head circumferences than HIV-unexposed children through 12 months. Conclusion: HIV-infected children had lower head circumferences and more microcephaly than HIV-uninfected children. Timing of HIV acquisition; influenced HCZ, with those infected before birth having particularly poor head growth. HEU children had poorer head growth until 12 months of age. Correlations between head growth and neurodevelopment in the context of maternal/infant HIV infection, and further studies from the current ART era, will help determine the predictive value of routine head circumference measurement. PMID:27428746

  2. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities? Children under the age of 14 will be admitted to NARA facilities only if... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can children under the age...

  3. Children Born in 2001: First Results from the Base Year of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-036.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kristin Denton; West, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This E.D. TAB provides descriptive information about children born in the United States in 2001. It is the first publication based on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS?B), and it presents information on certain child and family characteristics, on children's mental and physical skills, on children's first experiences in…

  4. Preparing Books for Children from Birth to Age Six: The Approach of Appropriateness for the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çer, Ekran

    2016-01-01

    Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…

  5. Rehabilitation of socially withdrawn preschool children through mixed-age and same-age socialization.

    PubMed

    Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W

    1979-12-01

    24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed.

  6. Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans.

    PubMed

    Fried, Bernard; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena

    2004-06-01

    Food-borne trematodiases still remain a public health problem world-wide, despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, environmental alteration, and broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Food-borne trematodiases usually occur focally, are still persistently endemic in some parts of the world, and are most prevalent in remote rural places among school-age children, low-wage earners, and women of child-bearing age. Intestinal fluke diseases are aggravated by socio-economic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of sufficient food inspection and sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Control programs implemented for food-borne zoonoses and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for intestinal food-borne trematodiases because of centuries-old traditions of eating raw or insufficiently cooked food, widespread zoonotic reservoirs, promiscuous defecation, and the use of "night soil" (human excrement collected from latrines) as fertilizer. This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea: Brachylaimidae, Diplostomidae, Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gymnophallidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodendriidae, Microphallidae, Nanophyetidae, Paramphistomatidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Strigeidae. Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.

  7. Cancer in children of nuclear industry employees: report on children aged under 25 years from nuclear industry family study

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Eve; Doyle, Pat; Maconochie, Noreen; Davies, Graham; Smith, Peter G; Beral, Valerie

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children of men and women occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are at increased risk of developing leukaemia or other cancers before their 25th birthday. Design Cohort study of children of nuclear industry employees. Setting Nuclear establishments operated by the Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Weapons Establishment, and British Nuclear Fuels. Subjects 39 557 children of male employees and 8883 children of female employees. Main outcome measures Cancer incidence in offspring reported by parents. Employment and radiation monitoring data (including annual external dose) supplied by the nuclear authorities. Results 111 cancers were reported, of which 28 were leukaemia. The estimated standardised incidence ratios for children of male and female employees who were born in 1965 or later were 98 (95% confidence interval 73 to 129) and 96 (50 to 168) for all malignancies and 109 (61 to 180) and 95 (20 to 277) for leukaemia. The leukaemia rate in children whose fathers had accumulated a preconceptual dose of ⩾100 mSv was 5.8 times that in children conceived before their fathers’ employment in the nuclear industry (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 24.8) but this was based on only three exposed cases. Two of these cases were included in the west Cumbrian (“Gardner”) case-control study. No significant trends were found between increasing dose and leukaemia. Conclusions Cancer in young people is rare, and our results are based on small numbers of events. Overall, the findings suggest that the incidence of cancer and leukaemia among children of nuclear industry employees is similar to that in the general population.The possibility that exposure of fathers to relatively high doses of ionising radiation before their child’s conception might be related to an increased risk of leukaemia in their offspring could not be disproved, but this result was based on only three cases, two of which have been previously reported. High conceptual

  8. Increasing burden, younger age at onset and worst metabolic control in migrant than in Italian children with type 1 diabetes: an emerging problem in pediatric clinics.

