Science.gov

Sample records for age classification scores

  1. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  2. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  3. Classification and immunohistochemical scoring of breast tissue microarray spots.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Telmo; McKenna, Stephen J; Robertson, Katherine; Thompson, Alastair

    2013-10-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) facilitate the survey of very large numbers of tumors. However, the manual assessment of stained TMA sections constitutes a bottleneck in the pathologist's work flow. This paper presents a computational pipeline for automatically classifying and scoring breast cancer TMA spots that have been subjected to nuclear immunostaining. Spots are classified based on a bag of visual words approach. Immunohistochemical scoring is performed by computing spot features reflecting the proportion of epithelial nuclei that are stained and the strength of that staining. These are then mapped onto an ordinal scale used by pathologists. Multilayer perceptron classifiers are compared with latent topic models and support vector machines for spot classification, and with Gaussian process ordinal regression and linear models for scoring. Intraobserver variation is also reported. The use of posterior entropy to identify uncertain cases is demonstrated. Evaluation is performed using TMA images stained for progesterone receptor.

  4. Trabecular bone score in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, A; Ponti, F; Diano, D; Amadori, M; Albisinni, U; Battista, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this work was to report on trabecular bone score (TBS) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of healthy Italian subjects to be used as a reference standard for future study in clinical and research settings. The secondary aim was to investigate the link between TBS and conventional parameters of bone and body composition by DXA. Methods: 250 individuals of 5 age bands (spanning from 18 to 70 years of age, equally distributed for both age and sex) were prospectively recruited. A lumbar spine (LS) DXA scan (Lunar iDXA™; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) was acquired for each subject and then analysed with the latest version of TBS iNsight v. 2.1 (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France) software. LS bone mineral density (LS BMD), Z-score, T-score and TBS values were collected. Pearson's test was used to investigate the correlations between TBS and LS BMD and the influence of age, body mass index (BMI) and body composition on these parameters. Results: A significant decrease of TBS and LS BMD was observed with ageing in both males (TBS mean values from 1.486 to 1.374; LS BMD mean values from 1.219 to 1.187) and females (TBS mean values from 1.464 to 1.306; LS BMD mean values from 1.154 to 1.116). No statistically significant difference was achieved among males and females of the same age group for both TBS and LS BMD, with the exception of the fifth age group. A significant correlation was found between LS BMD and TBS values in both sexes (r  = 0.555–0.655, p < 0.0001). BMI influenced LS BMD but not TBS. TBS values were inversely correlated with some fat mass parameters, in particular with visceral adipose tissue (in males: r = −0.332, p < 0.001; in females: r = −0.348, p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between TBS and total lean mass, opposite to LS BMD (in males: r = 0.418; p < 0.0001; in females: r = −0.235; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This report is an attempt to start building a database for

  5. A Retrospective Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Modified Braden Scale Score Risk Classifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2015-09-01

    The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment in the world, but the currently used 5 risk classification groups do not accurately discriminate among their risk categories. To optimize risk classification based on Braden Scale scores, a retrospective analysis of all consecutively admitted patients in an acute care facility who were at risk for pressure ulcer development was performed between January 2013 and December 2013. Predicted pressure ulcer incidence first was calculated by logistic regression model based on original Braden score. Risk classification then was modified based on the predicted pressure ulcer incidence and compared between different risk categories in the modified (3-group) classification and the traditional (5-group) classification using chi-square test. Two thousand, six hundred, twenty-five (2,625) patients (mean age 59.8 ± 16.5, range 1 month to 98 years, 1,601 of whom were men) were included in the study; 81 patients (3.1%) developed a pressure ulcer. The predicted pressure ulcer incidence ranged from 0.1% to 49.7%. When the predicted pressure ulcer incidence was greater than 10.0% (high risk), the corresponding Braden scores were less than 11; when the predicted incidence ranged from 1.0% to 10.0% (moderate risk), the corresponding Braden scores ranged from 12 to 16; and when the predicted incidence was less than 1.0% (mild risk), the corresponding Braden scores were greater than 17. In the modified classification, observed pressure ulcer incidence was significantly different between each of the 3 risk categories (P less than 0.05). However, in the traditional classification, the observed incidence was not significantly different between the high-risk category and moderate-risk category (P less than 0.05) and between the mild-risk category and no-risk category (P less than 0.05). If future studies confirm the validity of these findings, pressure ulcer prevention protocols of care based on Braden Scale scores can

  6. Examining Classification Criteria: A Comparison of Three Cut Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This study compared 3 different methods of creating cut scores for a screening instrument, T scores, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and the Rasch rating scale method (RSM), for use with the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Teacher Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007). Using…

  7. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  8. Classification Consistency when Scores Are Converted to Grades: Examination Marks versus Moderated School Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    In educational systems, concern has been expressed about the accuracy of classification when marks are aligned to grades or levels. In particular, it has been claimed that a school assessment-based grading would have much greater levels of accuracy than one based on examination scores. This paper investigates classification consistency by…

  9. Does Maximizing Information at the Cut Score Always Maximize Classification Accuracy and Consistency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time 1…

  11. Deep Learning for Cerebellar Ataxia Classification and Functional Score Regression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Shenghua; Carass, Aaron; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxia is a progressive neuro-degenerative disease that has multiple genetic versions, each with a characteristic pattern of anatomical degeneration that yields distinctive motor and cognitive problems. Studying this pattern of degeneration can help with the diagnosis of disease subtypes, evaluation of disease stage, and treatment planning. In this work, we propose a learning framework using MR image data for discriminating a set of cerebellar ataxia types and predicting a disease related functional score. We address the difficulty in analyzing high-dimensional image data with limited training subjects by: 1) training weak classifiers/regressors on a set of image subdomains separately, and combining the weak classifier/regressor outputs to make the decision; 2) perturbing the image subdomain to increase the training samples; 3) using a deep learning technique called the stacked auto-encoder to develop highly representative feature vectors of the input data. Experiments show that our approach can reliably classify between one of four categories (healthy control and three types of ataxia), and predict the functional staging score for ataxia. PMID:25553339

  12. On the Development and Scoring of Classification and Observation Science Performance Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Shavelson, Richard J.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Schults, Susan Elise; Wiley, Edward W.; Brown, Janet H.

    In a project on the development of performance assessments in science, researchers have developed four types of assessment: comparative, component identification, classification, and observation. They have noted that assessments belonging to the same type of task can be scored for the same performance properties. This paper reports on the…

  13. Third molar development: measurements versus scores as age predictor.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2011-10-01

    Human third molar development is widely used to predict chronological age of sub adult individuals with unknown or doubted age. For these predictions, classically, the radiologically observed third molar growth and maturation is registered using a staging and related scoring technique. Measures of lengths and widths of the developing wisdom tooth and its adjacent second molar can be considered as an alternative registration. The aim of this study was to verify relations between mandibular third molar developmental stages or measurements of mandibular second molar and third molars and age. Age related performance of stages and measurements were compared to assess if measurements added information to age predictions from third molar formation stage. The sample was 340 orthopantomograms (170 females, 170 males) of individuals homogenously distributed in age between 7 and 24 years. Mandibular lower right, third and second molars, were staged following Gleiser and Hunt, length and width measurements were registered, and various ratios of these measurements were calculated. Univariable regression models with age as response and third molar stage, measurements and ratios of second and third molars as predictors, were considered. Multivariable regression models assessed if measurements or ratios added information to age prediction from third molar stage. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) and root mean squared errors (RMSE) obtained from all regression models were compared. The univariable regression model using stages as predictor yielded most accurate age predictions (males: R(2) 0.85, RMSE between 0.85 and 1.22 year; females: R(2) 0.77, RMSE between 1.19 and 2.11 year) compared to all models including measurements and ratios. The multivariable regression models indicated that measurements and ratios added no clinical relevant information to the age prediction from third molar stage. Ratios and measurements of second and third molars are less accurate age predictors

  14. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  15. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  16. Agreement between the SCORE and D’Agostino Scales for the Classification of High Cardiovascular Risk in Sedentary Spanish Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Grandes, Gonzalo; Iglesias-Valiente, José A.; Sánchez, Alvaro; Montoya, Imanol; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background: To evaluate agreement between cardiovascular risk in sedentary patients as estimated by the new Framingham-D’Agostino scale and by the SCORE chart, and to describe the patient characteristics associated with the observed disagreement between the scales. Design: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving a systematic sample of 2,295 sedentary individuals between 40–65 years of age seen for any reason in 56 primary care offices. An estimation was made of the Pearson correlation coefficient and kappa statistic for the classification of high risk subjects (≥20% according to the Framingham-D’Agostino scale, and ≥5% according to SCORE). Polytomous logistic regression models were fitted to identify the variables associated with the discordance between the two scales. Results: The mean risk in males (35%) was 19.5% ± 13% with D’Agostino scale, and 3.2% ± 3.3% with SCORE. Among females, they were 8.1% ± 6.8% and 1.2% ± 2.2%, respectively. The correlation between the two scales was 0.874 in males (95% CI: 0.857–0.889) and 0.818 in females (95% CI: 0.800–0.834), while the kappa index was 0.50 in males (95% CI: 0.44%–0.56%) and 0.61 in females (95% CI: 0.52%–0.71%). The most frequent disagreement, characterized by high risk according to D’Agostino scale but not according to SCORE, was much more prevalent among males and proved more probable with increasing age and increased LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and systolic blood pressure values, as well as among those who used antihypertensive drugs and smokers. Conclusions: The quantitative correlation between the two scales is very high. Patient categorization as corresponding to high risk generates disagreements, mainly among males, where agreement between the two classifications is only moderate. PMID:20049225

  17. [A comparative study of clinical score and lung function tests in the classification of asthma by severity of disease].

    PubMed

    Nakaie, C M; Rozov, T; Manissadjian, A

    1998-01-01

    Fifty nine asthmatic children and adolescents, clinically stable, aged 6 to 15 years, 37 boys and 22 girls, from Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, were studied from September to November, 1994. The patients were classified by the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. They performed baseline spirometry and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), before and after bronchodilator, and measured PEFR three times a day (6 pm, at bedtime and on waking), for one day, at home. Five PEF measurements were made serially and the best readings were considered. Variability of PFE was calculated for 24 hours, as assessed by maximal amplitude. The results were summited to statistical analysis of the Laboratorio de Informática Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The results of PEFR and it's variability were compared to spirometry, (functional score, FEV1-forced expiratory volume in the first second) and to the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. In case of disagreement between the clinical parameters, the more severe one was chosen. The clinical score classified 20.3% of our patients as mild obstruction, 49.2% as moderate and 30.5% as severely compromised. According to FEV1, 58% of patients were classified as normal while the PEFR and its variability classified as normal 76% and 71%. The PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, correlated with the VEF1, as gold standard, showed good specificity, 91% and 76% respectively and low sensibility, 44% and 32%. It was detected a low level of agreement between FEV1, PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, in the clinical severity classification of asthma. The results of this study showed that FEV1 and PEFR had a low level of agreement in the clinical severity classification of asthma and when they were correlated to the clinical score of the International Consensus, they both presented low sensitivity.

  18. Corrected Mental Age Scores for the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, David N.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discrepancies between the mental age (MA) scores and the mean performance of chronological age (CA) groups in the latest revision of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale are noted. A table is presented for converting published Stanford-Binet MA scores into MA scores that are congruent with the above definition. (Author)

  19. Multicenter retrospective evaluation of the validity of the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score system in children.

    PubMed

    Sellin, Jonathan N; Steele, William J; Simpson, Lauren; Huff, Wei X; Lane, Brandon C; Chern, Joshua J; Fulkerson, Daniel H; Sayama, Christina M; Jea, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) system was developed to streamline injury assessment and guide surgical decision making. To the best of the authors' knowledge, external validation in the pediatric age group has not been undertaken prior to this report. METHODS This study evaluated the use of the TLICS in a large retrospective series of children and adolescents treated at 4 pediatric medical centers (Texas Children's Hospital, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Riley Children's Hospital, and Doernbecher Children's Hospital). A total of 147 patients treated for traumatic thoracic or lumbar spine trauma between February 1, 2002, and September 1, 2015, were included in this study. Clinical and radiographic data were evaluated. Injuries were classified using American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) status, Denis classification, and TLICS. RESULTS A total of 102 patients (69%) were treated conservatively, and 45 patients (31%) were treated surgically. All patients but one in the conservative group were classified as ASIA E. In this group, 86/102 patients (84%) had Denis type compression injuries. The TLICS in the conservative group ranged from 1 to 10 (mean 1.6). Overall, 93% of patients matched TLICS conservative treatment recommendations (score ≤ 3). No patients crossed over to the surgical group in delayed fashion. In the surgical group, 26/45 (58%) were ASIA E, whereas 19/45 (42%) had neurological deficits (ASIA A, B, C, or D). One of 45 (2%) patients was classified with Denis type compression injuries; 25/45 (56%) were classified with Denis type burst injuries; 14/45 (31%) were classified with Denis type seat belt injuries; and 5/45 (11%) were classified with Denis type fracture-dislocation injuries. The TLICS ranged from 2 to 10 (mean 6.4). Eighty-two percent of patients matched TLICS surgical treatment recommendations (score ≥ 5). No patients crossed over to the conservative management group. Eight patients (8

  20. A comparison between MRI, sonography and Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia methods in diagnosis, evaluation and classification of arthropathy in severe haemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Tasbihi, Mandana; Pishdad, Parisa; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Ardeshiri, Rezvan; Tavoosi, Hakimeh; Karimi, Mehran

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of joints in children with haemophilia is important in detecting abnormalities, staging their severity and following the effects of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of FISH score (Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia) with the scores obtained by MRI and sonography for the diagnosis, evaluation and classification of arthropathy in severe haemophilia. In this cross-sectional study on 25 severe haemophilia patients, FISH, MRI and sonography procedures were performed in the elbow or knee joint. All patients' information, including age, type of haemophilia, affected joint, scores of MRI, sonography and FISH, dose of factor consumed, weight and prophylaxis protocol were collected and analysed. Among the 25 patients (age range of 11-70 years), 22 patients were haemophilia A and three patients were haemophilia B. Affected joints were right knee in 12 patients, left knee in nine and right elbow in four. There was only a statistically significant negative correlation between FISH and MRI Additive (A) scale (rs = -0.537, P = 0.006). Considering cartilage loss domain (related MRI A scale: 13-20), 20 patients (80%) were classified in this group with FISH scores ranged from 17 to 22. On the basis of our results, FISH scores in severe haemophilia patients were negatively correlated with MRI A scale. Also, it seems that a FISH score less than 22 could be considered as loss of cartilage; however, due to the small number of our patients, it needs further assessment in different populations.

  1. Susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis in the mare: relationship to endometrial biopsy score and age, and variations between seasons.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Christoffersen, M; Campos, J; Squires, E L; Troedsson, M H T

    2012-08-01

    The objectives were to: (1) investigate the associations of age and endometrial biopsy score with uterine fluid retention after insemination; and (2) determine if a strict classification of susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) based on biopsy score, endometrial cytology, and fluid retention after inseminations, is consistent over subsequent breeding seasons. In Experiment 1, 57 mares were inseminated with 10(9) freeze-killed sperm during estrus and evaluated for uterine fluid retention 48 h and 96 h after insemination. Comparisons were made between fluid retention and biopsy score or age. In Experiment 2, a subset of 14 mares was classified for susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis in two subsequent breeding seasons. Biopsy score and age were associated with fluid retention (P < 0.001). In addition, age was related to biopsy score (P < 0.001). Of the mares examined for susceptibility, 36% (5 of 14) changed status during subsequent seasons. Three mares changed to a more severe classification (intermediate to susceptible, or resistant to intermediate), whereas two mares changed to a less severe classification (susceptible to intermediate).

  2. Sound credit scores and financial decisions despite cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Gao, Jie; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Zaval, Lisa; Weber, Elke U.; Johnson, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deterioration in cognitive ability may compromise the ability of older adults to make major financial decisions. We explore whether knowledge and expertise accumulated from past decisions can offset cognitive decline to maintain decision quality over the life span. Using a unique dataset that combines measures of cognitive ability (fluid intelligence) and of general and domain-specific knowledge (crystallized intelligence), credit report data, and other measures of decision quality, we show that domain-specific knowledge and expertise provide an alternative route for sound financial decisions. That is, cognitive aging does not spell doom for financial decision-making in domains where the decision maker has developed expertise. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective interventions and decision aids. PMID:25535381

  3. Risk Factors for the Failure of Spinal Burst Fractures Treated Conservatively According to the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS): A Retrospective Cohort Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jieliang; Xu, Linfei; Zhang, Baolong; Hu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Background The management of thoracolumbar (TL) burst fractures is still controversial. The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) algorithm is now widely used to guide clinical decision making, however, in clinical practice, we come to realize that TLICS also has its limitations for treating patients with total scores less than 4, for which conservative treatment may not be optimal in all cases. Purpose The aim of this study is to identify several risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment of TL burst fractures according to TLICS algorithm. Methods From June 2008 to December 2013, a cohort of 129 patients with T10-l2 TL burst fractures with a TLISC score ≤3 treated non-operatively were identified and included into this retrospective study. Age, sex, pain intensity, interpedicular distance (IPD), canal compromise, loss of vertebral body height and kyphotic angle (KA) were selected as potential risk factors and compared between the non-operative success group and the non-operative failure group. Results One hundred and four patients successfully completed non-operative treatment, the other 25 patients were converted to surgical treatment because of persistent local back pain or progressive neurological deficits during follow-up. Our results showed that age, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and IPD, KA were significantly different between the two groups. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that VAS score and IPD could be considered as significant predictors for the failure of conservative treatment. Conclusion The recommendation of non-operative treatment for TLICS score ≤3 has limitations in some patients, and VAS score and IPD could be considered as risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment. Thus, conservative treatment should be decided with caution in patients with greater VAS scores or IPD. If non-operative management is decided, a close follow-up is necessary. PMID:26284373

  4. Development of an automated updated Selvester QRS scoring system using SWT-based QRS fractionation detection and classification.

    PubMed

    Bono, Valentina; Mazomenos, Evangelos B; Chen, Taihai; Rosengarten, James A; Acharyya, Amit; Maharatna, Koushik; Morgan, John M; Curzen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The Selvester score is an effective means for estimating the extent of myocardial scar in a patient from low-cost ECG recordings. Automation of such a system is deemed to help implementing low-cost high-volume screening mechanisms of scar in the primary care. This paper describes, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, an automated implementation of the updated Selvester scoring system for that purpose, where fractionated QRS morphologies and patterns are identified and classified using a novel stationary wavelet transform (SWT)-based fractionation detection algorithm. This stage informs the two principal steps of the updated Selvester scoring scheme--the confounder classification and the point awarding rules. The complete system is validated on 51 ECG records of patients detected with ischemic heart disease. Validation has been carried out using manually detected confounder classes and computation of the actual score by expert cardiologists as the ground truth. Our results show that as a stand-alone system it is able to classify different confounders with 94.1% accuracy whereas it exhibits 94% accuracy in computing the actual score. When coupled with our previously proposed automated ECG delineation algorithm, that provides the input ECG parameters, the overall system shows 90% accuracy in confounder classification and 92% accuracy in computing the actual score and thereby showing comparable performance to the stand-alone system proposed here, with the added advantage of complete automated analysis without any human intervention.

  5. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  6. Classification Trees for Quality Control Processes in Automated Constructed Response Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Hone, Anne S.; Miller, Susan; Bejar, Isaac I.

    As the automated scoring of constructed responses reaches operational status, the issue of monitoring the scoring process becomes a primary concern, particularly when the goal is to have automated scoring operate completely unassisted by humans. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination and data for 326 cases with both human…

  7. Ossification score is a better indicator of maturity related changes in eating quality than animal age.

    PubMed

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    Ossification score and animal age are both used as proxies for maturity-related collagen crosslinking and consequently decreases in beef tenderness. Ossification score is strongly influenced by the hormonal status of the animal and may therefore better reflect physiological maturity and consequently eating quality. As part of a broader cross-European study, local consumers scored 18 different muscle types cooked in three ways from 482 carcasses with ages ranging from 590 to 6135 days and ossification scores ranging from 110 to 590. The data were studied across three different maturity ranges; the complete range of maturities, a lesser range and a more mature range. The lesser maturity group consisted of carcasses having either an ossification score of 200 or less or an age of 987 days or less with the remainder in the greater maturity group. The three different maturity ranges were analysed separately with a linear mixed effects model. Across all the data, and for the greater maturity group, animal age had a greater magnitude of effect on eating quality than ossification score. This is likely due to a loss of sensitivity in mature carcasses where ossification approached and even reached the maximum value. In contrast, age had no relationship with eating quality for the lesser maturity group, leaving ossification score as the more appropriate measure. Therefore ossification score is more appropriate for most commercial beef carcasses, however it is inadequate for carcasses with greater maturity such as cull cows. Both measures may therefore be required in models to predict eating quality over populations with a wide range in maturity.

  8. Gleason score stratification according to age at diagnosis in 1028 men

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Gleason score stratification according to age at diagnosis has been retrospectively evaluated in 1028 men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods From January 2006 to December 2014, 2435 Caucasian men aged between 37 and 92 years underwent transperineal prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. The indications were as follows: abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA values > 10 ng/ml or between 4.1–10 or 2.6–4 ng/ml, with free/total PSA < 25% and < 20%, respectively. Results In 1028 (42.2%) patients with median PSA of 9.6 ng/ml a PCa was found (median age 62.3 years; range: 42–92 years); 757 (73.7%) vs. 271 (26.3%) men had a T1c vs. T2 clinical stage, respectively. Median Gleason score was 7 (range: 6–10). The Gleason score progressively increased with the age of the patients at diagnosis, and a significantly correlation between Gleason score ≥ 8 and men older than 80 years was demonstrated (p = 0.0001). Conclusions The detection rate of aggressiveness of PCa progressively increased with the age at diagnosis; Gleason score ≥ 8 was more frequently diagnosed in men older than 80 years with PSA values > 10 ng/ml (about 80% of the cases) and abnormal DRE (about 60% of the cases). PMID:26843845

  9. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  10. Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

    2006-12-01

    The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions.

  11. Adding carotid total plaque area to the Framingham risk score improves cardiovascular risk classification

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hernan A.; Spence, John David; Armando, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular events (CE) due to atherosclerosis are preventable. Identification of high-risk patients helps to focus resources on those most likely to benefit from expensive therapy. Atherosclerosis is not considered for patient risk categorization, even though a fraction of CE are predicted by Framingham risk factors. Our objective was to assess the incremental value of combining total plaque area (TPA) with the Framingham risk score (FramSc) using post-test probability (Ptp) in order to categorize risk in patients without CE and identify those at high risk and requiring intensive treatment. Material and methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in the primary care setting in an Argentine population aged 22–90 years without CE. Both FramSc based on body mass index and Ptp-TPA were employed in 2035 patients for risk stratification and the resulting reclassification was compared. Total plaque area was measured with a high-resolution duplex ultrasound scanner. Results 57% male, 35% hypertensive, 27% hypercholesterolemia, 14% diabetes. 20.1% were low, 28.5% moderate, and 51.5% high risk. When patients were reclassified, 36% of them changed status; 24.1% migrated to a higher and 13.6% to a lower risk level (κ index = 0.360, SE κ = 0.16, p < 0.05, FramSc vs. Ptp-TPA). With this reclassification, 19.3% were low, 18.9% moderate and 61.8% high risk. Conclusions Quantification of Ptp-TPA leads to higher risk estimation than FramSc, suggesting that Ptp-TPA may be more sensitive than FramSc as a screening tool. If our observation is confirmed with a prospective study, this reclassification would improve the long-term benefits related to CE prevention. PMID:27279842

  12. Recent decline in prostate cancer incidence in the United States, by age, stage, and Gleason score.

    PubMed

    Herget, Kimberly A; Patel, Darshan P; Hanson, Heidi A; Sweeney, Carol; Lowrance, William T

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is sensitive to screening practices, however the impact of recent screening recommendations from the United States Preventative Services Task Force on prostate cancer incidence by age, stage, race, and Gleason score is unknown. This study described the timing and magnitude of changes in prostate cancer incidence trends in the United States by month of diagnosis, and evaluated trends by age, Gleason score, and stage at diagnosis. We analyzed prostate cancer incidence trends using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data for men diagnosed with invasive prostate cancer from 2007 through 2012. JoinPoint analysis was used to detect changes in the rate of annual percent change (APC) in prostate cancer incidence for all diagnoses and by age, Gleason score, race, and stage. Prostate cancer incidence declined at an estimated -19.6% APC beginning May 2011. This decline was observed in all age groups. Low-grade tumors (Gleason score ≤6) showed a steeper decline (-29.1% APC) than high-grade tumors (Gleason score 8-10: -10.8% APC). Only stage I/II and stage III tumors saw declines (-24.2% and -16.7% APC, respectively). A sharp decline in prostate cancer incidence began before release of the United States Preventative Services Task Force October 2011 draft and May 2012 final screening recommendation. The greatest change occurred with incidence of low-grade tumors, although there is concern that some high-grade tumors may now go undetected.

  13. Combining the ASA Physical Classification System and Continuous Intraoperative Surgical Apgar Score Measurement in Predicting Postoperative Risk.

    PubMed

    Jering, Monika Zdenka; Marolen, Khensani N; Shotwell, Matthew S; Denton, Jason N; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse Menachem

    2015-11-01

    The surgical Apgar score predicts major 30-day postoperative complications using data assessed at the end of surgery. We hypothesized that evaluating the surgical Apgar score continuously during surgery may identify patients at high risk for postoperative complications. We retrospectively identified general, vascular, and general oncology patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Logistic regression methods were used to construct a series of predictive models in order to continuously estimate the risk of major postoperative complications, and to alert care providers during surgery should the risk exceed a given threshold. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the discriminative ability of a model utilizing a continuously measured surgical Apgar score relative to models that use only preoperative clinical factors or continuously monitored individual constituents of the surgical Apgar score (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, and blood loss). AUROC estimates were validated internally using a bootstrap method. 4,728 patients were included. Combining the ASA PS classification with continuously measured surgical Apgar score demonstrated improved discriminative ability (AUROC 0.80) in the pooled cohort compared to ASA (0.73) and the surgical Apgar score alone (0.74). To optimize the tradeoff between inadequate and excessive alerting with future real-time notifications, we recommend a threshold probability of 0.24. Continuous assessment of the surgical Apgar score is predictive for major postoperative complications. In the future, real-time notifications might allow for detection and mitigation of changes in a patient's accumulating risk of complications during a surgical procedure.

  14. Age classification using facial feature extraction on female and male images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Toygar, Önsen

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents age classification on facial images using subpattern-based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) method. Classification of age intervals are conducted separately on female and male facial images since the aging process for female and male is different for human beings in real life. The age classification performance of the holistic approaches is compared with the performance of subpattern-based LBP approach in order to demonstrate the performance differences between these two types of approaches. To be consistent with the research of others, our work has been tested on two publicly available databases namely FGNET and MORPH. The experiments are performed on these aging databases to demonstrate the age classification performance on female and male facial images of human beings using subpatternbased LBP method with several parameter settings. The results are then compared with the results of age classification of the holistic PCA and holistic subspace LDA methods.

  15. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

  16. An Inmate Classification System Based on PCL: SV Factor Scores in a Sample of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci

    2007-01-01

    Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…

  17. Brain Metastases From Breast Carcinoma: Validation of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification and Proposition of a New Prognostic Score

    SciTech Connect

    Le Scodan, Romuald Massard, Christophe; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Guinebretierre, Jean Marc; Cohen-Solal, Christine; De Lalande, Brigitte; Moisson, Patricia; Breton-Callu, Christelle; Gardner, Miriam; Goupil, Alain; Renody, Nicole; Floiras, Jean Louis; Labib, Alain

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To validate the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RTOG RPA) classification and determine independent prognostic factors, to create a simple and specific prognostic score for patients with brain metastases (BM) from breast carcinoma treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: From January 1998 through December 2003, 132 patients with BM from breast carcinoma were treated with WBRT. We analyzed several potential predictors of survival after WBRT: age, Karnofsky performance status, RTOG-RPA class, number of BM, presence and site of other systemic metastases, interval between primary tumor and BM, tumor hormone receptor (HR) status, lymphocyte count, and HER-2 overexpression. Results: A total of 117 patients received exclusive WBRT and were analyzed. Median survival with BM was 5 months. One-year and 2-year survival rates were 27.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.9-36.8%) and 12% (95% CI 6.5-21.2%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, RTOG RPA Class III, lymphopenia ({<=}0.7 x 10{sup 9}/L) and HR negative status were independent prognostic factors for poor survival. We constructed a three-factor prognostic scoring system that predicts 6-month and 1-year rates of overall survival in the range of 76.1-29.5% (p = 0.00033) and 60.9-15.9% (p = 0.0011), respectively, with median survival of 15 months, 5 months, or 3 months for patients with none, one, or more than one adverse prognostic factor(s), respectively. Conclusions: This study confirms the prognostic value of the RTOG RPA classification, lymphopenia, and tumor HR status, which can be used to form a prognostic score for patients with BM from breast carcinoma.

  18. Inclusion of Neuropsychological Scores in Atrophy Models Improves Diagnostic Classification of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Zhou, Qi; Barker, Warren; Loewenstein, David A; Duara, Ranjan; Adjouadi, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are difficult to demarcate to assess the progression of AD. This study presents a statistical framework on the basis of MRI volumes and neuropsychological scores. A feature selection technique using backward stepwise linear regression together with linear discriminant analysis is designed to classify cognitive normal (CN) subjects, early MCI (EMCI), late MCI (LMCI), and AD subjects in an exhaustive two-group classification process. Results show a dominance of the neuropsychological parameters like MMSE and RAVLT. Cortical volumetric measures of the temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions are found to be significant classification factors. Moreover, an asymmetrical distribution of the volumetric measures across hemispheres is seen for CN versus EMCI and EMCI versus AD, showing dominance of the right hemisphere; whereas CN versus LMCI and EMCI versus LMCI show dominance of the left hemisphere. A 2-fold cross-validation showed an average accuracy of 93.9%, 90.8%, and 94.5%, for the CN versus AD, CN versus LMCI, and EMCI versus AD, respectively. The accuracy for groups that are difficult to differentiate like EMCI versus LMCI was 73.6%. With the inclusion of the neuropsychological scores, a significant improvement (24.59%) was obtained over using MRI measures alone.

  19. The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Infants 0 to 2 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M.

    2016-01-01

    In March 2014, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Board of Directors requested the Scoring Manual Editorial Board develop rules, terminology, and technical specifications for scoring sleep/wake states in full-term infants from birth to 2 mo of age, cognizant of the 1971 Anders, Emde, and Parmelee Manual for Scoring Sleep in Newborns. On July 1, 2015, the AASM published rules for scoring sleep in infants, ages 0–2 mo. This evidence-based review summarizes the background information provided to the Scoring Manual Editorial Board to write these rules. The Anders Manual only provided criteria for coding physiological and behavioral state characteristics in polysomnograms (PSG) of infants, leaving specific sleep scoring criteria to the individual investigator. Other infant scoring criteria have been published, none widely accepted or used. The AASM Scoring Manual infant scoring criteria incorporate modern concepts, digital PSG recording techniques, practicalities, and compromises. Important tenets are: (1) sleep/wake should be scored in 30-sec epochs as either wakefulness (W), rapid eye movement, REM (R), nonrapid eye movement, NREM (N) and transitional (T) sleep; (2) an electroencephalographic (EEG) montage that permits adequate display of young infant EEG is: F3-M2, F4-M1, C3-M2, C4-M1, O1-M2, O2-M1; additionally, recording C3-Cz, Cz-C4 help detect early and asynchronous sleep spindles; (3) sleep onsets are more often R sleep until 2–3 mo postterm; (4) drowsiness is best characterized by visual observation (supplemented by later video review); (5) wide open eyes is the most crucial determinant of W; (6) regularity (or irregularity) of respiration is the single most useful PSG characteristic for scoring sleep stages at this age; (7) trace alternant (TA) is the only relatively distinctive EEG pattern, characteristic of N sleep, and usually disappears by 1 mo postterm replaced by high voltage slow (HVS); (8) sleep spindles first appear 44–48 w

  20. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  1. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process.

  2. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  3. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares. PMID:9078493

  4. Fetal autonomic brain age scores, segmented heart rate variability analysis, and traditional short term variability

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Tetschke, Florian; Nowack, Samuel; Rudolph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Kynass, Isabelle; Bode, Franziska; Tegtmeyer, Janine; Kumm, Kathrin; Moraru, Liviu; Götz, Theresa; Haueisen, Jens; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of fetal autonomic brain development can be evaluated from fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) reflecting the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Although HRP analysis from cardiotocographic (CTG) recordings is established for fetal surveillance, temporal resolution is low. Fetal magnetocardiography (MCG), however, provides stable continuous recordings at a higher temporal resolution combined with a more precise heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A direct comparison of CTG and MCG based HRV analysis is pending. The aims of the present study are: (i) to compare the fetal maturation age predicting value of the MCG based fetal Autonomic Brain Age Score (fABAS) approach with that of CTG based Dawes-Redman methodology; and (ii) to elaborate fABAS methodology by segmentation according to fetal behavioral states and HRP. We investigated MCG recordings from 418 normal fetuses, aged between 21 and 40 weeks of gestation. In linear regression models we obtained an age predicting value of CTG compatible short term variability (STV) of R2 = 0.200 (coefficient of determination) in contrast to MCG/fABAS related multivariate models with R2 = 0.648 in 30 min recordings, R2 = 0.610 in active sleep segments of 10 min, and R2 = 0.626 in quiet sleep segments of 10 min. Additionally segmented analysis under particular exclusion of accelerations (AC) and decelerations (DC) in quiet sleep resulted in a novel multivariate model with R2 = 0.706. According to our results, fMCG based fABAS may provide a promising tool for the estimation of fetal autonomic brain age. Beside other traditional and novel HRV indices as possible indicators of developmental disturbances, the establishment of a fABAS score normogram may represent a specific reference. The present results are intended to contribute to further exploration and validation using independent data sets and multicenter research structures. PMID:25505399

  5. Melatonin treatment in spring and reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score and age.

    PubMed

    Luridiana, S; Mura, M C; Daga, C; Farci, F; Di Stefano, M V; Zidda, F; Carcangiu, V

    2015-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the effect of melatonin treatment on the advanced reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score (BCS) and age, 800 ewes were selected from two farms. These ewes (3-6 years old, multiparous and with BCS 2.5-4.0) were subdivided into two Groups (200 M and 200 C), balanced on their BCS and age. On 20 March, Group M was treated with one melatonin implant (18 mg). Group C was untreated. Males were introduced to the groups 35 days after treatment. Gestation was diagnosed between day 45 and 90 after mating by transabdominal ultrasonography. From day 150 to 190 after rams introduction, lambing date and newborns' number were recorded. The average time in days between male introduction and lambing resulted shorter in treated than in control ewes (166.4 ± 0.48 vs. 172.5 ± 0.50) (P < 0.05). At day 160 and 170 from ram introduction the fertility rate was higher in Group M than in C (P < 0.05). The overall fertility at day 190 from rams introduction showed no differences between Group M and C (337 and 339, respectively). At day 170 from male introduction the number of the 5-6 years-old lambed ewes were 2-fold higher than the youngers (P < 0.05). The animals with a BCS 3.5-4.0 had a faster response to male effect, and a shorter mean distance in days from rams introduction to lambing, compared to those scored 2.5-3.0 (166.1 ± 0.48 vs. 174.8 ± 0.51) (P < 0.05). We concluded that the ewes with BCS 3.5-4.0 and aged 5-6 years showed a better response to melatonin treatment in spring. PMID:26220680

  6. Acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score is an alternative efficient predictor of mortality in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yohei; Shimizu, Mikio; Hirabayashi, Hidemitsu

    2007-05-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of the acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score in burn patients. We hypothesised that APACHE III score efficiently predicts mortality of burn patients as it reflects the physiological changes in the acute phase and the severity of the underlying illness. Data such as age, gender, inhalation injury, total burn surface area (TBSA), burn index (BI), prognostic burn index (PBI), APACHE III score and outcome of 105 hospitalised patients were analysed retrospectively. TBSA, BI, PBI, and APACHE III score in the mortality group were significantly higher than those of surviving group. The mean scores of surviving versus mortality groups were as follows: TBSA, 19.2+/-17.8% versus 69.1+/-28.4%, p<0.0001; BI, 12.8+/-13.1% versus 66.8+/-28.6%, p<0.0001; PBI, 68.8+/-26.0% versus 124.4+/-33.6%, p<0.0001; APACHE III score, 28.4+/-22.2% versus 71.3+/-32.1%, p<0.0001. PBI and APACHE III score showed marked associations between higher scores and higher mortality. APACHE III score showed a significant correlation with PBI (p<0.0001). The present study suggested that APACHE III score could be used as an alternative efficient predictor of mortality in burn patients.

  7. Prognostic sub-classification of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter cohort study with propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Ramya; Pinato, David J; Kubota, Keiichi; Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Arizumi, Tadaaki; Kudo, Masatoshi; Jang, Jeong Won; Kim, Young Woon; Pirisi, Mario; Allara, Elias; Sharma, Rohini

    2016-10-01

    There is significant heterogeneity in the clinicopathological characteristics of intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (IHCC). This also translates to treatment as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is used as first-line therapy for patients with IHCC; however, in Asia liver resection (LR) is preferred. Prognostic tools are required to help guide clinicians in deciding treatment options. This study evaluates the prognostic impact of the Intermediate Stage Score (ISS) on overall survival (OS) in a large, multicenter cohort study of patients with IHCC treated with TACE or surgery LR. Consecutive patients from centers in Japan, Korea, Italy and the United Kingdom who underwent TACE or LR between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled. Propensity score (PS) adjustment was used to remove residual confounding and applied to LR (n = 162) and TACE (n = 449) to determine the prognostic significance of ISS. Among 611 patients, 75 % were men and 25 % women, with a mean age of 70 years. ISS is a valid prognostic tool in the BCLC-B population with a median OS ISS 1-51, 2-38.3, 3-24.3, 4-15.6, 5-16 months (p < 0.0001). ISS was analyzed within each treatment modality, and this was a valid prognostic score among those treated with TACE and LR (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.008). In the PS-adjusted model, ISS retained its prognostic utility in TACE and LR groups (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.007). ISS optimizes prognostic prediction in IHCC, reducing clinical heterogeneity, and is a useful tool for patients treated for TACE or LR. PMID:27601241

  8. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be…

  9. Classification: A Comparison of Middle and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Nancy Wadsworth; Lennon, Madonna L.

    1972-01-01

    Whereas middle-aged individuals tended to group the entire stimulus array into piles of similar items, the elderly individuals grouped very much as young children do--arranging only a portion of the stimulus array into elaborate designs. (Authors)

  10. The Ross classification for heart failure in children after 25 years: a review and an age-stratified revision.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert D

    2012-12-01

    Accurate grading of the presence and severity of heart failure (HF) signs and symptoms in infants and children remains challenging. It has been 25 years since the Ross classification was first used for this purpose. Since then, several modifications of the system have been used and others proposed. New evidence has shown that in addition to signs and symptoms, data from echocardiography, exercise testing, and biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) all are useful in stratifying outcomes for children with HF. It also is apparent that grading of signs and symptoms in children is dependent on age because infants manifest HF differently than toddlers and older children. This review culminates in a proposed new age-based Ross classification for HF in children that incorporates the most useful data from the last two decades. Testing of this new system will be important to determine whether an age-stratified scoring system can unify the way communication of HF severity and research on HF in children is performed in the future.

  11. Putting Predictive Models to Use: Scoring of Unseen Streaming Data using a Multivariate Time Series Classification Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipes, T.; Karimabadi, H.; Imber, S. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Pothier, N. M.; Coeli, R.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in data collection and data storage technologies have made the assembly of multivariate time series data more common. Data analysis and extraction of knowledge from such massive and complex datasets encountered in space physics today present a major obstacle to fully utilizing our vast data repositories and to scientific progress. In the previous years we introduced a time series classification tool MineTool-TS [Karimabadi et al, 2009] and its extension to simulation and streaming data [Sipes& Karimabadi, 2012, 2013]. In this work we demonstrate the applicability and real world utility of the predictive models created using the tool to scoring and labeling of a large dataset of unseen, streaming data. Predictive models that are created are based on the assumption that the training data used to create them is a true representative of the population. Multivariate time series datasets are also characterized by large amounts of variability and potential background noise. Moreover, there are multiple issues being raised by the streaming nature of the data. In this work we illustrate how we dealt with these challenges and demonstrate the results in a study of flux ropes in the plasma sheet. We have used an iterative process of building a predictive model using the original labeled training set, tested it on a week worth of streaming data, had the results checked by a scientific expert in the domain, and fed the results and the labels back into the training set, creating a large training set and using it to produce the final model. This final model was then put to use to predict a very large, unseen, six month period of streaming data. In this work we present the results of our machine learning approach to automatically detect flux ropes in spacecraft data.

  12. Age-Correction of Test Scores Reduces the Validity of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Predicting Progression to Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hessler, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver; Förstl, Hans; Mösch, Edelgard; Bickel, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) precedes most forms of neurodegenerative dementia. Many definitions of MCI recommend the use of test norms to diagnose cognitive impairment. It is, however, unclear whether the use of norms actually improves the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. Therefore, the effects of age- and education-norms on the validity of test scores in predicting progression to dementia were investigated. Methods Baseline cognitive test scores (Syndrome Short Test) of dementia-free participants aged ≥65 were used to predict progression to dementia within three years. Participants were comprehensively examined one, two, and three years after baseline. Test scores were calculated with correction for (1) age and education, (2) education only, (3) age only and (4) without correction. Predictive validity was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regressions. Areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for the one-, two-, and three-year intervals. Results 82 (15.3%) of initially 537 participants, developed dementia. Model coefficients, hazard ratios, and AUCs of all scores were significant (p<0.001). Predictive validity was the lowest with age-corrected scores (−2 log likelihood  = 840.90, model fit χ2 (1)  = 144.27, HR  = 1.33, AUCs between 0.73 and 0.87) and the highest with education-corrected scores (−2 log likelihood  = 815.80, model fit χ2 (1)  = 171.16, HR  = 1.34, AUCs between 0.85 and 0.88). Conclusion The predictive validity of test scores is markedly reduced by age-correction. Therefore, definitions of MCI should not recommend the use of age-norms in order to improve the detection of individuals at risk of dementia. PMID:25171483

  13. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  14. Validation of WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) for myelodysplastic syndromes and comparison with the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A study of the International Working Group for Prognosis in Myelodysplasia (IWG-PM).

    PubMed

    Della Porta, M G; Tuechler, H; Malcovati, L; Schanz, J; Sanz, G; Garcia-Manero, G; Solé, F; Bennett, J M; Bowen, D; Fenaux, P; Dreyfus, F; Kantarjian, H; Kuendgen, A; Levis, A; Cermak, J; Fonatsch, C; Le Beau, M M; Slovak, M L; Krieger, O; Luebbert, M; Maciejewski, J; Magalhaes, S M M; Miyazaki, Y; Pfeilstöcker, M; Sekeres, M A; Sperr, W R; Stauder, R; Tauro, S; Valent, P; Vallespi, T; van de Loosdrecht, A A; Germing, U; Haase, D; Greenberg, P L; Cazzola, M

    2015-07-01

    A risk-adapted treatment strategy is mandatory for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We refined the World Health Organization (WHO)-classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) by determining the impact of the newer clinical and cytogenetic features, and we compared its prognostic power to that of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A population of 5326 untreated MDS was considered. We analyzed single WPSS parameters and confirmed that the WHO classification and severe anemia provide important prognostic information in MDS. A strong correlation was found between the WPSS including the new cytogenetic risk stratification and WPSS adopting original criteria. We then compared WPSS with the IPSS-R prognostic system. A highly significant correlation was found between the WPSS and IPSS-R risk classifications. Discrepancies did occur among lower-risk patients in whom the number of dysplastic hematopoietic lineages as assessed by morphology did not reflect the severity of peripheral blood cytopenias and/or increased marrow blast count. Moreover, severe anemia has higher prognostic weight in the WPSS versus IPSS-R model. Overall, both systems well represent the prognostic risk of MDS patients defined by WHO morphologic criteria. This study provides relevant in formation for the implementation of risk-adapted strategies in MDS. PMID:25721895

  15. Correlates of Attachment at Age 3: Construct Validity of the Preschool Attachment Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cyr, Chantal; Mongeau, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane

    2004-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment at age 3 to further validate preschool separation-reunion measures. Three-year-olds (N = 150) and their mothers participated in a separation-reunion protocol, the Preschool Attachment Classification System (PACS: J. Cassidy & R. S. Marvin with the MacArthur Working Group on Attachment, 1992), and a…

  16. Assessment of nutritional status: effects of different methods to determine age on the classification of undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Gorstein, J

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of nutritional status using anthropometry has been widely employed in field studies and nutritional surveillance programmes. Two of the primary indicators used, weight-for-age and height-for-age, require accurate age information for proper assessments to be made. Three data sets on nutritional status were evaluated using different methods to determine age: rounding to the most recently attained month, rounding to the nearest whole month, and ages computed from birth dates and visit dates. The impact of these different methods on the classification of nutritional status were found to be dramatic, especially in infants during the first year of life. In some cases, when ages are rounded to the most recently attained month, as few as 43% of the children classified as malnourished based on the indicator, height-for-age, and the cut-off point, less than -2 Standard Deviations from the reference median, are identified relative to when ages are computed from birth and visit dates. Beyond the discrepancies in estimating prevalence below specific cut-off points to designate undernutrition, the use of the different methods also affects entire distributions. The problem of using different methods to estimate age, and the impact they have on the classification of undernutrition are of critical public health importance, especially when this information is used to identify individuals and groups as well as for planning and policy development.