    PubMed

    Cadario, Francesco; Cerutti, Franco; Savastio, Silvia; Rabbone, Ivana; Tumini, Stefano; Bruno, Graziella

    2014-04-01

    To assess burden and clinical features of type 1 diabetes in migrant with respect to Italian children. Prevalent children with type 1 diabetes were identified through a multicenter study, including 46 pediatric outpatients diabetic clinics. A nested case-control study was also performed, comparing features at diabetes onset and after 1 year of insulin treatment in 84 migrants and 75 Italian children with onset in 2011, matched for age and sex. Out of 7,812 children cared for by pediatric diabetologists, 761 (10%) were migrant and 548 of them were born in Italy. Age at diagnosis was lower in migrants born in Italy (5.1 years, interquartile range (IQR) 2.2-7.7) than in those born in their original countries (7.8 years, IQR 5.3-10.3) and in Italians (9.8 years, IQR 5.9-13.0, p < 0.001). At diabetes onset, migrants had lower frequencies of positivities of markers of β-cell autoimmunity (96 vs. 99.5%, p < 0.01), higher values of weight loss (11 vs. 7%, p < 0.01), HbA1c (70 vs. 58 mmol/mol, p < 0.001), and insulin requirement (0.70 ± 0.03 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 UI/kg/die, p = 0.05) and lower levels of 25-OH vitamin D3 (15.0 ± 2.8 vs. 20.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.03). Moreover, they experienced higher frequencies of hospitalizations during the first year of disease (19.2 vs. 2.7%, p < 0.001). Burden of type 1 diabetes in migrant children is increasing in Italy, with younger age at onset and different clinical features than in Italian children. Higher hospitalization rates and poorer glycemic control over the first year underline that approach to diabetes care in migrants needs to be improved. PMID:24065151

  9. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity. PMID:23945411

  10. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.

  11. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  12. Optimal dental age estimation practice in United Arab Emirates' children.

    PubMed

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to detect whether the Willems model, developed on a Belgian reference sample, can be used for age estimations in United Arab Emirates (UAE) children. Furthermore, it was verified that if added third molars development information in children provided more accurate age predictions. On 1900 panoramic radiographs, the development of left mandibular permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) was registered according the Demirjian and the Kohler technique, respectively. The PT data were used to verify the Willems model and to develop a UAE model and to verify it. Multiple regression models with PT, TM, and PT + TM scores as independent and age as dependent factor were developed. Comparing the verified Willems- and the UAE model revealed differences in mean error of -0.01 year, mean absolute error of 0.01 year and root mean squared error of 0.90 year. Neglectable overall decrease in RMSE was detected combining PM and TM developmental information. PMID:24261921

  13. Optimal dental age estimation practice in United Arab Emirates' children.

    PubMed

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to detect whether the Willems model, developed on a Belgian reference sample, can be used for age estimations in United Arab Emirates (UAE) children. Furthermore, it was verified that if added third molars development information in children provided more accurate age predictions. On 1900 panoramic radiographs, the development of left mandibular permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) was registered according the Demirjian and the Kohler technique, respectively. The PT data were used to verify the Willems model and to develop a UAE model and to verify it. Multiple regression models with PT, TM, and PT + TM scores as independent and age as dependent factor were developed. Comparing the verified Willems- and the UAE model revealed differences in mean error of -0.01 year, mean absolute error of 0.01 year and root mean squared error of 0.90 year. Neglectable overall decrease in RMSE was detected combining PM and TM developmental information.

  14. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  15. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  16. Maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy affects autonomic function of Peruvian children assessed at 54 months of age.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 μg/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

  17. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior problems. Treatment outcome was assessed using standard measures of maternal and child functioning and observational measures of the parent-child interaction, as well as a physiological measure of heart rate variability (i.e., vagal tone) used to assess parasympathetic control in the child. Maternal reports of child behavior problems and their own stress and depressive symptoms decreased after treatment. Behavioral observations demonstrated improved parenting practices and child compliance, and vagal tone showed comparable increases as well. Results suggest that PCIT is a promising psychosocial intervention for children born premature with externalizing behavior problems, and that vagal tone may be a useful measure of treatment outcome. PMID:20428470

  18. The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Raheleh, Zamani; Ahmad, Alikhani; Abtin, Heydarzadeh; Roghaye, Zare; Sara, Hashemain; Siavash, Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of "wheeze ever" in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of "severe asthma" in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of "wheeze ever," "asthma ever," and "night cough in the past 12 months" were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of "severe asthma" was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between "wheeze ever" and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of "severe asthma" and birth weight more than 3.5 kg.