  17. Feedback-based versus observational classification learning in healthy aging and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Ferstl, Roman; Wiesner, Christian; Deuschl, Günther; Witt, Karsten

    2007-04-20

    Previous studies underline the role of dopamine in cognitive reinforcement learning. This has been demonstrated by a striatal involvement in feedback-based probabilistic classification learning. In order to determine to which extent the dopaminergic loss of Parkinson's disease and aging affects the feedback aspect in classification learning, we applied two versions of the same visual classification task. One version had to be learnt by trial-by-trial feedback, the other by observing the correct assignment of stimulus and category. Performance was evaluated in test blocks that were identical under the feedback and the observational conditions. There were 31 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 30 older controls and 20 younger controls tested. The results show that younger healthy participants perform better than older participants in the classification task and this difference significantly interacts with the learning condition: both groups show nearly the same level of performance under the observational condition but younger participants show a better performance than older ones under the feedback condition. In contrast, PD patients and older controls did not differ in their performance in the classification task; both groups performed better under the observational than under the feedback condition. These results demonstrate that healthy aging affects feedback-based learning but does not affect learning by observation. The fact that PD patients showed no additional deficit in feedback-based learning is an indication that the loss of dopamine does not play the key role under the feedback condition of our classification task. This finding questions the general role of the striatum in feedback-based learning and demonstrates that healthy aging particularly affects feedback-based learning.

  18. Normative data on nasalance scores for Swedish as measured on the Nasometer: influence of dialect, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Brunnegård, Karin; van Doorn, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish normative nasalance values for Swedish speaking children as measured with the Nasometer(trade mark) II, and to investigate differences due to regional dialect, gender, and age. Two hundred and twenty healthy children aged 4-5, 6-7, and 9-11 years were included. Group mean nasalance scores for four speech stimuli were calculated and compared. There were no significant differences due to dialect or gender for children in the study. For age there was a significant difference on nasal sentences between the youngest group of children and the other two groups, age 4-5 vs age 6-7 (t = -2.844, p = .006) and for age 4-5 vs age 9-11 (t = -2.888, p = .005). The results from this study have both clinical significance for Swedish SLPs working with resonance disorders, and theoretical significance for linguists studying features of dialects and languages.

  19. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  20. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects. PMID:27027323

  1. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects.

  2. In-vivo differentiation of photo-aged epidermis skin by texture-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Weng, Cuncheng; Yu, Biying; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Two sets of in vivo female cheek skin epidermis images were analyzed through gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and fast fourier transform (FFT). One set was derived from women in their 20s and the other from women more than 60 years of age. GLCM was used to evaluate the texture features of the regions of interest within the cheek epidermis, and texture classification was subsequently performed. During texture classification, 25 images (320×240 pixels) in each age set were randomly selected. Three texture features, i.e., energy, contrast, and correlation, were obtained from the skin images and analyzed at four orientations (0°, 45°,90°, and 135°), accompanied by different distances between two pixels. The textures of the different aging skins were characterized by FFT, which provides the dermatoglyph orientation index. The differences in the textures between the young and old skin samples can be well described by the FFT dermatoglyph orientation index. The texture features varied among the different aging skins, which provide a versatile platform for differentiating the statuses of aging skins.

  3. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  4. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  5. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  6. Malingering in Toxic Exposure. Classification Accuracy of Reliable Digit Span and WAIS-III Digit Span Scaled Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Springer, Steven; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Black, F. William; Heinly, Matthew T.; Love, Jeffrey M.; Swift, Douglas A.; Ciota, Megan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity and false-positive error rate of reliable digit span (RDS) and the WAIS-III Digit Span (DS) scaled score in persons alleging toxic exposure and determined whether error rates differed from published rates in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain (CP). Data were obtained from the files of 123 persons…

  7. Landing Error Scoring System Differences Between Single-Sport and Multi-Sport Female High School–Aged Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Mark E.; Joy, Elizabeth; Switzler, Craig L.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Single-sport specialization (SSS) is becoming more prevalent in youth athletes. Deficits in functional movement have been shown to predispose athletes to injury. It is unclear whether a link exists between SSS and the development of functional movement deficits that predispose SSS athletes to an increased risk of knee injury. Objective To determine whether functional movement deficits exist in SSS athletes compared with multi-sport (M-S) athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Soccer practice fields. Patients or Other Participants A total of 40 (21 SSS [age = 15.05 ± 1.2 years], 19 M-S [age = 15.32 ± 1.2 years]) female high school athlete volunteers were recruited through local soccer clubs. All SSS athletes played soccer. Intervention(s) Participants were grouped into 2 categories: SSS and M-S. All participants completed 3 trials of the standard Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) jump-landing task. They performed a double-legged jump from a 30-cm platform, landing on a rubber mat at a distance of half their body height. Upon landing, participants immediately performed a maximal vertical jump. Main Outcome Measure(s) Values were assigned to each trial using the LESS scoring criteria. We averaged the 3 scored trials and then used a Mann-Whitney U test to test for differences between groups. Participant scores from the jump-landing assessment for each group were also placed into the 4 defined LESS categories for group comparison using a Pearson χ2 test. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Mean scores were 6.84 ± 1.81 for the SSS group and 6.07 ± 1.93 for the M-S group. We observed no differences between groups (z = −1.44, P = .15). A Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that the proportions of athletes classified as having excellent, good, moderate, or poor LESS scores were not different between the SSS and M-S groups ( = 1.999, P = .57). Conclusions Participation in soccer alone compared with multiple sports did not affect LESS scores in

  8. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  9. Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812

  10. Spoken language scores of children using cochlear implants compared to hearing age-mates at school entry.

    PubMed

    Geers, Ann E; Moog, Jean S; Biedenstein, Julia; Brenner, Christine; Hayes, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three questions: Is it realistic to expect age-appropriate spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants (CIs) who received auditory-oral intervention during the preschool years? What characteristics predict successful spoken language development in this population? Are children with CIs more proficient in some areas of language than others? We analyzed language skills of 153 children with CIs as measured by standardized tests. These children (mean age = 5 years and 10 months) attended programs in the United States (N = 39) that used an auditory-oral educational approach. Age-appropriate scores were observed in 50% of the children on measures of receptive vocabulary, 58% on expressive vocabulary, 46% on verbal intelligence, 47% on receptive language, and 39% on expressive language. Regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for the effects of nonverbal intelligence and parent education level, children who received their implants at young ages had higher scores on all language tests than children who were older at implantation. On average, children with CIs performed better on certain language measures than others, indicating that some areas of language may be more difficult for these children to master than others. Implications for educators of deaf children with CIs are discussed.

  11. Geochronological database and classification system for age uncertainties in Neotropical pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flantua, S. G. A.; Blaauw, M.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2016-02-01

    The newly updated inventory of palaeoecological research in Latin America offers an important overview of sites available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. From the collected literature supporting this inventory, we collected all available age model metadata to create a chronological database of 5116 control points (e.g. 14C, tephra, fission track, OSL, 210Pb) from 1097 pollen records. Based on this literature review, we present a summary of chronological dating and reporting in the Neotropics. Difficulties and recommendations for chronology reporting are discussed. Furthermore, for 234 pollen records in northwest South America, a classification system for age uncertainties is implemented based on chronologies generated with updated calibration curves. With these outcomes age models are produced for those sites without an existing chronology, alternative age models are provided for researchers interested in comparing the effects of different calibration curves and age-depth modelling software, and the importance of uncertainty assessments of chronologies is highlighted. Sample resolution and temporal uncertainty of ages are discussed for different time windows, focusing on events relevant for research on centennial- to millennial-scale climate variability. All age models and developed R scripts are publicly available through figshare, including a manual to use the scripts.

  12. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children aging 1 year through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations.

  13. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children aging 1 year through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations. PMID:26935428

  14. Coronary artery calcium scoring in the age of CT angiography: what is its role?

    PubMed

    Raggi, Paolo; Khan, Akbar; Arepali, Chesnal; Stillman, Arthur E

    2008-10-01

    It has become commonplace to try to gear the intensity of preventive measures to the degree of risk. It is, however, problematic to merely use traditional risk factors to gauge risk in the individual patient because the tools currently in use are based on population estimates and they may not directly apply to the individual being assessed. Indeed, it is not unusual for patients at low to intermediate risk to suffer unexpected events, whereas some high-risk patients appear unusually healthy. Imaging for atherosclerosis may offer an alternative to this approach. Often, there is a large discrepancy between the burden of atherosclerosis estimated with coronary artery calcium or intima-media thickness and the risk of future cardiovascular events estimated with the Framingham risk score. This may justify some of the clinical discrepancy. Here, we review the current evidence surrounding the use of coronary artery calcium for risk prediction.

  15. Benton's Visual Retention Test: New Age, Scale Score and Percentile Norms for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James A.

    The Benton Visual Retention Test which is designed to assess visual perceptual, visual motor, and visuoconstructive abilities can give school personnel greater precision and range in testing. The standardization of this instrument was tested on 700 Houston elementary school students. Chronological age differences were maintained and correlation…

  16. Classification of complex biological aging images using fuzzy Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan D.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid advancement of biomedical imaging device technology, the role of image processing coupled with pattern recognition, which is the science of classification of objects into a number categories or classes, is increasingly becoming important for the study of biological and medical images. As a matter of fact, the term Bioimage Informatics has been coined in the community of bioinformatics to emphasize the essential application of computational methods in assisting life-science researchers in the quantitative analysis of large volumes of images. This paper presents the formulation of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy under the mechanism of fuzzy uncertainty as an effective image feature for complex pattern classification. In this study, the particular focus is on classifying biological images relating to aging. The performance of the proposed method was tested against several current challenging image datasets that are benchmarks for comparing image classification techniques for overcoming the limited capacity of existing automated biological image analysis. The results demonstrate the superiority of the use of the new image feature for classifying difficult image objects in current biology.

  17. Classification of wet aged related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Anam; Mir, Fouwad Jamil; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Wet Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of age related macular degeneration. In order to detect Wet AMD we look for Pigment Epithelium detachment (PED) and fluid filled region caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This form of AMD can cause vision loss if not treated in time. In this article we have proposed an automated system for detection of Wet AMD in Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. The proposed system extracts PED and CNV from OCT images using segmentation and morphological operations and then detailed feature set are extracted. These features are then passed on to the classifier for classification. Finally performance measures like accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are calculated and the classifier delivering the maximum performance is selected as a comparison measure. Our system gives higher performance using SVM as compared to other methods.

  18. Classification of transporters using efficient radial basis function networks with position-specific scoring matrices and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Gromiha, M Michael

    2010-05-15

    Transporters are proteins that are involved in the movement of ions or molecules across biological membranes. Transporters are generally classified into channels/pores, electrochemical transporters, and active transporters. Discriminating the specific class of transporters and their subfamilies are essential tasks in computational biology for the advancement of structural and functional genomics. We have systematically analyzed the amino acid composition, residue pair preference and amino acid properties in six different families of transporters. Utilizing the information, we have developed a radial basis function (RBF) network method based on profiles obtained with position specific scoring matrices for discriminating transporters belonging to three different classes and six families. Our method showed a fivefold cross validation accuracy of 76%, 73%, and 69% for discriminating transporters and nontransporters, three different classes and six different families of transporters, respectively. Further, the method was tested with independent datasets, which showed similar level of accuracy. A web server has been developed for discriminating transporters based on three classes and six families, and it is available at http://rbf.bioinfo.tw/ approximately sachen/tcrbf.html. We suggest that our method could be effectively used to identify transporters and discriminating them into different classes and families.

  19. Should we adjust for gestational age when analysing birth weights? The use of z-scores revisited.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Ilse; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Bacquer, Dirk; Verstraelen, Hans; Gerris, Jan; De Sutter, Petra; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-08-01

    Birth weight is the single most important risk indicator for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity, which has led to the idiom that 'every ounce counts'. Birth weight in turn, however, tends to vary widely across populations as a result of differential fetal growth velocity with such demographic factors as ethnicity, maternal and paternal height and altitude of residence. Accordingly, it has been acknowledged that the appraisal of birth weight should rely on its position relative to the birth weight distribution of the background population. This is commonly done by standardizing birth weight through its deviation from the population mean in the given gestational age stratum, as can be obtained from population-customized birth weight nomograms. This issue was recently revisited in 'Human Reproduction' through a plea for reporting birth weight as z-scores. In this article, we argue that adjustment for factors, such as gestational age, which may lie on the causal pathway from exposures present at the time of conception [e.g. single-embryo transfer (SET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET)] to birth weight, may induce bias, regardless of whether the adjustment happens via stratification, regression or through the use of z-scores.

  20. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  1. Classification of Individual Well-Being Scores for the Determination of Adverse Health and Productivity Outcomes in Employee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Lindsay E.; Coberley, Carter R.; Pope, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adverse health and productivity outcomes have imposed a considerable economic burden on employers. To facilitate optimal worksite intervention designs tailored to differing employee risk levels, the authors established cutoff points for an Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) based on a global measure of well-being. Cross-sectional associations between IWBS and adverse health and productivity outcomes, including high health care cost, emergency room visits, short-term disability days, absenteeism, presenteeism, low job performance ratings, and low intentions to stay with the employer, were studied in a sample of 11,702 employees from a large employer. Receiver operating characteristics curves were evaluated to detect a single optimal cutoff value of IWBS for predicting 2 or more adverse outcomes. More granular segmentation was achieved by computing relative risks of each adverse outcome from logistic regressions accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results showed strong and significant nonlinear associations between IWBS and health and productivity outcomes. An IWBS of 75 was found to be the optimal single cutoff point to discriminate 2 or more adverse outcomes. Logistic regression models found abrupt reductions of relative risk also clustered at IWBS cutoffs of 53, 66, and 88, in addition to 75, which segmented employees into high, high-medium, medium, low-medium, and low risk groups. To determine validity and generalizability, cutoff values were applied in a smaller employee population (N=1853) and confirmed significant differences between risk groups across health and productivity outcomes. The reported segmentation of IWBS into discrete cohorts based on risk of adverse health and productivity outcomes should facilitate well-being comparisons and worksite interventions. (Population Health Management 2013;16:90–98) PMID:23013034

  2. Classification of individual well-being scores for the determination of adverse health and productivity outcomes in employee populations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuyan; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2013-04-01

    Adverse health and productivity outcomes have imposed a considerable economic burden on employers. To facilitate optimal worksite intervention designs tailored to differing employee risk levels, the authors established cutoff points for an Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) based on a global measure of well-being. Cross-sectional associations between IWBS and adverse health and productivity outcomes, including high health care cost, emergency room visits, short-term disability days, absenteeism, presenteeism, low job performance ratings, and low intentions to stay with the employer, were studied in a sample of 11,702 employees from a large employer. Receiver operating characteristics curves were evaluated to detect a single optimal cutoff value of IWBS for predicting 2 or more adverse outcomes. More granular segmentation was achieved by computing relative risks of each adverse outcome from logistic regressions accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results showed strong and significant nonlinear associations between IWBS and health and productivity outcomes. An IWBS of 75 was found to be the optimal single cutoff point to discriminate 2 or more adverse outcomes. Logistic regression models found abrupt reductions of relative risk also clustered at IWBS cutoffs of 53, 66, and 88, in addition to 75, which segmented employees into high, high-medium, medium, low-medium, and low risk groups. To determine validity and generalizability, cutoff values were applied in a smaller employee population (N=1853) and confirmed significant differences between risk groups across health and productivity outcomes. The reported segmentation of IWBS into discrete cohorts based on risk of adverse health and productivity outcomes should facilitate well-being comparisons and worksite interventions. PMID:23013034

  3. Overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to three BMI classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the suitability of three commonly-used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Methods Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (8–14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS) with data collected in 2005–2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted Kappa (kw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Results The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (kw=0.87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (kw=0.69), and CDC and WHO (kw=0.73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Conclusion Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. PMID:26095406

  4. Coefficients of Correlation of IQ's on the WAIS-R with Standard Age Scores on the Stanford-Binet, 4th Edition for Previously Identified Mentally Handicapped Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John C.

    This paper presents a study regarding the correlation of the Stanford-Binet: 4th Edition Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ scores for the purpose of improving the identification process for educable mentally handicapped (EMH) school age adolescents and young adults. The sample included…

  5. Effect of genotype and age on some carcass and meat quality traits of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system.

    PubMed

    Soji, Z; Muchenje, V

    2016-07-01

    Genotype and age effects on pH24, L*, a*, b*, tenderness (WBSF), cooking (CL %), and thawing loss (TL %) of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system were determined. Carcass traits (bruising, subcutaneous fat (SF), and conformation) were also measured. Meat quality measurements were taken on the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n=175) of A, AB, B, and C carcasses from Angus, Bonsmara, Fleckvieh, Non-descript, and Simmental genotypes. No bruises were evident in all carcasses. All carcasses scored medium conformation (class 3) while in SF classification, class 2 had the greatest frequency (66.3%). Genotypic effects (P<0.05) were observed for a*, hue angle (HA), pH24, TL%, CL%, and WBSF between steers with six, seven, and eight incisors. Notable differences (P<0.05) were observed for tenderness where Angus and Simmental had least tender meat while Non-descript and Fleckvieh had the tenderest meat within the C-age class. Meat quality varied within animals of the same age-class across genotypes. PMID:26995775

  6. Evidence for age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive provided by scoring principal components of the resting EEG spectrum in sleep-provoking conditions.

    PubMed

    Putilov, Arcady A; Donskaya, Olga G

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated changes in different bandwidths of the human electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum are well documented, but their functional significance is poorly understood. This spectrum seems to represent summation of simultaneous influences of several sleep-wake regulatory processes. Scoring of its orthogonal (uncorrelated) principal components can help in separation of the brain signatures of these processes. In particular, the opposite age-associated changes were documented for scores on the two largest (1st and 2nd) principal components of the sleep EEG spectrum. A decrease of the first score and an increase of the second score can reflect, respectively, the weakening of the sleep drive and disinhibition of the opposing wake drive with age. In order to support the suggestion of age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive from the antagonistic influence of the sleep drive, we analyzed principal component scores of the resting EEG spectra obtained in sleep deprivation experiments with 81 healthy young adults aged between 19 and 26 and 40 healthy older adults aged between 45 and 66 years. At the second day of the sleep deprivation experiments, frontal scores on the 1st principal component of the EEG spectrum demonstrated an age-associated reduction of response to eyes closed relaxation. Scores on the 2nd principal component were either initially increased during wakefulness or less responsive to such sleep-provoking conditions (frontal and occipital scores, respectively). These results are in line with the suggestion of disinhibition of the wake drive with age. They provide an explanation of why older adults are less vulnerable to sleep deprivation than young adults. PMID:27253971

  7. Retinal Image Classification for the Screening of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijazi, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad; Coenen, Frans; Zheng, Yalin

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in old-age. Early identification of AMD can allow for mitigation (but not cure). One of the fist symptoms of AMD is the presence of fatty deposits, called drusen, on the retina. The presence of drusen may be identified through inspection of retina images. Given the aging global population, the prevalence of AMD is increasing. Many health authorities therefore run screening programmes. The automation, or at least partial automation, of retina image screening is therefore seen as beneficial. This paper describes a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) approach to retina image classification to provide support for AMD screening programmes. In the proposed approach images are represented in the form of spatial-histograms that store both colour and spatial image information. Each retina image is represented using a series of histograms each encapsulated as a time series curve. The Case Base (CB) is populated with a labelled set of such curves. New cases are classified by finding the most similar case (curve) in the CB. Similarity checking is achieved using the Dynamic Time warping (DTW).

  8. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Methods Alcohol appearances (classified as ‘alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances’) were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. Results At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of ‘alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances’ was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including ‘alcohol brand appearances’, were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Conclusion Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people. PMID:22039199

  9. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Design: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from −0.6 (Brazil) to −2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3–0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: −0.3 (Brazil) to −1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. Conclusions: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. PMID:25008854

  10. Anemia in Clinical Practice-Definition and Classification: Does Hemoglobin Change With Aging?

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M Domenica; Motta, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries at all ages. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), anemia is defined as hemoglobin (Hb) levels <12.0 g/dL in women and <13.0 g/dL in men. However, normal Hb distribution varies not only with sex but also with ethnicity and physiological status. New lower limits of normal Hb values have been proposed, according to ethnicity, gender, and age. Anemia is often multifactorial and is not an independent phenomenon. For the classification and diagnosis the hematologic parameters, the underlying pathological mechanism and patient history should be taken into account. The aging of population, especially in Western countries, causes an increase of anemia in elderly people. In this population, anemia, recently defined by levels of Hb <12 g/dL in both sexes, is mostly of mild degree (10-12 g/dL). Understanding the pathophysiology of anemia in this population is important because it contributes to morbidity and mortality. In one third of the patients, anemia is due to nutritional deficiency, including iron, folate, or vitamin B12 deficiency; moreover, anemia of chronic disease accounts for about another third of the cases. However, in one third of patients anemia cannot be explained by an underlying disease or by a specific pathological process, and for this reason it is defined "unexplained anemia". Unexplained anemia might be due to the progressive resistance of bone marrow erythroid progenitors to erythropoietin, and a chronic subclinical pro-inflammatory state.

  11. Anemia in Clinical Practice-Definition and Classification: Does Hemoglobin Change With Aging?

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M Domenica; Motta, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries at all ages. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), anemia is defined as hemoglobin (Hb) levels <12.0 g/dL in women and <13.0 g/dL in men. However, normal Hb distribution varies not only with sex but also with ethnicity and physiological status. New lower limits of normal Hb values have been proposed, according to ethnicity, gender, and age. Anemia is often multifactorial and is not an independent phenomenon. For the classification and diagnosis the hematologic parameters, the underlying pathological mechanism and patient history should be taken into account. The aging of population, especially in Western countries, causes an increase of anemia in elderly people. In this population, anemia, recently defined by levels of Hb <12 g/dL in both sexes, is mostly of mild degree (10-12 g/dL). Understanding the pathophysiology of anemia in this population is important because it contributes to morbidity and mortality. In one third of the patients, anemia is due to nutritional deficiency, including iron, folate, or vitamin B12 deficiency; moreover, anemia of chronic disease accounts for about another third of the cases. However, in one third of patients anemia cannot be explained by an underlying disease or by a specific pathological process, and for this reason it is defined "unexplained anemia". Unexplained anemia might be due to the progressive resistance of bone marrow erythroid progenitors to erythropoietin, and a chronic subclinical pro-inflammatory state. PMID:26404438

  12. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  13. Logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale: age and education norms and alternate-form reliability of two scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, H; Alvir, J; Hong, G; Sukoff, R; Orazio, J; Solomon, S; Saravay, S

    1987-08-01

    The Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale has been characterized by imprecise scoring instructions which can make data interpretation and study comparisons difficult. A total of 339 adults, from 18 to 83 years old, took either Form I or Form II of the LM. Verbal recall of the story passages was evaluated using gist and verbatim scoring systems. Interrater reliability was very high for both scoring approaches. The two forms were equivalent for gist recall. However, verbatim recall of Form I was more difficult than Form II because the former consists of more words to remember. Recall was related more to educational level than to age. For both gist and verbatim scoring, age and education norms were generated for immediate, delayed, and 24-h recall. PMID:3597734

  14. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, Marta; Urban, Beata; Chrzanowska-Grenda, Beata; Oziębło-Kupczyk, Monika; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years) and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years). The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children. PMID:26417461

  15. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  16. Survival Prediction Score: A Simple but Age-Dependent Method Predicting Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Palliative Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dalhaug, Astrid; Pawinski, Adam; Haukland, Ellinor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Validation of a Canadian three-tiered prognostic model (survival prediction score, SPS) in Norwegian cancer patients referred for palliative radiotherapy (PRT), and evaluation of age-dependent performance of the model. Patients and Methods. We analyzed all 579 PRT courses administered at a dedicated PRT facility between 20.06.07 and 31.12.2009. SPS was assigned as originally described, That is, by taking into consideration three variables: primary cancer type, site of metastases, and performance status. Results. Patients with poor prognosis (non-breast cancer, metastases other than bone, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≤ 60) had median survival of 13 weeks. Those with intermediate prognosis (two of these parameters) survived for a median of 29 weeks, and patients with good prognosis for a median of 114 weeks, P < 0.001. While this model performed well in patients who were 60 years or older, it was less satisfactory in younger patients (no significant difference between the good and intermediate prognosis groups). Conclusion. SPS should mainly be used to predict survival of elderly cancer patients. However, even in this group accuracy is limited because the good prognosis group contained patients with short survival, while the poor prognosis group contained long-term survivors. Thus, improved models should be developed. PMID:25006508

  17. Automated age-related macular degeneration classification in OCT using unsupervised feature learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venhuizen, Freerk G.; van Ginneken, Bram; Bloemen, Bart; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Philipsen, Rick; Hoyng, Carel; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2015-03-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye disorder with high prevalence in elderly people. The disease mainly affects the central part of the retina, and could ultimately lead to permanent vision loss. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is becoming the standard imaging modality in diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of its progression. However, the evaluation of the obtained volumetric scan is time consuming, expensive and the signs of early AMD are easy to miss. In this paper we propose a classification method to automatically distinguish AMD patients from healthy subjects with high accuracy. The method is based on an unsupervised feature learning approach, and processes the complete image without the need for an accurate pre-segmentation of the retina. The method can be divided in two steps: an unsupervised clustering stage that extracts a set of small descriptive image patches from the training data, and a supervised training stage that uses these patches to create a patch occurrence histogram for every image on which a random forest classifier is trained. Experiments using 384 volume scans show that the proposed method is capable of identifying AMD patients with high accuracy, obtaining an area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0:984. Our method allows for a quick and reliable assessment of the presence of AMD pathology in OCT volume scans without the need for accurate layer segmentation algorithms.

  18. Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less

  19. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Lilian A. Y.; Caromano, Fátima A.; Assis, Silvana M. B.; Hukuda, Michele E.; Voos, Mariana C.; Carvalho, Eduardo V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001). There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information. PMID:25590443

  20. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses.…

  1. A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included exploratory…

  2. Diffuse Lung Disease in Biopsied Children 2 to 18 Years of Age. Application of the chILD Classification Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Leland L.; Dishop, Megan K.; Galambos, Csaba; Askin, Frederic B.; White, Frances V.; Langston, Claire; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Kroehl, Miranda E.; Deutsch, Gail H.; Young, Lisa R.; Kurland, Geoffrey; Hagood, James; Dell, Sharon; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Children’s Interstitial and Diffuse Lung Disease (chILD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that is challenging to categorize. In previous study, a classification scheme was successfully applied to children 0 to 2 years of age who underwent lung biopsies for chILD. This classification scheme has not been evaluated in children 2 to 18 years of age. Objectives: This multicenter interdisciplinary study sought to describe the spectrum of biopsy-proven chILD in North America and to apply a previously reported classification scheme in children 2 to 18 years of age. Mortality and risk factors for mortality were also assessed. Methods: Patients 2 to 18 years of age who underwent lung biopsies for diffuse lung disease from 12 North American institutions were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected and described. The lung biopsies were reviewed by pediatric lung pathologists with expertise in diffuse lung disease and were classified by the chILD classification scheme. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for mortality. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 191 cases were included in the final analysis. Number of biopsies varied by center (5–49 biopsies; mean, 15.8) and by age (2–18 yr; mean, 10.6 yr). The most common classification category in this cohort was Disorders of the Immunocompromised Host (40.8%), and the least common was Disorders of Infancy (4.7%). Immunocompromised patients suffered the highest mortality (52.8%). Additional associations with mortality included mechanical ventilation, worse clinical status at time of biopsy, tachypnea, hemoptysis, and crackles. Pulmonary hypertension was found to be a risk factor for mortality but only in the immunocompetent patients. Conclusions: In patients 2 to 18 years of age who underwent lung biopsies for diffuse lung disease, there were far fewer diagnoses prevalent in infancy and more overlap with adult diagnoses. Immunocompromised patients with diffuse lung disease

  3. Recovery of birth weight z-score within two years of diagnosis is positively associated with pulmonary status at age six years in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, HuiChuan J.; Shoff, Suzanne M.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We recently reported that 60% of newly diagnosed CF children who had pancreatic insufficiency (PI) responded to treatment initiation and achieved catch-up weight gain to a level comparable to their birth weight Z-score within 2 years of diagnosis (“responders”), while the remaining 40% failed to do so (“non-responders”). The present study examined the impact of this early weight recovery on subsequent growth pattern and pulmonary status at age 6 years. Patients and Methods Sixty-three children with CF who had PI but no meconium ileus, and were enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, were studied. “Responders” were defined by a recovery of weight Z-score comparable to that at birth within 2 years of diagnosis. During ages 2–6, growth was evaluated with the combination of height and body mass index. Pulmonary status was evaluated by symptoms, spirometry, quantitative chest radiography and respiratory microbiology. Results The majority (71%) of the responders maintained their early weight recovery through age 6 years while only 32% of the non-responders achieved substantial growth improvement during age 2 to 6 years. Proportionately fewer responders reported cough symptoms (10% daytime cough, p =0.02; 22% nighttime cough, p=0.05) compared to non-responders (41% daytime cough, 45% nighttime cough) at age 6. Percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1) at age 6 was 11% higher in responders (99.5 ± 13.9%) compared to non-responders (88.3 ± 18.5%), p = 0.015. Responders had significantly better Brasfield (20.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.01) and Wisconsin chest radiographic scores (8.3 ± 3.3, p = 0.04) compared to non-responders (Brasfield 18.9 ± 1.8, Wisconsin 12.3 ± 8.3). Respiratory microbiology was not significantly different. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the positive association between responder and %FEV1 at age 6 years remained statistically significant after controlling for infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphlococcus

  4. Stability of emotionality scores.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Sueiro, E

    1991-12-01

    We hypothesized the stability of scores on emotionality given by 111 young adults, whose mean age was 16.6 yr, 132 adults, whose mean age was 29.9 yr., and 48 older adults, whose mean age was 53.3 yr. Significant correlations were obtained between scores given to 210 words across age and sex groups. Pearson correlations were calculated over words and not over subjects. The correlations between scores of young people and adults were .90, between young and older people .80, and between adults and older people .87. Men's and women's scores correlated .89.

  5. Probabilistic age classification with Bayesian networks: A study on the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Emanuele; Pinchi, Vilma; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the rise of criminal, civil and asylum cases involving young people lacking valid identification documents has generated an increase in the demand of age estimation. The chronological age or the probability that an individual is older or younger than a given age threshold are generally estimated by means of some statistical methods based on observations performed on specific physical attributes. Among these statistical methods, those developed in the Bayesian framework allow users to provide coherent and transparent assignments which fulfill forensic and medico-legal purposes. The application of the Bayesian approach is facilitated by using probabilistic graphical tools, such as Bayesian networks. The aim of this work is to test the performances of the Bayesian network for age estimation recently presented in scientific literature in classifying individuals as older or younger than 18 years of age. For these exploratory analyses, a sample related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis available in scientific literature was used. Results obtained in the classification are promising: in the criminal context, the Bayesian network achieved, on the average, a rate of correct classifications of approximatively 97%, whilst in the civil context, the rate is, on the average, close to the 88%. These results encourage the continuation of the development and the testing of the method in order to support its practical application in casework.

  6. Probabilistic age classification with Bayesian networks: A study on the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Emanuele; Pinchi, Vilma; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the rise of criminal, civil and asylum cases involving young people lacking valid identification documents has generated an increase in the demand of age estimation. The chronological age or the probability that an individual is older or younger than a given age threshold are generally estimated by means of some statistical methods based on observations performed on specific physical attributes. Among these statistical methods, those developed in the Bayesian framework allow users to provide coherent and transparent assignments which fulfill forensic and medico-legal purposes. The application of the Bayesian approach is facilitated by using probabilistic graphical tools, such as Bayesian networks. The aim of this work is to test the performances of the Bayesian network for age estimation recently presented in scientific literature in classifying individuals as older or younger than 18 years of age. For these exploratory analyses, a sample related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis available in scientific literature was used. Results obtained in the classification are promising: in the criminal context, the Bayesian network achieved, on the average, a rate of correct classifications of approximatively 97%, whilst in the civil context, the rate is, on the average, close to the 88%. These results encourage the continuation of the development and the testing of the method in order to support its practical application in casework. PMID:26699731

  7. The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia in India: prevalence, age-structure, risk factors and the role of a predictive score for detection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naman K.; Poole, Charles; MacDonald, Pia D.M.; Srivastava, Bina; Schapira, Allan; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Anvikar, Anup; Meshnick, Steven R.; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Background Gametocytes represent the infectious stage of malaria. We sought to characterize the epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia and determine the prevalence, age-structure, and the viability of a predictive model for detection. Methods We collected data from 21 therapeutic efficacy trials of conducted in India during 2009-2010. We estimated the contribution of each age group to the potential reservoir of transmission. We built a predictive model for gametocytemia and calculated the diagnostic utility of different score cut-offs from our risk score. Results Gametocytemia was present in 18% (248/1,335) of patients and decreased with age. Adults constituted 43%, school-age children 45%, and children less than five years 12% of the reservoir for potential transmission. Our model retained age, sex, region, and previous antimalarial drug intake as predictors of gametocytemia. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.76 (95%CI:0.73,0.78) and a cut-off of 14 or more on a risk score ranging from 0 to 46 provided 91% (95%CI:88,95) sensitivity and 33% (95%CI:31,36) specificity for detecting gametocytemia. Conclusions Gametocytemia was common in India and varied by region. Notably, adults contributed substantially to the reservoir for potential transmission. Predictive modeling to generate a clinical algorithm for detecting gametocytemia did not provide sufficient discrimination for targeting interventions. PMID:23627694

  8. Proposal for a new risk stratification classification for meningioma based on patient age, WHO tumor grade, size, localization, and karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Patrícia Henriques; Sousa, Pablo; Otero, Álvaro; Gonçalves, Jesus Maria; Ruiz, Laura; de Oliveira, Catarina; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor recurrence remains the major clinical complication of meningiomas, the majority of recurrences occurring among WHO grade I/benign tumors. In the present study, we propose a new scoring system for the prognostic stratification of meningioma patients based on analysis of a large series of meningiomas followed for a median of >5 years. Methods Tumor cytogenetics were systematically investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 302 meningioma samples, and the proposed classification was further validated in an independent series of cases (n = 132) analyzed by high-density (500K) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Results Overall, we found an adverse impact on patient relapse-free survival (RFS) for males, presence of brain edema, younger patients (<55 years), tumor size >50 mm, tumor localization at intraventricular and anterior cranial base areas, WHO grade II/III meningiomas, and complex karyotypes; the latter 5 variables showed an independent predictive value in multivariate analysis. Based on these parameters, a prognostic score was established for each individual case, and patients were stratified into 4 risk categories with significantly different (P < .001) outcomes. These included a good prognosis group, consisting of approximately 20% of cases, that showed a RFS of 100% ± 0% at 10 years and a very poor-prognosis group with a RFS rate of 0% ± 0% at 10 years. The prognostic impact of the scoring system proposed here was also retained when WHO grade I cases were considered separately (P < .001). Conclusions Based on this risk-stratification classification, different strategies may be adopted for follow-up, and eventually also for treatment, of meningioma patients at different risks for relapse. PMID:24536048

  9. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.

    1975-01-01

    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  10. Active learning for solving the incomplete data problem in facial age classification by the furthest nearest-neighbor criterion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Sung, Eric; Yau, Wei-Yun

    2011-07-01

    Facial age classification is an approach to classify face images into one of several predefined age groups. One of the difficulties in applying learning techniques to the age classification problem is the large amount of labeled training data required. Acquiring such training data is very costly in terms of age progress, privacy, human time, and effort. Although unlabeled face images can be obtained easily, it would be expensive to manually label them on a large scale and getting the ground truth. The frugal selection of the unlabeled data for labeling to quickly reach high classification performance with minimal labeling efforts is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an active learning approach based on an online incremental bilateral two-dimension linear discriminant analysis (IB2DLDA) which initially learns from a small pool of labeled data and then iteratively selects the most informative samples from the unlabeled set to increasingly improve the classifier. Specifically, we propose a novel data selection criterion called the furthest nearest-neighbor (FNN) that generalizes the margin-based uncertainty to the multiclass case and which is easy to compute, so that the proposed active learning algorithm can handle a large number of classes and large data sizes efficiently. Empirical experiments on FG-NET and Morph databases together with a large unlabeled data set for age categorization problems show that the proposed approach can achieve results comparable or even outperform a conventionally trained active classifier that requires much more labeling effort. Our IB2DLDA-FNN algorithm can achieve similar results much faster than random selection and with fewer samples for age categorization. It also can achieve comparable results with active SVM but is much faster than active SVM in terms of training because kernel methods are not needed. The results on the face recognition database and palmprint/palm vein database showed that our approach can handle

  11. Classification of rice wine according to different marked ages using a novel artificial olfactory technique based on colorimetric sensor array.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng; Lin, Hao

    2013-06-01

    A novel artificial olfactory technique based on colorimetric sensor array was developed for the classification of Chinese rice wine according to different marked ages. The sensor array was composed of nine porphyrins or metalloporphyrins materials and six pH indicators. When the sensor array was exposed to rice wine for several minutes, a colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the image of sensor array before and after exposure to the head-gas of the sample. The values of RGB (i.e., red, green, and blue) colour components were extracted from each dye in colour change profiles, and they were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast to PCA, LDA obtained an optimum classification result. This research shows that the artificial olfactory technique based on colorimetric sensor array has a powerful potential in the quality evaluation of rice wine. PMID:23411249

  12. Canada acute coronary syndrome score was a stronger baseline predictor than age ≥75 years of in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients in western Romania

    PubMed Central

    Pogorevici, Antoanela; Citu, Ioana Mihaela; Bordejevic, Diana Aurora; Caruntu, Florina; Tomescu, Mirela Cleopatra

    2016-01-01

    Background Several risk scores were developed for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, but their use is limited by their complexity. Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify predictors at admission for in-hospital mortality in ACS patients in western Romania, using a simple risk-assessment tool – the new Canada acute coronary syndrome (C-ACS) risk score. Patients and methods The baseline risk of patients admitted with ACS was retrospectively assessed using the C-ACS risk score. The score ranged from 0 to 4; 1 point was assigned for the presence of each of the following parameters: age ≥75 years, Killip class >1, systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg, and heart rate >100 bpm. Results A total of 960 patients with ACS were included, 409 (43%) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 551 (57%) with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). The C-ACS score predicted in-hospital mortality in all ACS patients with a C-statistic of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93–0.96), in STEMI patients with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89–0.94), and in NSTE-ACS patients with a C-statistic of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95–0.98). Of the 960 patients, 218 (22.7%) were aged ≥75 years. The proportion of patients aged ≥75 years was 21.7% in the STEMI subgroup and 23.4% in the NSTE-ACS subgroup (P>0.05). Age ≥75 years was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in ACS patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.24–8.25) and in the STEMI subgroup (OR >3.99, 95% CI: 1.28–12.44). Female sex was strongly associated with mortality in the NSTE-ACS subgroup (OR: 27.72, 95% CI: 1.83–39.99). Conclusion We conclude that C-ACS score was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in all ACS patients while age ≥75 years predicted the mortality well in the STEMI subgroup. PMID:27217732

  13. Screening outcomes in older US women undergoing multiple mammograms in community practice: does interval, age, or comorbidity score affect tumor characteristics or false positive rates?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Dejana; Zhu, Weiwei; Hubbard, Rebecca A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Geller, Berta; Dittus, Kim; Moore, Dan; Wernli, Karen J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-03-01

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity.

  14. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was −1.25 (1.14) (n  =  801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n  =  797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF IRANIAN NURSES ACCORDING TO THEIR MENTAL HEALTH OUTCOMES USING GHQ-12 QUESTIONNAIRE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS AND K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH TRADITIONAL SCORING METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses constitute the most providers of health care systems. Their mental health can affect the quality of services and patients’ satisfaction. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a general screening tool used to detect mental disorders. Scoring method and determining thresholds for this questionnaire are debatable and the cut-off points can vary from sample to sample. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among Iranian nurses using GHQ-12 and also compare Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and K-means clustering with traditional scoring method. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran in 2014. Participants were 771 Iranian nurses, who filled out the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Traditional scoring method, LCA and K-means were used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder among Iranian nurses. Cohen’s kappa statistic was applied to assess the agreement between the LCA and K-means with traditional scoring method of GHQ-12. Results: The nurses with mental disorder by scoring method, LCA and K-mean were 36.3% (n=280), 32.2% (n=248), and 26.5% (n=204), respectively. LCA and logistic regression revealed that the prevalence of mental disorder in females was significantly higher than males. Conclusion: Mental disorder in nurses was in a medium level compared to other people living in Iran. There was a little difference between prevalence of mental disorder estimated by scoring method, K-means and LCA. According to the advantages of LCA than K-means and different results in scoring method, we suggest LCA for classification of Iranian nurses according to their mental health outcomes using GHQ-12 questionnaire PMID:26622202

  16. Yield of Screening for Coronary Artery Calcium in Early Middle-Age Adults Based on the 10-Year Framingham Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Okwuosa, Tochi M.; Greenland, Philip; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of coronary artery calcium (CAC) across Framingham Risk Score (FRS) strata and therefore determine FRS levels at which asymptomatic, young to early middle-age individuals could potentially benefit from CAC screening. BACKGROUND High CAC burden is associated with increased risk of coronary events beyond the FRS. Expert panel recommendations for CAC screening are based on data obtained in middle-age and older individuals. METHODS We included 2,831 CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study participants with an age range of 33 to 45 years. The number needed to screen ([NNS] number of people in each FRS stratum who need to be screened to detect 1 person with a CAC score above the specified cut point) was used to assess the yield of screening for CAC. CAC prevalence was compared across FRS strata using a chi-square test. RESULTS CAC scores >0 and ≥100 were present in 9.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. CAC prevalence and amount increased across higher FRS strata. A CAC score >0 was observed in 7.3%, 20.2%, 19.1%, and 44.8% of individuals with FRSs of 0 to 2.5%, 2.6% to 5%, 5.1% to 10%, and >10%, respectively (NNS = 14, 5, 5, and 2, respectively). A CAC score of ≥100 was observed in 1.3%, 2.4%, and 3.5% of those with FRSs of 0 to 2.5%, 2.6% to 5%, and 5.1% to 10%, respectively (NNS = 79, 41, and 29, respectively), but in 17.2% of those with an FRS >10% (NNS = 6). Similar trends were observed when findings were stratified by sex and race. CONCLUSIONS In this young to early middle-age cohort, we observed concordance between CAC prevalence/amount and FRS strata. Within this group, the yield of screening and possibility of identifying those with a high CAC burden (CAC score of ≥100) is low in those with an FRS of ≤10%, but considerable in those with an FRS >10%. PMID:22974805

  17. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. < LOQ), whereas WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. < LOD). Conclusion: We found no evidence that prenatal OP exposure adversely affected cognitive function in 6-year-olds, perhaps because of the population’s socioeconomic status, which was higher than in previous studies, though other causal and noncausal explanations are also possible. The negative association between WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner

  18. When Do We Really Need Coronary Calcium Scoring Prior to Contrast-Enhanced Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography? Analysis by Age, Gender and Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Iwan, Johannes; Voss, Andreas; Atsiatorme, Edem; Hofmann, Nina P.; Buss, Sebastian J.; Siebert, Stefan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate the value of coronary calcium scoring (CCS) as a filter scan prior to coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods and Results Between February 2008 and April 2011, 732 consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated CCTA. During this ‘control phase’, CCS was performed in all patients. In patients with CCS≥800, CCTA was not performed. During a subsequent ‘CCTA phase’ (May 2011–May 2012) another 200 consecutive patients underwent CCTA, and CCS was performed only in patients with increased probability for severe calcification according to age, gender and atherogenic risk factors. In patients where CCS was not performed, calcium scoring was performed in contrast-enhanced CCTA images. Significant associations were noted between CCS and age (r = 0.30, p<0.001) and coronary risk factors (χ2 = 37.9; HR = 2.2; 95%CI = 1.7–2.9, p<0.001). Based on these associations, a ≤3% pre-test probability for CCS≥800 was observed for males <61 yrs. and females <79 yrs. According to these criteria, CCS was not performed in 106 of 200 (53%) patients during the ‘CCTA phase’, including 47 (42%) males and 59 (67%) females. This resulted in absolute radiation saving of ∼1 mSv in 75% of patients younger than 60 yrs. Of 106 patients where CCS was not performed, estimated calcium scoring was indeed <800 in 101 (95%) cases. Non-diagnostic image quality due to calcification was similar between the ‘control phase’ and the ‘CCTA’ group (0.25% versus 0.40%, p = NS). Conclusion The value of CCS as a filter for identification of a high calcium score is limited in younger patients with intermediate risk profile. Omitting CCS in such patients can contribute to further dose reduction with cardiac CT studies. PMID:24714677

  19. Automated tissue classification of pediatric brains from magnetic resonance images using age-specific atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Andrew; Benavides, Amanda; Nopoulos, Peg; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop two age appropriate atlases (neonatal and one year old) that account for the rapid growth and maturational changes that occur during early development. Tissue maps from this age group were initially created by manually correcting the resulting tissue maps after applying an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and an adult atlas to pediatric subjects. The EM algorithm classified each voxel into one of ten possible tissue types including several subcortical structures. This was followed by a novel level set segmentation designed to improve differentiation between distal cortical gray matter and white matter. To minimize the req uired manual corrections, the adult atlas was registered to the pediatric scans using high -dimensional, symmetric image normalization (SyN) registration. The subject images were then mapped to an age specific atlas space, again using SyN registration, and the resulting transformation applied to the manually corrected tissue maps. The individual maps were averaged in the age specific atlas space and blurred to generate the age appropriate anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to re-segment the initial training set as well as an independent testing set. The results from the adult and age-specific anatomical priors were compared to the manually corrected results. The age appropriate atlas provided superior results as compared to the adult atlas. The image analysis pipeline used in this work was built using the open source software package BRAINSTools.