  19. Attempting to Honor Beliefs of Jehovah’s Witnesses at the Edge of Viability in an Infant Born at 23 Weeks’ Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Charles W.; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 weeks’ gestational age newborn Final Diagnosis: 23 weeks’ extreme prematurity • intraventricular hemorrhage • anemia • respiratory distress syndrome Symptoms: Hypotension • metabolic acidosis • tachycardia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Transfusion of packed red blood cells Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Infants born at 23 weeks’ gestation have a poor prognosis and require intensive care, including blood transfusions, to survive. Generally speaking, the decision to forgo life support is acceptable. Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that life is sacred and want lifesaving interventions except for blood transfusions. Therefore, an ethical dilemma exists when a baby is born on the edge of viability to parents that are Jehovah’s Witnesses. In this case, if parents and healthcare professionals disagree on the best interests of the child, the medical team should obtain a court order from the state to intervene. Case Report: We present the case of an infant born at 23 weeks’ gestation to parents who are Jehovah’s Witnesses. The parents wanted full life-support, except for blood transfusions, to be given. The clinical team obtained a court order to transfuse the infant. The infant unfortunately died despite all efforts. Conclusions: Currently, it is nearly impossible to honor the beliefs of Jehovah’s Witnesses to provide lifesaving treatments without blood transfusions for infants born at the border of viability. If the goal is to prolong life, the standard of care for a premature infant is for a doctor to obtain a court order to override the beliefs and wishes of Jehovah’s Witness parents and transfuse blood products as medically indicated. Although bloodless techniques for high-risk surgeries are under development, care for premature infants at 23 weeks’ gestation necessitates red cell transfusions. PMID:27255268

  20. Validating the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire Against Polysomnography and Actigraphy in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Adria Nora; Gendron, Melissa Anne; Corkum, Penny Violet

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological behavior in children's development, and as such it is important to be able to efficiently and accurately assess whether children display difficulties with sleep quality and quantity. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire [CSHQ; (1)] is one of the most commonly used assessment tools for pediatric sleep. However, this instrument has never been validated against the gold standard of sleep measurement [i.e., polysomnography (PSG)], and studies comparing it to actigraphy are limited. Therefore, the current study assessed the validity of four subscales of the CSHQ via direct comparison with PSG and actigraphy for 30 typically developing school-aged children (ages 6-12). No significant correlations between relevant CSHQ subscales and PSG variables were found. In terms of the actigraphy variables, only the CSHQ Night Wakings subscale achieved significance. In addition, sensitivity and specificity analyses revealed consistently low sensitivity and high specificity. Overall, the CSHQ Sleep Onset Delay, Sleep Duration, Night Wakings, and Sleep Disordered Breathing subscales showed low construct validity and diagnostic validity. These results underscore that caution should be taken when using the CSHQ as the sole screening tool for sleep problems in children. PMID:25610402

  1. Parity of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women in Brazil: Does the Reported Number of Children Born Depend upon Who Answers National Census Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, João; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee’s color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID

  2. Respiratory infections in children up to two years of age on prophylaxis with palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana Isabel M. P.; Bellei, Nancy Cristina J.; Sousa, Alessandra Ramos; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.; Weckx, Lily Yin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the viruses involved in acute respiratory tract infections and to analyze the rates of hospitalization and death in children on palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 198 infants up to one year old who were born before 29 weeks of gestational age and infants under two years old with hemodynamically unstable cardiopathy or chronic pulmonary disease who received prophylactic palivizumab against severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in 2008. During the study period, in each episode of acute respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected to identify respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B by direct immunofluorescence, rhinovirus and metapneumovirus by polymerase chain reaction preceded by reverse transcription. Data regarding hospitalization and deaths were monitored. RESULTS: Among the 198 studied infants, 117 (59.1%) presented acute respiratory tract infections, with a total of 175 episodes. Of the 76 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during respiratory tract infections, 37 were positive, as follow: rhinovirus (75.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (18.9%), parainfluenza (8.1%), adenovirus 2 (2.7%), metapneumovirus (2.7%) and three samples presented multiple agents. Of the 198 children, 48 (24.4%) were hospitalized: 30 (15.2%) for non-infectious etiology and 18 (9.1%) for respiratory causes. Among these 18 children, one case of respiratory syncytial virus was identified. Two deaths were reported, but respiratory syncytial virus was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: During the prophylaxis period, low frequency of respiratory syncytial virus infections and low rates of hospitalization were observed, suggesting the benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:25119744

  3. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA) [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ) [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM) [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ) changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2) [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time). In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction). After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL) in MM arm (P = 0.001), 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131) and 18% in VA (P = 0.019). Although the

  4. Children's Expressive Drawing Strategies: The Effects of Mood, Age and Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misalidi, Plousia; Bonoti, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether the impact of mood state on children's choice of expressive strategies (literal and non-literal content and abstract) varies as a function of mood valence, age and topic to be drawn. The sample (N?=?96) consisted of four groups of children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11years, respectively. Half of the children in…

  5. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services, a... are programs serving children of migrant families and Early Head Start programs. (b)(1) At least...