  20. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  1. THE EFFECT OF AGE AS A VARIABLE ON THE SCORES OF THE HARRIS-GOODENOUGH DRAWING TEST OF EDUCABLE RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVY, IRWIN S.

    IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE RELIABILITY OF PERFORMANCE OF RETARDED ADOLESCENTS ON THE HARRIS REVISION OF THE GOODENOUGH DRAW-A-MAN TEST (DAM) AND WHETHER THE DECLINE IN PERFORMANCE WHICH OCCURS IN NORMAL ADOLESCENTS AT THE MID-TEENS ALSO OCCURS WITH RETARDED ADOLESCENTS, 213 MALE AND 130 FEMALE SUBJECTS, AGED 11-20 YEARS AND WITH IQ'S OF 56-72, IN…

  2. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  3. Spoken Language Scores of Children Using Cochlear Implants Compared to Hearing Age-Mates at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann E.; Moog, Jean S.; Biedenstein, Julia; Brenner, Christine; Hayes, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three questions: Is it realistic to expect age-appropriate spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants (CIs) who received auditory-oral intervention during the preschool years? What characteristics predict successful spoken language development in this population? Are children with CIs more proficient in some…

  4. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  5. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight < 30 days. Data from males and females were analyzed separately. Models of SD observations revealed that TBS and BMD had similar curvilinear declines with age for both male and female astronauts. However, models of LD observations showed TBS declining with age while

  6. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  7. Influence of Biomedical Factors on the Five Viscera Score (FVS) on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals: Application of Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Tomura, Taro; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Sakaguchi, Shunji; Tsuno, Kanami; Takemura, Shigeki; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The five viscera score (FVS) is a diagnostic scale for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The purposes of current study are to elucidate the characteristics of FVS obtained from middle-aged to elderly individuals and to investigate the validity of FVS using biological medical data of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to conduct assessments between FVS and medical data. Eighty men and 99 women participated in this study, whose mean ages (SD) were 58 ± 7 years in both genders showing no significant difference. FVS of women was significantly higher than that of men in the spleen of the 50s (P = 0.019) and liver of the 60s age group (P = 0.030). By SEM, the following biomedical factors were found to influence viscera: gender, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-C for the liver; GLU, GOT, and γ-GTP for the spleen; age, BMI, and HCRP for the lungs; and HbA1c and creatinine clearance for the kidneys. These results provide objective evidence that FVS can be used for TCM diagnosis in middle-aged and elderly individuals. PMID:26495022

  8. Multivariate Analyses and Classification of Inertial Sensor Data to Identify Aging Effects on the Timed-Up-and-Go Test.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Danique; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Kosse, Nienke; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2016-01-01

    Many tests can crudely quantify age-related mobility decrease but instrumented versions of mobility tests could increase their specificity and sensitivity. The Timed-up-and-Go (TUG) test includes several elements that people use in daily life. The test has different transition phases: rise from a chair, walk, 180° turn, walk back, turn, and sit-down on a chair. For this reason the TUG is an often used test to evaluate in a standardized way possible decline in balance and walking ability due to age and or pathology. Using inertial sensors, qualitative information about the performance of the sub-phases can provide more specific information about a decline in balance and walking ability. The first aim of our study was to identify variables extracted from the instrumented timed-up-and-go (iTUG) that most effectively distinguished performance differences across age (age 18-75). Second, we determined the discriminative ability of those identified variables to classify a younger (age 18-45) and older age group (age 46-75). From healthy adults (n = 59), trunk accelerations and angular velocities were recorded during iTUG performance. iTUG phases were detected with wavelet-analysis. Using a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, from the 72-iTUG variables calculated across phases, those that explained most of the covariance between variables and age were extracted. Subsequently, a PLS-discriminant analysis (DA) assessed classification power of the identified iTUG variables to discriminate the age groups. 27 variables, related to turning, walking and the stand-to-sit movement explained 71% of the variation in age. The PLS-DA with these 27 variables showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 85%. Based on this model, the iTUG can accurately distinguish young and older adults. Such data can serve as a reference for pathological aging with respect to a widely used mobility test. Mobility tests like the TUG supplemented with smart technology could be used in clinical practice

  9. Multivariate Analyses and Classification of Inertial Sensor Data to Identify Aging Effects on the Timed-Up-and-Go Test

    PubMed Central

    Vervoort, Danique; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Kosse, Nienke; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Many tests can crudely quantify age-related mobility decrease but instrumented versions of mobility tests could increase their specificity and sensitivity. The Timed-up-and-Go (TUG) test includes several elements that people use in daily life. The test has different transition phases: rise from a chair, walk, 180° turn, walk back, turn, and sit-down on a chair. For this reason the TUG is an often used test to evaluate in a standardized way possible decline in balance and walking ability due to age and or pathology. Using inertial sensors, qualitative information about the performance of the sub-phases can provide more specific information about a decline in balance and walking ability. The first aim of our study was to identify variables extracted from the instrumented timed-up-and-go (iTUG) that most effectively distinguished performance differences across age (age 18–75). Second, we determined the discriminative ability of those identified variables to classify a younger (age 18–45) and older age group (age 46–75). From healthy adults (n = 59), trunk accelerations and angular velocities were recorded during iTUG performance. iTUG phases were detected with wavelet-analysis. Using a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, from the 72-iTUG variables calculated across phases, those that explained most of the covariance between variables and age were extracted. Subsequently, a PLS-discriminant analysis (DA) assessed classification power of the identified iTUG variables to discriminate the age groups. 27 variables, related to turning, walking and the stand-to-sit movement explained 71% of the variation in age. The PLS-DA with these 27 variables showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 85%. Based on this model, the iTUG can accurately distinguish young and older adults. Such data can serve as a reference for pathological aging with respect to a widely used mobility test. Mobility tests like the TUG supplemented with smart technology could be used in clinical

  10. DIFFERENCES IN CHANGE SCORES AND THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THREE COMMONLY USED MEASURES FOLLOWING CONCUSSION IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL AGED POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Michael; Schlabach, Drew; Peiffer, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Background: A battery of tests is commonly used to measure disability with and recovery from concussion. A number of different concussion-oriented assessment tests exist and each is considered useful. To the authors' knowledge, no study has compared the scores of these tests during recovery in the middle school and high school aged population to see how each change over time. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to analyze clinical data of concussed middle school and high school aged athletes to determine the concurrent and predictive validity for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and the five subscales of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Methods: The study was a retrospective chart review performed on middle school and high school aged individuals with a diagnosis of concussion from the years 2008-2010 within the Akron Children's Hospital Sports Medicine system. To be eligible for inclusion in the dataset, each subject required a baseline measurement for each of the three tests (and all five subscales of the ImPACT) and a post-test measure. The mean age of the population was 15.38 years (SD = 1.7) and ranged from 11 to 19 years. Pearson product correlation tests (correlation matrix) were used to analyze the concurrent validity of the test items during recovery following a concussion. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to determine the predictive validity of initial scores for developing PCS. Results: The correlation matrix captured five statistically significant findings; however, these suggested only weak to mild correlations. Five test items yielded an area under the curve (AUC) greater than 0.50 but only one was statistically significant. After qualitative evaluation, only one of the three tests (including the five subscales of the ImPACT) was useful in predicting post-concussion syndrome. Conclusion: This study

  11. Annular and septal Doppler tissue imaging in children: normal z-score tables and effects of age, heart rate, and body surface area.

    PubMed

    Roberson, David A; Cui, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Madronero, Luisa F; Cuneo, Bettina F

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to construct normal z-score tables for longitudinal directed Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) systolic wave (S), DTI early diastolic wave (E'), and DTI late diastolic wave (A') at the mitral valve annulus (MV), superior ventricular septum (VS), and tricuspid valve annulus (TV) in pediatric patients. We analyzed normal echocardiograms from 634 children aged 1 day to 18 years, heart rate (HR) range of 50 to 194/min, and body surface area (BSA) range of 0.1 to 2.8 m2. First we determined the effects of age, HR, and BSA on the S, E', and A' at the MV, VS, and TV sampling sites by univariate analysis. Next we determined which of the 3 factors, age versus HR versus BSA, correlated best with the S, E', and A' at each of the 3 sampling sites by multivariate analysis. Finally, using the specific factor of age versus HR versus BSA that best predicted a particular DTI wave at a particular sampling site, we constructed z-score tables for each of the 3 DTI parameters at each of the 3 sampling sites. The S range was: MV = 2.2 to 23.2 cm/s; VS = 1.6 to 22.3 cm/s; and TV = 1.8 to 31.3 cm/s. By univariate analysis the S correlated negatively with HR and positively with age and BSA with strong correlations at all 3 sites. By multiple regression analysis the S correlated best with age at all 3 sites. The E' range was: MV = 2.4 to 37.1 cm/s; VS = 1.8 to 29.0 cm/s; and TV = 2.4 to 32.4 cm/s. The E' varied negatively with HR and positively with age and BSA with strong correlations by univariate analysis at all 3 sites. By multiple regression, the E' correlated best with age for the VS and TV sites, and correlated best with HR at the MV site. The E' at the MV site also strongly correlated with age by multivariate analysis. The A' range was: MV = 2.9 to 20.7 cm/s; VS = 2.7 to 18.2 cm/s; and TV = 1.1 to 29.3 cm/s. The A' had a strong positive correlation with HR at all 3 sites, a strong negative correlation with BSA and age at the TV site only, with no statistical

  12. Demographic corrections appear to compromise classification accuracy for severely skewed cognitive tests.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan E; Tuokko, Holly; Kadlec, Helena

    2011-04-01

    Demographic corrections for cognitive tests should improve classification accuracy by reducing age or education biases, but empirical support has been equivocal. Using a simulation procedure, we show that creating moderate or extreme skewness in cognitive tests compromises the classification accuracy of demographic corrections, findings that appear replicated within clinical data for the few neuropsychological test scores with an extreme degree of skew. For most neuropsychological tests, the dementia classification accuracy of raw and demographically corrected scores was equivalent. These findings suggest that the dementia classification accuracy of demographic corrections is robust to slight degrees of skew (i.e., skewness <1.5). PMID:21154077

  13. Accuracy of scoring of the epiphyses at the knee joint (SKJ) for assessing legal adult age of 18 years.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Mihanović, Frane; Giuliodori, Alice; Conforti, Federica; Cingolani, Mariano; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Important aspects of forensic practice are age estimation and discrimination of individuals of unknown age as adults and minors. The developing knee joint was recognized as a potential site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed a sample of anteroposterior x-rays of the knee joints from 446 living individuals from Umbria, Italy (234 males and 212 females), aged between 12 and 26 years. We evaluated the ossification of the distal femoral (DF), proximal tibial (PT), and proximal fibular (PF) epiphyses. We took into account possible persistence of the epiphyseal scars in the ossified epiphyses by the adopted stages of those previously introduced by Cameriere et al. (2012). We also used measurements from all three epiphyses to calculate the total score of maturation for the knee joint (SKJ). Cohen Kappa coefficients of intrarater agreement for staging the DF, PT, and PF epiphyses were 0.839, 0.894, and 0.907, while interrater agreement was 0.919, 0.791, and 0.907, respectively. The resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of SKJ show better discriminatory power than those for DF, PT, and PF epiphyses in predicting that the participant, either male or female, was an adult or a minor. The areas under the curves for SKJ were 0.991 and 0.968 vs. 0.944, 0.962, 0.974 and 0.891, 0.910, 0.918 for males and females, respectively. The results of the 2 by 2 contingency tables showed that SKJ score of 4 in males and SKJ score of 5 in females were the most suitable cut-off value in discriminating between adults and minors. Principally, the sensitivity test for males was 0.94, with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.90 to 0.97 and specificity was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.98). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.97). For females, the sensitivity test was 0.89 (95 % CI 0.84 to 0.92) and specificity was 0.92 (95 % CI 0.87 to 0.96), the proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.90 (95 % CI 0

  14. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  15. Classification of abnormal fundus autofluorescence patterns in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy in patients with age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bindewald, A; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Jorzik, J J; Dolar-Szczasny, J; Sieber, H; Keilhauer, C; Weinberger, A W A; Dithmar, S; Pauleikhoff, D; Mansmann, U; Wolf, S; Holz, F G

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe and classify patterns of abnormal fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age related macular degeneration. Methods: Digital FAF images were recorded in 164 eyes of 107 patients using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO; excitation 488 nm, detection above 500 nm) as part of a prospective multicentre natural history study (FAM Study). FAF images were obtained in accordance with a standardised protocol for digital image acquisition and generation of mean images after automated alignment. Results: Image quality was sufficient for classification of FAF patterns in 149 eyes (90.9%) with lens opacities being the most common reason for insufficient image quality. Abnormal FAF outside GA in 149 eyes was classified into four patterns: focal (12.1%), banded (12.8%), patchy (2.0%), and diffuse (57.0%), whereby 12.1% had normal background FAF in the junctional zone. In 4% there was no predominant pattern. The diffuse pattern was subdivided into four groups including reticular (4.7%), branching (27.5%), fine granular (18.1%), and fine granular with peripheral punctate spots (6.7%). Conclusions: Different phenotypic patterns of abnormal FAF in the junctional zone of GA can be identified with cSLO FAF imaging. These distinct patterns may reflect heterogeneity at a cellular and molecular level in contrast with a non-specific ageing process. A refined phenotypic classification may be helpful to identify prognostic determinants for the spread of atrophy and visual loss, for identification of genetic risk factors as well as for the design of future interventional trials. PMID:15965170

  16. Is there a relationship between short FES-I test scores and objective assessment of balance in the older people with age-induced instability?

    PubMed

    del-Río-Valeiras, María; Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Santos-Pérez, Sofía; Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Faraldo-García, Ana; Vaamonde-Sánchez-Andrade, Isabel; Lirola-Delgado, Antonio; Soto-Varela, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) is a common problem among the elderly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether there is a correlation between FOF, estimated via the short FES-I test, and objective evaluation of balance in a group of elderly patients with age-related instability. The balance of 139 subjects of more than 65 years of age is evaluated by the timed up and go test and the computerised dynamic posturography (CDP). Different groups of elderly patients were established according to the number of falls in the previous 12 months, and the correlation with short FES-I test scores was evaluated. Based on the results, ROC curves were calculated. The short FES-I test presents a good capacity to distinguish between subjects with ≤ 3 falls/year and subjects with ≥ 4 falls/year (AUC 0.719, 95%CI 0.627-0.810). A test score of 14.5 is the best cut-off point (74% sensitivity, 51% specificity). Using this cut-off point, the study sample comprises two groups: subjects with test scores of 7-14 vs 15-28, with the first group obtaining best results with statistical significance (Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test) in most of the balance tests. The short FES-I is an excellent instrument that measures FOF in the elderly, and it is correlated with their number of falls both in real life and on the CDP. It is simple and fast, and so can be considered an extraordinary screening test relative to real risk of falls in the elderly.

  17. Lunar crater arcs. [origins, distribution and age classification of Pre-Imbrian families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Bulkley, E. O.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the tendency of large lunar craters to lie along circles. A catalog of the craters at least 50 km in diameter was prepared first, noting position, diameter, rim sharpness and completion, nature of underlying surface, and geological age. The subset of those craters 50-400 km in diameter was then used as input to computer programs which identified each 'family' of four or more craters of selected geological age lying on a circular arc. For comparison, families were also identified for randomized crater models in which the crater spatial density was matched to that on the moon, either overall or separately for mare and highland areas. The observed frequency of lunar arcuate families was statistically highly significantly greater than for the randomized models, for craters classified as either late-pre-Imbrian (Nectarian), middle pre-Imbrian, or early pre-Imbrian, as well as for a number of larger age-classes. The lunar families tend to center in specific areas of the moon; these lie in highlands rather than maria and are different for families of Nectarian craters than for pre-Nectarian. The origin of the arcuate crater groupings is not understood.

  18. Effects of animal age, marbling score, calpastatin activity, subprimal cut, calcium injection, and degree of doneness on the palatability of steaks from limousin steers.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D M; Morgan, J B; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    1996-03-01

    Strip loin (longissimus lumborum), sirloin (gluteus medius) and round (semimembranosus) subprimals from 114 purebred and crossbred Limousin steers were used to identify main effects and interactions of animal age, marbling score, calpastatin activity, subprimal cut, calcium injection (5% wt/wt with a 200 mM CaCl2 solution at 48 h postmortem), and degree of doneness on the palatability of cooked beef steaks. Steaks were aged for 14 d, frozen, thawed, cooked to different internal temperature end points, visually scored for degree of doneness, sheared on a Warner-Bratzler shear machine, and evaluated by a trained taste panel. Raw and cooked steaks from carcasses of higher USDA quality grades had higher fat and lower moisture percentages (P < .05). Higher degrees of doneness resulted in lower moisture percentages (P < .05). Lower shear force values were associated with less variation in shear force. Younger slaughter age and lower calpastatin activity both resulted in greater tenderness (P < .05). Shear force was lowest between "medium rare" and "medium" and increased toward both ends of the degree of doneness scale for round and sirloin steaks; however, shear force increased linearly with degree of doneness in strip loin steaks (P < .05). Subprimal cut had the largest effect on taste panel tenderness ratings, and degree of doneness had the largest effect on taste panel juiciness ratings. The improvement in shear force due to CaCl2 injection was greater for strip loin and sirloin steaks than for round steaks (P < .05 for the interaction). Injection with CaCl2 improved all taste panel attributes. In addition, CaCl2 injection reduced the toughening effects of cooking (P < .05).

  19. WAIS-IV reliable digit span is no more accurate than age corrected scaled score as an indicator of invalid performance in a veteran sample undergoing evaluation for mTBI.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert J; Axelrod, Bradley N; Drag, Lauren L; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Pangilinan, Percival H; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2013-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a measure of effort derived from the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler intelligence scales. Some authors have suggested that the age-corrected scaled score provides a more accurate measure of effort than RDS. This study examined the relative diagnostic accuracy of the traditional RDS, an extended RDS including the new Sequencing task from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and the age-corrected scaled score, relative to performance validity as determined by the Test of Memory Malingering. Data were collected from 138 Veterans seen in a traumatic brain injury clinic. The traditional RDS (≤ 7), revised RDS (≤ 11), and Digit Span age-corrected scaled score ( ≤ 6) had respective sensitivities of 39%, 39%, and 33%, and respective specificities of 82%, 89%, and 91%. Of these indices, revised RDS and the Digit Span age-corrected scaled score provide the most accurate measure of performance validity among the three measures.

  20. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  1. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  2. Provision of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from Age 6 to 18 Months Does Not Affect Infant Development Scores in a Randomized Trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Vosti, Steve A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Undernutrition during early life contributes to more than 200 million children globally not fulfilling their developmental potential. Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with several formulations of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), which differed in dose per day and milk content, positively affect infant development in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 1932 infants age 6 months to receive one of the following for 12 months: 10, 20 g, or 40 g/day milk-containing LNS, 20 g or 40 g/day milk-free LNS, or no supplement until 18 months of age (control group). We assessed motor, language, socio-emotional, and executive function at age 18 months. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat and we also examined 13 potential effect modifiers, including the child's initial nutritional status and level of developmental stimulation. The study is registered as clinical trial NCT00945698. Results We found no significant differences between intervention groups in any scores. The difference in mean z-scores between children in the control group and children in the intervention groups ranged from -0.08 to 0.04 for motor development (p = 0.76), -0.05 to 0.01 for language development (p = 0.97), -0.15 to 0.11 for socio-emotional development (p = 0.22), and -0.02 to 0.20 for executive function (p = 0.24). We did not find that initial nutritional status, developmental stimulation, or other factors modified the effect LNS versus control group. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that in a population such as this one, provision of LNS from age 6 to 18 months would not affect motor, language, socio-emotional, or executive function skills at age 18 months.

  3. Provision of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from Age 6 to 18 Months Does Not Affect Infant Development Scores in a Randomized Trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Vosti, Steve A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Undernutrition during early life contributes to more than 200 million children globally not fulfilling their developmental potential. Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with several formulations of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), which differed in dose per day and milk content, positively affect infant development in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 1932 infants age 6 months to receive one of the following for 12 months: 10, 20 g, or 40 g/day milk-containing LNS, 20 g or 40 g/day milk-free LNS, or no supplement until 18 months of age (control group). We assessed motor, language, socio-emotional, and executive function at age 18 months. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat and we also examined 13 potential effect modifiers, including the child's initial nutritional status and level of developmental stimulation. The study is registered as clinical trial NCT00945698. Results We found no significant differences between intervention groups in any scores. The difference in mean z-scores between children in the control group and children in the intervention groups ranged from -0.08 to 0.04 for motor development (p = 0.76), -0.05 to 0.01 for language development (p = 0.97), -0.15 to 0.11 for socio-emotional development (p = 0.22), and -0.02 to 0.20 for executive function (p = 0.24). We did not find that initial nutritional status, developmental stimulation, or other factors modified the effect LNS versus control group. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that in a population such as this one, provision of LNS from age 6 to 18 months would not affect motor, language, socio-emotional, or executive function skills at age 18 months. PMID:27395385

  4. Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Development of the Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    Chaikitamnuaychok, Rangson; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergency endoscopy for every patient with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is not possible in many medical centers. Simple guidelines to select patients for emergency endoscopy are lacking. The aim of the present report is to develop a simple scoring system to classify upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) severity based on patient clinical profiles at the emergency departments. Methods Retrospective data of patients with UGIH in a university affiliated hospital were analyzed. Patients were criterion-classified into 3 severity levels: mild, moderate and severe. Clinical and laboratory information were compared among the 3 groups. Significant parameters were selected as indicators of severity. Coefficients of significant multivariable parameters were transformed into item scores, which added up as individual severity scores. The scores were used to classify patients into 3 urgency levels: non-urgent, urgent and emergent groups. Score-classification and criterion-classification were compared. Results Significant parameters in the model were age ≥ 60 years, pulse rate ≥ 100/min, systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg, hemoglobin < 10 g/dL, blood urea nitrogen ≥ 35 mg/dL, presence of cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The score ranged from 0 to 27, and classifying patients into 3 urgency groups: non-urgent (score < 4, n = 215, 21.2%), urgent (score 4 - 16, n = 677, 66.9%) and emergent (score > 16, n = 121, 11.9%). The score correctly classified 81.4% of the patients into their original (criterion-classified) severity groups. Under-estimation (7.5%) and over-estimation (11.1%) were clinically acceptable. Conclusions Our UGIH severity scoring system classified patients into 3 urgency groups: non-urgent, urgent and emergent, with clinically acceptable small number of under- and over-estimations. Its discriminative ability and precision should be validated before adopting into clinical practice.

  5. Utilizing Genetic Predisposition Score in Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence: A Community-based Cohort Study on Middle-aged Koreans.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yin; Choi, Hyung Jin; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-08-01

    Contribution of genetic predisposition to risk prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was investigated using a prospective study in middle-aged adults in Korea. From a community cohort of 6,257 subjects with 8 yr' follow-up, genetic predisposition score with subsets of 3, 18, 36 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (genetic predisposition score; GPS-3, GPS-18, GPS-36) in association with T2DM were determined, and their effect was evaluated using risk prediction models. Rs5215, rs10811661, and rs2237892 were in significant association with T2DM, and hazard ratios per risk allele score increase were 1.11 (95% confidence intervals: 1.06-1.17), 1.09 (1.01-1.05), 1.04 (1.02-1.07) with GPS-3, GPS-18, GPS-36, respectively. Changes in AUC upon addition of GPS were significant in simple and clinical models, but the significance disappeared in full clinical models with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). For net reclassification index (NRI), significant improvement observed in simple (range 5.1%-8.6%) and clinical (3.1%-4.4%) models were no longer significant in the full models. Influence of genetic predisposition in prediction ability of T2DM incidence was no longer significant when HbA1c was added in the models, confirming HbA1c as a strong predictor for T2DM risk. Also, the significant SNPs verified in our subjects warrant further research, e.g. gene-environmental interaction and epigenetic studies.

  6. Association between the French nutritional guideline-based score and 6-year anthropometric changes in a French middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Castetbon, Katia; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-15

    In light of increasing obesity among the elderly, understanding the role of nutritional guidelines in preventing weight gain is of major importance. The authors evaluated the impact of the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)-Guideline Score (GS) (maximum score, 15 points) on anthropometric changes in a large population-based study. Subjects in the present analysis (n = 3,531) were participants in the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study (1994-2002) and had available data for estimating the PNNS-GS and anthropometric data at baseline and 6 years later. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear regression models for the association with anthropometric changes and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios of becoming overweight or obese. The authors found a significant negative association between PNNS-GS and changes in markers of anthropometry. In addition, better adherence to the PNNS-GS was associated with a lower incidence of overweight (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.99) and obesity (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.99) after a 6-year follow-up period. These observations support the role of nutritional guidelines in prevention of age-related weight increase and development of obesity.

  7. Association between the French nutritional guideline-based score and 6-year anthropometric changes in a French middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Castetbon, Katia; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-15

    In light of increasing obesity among the elderly, understanding the role of nutritional guidelines in preventing weight gain is of major importance. The authors evaluated the impact of the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)-Guideline Score (GS) (maximum score, 15 points) on anthropometric changes in a large population-based study. Subjects in the present analysis (n = 3,531) were participants in the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study (1994-2002) and had available data for estimating the PNNS-GS and anthropometric data at baseline and 6 years later. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear regression models for the association with anthropometric changes and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios of becoming overweight or obese. The authors found a significant negative association between PNNS-GS and changes in markers of anthropometry. In addition, better adherence to the PNNS-GS was associated with a lower incidence of overweight (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.99) and obesity (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.99) after a 6-year follow-up period. These observations support the role of nutritional guidelines in prevention of age-related weight increase and development of obesity. PMID:19656810

  8. Evolving a Bayesian Classifier for ECG-based Age Classification in Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, M; Saad, A; Litt, B; Vachtsevanos, G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To classify patients by age based upon information extracted from their electro-cardiograms (ECGs). To develop and compare the performance of Bayesian classifiers. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We present a methodology for classifying patients according to statistical features extracted from their ECG signals using a genetically evolved Bayesian network classifier. Continuous signal feature variables are converted to a discrete symbolic form by thresholding, to lower the dimensionality of the signal. This simplifies calculation of conditional probability tables for the classifier, and makes the tables smaller. Two methods of network discovery from data were developed and compared: the first using a greedy hill-climb search and the second employed evolutionary computing using a genetic algorithm (GA). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The evolved Bayesian network performed better (86.25% AUC) than both the one developed using the greedy algorithm (65% AUC) and the naïve Bayesian classifier (84.75% AUC). The methodology for evolving the Bayesian classifier can be used to evolve Bayesian networks in general thereby identifying the dependencies among the variables of interest. Those dependencies are assumed to be non-existent by naïve Bayesian classifiers. Such a classifier can then be used for medical applications for diagnosis and prediction purposes.

  9. Evolving a Bayesian Classifier for ECG-based Age Classification in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, M.; Saad, A.; Litt, B.; Vachtsevanos, G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To classify patients by age based upon information extracted from their electro-cardiograms (ECGs). To develop and compare the performance of Bayesian classifiers. Methods and Material We present a methodology for classifying patients according to statistical features extracted from their ECG signals using a genetically evolved Bayesian network classifier. Continuous signal feature variables are converted to a discrete symbolic form by thresholding, to lower the dimensionality of the signal. This simplifies calculation of conditional probability tables for the classifier, and makes the tables smaller. Two methods of network discovery from data were developed and compared: the first using a greedy hill-climb search and the second employed evolutionary computing using a genetic algorithm (GA). Results and Conclusions The evolved Bayesian network performed better (86.25% AUC) than both the one developed using the greedy algorithm (65% AUC) and the naïve Bayesian classifier (84.75% AUC). The methodology for evolving the Bayesian classifier can be used to evolve Bayesian networks in general thereby identifying the dependencies among the variables of interest. Those dependencies are assumed to be non-existent by naïve Bayesian classifiers. Such a classifier can then be used for medical applications for diagnosis and prediction purposes. PMID:22010038

  10. Robust nuclear lamina-based cell classification of aging and senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Righolt, Christiaan H.; van 't Hoff, Merel L.R.; Vermolen, Bart J.; Young, Ian T.; Raz, Vered

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the nuclear lamina are exhibited in senescent cells, as well as in cells expressing mutations in lamina genes. To identify cells with defects in the nuclear lamina we developed an imaging method that quantifies the intensity and curvature of the nuclear lamina. We show that this method accurately describes changes in the nuclear lamina. Spatial changes in nuclear lamina coincide with redistribution of lamin A proteins and local reduction in protein mobility in senescent cell. We suggest that local accumulation of lamin A in the nuclear envelope leads to bending of the structure. A quantitative distinction of the nuclear lamina shape in cell populations was found between fresh and senescent cells, and between primary myoblasts from young and old donors. Moreover, with this method mutations in lamina genes were significantly distinct from cells with wild-type genes. We suggest that this method can be applied to identify abnormal cells during aging, in in vitro propagation, and in lamina disorders. PMID:22199022

  11. Local configuration pattern features for age-related macular degeneration characterization and classification.

    PubMed

    Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Fujita, Hamido; Koh, Joel E W; Tan, Jen Hong; Noronha, Kevin; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Chua, Chua Kuang; Lim, Choo Min; Laude, Augustinus; Tong, Louis

    2015-08-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is an irreversible and chronic medical condition characterized by drusen, Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) and Geographic Atrophy (GA). AMD is one of the major causes of visual loss among elderly people. It is caused by the degeneration of cells in the macula which is responsible for central vision. AMD can be dry or wet type, however dry AMD is most common. It is classified into early, intermediate and late AMD. The early detection and treatment may help one to stop the progression of the disease. Automated AMD diagnosis may reduce the screening time of the clinicians. In this work, we have introduced LCP to characterize normal and AMD classes using fundus images. Linear Configuration Coefficients (CC) and Pattern Occurrence (PO) features are extracted from fundus images. These extracted features are ranked using p-value of the t-test and fed to various supervised classifiers viz. Decision Tree (DT), Nearest Neighbour (k-NN), Naive Bayes (NB), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify normal and AMD classes. The performance of the system is evaluated using both private (Kasturba Medical Hospital, Manipal, India) and public domain datasets viz. Automated Retinal Image Analysis (ARIA) and STructured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) using ten-fold cross validation. The proposed approach yielded best performance with a highest average accuracy of 97.78%, sensitivity of 98.00% and specificity of 97.50% for STARE dataset using 22 significant features. Hence, this system can be used as an aiding tool to the clinicians during mass eye screening programs to diagnose AMD. PMID:26093788

  12. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  13. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  14. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  15. Lower-extremity strength profiles and gender-based classification of basketball players ages 9-22 years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Vardaxis, Vassilios G

    2009-03-01

    Despite an increase in women sports participants and recognition of gender differences in injury patterns (e.g., knee), few normative strength data exist beyond hamstrings and quadriceps measures. This study had 2 purposes: to assess the lower-extremity strength of women (W) and men (M) basketball players who were 9-22 years old, and to determine which strength measures most correctly classify the gender of 12- to 22-year-old athletes. Fifty basketball players (26 W, 24 M) without ligamentous or meniscal injury performed concentric isokinetic testing of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle musculature. We identified maximal peak torques for the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors), knee (flexors and extensors), and ankle (plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), and we formed periarticular (hip, knee, and ankle), antigravity, and total leg strength composite measures. We calculated mean and 95% confidence intervals. With body mass-height normalization, most age and gender differences were small. Mean values were typically higher for older vs. younger players and for men vs. women players. Mean values were often lower for girls 12-13 years vs. those 9-10 years. In the age group of 16-22 years, men had stronger knee flexors, hip flexors, plantar flexors, and total leg strength than women. Men who were 16-22 years old had stronger knee flexors and hip flexors than did younger men and women players. Based on discriminant function, knee strength measures did not adequately classify gender. Instead, total leg strength measures had correct gender classifications of 74 and 69% (jackknifed) with significant multivariate tests (p = 0.025). For researchers and practitioners, these results support strength assessment and training of the whole lower extremity, not just knee musculature. Limited strength differences between girls 9-10 years old and those 12-13 years old suggest that the peripubertal period is an important time to target strength development.

  16. Mini-Mental State Exam performance of older African Americans: effect of age, gender, education, hypertension, diabetes, and the inclusion of serial 7s subtraction versus "world" backward on score.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Keith A; Cromer, Jennifer R; Piotrowski, Andrea S; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2011-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is a clinically ubiquitous yet incompletely standardized instrument. Though the test offers considerable examiner leeway, little data exist on the normative consequences of common administration variations. We sought to: (a) determine the effects of education, age, gender, health status, and a common administration variation (serial 7s subtraction vs. "world" spelled backward) on MMSE score within a minority sample, (b) provide normative data stratified on the most empirically relevant bases, and (c) briefly address item failure rates. African American citizens (N = 298) aged 55-87 living independently in the community were recruited by advertisement, community recruitment, and word of mouth. Total score with "world" spelled backward exceeded total score with serial 7s subtraction across all levels of education, replicating findings in Caucasian samples. Education is the primary source of variance on MMSE score, followed by age. In this cohort, women out-performed men when "world" spelled backward was included, but there was no gender effect when serial 7s subtraction was included in MMSE total score. To ensure an appropriate interpretation of MMSE scores, reports, whether clinical or in publications of research findings, should be explicit regarding the administration method. Stratified normative data are provided. PMID:21813555

  17. Mini-Mental State Exam performance of older African Americans: effect of age, gender, education, hypertension, diabetes, and the inclusion of serial 7s subtraction versus "world" backward on score.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Keith A; Cromer, Jennifer R; Piotrowski, Andrea S; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2011-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is a clinically ubiquitous yet incompletely standardized instrument. Though the test offers considerable examiner leeway, little data exist on the normative consequences of common administration variations. We sought to: (a) determine the effects of education, age, gender, health status, and a common administration variation (serial 7s subtraction vs. "world" spelled backward) on MMSE score within a minority sample, (b) provide normative data stratified on the most empirically relevant bases, and (c) briefly address item failure rates. African American citizens (N = 298) aged 55-87 living independently in the community were recruited by advertisement, community recruitment, and word of mouth. Total score with "world" spelled backward exceeded total score with serial 7s subtraction across all levels of education, replicating findings in Caucasian samples. Education is the primary source of variance on MMSE score, followed by age. In this cohort, women out-performed men when "world" spelled backward was included, but there was no gender effect when serial 7s subtraction was included in MMSE total score. To ensure an appropriate interpretation of MMSE scores, reports, whether clinical or in publications of research findings, should be explicit regarding the administration method. Stratified normative data are provided.

  18. If at first you don't succeed, try, try again: understanding race, age, and gender differences in retesting score improvement.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Deidra J; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Morgeson, Frederick P; Campion, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    This article explores the intersection of 2 critical and timely concerns in personnel selection-applicant retesting and subgroup differences-by exploring demographic differences in retest effects across multiple assessments. Results from large samples of applicants taking 3 written tests (N = 7,031) and 5 performance tests (N = 2,060) revealed that Whites showed larger retest score improvements than Blacks or Hispanics on several of the assessments. However, the differential improvement of Whites was greater on the written tests than on the performance tests. In addition, women and applicants under 40 years of age showed larger improvements with retesting than did men and applicants over 40. We offer some preliminary theoretical explanations for these demographic differences in retesting gains, including differences in ability, testing attitudes and motivation, and receptivity to feedback. In terms of practical implications, the results suggest that allowing applicants to retake selection tests may, in some cases, exacerbate levels of adverse impact, which can have distinct implications for retesting policy and practices in organizations.

  19. A landmark analysis-based approach to age and sex classification of the skull of the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) (Hermann, 1779).

    PubMed

    Brombin, C; Mo, G; Zotti, A; Giurisato, M; Salmaso, L; Cozzi, B

    2009-10-01

    This work aimed at applying geometric morphometric analysis techniques to the skull of the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus, Hermann, 1779). Inferential analyses were performed using a non-parameteric permutation framework based on a series of skulls of different age classes belonging to individuals of both sexes. Our goal was to establish whether a statistical approach based on osteometric measurements and surface analysis of photographs of the left lateral plane of the skull may lead to a different and scientifically sound method of age and sex classification in this critically endangered marine mammal. Our data indicate that non-parametric combination methodology enables the researcher to give local assessment using a combination with domains. Developing geometric morphometric techniques in a non-parametric permutation framework could be useful in solving high dimensional and small sample size problems as well as classification problems, including zoological classification of specimens within a specific population. The Mediterranean monk seal is believed to be the world's rarest pinniped and one of the most endangered mammals of the world, with fewer than 600 individuals currently surviving. The use of shape analysis would allow new insights into the biological characteristics of the monk seal by simply extracting potentially new information on age and size from museal specimens. PMID:19694647

  20. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  1. Understanding the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification in Spanish Students Aged 16-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…

  2. The Influence of Age and Materials on Young Children's Play Activities and Classification Learning. A Doctoral Dissertation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean Swift

    This paper describes two studies conducted to investigate young children's manipulative responses to materials in a free play situation and to examine the resultant learning. Study I: Each child played with either a simple or a complex set of materials during three play sessions. Learning was measured on a posttest of classification ability.…

  3. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  4. A Nonparametric Approach to Estimate Classification Accuracy and Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Quinn N.; Cheng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    When cut scores for classifications occur on the total score scale, popular methods for estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) require assumptions about a parametric form of the test scores or about a parametric response model, such as item response theory (IRT). This article develops an approach to estimate CA…

  5. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  6. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. PMID:25832130

  7. Aerobic and anaerobic arm-cranking power outputs of males with lower limb impairments: relationship with sport participation intensity, age, impairment and functional classification.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Y; Ochana, S; Bolotin, R; Kalina, E

    1998-03-01

    Fifty individuals with lower limb impairments including spinal cord injury, polio and amputations underwent aerobic and anaerobic arm-cranking tests in a standardized laboratory setting. Based on linear regression models applied with age as dependent variable aerobic performance variable including HRmax (R = 0.395, P = 0.004), and POaer (R = 0.31, P = 0.021) were subjected to ANCOVA adjusting for age in order to determine the significance of participation intensity (competitive vs leisure) and type of physical impairment. Anaerobic performance variables were not influenced by age and thereby subjected to 1-Way ANOVA with the same independent variables. Participation intensity and type of impairment significantly discriminated (P < 0.001) between athletes in all power variables. Linear regression models have shown moderate but significant (P < 0.001) relationship with functional ability (bases on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation classification system). In anaerobic mean power (MP) classification accounted for 42% of the variance, while in anaerobic peak power (PP) and aerobic Power (POaer) for 38% and 30% respectively. By means of a post hoc Tukey analysis significant differences were observed between athletes with a high level paraplegia (class 1) and those with one leg affected by polio or amputations (classes 4, 4.5). Athletes with low level paraplegia and two legs affected by polio (classes 2-3.5) had values in-between. Based on the descriptive evaluation, a three group scheme was conceptualized and resubjected to ANOVA. Significant intergroup differences were thus obtained only for PP. Descriptive PP data for each group were transformed into a five category table in order to provide reference values for fitness-estimation in males with lower limb impairments of various etiologies.

  8. Associations of subjective udder edema scores and descriptive trait codes for udder types.

    PubMed

    Dentine, M R; McDaniel, B T

    1984-01-01

    Edema severity was scored by herd personnel in six North Carolina Holstein herds from 1 (none) to 5 (extremely severe). Cows (2612) were scored at calving and 1 and 2 wk postpartum. Total score was calculated as the sum of these three scores. Official Holstein-Friesian classification descriptive udder trait codes were available on a subset of the cows. All statistical analyses were within lactation and included adjustments for herd-year and age as well as classifier and stage of lactation where appropriate. Correlations between corresponding edema scores for first and second lactations were .18, .18, .19, and .20 for scores at calving, 1 wk, 2 wk, and for total score. Stepwise regression procedures showed that udder support codes were associated with a larger amount of variation of edema scores than for any other single mammary trait code. Fore and rear udder codes also were associated with significant variation of edema scores in some analyses. Prediction models showed edema was a significant predictor of subsequent udder support codes, although udder trait codes were not significant predictors of subsequent edema severity. It appeared that severe edema may be one of the causes of pendulous udders. PMID:6707304

  9. Flexible and inflexible task sets: asymmetric interference when switching between emotional expression, sex, and age classification of perceived faces.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Stefanie; Werheid, Katja; Koch, Iring

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the processing characteristics of categorizing emotional facial expressions are different from those of categorizing facial age and sex information. Given that emotions change rapidly, it was hypothesized that processing facial expressions involves a more flexible task set that causes less between-task interference than the task sets involved in processing age or sex of a face. Participants switched between three tasks: categorizing a face as looking happy or angry (emotion task), young or old (age task), and male or female (sex task). Interference between tasks was measured by global interference and response interference. Both measures revealed patterns of asymmetric interference. Global between-task interference was reduced when a task was mixed with the emotion task. Response interference, as measured by congruency effects, was larger for the emotion task than for the nonemotional tasks. The results support the idea that processing emotional facial expression constitutes a more flexible task set that causes less interference (i.e., task-set "inertia") than processing the age or sex of a face.

  10. The Growth of Democratic Tradition: The Age of Enlightenment. Tenth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Marie A.