  6. Do Social Attribution Skills Improve with Age in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Celano, Mark J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N.; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n = 41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n = 58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings…

  7. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  8. Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

  9. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dependent coverage of children other than in terms of a relationship between a child and the participant... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dependent coverage of children other than in terms of a relationship between a child and the participant... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group...

  11. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  12. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  13. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  14. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  15. How Applicable Are "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" for Use with Turkish Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapci, Emine Gul; Kucuker, Sevgi; Uslu, Runa I.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of eligible children cannot access early intervention services in Turkey, often because they are not assessed. The authors adapted the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" (ASQ) for Turkish children ages 3 to 72 months. Study participants consisted of 375 children who were classified as at risk for developmental delays, 564 children…

  16. Sports injuries in school-aged children. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Backx, F J; Erich, W B; Kemper, A B; Verbeek, A L

    1989-01-01

    In November 1982, epidemiologic data were collected in a unique, large scale, population-based survey on sports injuries in school-aged children living in Holland. A total of 7,468 pupils, aged 8 to 17, completed questionnaires covering a retrospective period of 6 weeks. Seven hundred ninety-one sports injuries were registered, amounting to an incidence of 10.6 sports injuries per 100 participants. In 31% of the cases, medical consultation was needed. Injuries incurred during the study period caused 36% of the children to miss one or more physical education classes and caused 6% to miss school for at least 1 day. Contusions and sprains were the most common lesions (77%). Three of four injuries involved the lower extremity, in particular the ankle. Sixty-two percent of all the injuries occurred in organized sports, 21% in physical education classes, and 17% in unsupervised sports activities. The highest injury rates were found in basketball and field hockey. In this study population, 15 and 16-year-old boys who had a high sports activity index and played team sports, particularly contact team sports, formed a high risk group.

  17. Spontaneous Facial Expressions in Congenitally Blind and Sighted Children Aged 8-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galati, Dario; Sini, Barbara; Schmidt, Susanne; Tinti, Carla

    2003-01-01

    This study found that the emotional facial expressions of 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted children, ages 8-11, were similar. However, the frequency of certain facial movements was higher in the blind children than in the sighted children, and social influences were evident only in the expressions of the sighted children, who often masked…

  18. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  19. Patterns of Maternal Behavior with First- and Second-Born Children: Evidence for Consistency in Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Mary J.; And Others

    Consistency in characteristics of maternal behavior with different siblings was investigated among 65 economically disadvantaged families, each having two children. Quality of infant/mother attachment was assessed when firstborn children were 12 and 18 months old, respectively, and when secondborn children were 12 months old. When children were 24…

  20. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups. PMID:24264145

  1. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  2. Nature or nurture: a systematic review of the effect of socio-economic status on the developmental and cognitive outcomes of children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hilary S; Edwards, Phil

    2013-11-01

    The effect of socio-economic status (SES) on the cognitive outcome of preterm-born children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to systematically review the published literature and to report the strength and consistency of the effect of SES on the cognitive outcomes of preterm children, across different SES indicators. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index to identify English-language cohort or case-control studies published after 1990 that had reported the effect of at least one SES indicator on cognitive outcome in children born <37 weeks gestation. Fifteen studies (from a total 4,162 identified) were included. Thirteen SES indicators were evaluated [categorized as: "individual-level" (6 indicators), "family-structure" (3), "contextual" (2) and "composite" (2)]. Maternal educational level was the most frequently evaluated SES indicator (by 11/15 studies) and was most consistently associated with cognitive outcome. Maternal education below high school level was associated with severe cognitive deficiency [reported odds ratios (95 % CI) range: OR = 1.4 (1.0-1.9) to OR = 2.3 (1.2-4.5)]. A meta-analytic measure of the effect of SES was not calculated due to heterogeneity in studies. SES appears to confound the association between preterm birth and cognitive deficit and should be adjusted for in studies reporting cognitive outcome.