    This lesson plan begins with an overview of the age of enlightenment and those ideas that influenced the founders of the United States. The lesson plan provides information sheets about five enlightenment thinkers: John Locke (1632-1704), Mary Wolstonecraft (1759-1898), Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788), and John…

  11. An audit of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture frame size scoring system.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D

    2014-06-01

    Feedlot and carcass data from steers (n = 16,700) and heifers (n = 6,357) originating from 16 different states and fed in 17 feedlots located in southwest Iowa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the USDA frame score for predicting final BW of fed cattle. Frame score was recorded by USDA or state personnel for cattle either before leaving the state of origin or on arrival at the terminal feedlot. Mixed model procedures were used to investigate relationships between USDA frame score and measures of live performance and carcass traits. Other fixed effects included in the model included USDA muscle score, sex, age classification on feedlot entry (calf: ≤270 d of age, yearling: 271-365 d of age, and long yearling: >365 d of age), BCS on feedlot arrival, number of treatments for respiratory disease, hide color, and site of frame or muscle scoring; the interactions of sex × frame score and hide color × frame score were also included; fat thickness was included as a fixed effect (covariate) in the analysis of ADG, final BW, days on feed, LM area, marbling score, and quality grade. Random effects included in the model were year of feedlot arrival and feedlot in which cattle were fed. The system accurately projects the minimum target final BW for large frame steers and heifers; however, the final BW of the smallest medium frame steers and heifers exceeds the target minimum final BW by 35 and 40 kg, respectively. When frame score was assigned post facto based on actual final BW (adjusted to 1.27 cm fat thickness), it was determined that large frame was over-assigned by graders (62 vs. 35% for steers and 54 vs. 32% for heifers, actual score vs. postharvest score, respectively), medium frame was underassigned (37 vs. 51% and 46 vs. 58% for steers and heifers), and small frame was underassigned (0.7 vs. 15% and 0.6 vs. 10% for steers and heifers; K = 0.01, P < 0.01). Across sexes, of the cattle assigned to small, medium, or large frame score, 40, 59, and 43% actually had

  12. Classification of selected cardiopulmonary variables of elite athletes of different age, gender, and disciplines during incremental exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Incremental exercise testing is frequently used as a tool for evaluating determinants of endurance performance. The available reference values for the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), % of VO2peak, running speed at the lactate threshold (vLT), running economy (RE), and maximal running speed (vpeak) for different age, gender, and disciplines are not sufficient for the elite athletic population. The key variables of 491 young athletes (age range 12-21 years; 250 males, 241 females) assessed during a running step test protocol (2.4 m s(-1); increase 0.4 m s(-1) 5 min(-1)) were analysed in five subgroups, which were related to combat-, team-, endurance-, sprint- and power-, and racquet-related disciplines. Compared with female athletes, male athletes achieved a higher vpeak (P = 0.004). The body mass, lean body mass, height, abs. VO2peak (ml min(-1)), rel. VO2peak (ml kg(-1) min(-1)), rel. VO2peak (ml min(-1) kg(-0.75)), and RE were higher in the male participants compared with the females (P < 0.01). The % of VO2 at vLT was lower in the males compared with the females (P < 0.01). No differences between gender were detected for the vLT (P = 0.17) and % of VO2 at vLT (P = 0.42). This study is one of the first to provide a broad spectrum of data to classify nearly 500 elite athletes aged 12-21 years of both gender and different disciplines. PMID:26413450

  13. HIV and coronary artery calcium score: comparison of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cardiovascular Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Young, Rebekah; Valcour, Nicole; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lum, Corey J.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of HIV, immunologic, and inflammatory factors on coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Cross-sectional study comparing baseline data of males from Hawaii Aging with HIV –Cardiovascular Study (HAHCS) with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. The cohorts were pooled to determine effects of HIV on CAC and explore immunologic and inflammatory factors that may explain development of CAC in HIV. Multivariable regression models compared CAC prevalence in HAHCS with MESA adjusting for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk profiles. Results We studied 100 men from HAHCS and 2733 men from MESA. Positive CAC was seen in 58% HAHCS participants and 57% MESA participants. Mean CAC was 260.8 in HAHCS and 306.5 in MESA. Using relative risk (RR) regression, HAHCS participants had a greater risk (RR=1.20, P<0.05) of having positive CAC than MESA when adjusting for age, smoking status, diabetes, antihypertensive therapy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. Among participants with positive CAC, HIV infection was not associated with larger amounts of CAC. Among HAHCS participants, current HIV viral load, CD4, length of HIV, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were not associated with the presence or amount of CAC. Discussion HIV was independently associated with a positive CAC in men with increased likelihood occurring between 45 and 50 years of age. Current HIV viral load, CD4 count, length of HIV, and inflammatory markers were unrelated to either presence or amount of CAC. PMID:26038953

  14. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  15. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  16. Epidemiological burden estimates for pathologies with a nonconstant risk: an application to HCV in Italy according to age, Metavir score, and genotype

    PubMed Central

    Mancusi, Rossella Letizia; Andreoni, Massimo; d’Angela, Daniela; Sarrecchia, Cesare; Spandonaro, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Between western European countries, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic is highest in Italy. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the endemic diffusion of hepatitis C at the national level and by geographical area, with an extrapolation at the regional level and by uniform cohorts of subjects (by sex and year of birth). The secondary objective is a stratification by gravity of the estimated statistical figures to provide an overview of possible targets of the new anti-HCV treatments. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant Italian populations studies regarding HCV prevalence. Random and fixed effect models were used for pooling data. To develop the epidemiological model, a meta-analysis of studies of Italian populations and the explicit consideration of the changes in the etiology of the disease in different cohorts (by year of birth) of population and the impact of effective treatments that have been introduced since the 1990s. A Markovian transition model, which is based on the distribution of HCV+ and HCV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)+ subjects, provides a plausible assessment of the Italian situation. The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology recommendations/statements were followed. In 2014, 1569,215 HCV+ subjects (95% credible interval [CrI]: 1202,630–2021,261) were estimated in Italy, with a 2.58% prevalence (95% CrI: 1.98%–3.33%). A total of 828,884 HCV RNA+ subjects (95% CrI: 615,892–1081,123), which is equal to a 1.36% prevalence (95% CrI: 1.01%–1.78%), is higher in southern Italy and the islands (1.9%) than in central–northern Italy (1.1%). The predominance of adult and elderly subjects, with an old or very old infection, inevitably entails a significant number of HCV RNA+ subjects in the advanced stages of the illness. According to our estimates, approximately 400,000 subjects have cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma, with a median age of 70 years. The model aims to support

  17. Stage IV and age over 45 years are the only prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Score for the outcome of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the Spanish Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group series.

    PubMed

    Guisado-Vasco, Pablo; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Canales, Miguel; Cánovas, Araceli; Garcia-Laraña, José; García-Sanz, Ramón; Lopez, Andrés; López, José Luis; Llanos, Marta; Moraleda, José Maria; Rodriguez, José; Rayón, Consuelo; Sabin, Pilar; Salar, Antonio; Marín-Niebla, Ana; Morente, Manuel; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; Tomás, José Francisco; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Victor; Piris, Miguel A; Garcia, Juán F; Montalban, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the most widely used system to date for identifying risk groups for the outcome of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, although important limitations have been recognized. We analyzed the value of the IPS in a series of 311 patients with advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (Ann Arbor stage III, IV or stage II with B symptoms and/or bulky masses) treated with first-line chemotherapy including adriamycin (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine [ABVD] or equivalent variants). In univariate and multivariate analyses, stage IV disease and age ≥ 45 years were the only factors with independent predictive significance for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Stage IV was still significant for freedom from progression (FFP) (p = 0.001) and age ≥ 45 years was borderline significant (p = 0.058). IPS separates prognostic groups, as in the original publication, but this is mainly due to the high statistical significance of stage IV and age ≥ 45 years. Moreover, the combination of these two factors enables a simpler system to be constructed that separates groups with different FFP and OS. In conclusion, in our series, stage IV and age ≥ 45 years are the key prognostic factors for the outcome of advanced cHL.

  18. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  19. Higher HEI-2005 scores associated with reduced symptoms of depression in an urban population: Findings from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Cremer, Alexandra; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression affects over 15 million Americans in a given year. Compared to physical health, less is known about the affect of diet quality on symptoms of depression. Objective This study investigated the relationship between diet quality and reported symptoms of depression in a low-income urban population. Subjects/setting Subjects included 1,118 African American and white adults, aged 30–64 years, living in Baltimore, MD and represented a sub-sample of the initial examination and recruitment phase of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Methods Nutrition data were based on two 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained interviewers using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Diet quality was calculated using the USDA's Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a trained interviewer using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Statistical analysis Both linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether or not diet quality was associated with depressive symptoms. The dependent variable was depressive symptoms and independent variables included HEI-2005, race, sex, age, education, income, and food assistance program participation. Results Mean HEI-2005 score (± SEM) was 52.17 ± 0.40 (out of 100). Mean CES-D score was 11.64 ± 0.25 (out of 40). Diet quality was significantly associated with reported symptoms of depression. However, income was a significantly stronger predictor of depression compared to diet quality, education and sex. Conclusion Registered dietitians should be aware of relationship between psychological status and nutritional health when assisting clients to better manage their food choices to improve their overall health and quality of life. PMID:20184988

  20. Remote Sensing Classification Uncertainty: Validating Probabilistic Pixel Level Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettas, Michail; Cornford, Dan; Bastin, Lucy; Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    There already exists an extensive literature on classification of remotely sensed imagery, and indeed classification more widely, that considers a wide range of probabilistic and non-probabilistic classification methodologies. Although for many probabilistic classification methodologies posterior class probabilities are produced per pixel (observation) these are often not communicated at the pixel level, and typically not validated at the pixel level. Most often the probabilistic classification in converted into a hard classification (of the most probable class) and the accuracy of the resulting classification is reported in terms of a global confusion matrix, or some score derived from this. For applications where classification accuracy is spatially variable and where pixel level estimates of uncertainty can be meaningfully exploited in workflows that propagate uncertainty validating and communicating the pixel level uncertainty opens opportunities for more refined and accountable modelling. In this work we describe our recent work applying and validation of a range of probabilistic classifiers. Using a multi-temporal Landsat data set of the Ebro Delta in Catalonia, which has been carefully radiometrically and geometrically corrected, we present a range of Bayesian classifiers from simple Bayesian linear discriminant analysis to a complex variational Gaussian process based classifier. Field study derived labelled data, classified into 8 classes, which primarily consider land use and the degree of flooding in what is a rice growing region, are used to train the pixel level classifiers. Our focus is not so much on the classification accuracy, but rather the validation of the probabilistic classification made by all methods. We present a range of validation plots and scores, many of which are used for probabilistic weather forecast verification, but are new to remote sensing classification including of course the standard measures of misclassification, but also

  1. Classification Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Children, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The interview presents opinions of Nicholas Hobbs on the classification of exceptional children, including topics such as ecologically oriented classification systems, the role of parents, and need for revision of teacher preparation programs. (IM)

  2. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT. In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database. The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity. The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824–0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively. Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were

  3. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections

    PubMed Central

    Frenk, Steven M.; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon. PMID:25392566

  4. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Steven M; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon.

  5. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  6. EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST SCORES

    PubMed Central

    Pershad, Dwarka; Verma, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  7. Education and psychological test scores.

    PubMed

    Pershad, D; Verma, S K

    1980-04-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  8. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  9. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  10. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  11. Willems II. Non-gender-specific dental maturity scores.

    PubMed

    Willems, G; Thevissen, P W; Belmans, A; Liversidge, H M

    2010-09-10

    Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system has been adapted for a Belgian Caucasian population for males and females. The purpose of this study was to adapt Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system from a Belgian Caucasian population to provide non-gender-specific scores. We selected 2116 orthopantomograms of 1029 boys and 1087 girls aged 3-16 years. A weighted ANOVA was performed in order to adapt the scoring system for this Belgian population. A second test sample of 273 orthopantomograms of individuals with immature dentitions aged 3-16 years was used to evaluate the accuracy of the original method, gender-specific scores and non-gender-specific scores of the adapted method. Mean/median difference between dental age and real age was calculated as well as other measures of accuracy. The adapted scoring system resulted in new age scores expressed in years and in a higher accuracy compared to the original method in Belgian Caucasians. PMID:20483551

  12. Recategorized WISC-R Scores of Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Martin G.; Hubble, Larry M.

    1981-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised scores of a male delinquent sample were grouped by A. Bannatyne's classification of Wechsler's subtests, and these recategorized scores were compared with results of a previous study of learning disabled children. Findings failed to support a theory that learning disabled youth possess a unique…

  13. A prognostic scoring system for locoregional control in nasopharyngeal carcinoma following conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.H.; Tsai, S.Y.; Horng, C.-F.; Yen, K.L.; Jian, James J.; Chan, Kwan-Yee; Lin, C.-Y.; Terng, S.-D.; Tsou, M.-H.; Chu, N.-M.; Chen, H.-H.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Tan, T.-D.; Chen, P.-L.; Chung, Y.L.; Huang, Andrew T. |

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: This study established a prognostic scoring system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which estimates the probability of locoregional (LR) control following definitive conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with nondisseminated NPC at initial presentation (n = 630) were enrolled in this study. All patients had magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck and were treated with conformal radiotherapy. Among them, 93% had concurrent chemotherapy, and 76% had postradiation chemotherapy. The extent of the primary tumor, age at diagnosis, primary tumor size, tumor and nodal classification, histology, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level before treatment were included in the analysis for building a prognostic scoring system. The end point for this study was LR control. Results: The prognostic score was defined as the number of adverse prognostic factors present at diagnosis. Four factors had similarly independent prognostic effects (hazard ratio, 2.0-2.6): age >40 years, histologic WHO type I-II, serum LDH level {>=}410 U/L, and involvement of two or more sites of the following anatomic structures, i.e., sphenoid floor, clivus marrow, clivus cortex, prevertebral muscles, and petrous bone. The score predicted the 5-year probability of LR control as follows: 0 (15% of the patients), 100%; 1 (42% of the patients), 93%; 2 (29% of the patients), 83%; 3 or higher (13% of the patients), 71%. Conclusion: This scoring system is useful in the decision-making for individual patients and the design of clinical trials to improve LR control for advanced-stage NPC.

  14. Body mass index, airflow obstruction and dyspnea and body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea scores, age and pack years-predictive properties of new multidimensional prognostic indices of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Khalid; Keaney, Niall; Kay, Andrea; Price, Monica; Munby, Joan; Billett, Andrew; Haggerty, Sharon; Taylor, Ian K.; Al Otaibi, Hajed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should involve a multidimensional approach that is now clearly shown to be better than using spirometric impairment alone. The aim of this study is to validate and compare novel tools without an exercise test and to extend prognostic value to patients with less severe impairment of Forced expiratory volume 1 s. METHODS: A prospective, observational, primary care cohort study identified 458 eligible patients recruited from the primary care clinics in the northeast of England in 1999–2002. A new prognostic indicator – body mass index, airflow obstruction and dyspnea (BOD) together with the conventional prognostic indices age, dyspnea and airflow obstruction (ADO), global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) and new GOLD matrix were studied. We also sought to improve prognostication of BOD by adding age (A) and smoking history as pack years (S) to validate BODS (BOD with smoking history) and BODAS (BOD with smoking history and age) as prognostic tools and the predictive power of each was analyzed. RESULTS: The survival of the 458 patients was assessed after a median of 10 years when the mortality was found to be 33.6%. The novel indices BOD, BODS, and BODAS were significantly predictive for all-cause mortality in our cohort. Furthermore with ROC analysis the C statistics for BOD, BODS, and BODAS were 0.62, 0.66, and 0.72, respectively (P < 0.001 for each), whereas ADO and GOLD stages had a C statistic of 0.70 (P < 0.001) and 0.56 (P < 0.02), respectively. GOLD Matrix was not significant in this cohort. CONCLUSION: BOD, BODS, and BODAS scores are validated predictors of all-cause mortality in a primary care cohort with COPD. PMID:27803752

  15. Improving test interpretation for detecting executive dysfunction in adults and older adults: prevalence of low scores on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Lanting, Shawnda C; Horton, Arthur M; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence of low scores on a battery of executive-functioning tests supplements clinical interpretation and can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing deficits in executive functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the base rates of low scores on the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ) in healthy adults (n = 332; M (age) = 33.0 years, SD = 10.5, range = 20-59) and older adults (n = 138; M (age) = 74.9 years, SD = 7.8, range = 60-89) from the TVCF standardization sample. The TVCF consists of four tests of executive functioning (i.e., Category Fluency, Letter Naming, Classification, and Trails C) that provide five age-adjusted T-scores. The prevalence of low scores was examined in the total sample and was stratified by educational level. When the five T-scores were considered simultaneously, having one or more scores that were 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean was found in 28% of healthy adults and 38% of older adults. Education-based differences were also present with more lenient cutoff scores (e.g., 1 SD) but not with more conservative cutoffs. Consistent with the existing literature on other test batteries, at least one low subtest score on the TVCF is common in healthy adults and older adults.

  16. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  17. Influence of age, body weight and body condition score before mating start date on the pubertal rate of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers and implications for subsequent cow performance and profitability.

    PubMed

    Archbold, H; Shalloo, L; Kennedy, E; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein-Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (≤ 2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ≥ 3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P < 0.05). Age was shown to have no practical implications on subsequent cow performance. BW at MSD was favourably associated with subsequent calving date (P < 0.05), subsequent cow BW (P < 0.001) and potential (305 days) milk fat plus protein yield (P < 0.001). BCS at MSD was found to be favourably associated with milk fat plus protein yield potential (P < 0.05) and BCS (P < 0.001) during lactation. The economic analysis undertaken indicated that larger, well-grown heifers will be more profitable because of superior production potential, all else being equal. However, because of the finding of poorer reproductive efficiency in heifers grown to more than 343 kg at MSD, heifers at ∼330 kg at MSD are deemed optimal. This will correspond

  18. Hubble Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A classification scheme for galaxies, devised in its original form in 1925 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), and still widely used today. The Hubble classification recognizes four principal types of galaxy—elliptical, spiral, barred spiral and irregular—and arranges these in a sequence that is called the tuning-fork diagram....

  19. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  20. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  1. [The use of scores in general medicine].

    PubMed

    Huber, Ursula; Rösli, Andreas; Ballmer, Peter E; Rippin, Sarah Jane

    2013-10-01

    Scores are tools to combine complex information into a numerical value. In General Medicine, there are scores to assist in making diagnoses and prognoses, scores to assist therapeutic decision making and to evaluate therapeutic results and scores to help physicians when informing and advising patients. We review six of the scoring systems that have the greatest utility for the General Physician in hospital-based care and in General Practice. The Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) tool is designed to identify hospital patients in danger of malnutrition. The aim is to improve the nutritional status of these patients. The CURB-65 score predicts 30-day mortality in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Patients with a low score can be considered for home treatment, patients with an elevated score require hospitalisation and those with a high score should be treated as having severe pneumonia; treatment in the intensive care unit should be considered. The IAS-AGLA score of the Working Group on Lipids and Atherosclerosis of the Swiss Society of Cardiology calculates the 10-year risk of a myocardial infarction for people living in Switzerland. The working group makes recommendations for preventative treatment according to the calculated risk status. The Body Mass Index, which is calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared and then divided into weight categories, is used to classify people as underweight, of normal weight, overweight or obese. The prognostic value of this classification is discussed. The Mini-Mental State Examination allows the physician to assess important cognitive functions in a simple and standardised form. The Glasgow Coma Scale is used to classify the level of consciousness in patients with head injury. It can be used for triage and correlates with prognosis.

  2. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    PubMed

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  3. Multiple Regression Analysis of Factors that May Influence Middle School Science Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative multiple regression study was to determine whether a relationship existed between Maryland State Assessment (MSA) reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, age, and MSA science scores. Also examined was if MSA reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, and age can be used in combination or alone…

  4. Development of dengue infection severity score.

    PubMed

    Pongpan, Surangrat; Wisitwong, Apichart; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn; Patumanond, Jayanton; Namwongprom, Sirianong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a simple scoring system to predict dengue infection severity based on patient characteristics and routine clinical profiles. Methods. Retrospective data of children with dengue infection from 3 general hospitals in Thailand were reviewed. Dengue infection was categorized into 3 severity levels: dengue infection (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Coefficients of significant predictors of disease severity under ordinal regression analysis were transformed into item scores. Total scores were used to classify patients into 3 severity levels. Results. Significant clinical predictors of dengue infection severity were age >6 years, hepatomegaly, hematocrit ≥40%, systolic pressure <90 mmHg, white cell count >5000 / μ L, and platelet ≤50000 / μ L. The derived total scores, which ranged from 0 to 18, classified patients into 3 severity levels: DF (scores <2.5, n = 451, 58.1%), DHF (scores 2.5-11.5, n = 276, 35.5%), and DSS (scores >11.5, n = 50, 6.4%). The derived score correctly classified patients into their original severity levels in 60.7%. An under-estimation of 25.7% and an over-estimation of 13.5% were clinically acceptable. Conclusions. The derived dengue infection severity score classified patients into DF, DHF, or DSS, correctly into their original severity levels. Validation of the score should be reconfirmed before application of routine practice.

  5. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  6. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures. PMID:26862701

  7. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  8. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  9. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  10. Reliability of inferred age, and coincidence between inferred age and chronological age.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, J; Ohara, S; Shibata, S; Maie, K

    1996-06-01

    Outdoor research is restricted by many factors. The age inference was one of the biggest problems for the outdoor researchers. We have investigated the reliability of inferred age for the Japanese people, and took out the estimation formula for the age, even if it was based on the inferred age. The age classification was the most popular method for this purpose, and there were many classifications. We took the classification of young, middle aged, and elderly groups, in which classification of the SDs were rather small, that is, 4, 5, and 7 years for the young, middle aged, and elderly age groups, respectively. PMID:9551138

  11. Risk factors of postpartum depression and EPDS scores in a group of Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, A O; Aina, O F; Morakinyo, O

    2006-04-01

    A sample of 252 women was studied for postpartum depression (PPD) in a 68-bed maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. After obtaining consent, they were assessed using: (1) a questionnaire on socio-demographic profile and risk factors of PPD; (2) the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and when necessary with (3) the depressive module of International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). The cohort was predominantly young (mean age 28.5 +/- 5.26 years). About one-quarter (23%) scored > or =12, (the cut-off score) on EPDS assessment; with majority of these depressed on further evaluation with ICD-10. The risk factors for PPD were found to be mainly psychosocial, including unwanted pregnancy, unemployment and marital conflict. It is concluded that PPD is a major complication of childbirth in Nigeria, which can be minimized by improving both the citizens' socioeconomic condition and providing cheaper and more efficient health-care services.