  3. Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

    The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…

  4. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  5. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children's age, sex, nationality, number of children's books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806

  6. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children's age, sex, nationality, number of children's books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  7. Parents of preterm-born children; sources of stress and worry and experiences with an early intervention programme – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm-born children are at increased risk of adverse developmental outcomes, and their parents may experience increased stress levels. The Mother–Infant Transaction Program (MITP) is an early intervention that aims to enhance the parent–infant relationship and child development. The present study investigated differences in parents’ experience of stress and concerns about caring for their preterm-born child according to whether they participated in the programme. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was also explored. Methods As part of a follow-up study at 36 months, a randomized controlled trial of the MITP—14 parents of 11 children from the intervention group, and 17 parents of 14 children from the control group were interviewed by the use of semi-structured focus group interviews. The interviews were analysed thematically. Results The intervention parents reported that the knowledge, advice, guidance and emotional support given during the intervention made them feel less stressed and more confident, competent and secure caring for their preterm born child than they would otherwise have been. The control parents described feeling less involved and emotionally supported, and seemed more anxious about their child’s development than the intervention parents. All parents were vigilant and alert to their child’s needs and monitored developmental milestones carefully. Conclusion This qualitative exploration of the influences of the MITP revealed a positive impact of the intervention and seems to be an important educational and supportive initiative. Thus, reducing parental stress and enhancing confidence in the parental role. PMID:24313957

  8. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  9. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; White, Desiree A

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU.

  10. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  11. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  12. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  13. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under AGENCY: Social Security... assigning new SSNs to children age 13 and under. We are requesting information from the public to ensure... an SSN for a child age 13 and under. DATES: To ensure that your comments are considered, we...

  14. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group health... of age. (2) The rule of this paragraph (a) is illustrated by the following example: Example....

  15. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  16. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.

    This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the Microcomputer" (June L.…

  17. Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G; Nevin, N; Mikkelsen, M; Karadima, G; Petersen, M; Kelly, M; O'Sullivan, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome.
METHODS—Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland.
RESULTS—Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10-4). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10-6), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County

  18. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  19. Diet and physical activity patterns of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Zhu, Lei; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Childhood provides an opportunity for establishing healthful lifestyle habits, yet little is known about diet and physical activity patterns of elementary school-aged children. A cohort of 35 boys and girls in grades 3 through 5 (mean age=9.5 years) was studied during the course of the 2004-2005 school year, providing seasonal assessments of diet and physical activity. Objectively measured data included height, weight, and pedometer step counts. Subjective data included seasonal 3-day diet diaries, a food frequency questionnaire, and a physical activity questionnaire. Participants were white, well-nourished, and within the healthy range for body mass index for age. Only three students (9%) were overweight and another three were "at risk" for overweight. Food intake patterns fell far below MyPyramid guidelines for average daily servings of fruits and vegetables. High intakes of saturated fat (average of 12% of calories) and sodium were noted, along with inadequate fiber intakes. Snacks, desserts, and entrees that contributed most to calorie and saturated fat intake were identified. Self-reported physical activity appears in line with recommendations, but step counts fall short, particularly for girls and during winter months. These findings identify targets for behavioral and environmental interventions to reduce childhood obesity risks. Additional research involving more diverse populations is warranted.

  20. Differences Between the Perceived and Actual Age of Overweight Onset in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Rahimi, Amanda M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Roberts, Mary D.; Theim, Kelly R.; Menzie, Carolyn M.; Mirch, Margaret C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Little is known about whether children or their parents can accurately recall the age at which they became overweight. Design, Subjects and Main Outcome Measures We interviewed 64 overweight children (7–18 years old) about their weight history and compared reported age of overweight onset with actual onset, as determined by the age at which the child's measured BMI first exceeded the 95th percentile. Results Only 28% of children reported overweight onset within 1 year of actual overweight onset. Reported overweight onset age (7.6 ± 2.5y) and actual onset age (5.3 ± 2.5y; P < .001) were not significantly correlated (r2 = .03, P = .22). Children who became overweight before 8 years of age tended to report becoming overweight at a later age than actual onset, whereas children who became overweight after 8 years of age tended to report becoming overweight at an earlier age than actual onset (P < .001), with 27% of children either underreporting or overreporting their overweight onset by at least 5 years. Similar results were found when analyzing parent reports of their children's overweight onset. Conclusions Reported and actual overweight onset ages were uncorrelated in our sample, suggesting that families may not be cognizant of children's growth trajectories. Greater efforts should be made to help parents and children understand and track growth patterns with the aim of preventing excessive weight gain. PMID:17406158

  1. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, <1% of children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the

  2. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, <1% of children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the

  3. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  4. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was < 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.46-2.81); lastly, children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.02). Attained linear growth (height-for-age z-score) was significantly lower in children from households without access to improved sanitation, children of mothers without access to electronic media, without decision making power regarding food or whose height was < 145 cm, children born with a low birthweight and children 6-23 months old who were not fed dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In Maharashtra children's birthweight and feeding practices, women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2

  5. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  6. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  7. Behavior Management for School Aged Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Haack, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Behavior management treatments are the most commonly used nonpharmacological approaches for treating ADHD and associated impairments. This review focuses on behavioral parent training interventions for school age children in the home setting and adjunctive treatments developed to extend effects across settings. The underlying theoretical basis and content of these interventions are described. Empirical support includes numerous randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses showing positive effects of these interventions on child compliance, ADHD symptoms and impairments, parent-child interactions, parenting and parenting stress. These studies support categorization of behavior management treatment as a well-established, evidence-based treatment for ADHD. Factors for consideration in clinical decision-making and future directions for research are provided. PMID:25220083

  8. The epidemiology of sports injuries in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L; Larsen, S E; Röck, N D

    1996-10-01

    In the 5-year-period 1988-1992, 6096 children aged 6-17 (54.5% boys and 45.5% girls) were treated at the Emergency Department at Esbjerg Central Hospital after having sustained a sports injury. The data were registered according to the European Home- and Leisure-Accident Surveillance System (EHLASS) protocol. We found a total incidence rate in the municipality of Esbjerg of 73.3 per 1000 per year. Boys were most often injured in soccer, skateboard, handball, gymnastics and basketball, and girls in handball, horse-riding, gymnastics, basketball and roller-skating. The types of injuries were contusions 37.1%, fractures 22.0%, sprains 24.8%, wounds 9.5%, strains 5.0% and luxations 1.4%. The hospitalization rate was 3.8%. Compared to other studies the total incidence rate was high.

  9. Schools, Schooling, and Children's Support of Their Aging Parents

    PubMed Central

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.

    2009-01-01

    Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms. PMID:20161526

  10. Memorial consequences of testing school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Fazio, Lisa K.; Goswick, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    A large literature shows that retrieval practice is a powerful tool for enhancing learning and memory in undergraduates (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a). Much less work has examined the memorial consequences of testing school-aged children. Our focus is on multiple-choice tests, which are potentially problematic since they minimise retrieval practice and also expose students to errors (the multiple-choice lures). To examine this issue, second graders took a multiple-choice general knowledge test (e.g., What country did the Pilgrims come from: England, Germany, Ireland, or Spain?) and later answered a series of short answer questions, some of which corresponded to questions on the earlier multiple-choice test. Without feedback, the benefits of prior testing outweighed the costs for easy questions. However, for hard questions, the large increase in multiple-choice lure answers on the final test meant that the cost of prior testing outweighed the benefits when no feedback was provided. This negative testing effect was eliminated when children received immediate feedback (consisting of the correct answer) after each multiple-choice selection. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:22891857

  11. Roles of Perinatal Problems on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors among Children Born after 33 Completed Weeks: A Prospective Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which mildly sub-optimal perinatal characteristics among individuals born near-term (greater than 33 weeks of gestation) are associated with various subsequent childhood problems, including antisocial behavior. There is even more uncertainty about whether the pathway to antisocial behavior…

  12. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  13. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in deaf children, but no significant differences were found between the age groups of 9-10 years and 11-12 years on most of the Eurofit items. The difference in performance between deaf and hearing children, favoring the latter, increased with age in handgrip strength and the 20-m endurance shuttle run. More attention should be paid to developing and maintaining an adequate level of physical fitness in deaf children.

  14. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  15. Plutonium from Above-Ground Nuclear Tests in Milk Teeth: Investigation of Placental Transfer in Children Born between 1951 and 1995 in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Haldimann, Max

    2008-01-01

    Background Occupational risks, the present nuclear threat, and the potential danger associated with nuclear power have raised concerns regarding the metabolism of plutonium in pregnant women. Objective We measured plutonium levels in the milk teeth of children born between 1951 and 1995 to assess the potential risk that plutonium incorporated by pregnant women might pose to the radiosensitive tissues of the fetus through placenta transfer. Methods We used milk teeth, whose enamel is formed during pregnancy, to investigate the transfer of plutonium from the mother’s blood plasma to the fetus. We measured plutonium using sensitive sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. We compared our results with those of a previous study on strontium-90 (90Sr) released into the atmosphere after nuclear bomb tests. Results Results show that plutonium activity peaks in the milk teeth of children born about 10 years before the highest recorded levels of plutonium fallout. By contrast, 90Sr, which is known to cross the placenta barrier, manifests differently in milk teeth, in accordance with 90Sr fallout deposition as a function of time. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that plutonium found in milk teeth is caused by fallout that was inhaled around the time the milk teeth were shed and not from any accumulation during pregnancy through placenta transfer. Thus, plutonium may not represent a radiologic risk for the radiosensitive tissues of the fetus. PMID:19079728

  16. No own-age bias in 3-year-old children: more evidence for the role of early experience in building face-processing biases.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children, one composed of first-born children and the other composed of children who, from the time of their birth, had daily exposure to a child face through the presence of an older sibling in their home. Children without an older sibling were better at differentiating among adult faces than among child faces and showed an inversion effect that was selective for adult faces. Children with an older sibling were equally skilled at differentiating upright adult and child faces and showed inversion effects of comparable magnitude for both face types. Results support the notion that face representational space of younger children is tuned to adult faces and suggest that age biases during early childhood are dependent on the effects of early experience.

  17. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being.

  18. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  19. First- and second-born adolescents' decision-making autonomy throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Short, Stephen D; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Drotar, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    First- and second-born adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of adolescents' decision-making autonomy were compared from ages 12 to 19 in a longitudinal sample of 145 predominantly White, middle class families. Utilizing a multivariate, multilevel modeling approach, differences in perceptions of adolescents' autonomy between parents and each adolescent, as well as by social-cognitive domain were examined. The present study found that when comparing parents' perceptions of their children at the same age, second-borns were granted more autonomy regarding conventional issues than first-borns during early adolescence, but by later adolescence first-borns were granted more autonomy regarding prudential issues than second-borns. However, comparisons between adolescents' and siblings' perceptions showed no differences. Potential reasons for, and implications of, differences in perceptions of adolescent autonomy are discussed.

  20. Age-related parenting stress differences in mothers of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Macias, Michelle M; Saylor, Conway F; Rowe, Brandy P; Bell, Nancy L

    2003-12-01

    This study examined whether ages of child and parent were risk factors for general parenting stress and disability-specific stress in families of children with spina bifida. Parents of 64 children with spina bifida completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory, and measures of family support and resources. Scores of families with children under 6 years (preschool) versus 6- to 12-yr.-old children (school age) were compared, as were scores of mothers above or below Age 35. Parents of school-aged children reported significantly higher stress on the Concerns for the Child domain of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. Mothers over 35 tended to report higher stress in the Concerns for the Child and Medical/Legal Concerns domains of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. No associations with medical severity, socioeconomic status, family resources, or family support were detected. As the children age and disability-related differences become more apparent, the same level of functioning and severity of disability may be associated with additional parenting stress. Older mothers and those with school-age children may need more resources than current social support systems typically provide.

  1. Outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Fanaroff, A A

    2000-05-01

    Advances in perinatal care have improved the chances for survival of extremely low birthweight (<800 grams) and gestational age (<26 weeks) infants. A review of the world literature reveals that among regional populations, survival at 23 weeks' gestation ranges from 2 to 35%, at 24 weeks' gestation 17 to 62% and at 25 weeks' gestation 35 to 72%. These wide variations may be accounted for by differences in population descriptors, in the criteria used for starting or withdrawing treatment, in the reported duration of survival and differences in care. Major neonatal morbidity increases with decreasing gestational age and birthweight. At 23 weeks' gestation, chronic lung disease occurs in 57 to 86% of survivors, at 24 weeks in 33 to 89% and at 25 weeks' gestation in 16 to 71% of survivors. The rates of severe cerebral ultrasound abnormality range from 10 to 83% at 23 weeks' gestation, 9 to 64% at 24 weeks and 7 to 22% at 25 weeks' gestation Of 77 survivors at 23 weeks' gestation, 26 (34%) have severe disability (defined as subnormal cognitive function, cerebral palsy, blindness and/or deafness). At 24 weeks' gestation, the rates of severe neurodevelopmental disability range from 22 to 45%, and at 25 weeks' gestation 12 to 35%. When compared with children born prior to the 1990s, the rates of neurodevelopmental disability have, in general, remained unchanged. We conclude that, with current methods of care, the limits of viability have been reached. The continuing toll of major neonatal morbidity and neurodevelopmental handicap are of serious concern.

  2. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high…

  3. Speech Rhythm of Monolingual and Bilingual Children at age 2;6: Cantonese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that at age 3;0, monolingual children acquiring rhythmically different languages display distinct rhythmic patterns while the speech rhythm patterns of the languages of bilingual children are more similar. It is unclear whether the same observations can be found for younger children, at 2;6. This study compared five…

  4. Gender Concept Development and Preschool-Aged Children in the United States and Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerscheid, Jean D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested the gender understanding of 31 American and 31 Egyptian children. American children had a higher mean score on gender identity than Egyptian children. Found significant positive relationships between subject's age and two gender constructs, identity and stability. (Author/BJV)

  5. School-Age Follow-Up of Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Iyenger, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in speech/language and written language skills between children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and children with other speech-sound disorders at school age. Method: Ten children (7 males and 3 females) who were clinically diagnosed with CAS (CAS group) were…

  6. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  7. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  8. Primary School Attendance and Completion among Lower Secondary School Age Children in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, governments pledged to achieve education for all by 2015. However, if current enrollment trends continue, the number of out-of-school children could increase from current levels. Greater focus is needed on lower secondary school age (13-16 years) children. These children are not included estimates of…

  9. Dichotic Listening in Children: Age-Related Changes in Direction and Magnitude of Ear Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.

    2011-01-01

    Children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were tested with dichotic listening tests utilizing single syllable words and random presentations of digits. They produced a higher prevalence of left ear dominance than expected, especially among right-handed children when tested with words. Whether more children demonstrate the LEA because of right…

  10. Early Characteristics of Children with ASD Who Demonstrate Optimal Progress between Age Two and Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Emily; Barton, Marianne; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Although for many children, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability, a subset of children with ASD lose their diagnosis and show typical cognitive and adaptive abilities. The ages at which this transition can occur is not known, but it sometimes occurs quite early. Participants in the current study were 207 children with an ASD at…

  11. Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity among School-Age United Arab Emirates Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of ADHD was studied among 200 UAE school-age children. Variables that distinguish ADHD and non-ADHD children were examined, including child characteristics, parents' sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Results indicated that 12.5 % of the children had ADHD symptomatology, and…

  12. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  13. Evaluation of the Teaching of English to German Children of Pre-School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid-Schonbein, Gisela

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)

  14. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  15. The Acquisition of Accusative Object Clitics by IA Children from China: Evidence of Early Age Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance of twenty-seven French-speaking internationally adopted (IA) children from China to that of twenty-seven monolingual non-adopted French-speaking children (CTL) matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status on a Clitic Elicitation task. The IA children omitted significantly more accusative object…

  16. Expressed Emotion Displayed by the Mothers of Inhibited and Uninhibited Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement…

  17. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  18. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  19. Normal EEG of premature infants born between 24 and 30 weeks gestational age: terminology, definitions and maturation aspects.

    PubMed

    Vecchierini, M-F; André, M; d'Allest, A M

    2007-01-01

    This article presents normal EEG characteristics and their maturational pattern in premature infants of 24-30 weeks gestational age. Although the very premature infants with a normal outcome are not that numerous, their normal EEG pattern should be known, as EEG constitutes a basis for neurological prognosis. Background activity is first discontinuous but the discontinuity gradually decreases and the activity is completely continuous at 30 weeks of age, during active sleep. At the same time, interburst intervals become shorter so that the proportion of time without EEG activity decreases. Based on EEG activity and eyes movements, a rough sleep state differentiation appears as early as 25 weeks of gestational age and is complete at 30 weeks. The main EEG figures are high-voltage delta waves, whose frequency is slower and amplitude higher in younger infants. Temporal delta waves occur in sequences and are characteristic of the very premature infant; they progressively become smaller and less numerous and disappear around 27-28 weeks. In contrast, occipital delta waves remain numerous; they are of high voltage and usually bilaterally superimposed with fast rhythms. Both types of frontal delta waves that are seen in 24-27 weeks premature babies disappear with maturation. Bursts of synchronized delta waves, which are less numerous than localized delta waves, also disappear before 28 weeks of gestational age. Finally, diffuse theta bursts which are mainly recorded at 26-27 weeks, progressively focus on temporal areas with maturation. At 30 weeks, they are observed on temporal areas, mainly during slow-wave sleep.

  20. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.