  12. Towards a novel molecular classification of IBD.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Severine

    2012-01-01

    Classifying IBD patients is important for decisions on the intensity of follow-up, therapy and mode of delivery. The most recent classification of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the Montreal classification, is based on clinical grounds: for CD, the age at diagnosis and disease location and behavior and for UC, the age at diagnosis and the extent of disease. During the Working Party in 2005 in Montreal, it was judged by the panel of experts that a molecular reclassification using serology and/or genetic markers was too premature and not yet justified. In the meanwhile, the number of genes associated with IBD has increased to >100 and more antimicrobial peptides have also been identified. We recently showed that genetic variants enable the classification of CD patients in distinct clusters, which is different from clusters seen in healthy individuals. Furthermore, there was a poor relationship between the genetic-based subgroups and the clinical subphenotypes being used. The promising role for molecular markers lies most likely in disease stratification, the prediction of prognosis at the time of diagnosis and the prediction of therapy outcome. The behavior of CD and UC varies between patients, and the characteristic transmural inflammation in CD--when untreated--will often progress and lead to stricture or fistula formation over time. Predicting which patients are at risk for progression to complications and how fast this occurs could have therapeutic implications, as more aggressive treatment strategies could become defendable in the appropriate patient. Genetic factors are definitively more appealing for risk stratification on more solid grounds. Molecular markers may also better explain changes in disease behavior from a pathogenic standpoint, and by combining several markers this strategy can approach clinical utility. Before starting to apply molecular markers to predict disease behaviors, tools should be made available to score disease

  13. Verbal Reasoning Test Scores and Their Stability over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primrose, Alison F.; Fuller, Mary; Littledyke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Stability of verbal reasoning test scores was measured for 146 students aged 8-13. Results suggest that reasoning test scores are not constant and vary considerably over time. Scores are not finite measures of intellectual capacity but of current verbal functioning, reflecting education and experiences to that point. (SK)

  14. Proposal for a New Prognostic Score for Linac-Based Radiosurgery in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Wiesbauer, Hannah; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Huber, Peter; Debus, Juergen; Zabel-du Bois, Angelika

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: We evaluate patient-, angioma-, and treatment-specific factors for successful obliteration of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) to develop a new appropriate score to predict patient outcome after linac-based radiosurgery (RS). Methods and Materials: This analysis in based on 293 patients with cerebral AVM. Mean age at treatment was 38.8 years (4-73 years). AVM classification according Spetzler-Martin was 55 patients Grade I (20.5%), 114 Grade II (42.5%), 79 Grade III (29.5%), 19 Grade IV (7.1%), and 1 Grade V (0.4%). Median maximum AVM diameter was 3.0 cm (range, 0.3-10 cm). Median dose prescribed to the 80% isodose was 18 Gy (range, 12-22 Gy). Eighty-five patients (29.1%) had prior partial embolization; 141 patients (51.9%) experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 4.2 years. Results: Age at treatment, maximum diameter, nidus volume, and applied dose were significant factors for successful obliteration. Under presumption of proportional hazard in the dose range between 12 and 22 Gy/80% isodose, an increase of obliteration rate of approximately 25% per Gy was seen. On the basis of multivariate analysis, a prediction score was calculated including AVM maximum diameter and age at treatment. The prediction error up to the time point 8 years was 0.173 for the Heidelberg score compared with the Kaplan-Meier value of 0.192. An increase of the score of 1 point results in a decrease of obliteration chance by a factor of 0.447. Conclusion: The proposed score is linac-based radiosurgery-specific and easy to handle to predict patient outcome. Further validation on an independent patient cohort is necessary.

  15. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  16. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  17. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  18. Subject Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle; And Others

    Three newspaper librarians described how they manage the files of newspaper clippings which are a necessary part of their collections. The development of a new subject classification system for the clippings files was outlined. The new subject headings were based on standard subject heading lists and on local need. It was decided to use a computer…

  19. Classifying Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakowski, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the experience of a group of first-grade teachers as they tackled the science process of classification, a targeted learning objective for the first grade. While the two-year process was not easy and required teachers to teach in a new, more investigation-oriented way, the benefits were great. The project helped teachers and…

  20. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  1. 24-Hour ICH Score Is a Better Predictor of Outcome than Admission ICH Score

    PubMed Central

    Aysenne, Aimee M.; Albright, Karen C.; Mathias, Tiffany; Chang, Tiffany R.; Boehme, Amelia K.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background The ICH score is a validated tool for predicting 30-day morbidity and mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Aims and/or Hypothesis The aim of this study is to determine if the ICH score calculated 24 hours after admission is a better predictor of mortality than the ICH score calculated on admission. Methods Patients presenting to our center with ICH from 7/08-12/10 were retrospectively identified from our prospective stroke registry. ICH scores were calculated based on initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and emergent head computed tomography (CT) on initial presentation and were recalculated after 24 hours. Results A total of 91 patients out of 121 had complete data for admission and 24-hour ICH score. The ICH score changed in 38% from baseline to 24 hours. After adjusting for age, NIHSS on admission, and glucose, ICH score at 24 hours was a significant, independent predictor of mortality (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1–19–6.20, and P = 0.018), but ICH score on admission was not (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 0.88-5.24, and P = 0.095). Conclusion Early determination of the ICH score may incorrectly estimate the severity and expected outcome after ICH. Calculations of the ICH score 24 hours after admission will better predict early outcomes.

  2. SCORING IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS: WHEN IMAGING IS APPROPRIATE?.

    PubMed

    Cucuteanu, B; Prelipcean, Cristina Cijevschi; Mihai, Cătălina; Dranga, Mihaela; Negru, D

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent presentation to the emergency departments with a rising incidence and a great variability in clinical severity and outcome. The aim of this review is to offer a succinct presentation on acute pancreatitis scoring systems and the use of different imaging methods in severity prediction: Ranson criteria, Glasgow criteria, Hong Kong Score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), computed tomography scoring systems, Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score, Panc 3, Japanese Severity Score (JSS), Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score (HAPS), Pancreatitis Outcome Prediction (POP), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). This article also describes the Revised Atlanta Classification of AP (2012) and the correlation with computed tomography.

  3. Phoneme and Word Scoring in Speech-in-Noise Audiometry

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Tina M.; Ellis, Emily M.; Baltzell, Lucas S.; McMillan, Garnett P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding speech in background noise is difficult for many individuals; however, time constraints have limited its inclusion in the clinical audiology assessment battery. Phoneme scoring of words has been suggested as a method of reducing test time and variability. The purposes of this study were to establish a phoneme scoring rubric and use it in testing phoneme and word perception in noise in older individuals and individuals with hearing impairment. Method Words were presented to 3 participant groups at 80 dB in speech-shaped noise at 7 signal-to-noise ratios (−10 to 35 dB). Responses were scored for words and phonemes correct. Results It was not surprising to find that phoneme scores were up to about 30% better than word scores. Word scoring resulted in larger hearing loss effect sizes than phoneme scoring, whereas scoring method did not significantly modify age effect sizes. There were significant effects of hearing loss and some limited effects of age; age effect sizes of about 3 dB and hearing loss effect sizes of more than 10 dB were found. Conclusion Hearing loss is the major factor affecting word and phoneme recognition with a subtle contribution of age. Phoneme scoring may provide several advantages over word scoring. A set of recommended phoneme scoring guidelines is provided. PMID:26989823

  4. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood Compared to Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…

  5. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting articulation of school aged children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to identify factors influencing handwriting articulation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and to recommend effective evaluation and intervention strategies to improve the handwriting of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 96 elementary school children with cerebral palsy and the study was conducted from 04/07/2011 to 29/08/2011. [Methods] Factors related to handwriting articulation were investigated based on the ICF model. [Results] Wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed of body function and education of personal factor were significantly associated with handwriting articulation. [Conclusion] Efforts to manage and improve the handwriting articulation of children with cerebral palsy should focus on wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed, and education.

  6. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting articulation of school aged children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to identify factors influencing handwriting articulation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and to recommend effective evaluation and intervention strategies to improve the handwriting of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 96 elementary school children with cerebral palsy and the study was conducted from 04/07/2011 to 29/08/2011. [Methods] Factors related to handwriting articulation were investigated based on the ICF model. [Results] Wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed of body function and education of personal factor were significantly associated with handwriting articulation. [Conclusion] Efforts to manage and improve the handwriting articulation of children with cerebral palsy should focus on wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed, and education. PMID:27065517

  7. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting articulation of school aged children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to identify factors influencing handwriting articulation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and to recommend effective evaluation and intervention strategies to improve the handwriting of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 96 elementary school children with cerebral palsy and the study was conducted from 04/07/2011 to 29/08/2011. [Methods] Factors related to handwriting articulation were investigated based on the ICF model. [Results] Wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed of body function and education of personal factor were significantly associated with handwriting articulation. [Conclusion] Efforts to manage and improve the handwriting articulation of children with cerebral palsy should focus on wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed, and education. PMID:27065517

  8. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  9. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  10. Physical Activity Level Improves the Predictive Accuracy of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score: The ATTICA Study (2002–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Bougatsas, Dimitrios; Chatzigeorgiou, Michael; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity (PA) has long been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessment of PA status has never been used as a part of CVD risk prediction tools. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the inclusion of PA status in a CVD risk model improves its predictive accuracy. Methods: Data from the 10-year follow-up (2002–2012) of the n = 2020 participants (aged 18–89 years) of the ATTICA prospective study were used to test the research hypothesis. The HellenicSCORE (that incorporates age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure levels) was calculated to estimate the baseline 10-year CVD risk; assessment of PA status was based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The estimated CVD risk was tested against the observed 10-year incidence (i.e., development of acute coronary syndromes, stroke, or other CVD according to the World Health Organization [WHO]-International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 criteria). Changes in the predictive ability of the nested CVD risk model that contained the HellenicSCORE plus PA assessment were evaluated using Harrell's C and net reclassification index. Results: Both HellenicSCORE and PA status were predictors of future CVD events (P < 0.05). However, the estimating classification bias of the model that included only the HellenicSCORE was significantly reduced when PA assessment was included (Harrel's C = 0.012, P = 0.032); this reduction remained significant even when adjusted for diabetes mellitus and dietary habits (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CVD risk scores seem to be more accurate by incorporating individuals’ PA status; thus, may be more effective tools in primary prevention by efficiently allocating CVD candidates. PMID:27076890

  11. A Study in Predicting English Grades for First-Time-in-College Students Using the Career Planning Program (CPP) and Multiple Assessment and Program Services (MAPS) Reading and Language Scores, Age, Gender, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randell G.

    To identify a set of predictor variables for student grades in a first-quarter English course, a study was undertaken of students' reading and language scores on the Career Planning Program (CPP) and the Multiple Assessment and Program Services (MAPS) placement tests. In addition, the relationship was examined between the first-quarter English…

  12. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  13. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

  14. Conceptual versus Monolingual Scoring: When Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Garcia, Melissa; Cortez, Celina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the extent to which bilingual children produce the same or overlapping responses on tasks assessing semantic skills in each of their languages and whether classification analysis based on monolingual or conceptual scoring can accurately classify the semantic development of typically developing (TD) bilingual children.…

  15. [Sanitary classification of publishing products].

    PubMed

    Teksheva, L M

    2001-01-01

    The natural asthenopic pattern of the process of reading shows it necessary to set sanitary standards of publishing production, namely, printing type styling and the printing quality of publications. The necessity of sanitary classification of publishing production stems from the specificity of reading the publications of different functional uses and from the physiological features of vision in different age group readers. The developed sanitary classification of printing production is based on the researches into the actual visual load while reading the publications of different types by readers of different ages.

  16. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jurdi, Shadi R; Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  17. [Scoring systems in intensive care medicine : principles, models, application and limits].

    PubMed

    Fleig, V; Brenck, F; Wolff, M; Weigand, M A

    2011-10-01

    Scoring systems are used in all diagnostic areas of medicine. Several parameters are evaluated and rated with points according to their value in order to simplify a complex clinical situation with a score. The application ranges from the classification of disease severity through determining the number of staff for the intensive care unit (ICU) to the evaluation of new therapies under study conditions. Since the introduction of scoring systems in the 1980's a variety of different score models has been developed. The scoring systems that are employed in intensive care and are discussed in this article can be categorized into prognostic scores, expenses scores and disease-specific scores. Since the introduction of compulsory recording of two scoring systems for accounting in the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system, these tools have gained more importance for all intensive care physicians. Problems remain in the valid calculation of scores and interpretation of the results.

  18. Developmentally sensitive diagnostic criteria for mental health disorders in early childhood: the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV, the research diagnostic criteria-preschool age, and the diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood-revised.

    PubMed

    Egger, Helen L; Emde, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children, including the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. We briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Last, we review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children.

  19. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  20. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  1. Beyond the SYNTAX score--advantages and limitations of other risk assessment systems in left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Capodanno, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Risk stratification is an emerging topic in the modern management of patients with left main disease referred for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Recent years have witnessed an explosive multiplication of risk models for prognostic stratification in complex PCI. Many of this models deal with modification of the angiographic SYNTAX score, or seek to overcome its known pitfalls and limitations, including lack of clinical and functional information, inter- and intra-observer variabilities, and poor calibration. Risk scoring systems beyond the SYNTAX score may be classified into angiographic (residual SYNTAX score, coronary artery bypass grafting SYNTAX score), clinical (EuroSCORE I and II, ACEF score and modified ACEF scores), combined clinical and angiographic (Global Risk Classification, Clinical SYNTAX score, logistic Clinical SYNTAX score, SYNTAX score II) and functional (Functional SYNTAX score). This article reviews current concepts in risk modeling and explores the advantages and limitations of the alternatives to the SYNTAX score in patients undergoing left main PCI. 

  2. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  3. Investigating Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Animal Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Jacob N.; Duran, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted regarding alternative conceptions about animal diversity and classification, many of which have used a cross-age approach to investigate how students' conceptions change over time. None of these studies, however, have investigated teachers' conceptions of animal classification. This study was intended to…

  4. Measurement of nonverbal IQ in autism spectrum disorder: scores in young adulthood compared to early childhood.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Somer L; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges of ability, actual scores declined from age 2 to 19, likely due in part to limitations of appropriate tests. Use of Vineland-II daily living skills scores in place of NVIQ did not statistically improve the correspondence between age 2 and age 19 scores. Clinicians and researchers should use caution when making comparisons based on exact scores or specific ability ranges within or across individuals with ASD of different ages. PMID:25239176

  5. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  6. Two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis for classification of three-way chemical data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adenilton C da; Soares, Sófacles F C; Insausti, Matías; Galvão, Roberto K H; Band, Beatriz S F; Araújo, Mário César U de

    2016-09-28

    The two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA) algorithm was originally proposed in the context of face image processing for the extraction of features with maximal discriminant power. However, despite its promising performance in image processing tasks, the 2D-LDA algorithm has not yet been used in applications involving chemical data. The present paper bridges this gap by investigating the use of 2D-LDA in classification problems involving three-way spectral data. The investigation was concerned with simulated data, as well as real-life data sets involving the classification of dry-cured Parma ham according to ageing by surface autofluorescence spectrometry and the classification of edible vegetable oils according to feedstock using total synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The results were compared with those obtained by using the spectral data with no feature extraction, U-PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis applied to the unfolded data), and LDA employing TUCKER-3 or PARAFAC scores. In the simulated data set, all methods yielded a correct classification rate of 100%. However, in the Parma ham and vegetable oil data sets, better classification rates were obtained by using 2D-LDA (86% and 100%), compared with no feature extraction (76% and 77%), U-PLS-DA (81% and 92%), PARAFAC-LDA (76% and 86%) and TUCKER3-LDA (86% and 93%). PMID:27619086

  7. Two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis for classification of three-way chemical data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adenilton C da; Soares, Sófacles F C; Insausti, Matías; Galvão, Roberto K H; Band, Beatriz S F; Araújo, Mário César U de

    2016-09-28

    The two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA) algorithm was originally proposed in the context of face image processing for the extraction of features with maximal discriminant power. However, despite its promising performance in image processing tasks, the 2D-LDA algorithm has not yet been used in applications involving chemical data. The present paper bridges this gap by investigating the use of 2D-LDA in classification problems involving three-way spectral data. The investigation was concerned with simulated data, as well as real-life data sets involving the classification of dry-cured Parma ham according to ageing by surface autofluorescence spectrometry and the classification of edible vegetable oils according to feedstock using total synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The results were compared with those obtained by using the spectral data with no feature extraction, U-PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis applied to the unfolded data), and LDA employing TUCKER-3 or PARAFAC scores. In the simulated data set, all methods yielded a correct classification rate of 100%. However, in the Parma ham and vegetable oil data sets, better classification rates were obtained by using 2D-LDA (86% and 100%), compared with no feature extraction (76% and 77%), U-PLS-DA (81% and 92%), PARAFAC-LDA (76% and 86%) and TUCKER3-LDA (86% and 93%).

  8. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  9. Prediction of hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy: development of the CPUP hip score.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, M; Hägglund, G; Riad, J; Rodby-Bousquet, E; Wagner, P

    2015-10-01

    Hip displacement, defined in this study as a migration percentage (MP) of more than 40%, is a common, debilitating complication of cerebral palsy (CP). In this prospective study we analysed the risk of developing hip displacement within five years of the first pelvic radiograph. All children with CP in southern and western Sweden are invited to register in the hip surveillance programme CPUP. Inclusion criteria for the two groups in this study were children from the CPUP database born between 1994 and 2009 with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) III to V. Group 1 included children who developed hip displacement, group 2 included children who did not develop hip displacement over a minimum follow-up of five years. A total of 145 children were included with a mean age at their initial pelvic radiograph of 3.5 years (0.6 to 9.7). The odds ratio for hip displacement was calculated for GMFCS-level, age and initial MP and head-shaft angle. A risk score was constructed with these variables using multiple logistic regression analysis. The predictive ability of the risk score was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). All variables had a significant effect on the risk of a MP > 40%. The discriminatory accuracy of the CPUP hip score is high (AUC = 0.87), indicating a high ability to differentiate between high- and low-risk individuals for hip displacement. The CPUP hip score may be useful in deciding on further follow-up and treatment in children with CP.

  10. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  11. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  12. A Simple, Non-Invasive Score to Predict Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kallenberger, Stefan M.; Schmid, Christian; Wiedmann, Felix; Mereles, Derliz; Katus, Hugo A.; Thomas, Dierk; Schmidt, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) is a major risk factor for stroke but remains often unobserved. To predict the presence of pAF, we developed model scores based on echocardiographic and other clinical parameters from routine cardiac assessment. The scores can be easily implemented to clinical practice and might improve the early detection of pAF. In total, 47 echocardiographic and other clinical parameters were collected from 1000 patients with sinus rhythm (SR; n = 728), pAF (n = 161) and cAF (n = 111). We developed logistic models for classifying between pAF and SR that were reduced to the most predictive parameters. To facilitate clinical implementation, linear scores were derived. To study the pathophysiological progression to cAF, we analogously developed models for cAF prediction. For classification between pAF and SR, amongst 12 selected model parameters, the most predictive variables were tissue Doppler imaging velocity during atrial contraction (TDI, A’), left atrial diameter, age and aortic root diameter. Models for classifying between pAF and SR or between cAF and SR showed areas under the ROC curves of 0.80 or 0.93, which resembles classifiers with high discriminative power. The novel risk scores were suitable to predict the presence of pAF based on variables readily available from routine cardiac assessment. Modelling helped to quantitatively characterize the pathophysiologic transition from SR via pAF to cAF. Applying the scores may improve the early detection of pAF and might be used as decision aid for initiating preventive interventions to reduce AF-associated complications. PMID:27680490

  13. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  14. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    PubMed

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  15. Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of Speech Intelligibility Scores in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…

  16. Validation of a new scoring system: Rapid assessment faecal incontinence score

    PubMed Central

    de la Portilla, Fernando; Calero-Lillo, Arantxa; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Rosa M; Reyes, Maria L; Segovia-González, Manuela; Maestre, María Victoria; García-Cabrera, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To implement a quick and simple test - rapid assessment faecal incontinence score (RAFIS) and show its reliability and validity. METHODS: From March 2008 through March 2010, we evaluated a total of 261 consecutive patients, including 53 patients with faecal incontinence. Demographic and comorbidity information was collected. In a single visit, patients were administered the RAFIS. The results obtained with the new score were compared with those of both Wexner score and faecal incontinence quality of life scale (FIQL) questionnaire. The patient without influence of the surgeon completed the test. The role of surgeon was explaining the meaning of each section and how he had to fill. Reliability of the RAFIS score was measured using intra-observer agreement and Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) coefficient. Multivariate analysis of the main components within the different scores was performed in order to determine whether all the scores measured the same factor and to conclude whether the information could be encompassed in a single factor. A sample size of 50 patients with faecal incontinence was estimated to be enough to detect a correlation of 0.55 or better at 5% level of significance with 80% power. RESULTS: We analysed the results obtained by 53 consecutive patients with faecal incontinence (median age 61.55 ± 12.49 years) in the three scoring systems. A total of 208 healthy volunteers (median age 58.41 ± 18.41 years) without faecal incontinence were included in the study as negative controls. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between “state” and “leaks” was excellent (r = 0.92, P < 0.005). Internal consistency in the comparison of “state” and “leaks” yielded also excellent correlation (Cronbach’s α = 0.93). Results in each score were compared using regression analysis and a correlation value of r = 0.98 was obtained with Wexner score. As regards FIQL questionnaire, the values of “r” for the different subscales of the

  17. A comparison of WISC-IV and SB-5 intelligence scores in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Katherine T; Shear, Paula K; Howe, Steven R; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-08-01

    In autism spectrum disorders, results of cognitive testing inform clinical care, theories of neurodevelopment, and research design. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Stanford-Binet are commonly used in autism spectrum disorder evaluations and scores from these tests have been shown to be highly correlated in typically developing populations. However, they have not been compared in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, whose core symptoms can make testing challenging, potentially compromising test reliability. We used a within-subjects research design to evaluate the convergent validity between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., and Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., in 40 youth (ages 10-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder. Corresponding intelligence scores were highly correlated (r = 0.78 to 0.88), but full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores (t(38) = -2.27, p = 0.03, d = -0.16) and verbal IQ scores (t(36) = 2.23, p = 0.03; d = 0.19) differed between the two tests. Most participants obtained higher full-scale IQ scores on the Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., compared to Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., with 14% scoring more than one standard deviation higher. In contrast, verbal indices were higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., Verbal-nonverbal discrepancy classifications were only consistent for 60% of the sample. Comparisons of IQ test scores in autism spectrum disorder and other special groups are important, as it cannot necessarily be assumed that convergent validity findings in typically developing children and adolescents hold true across all pediatric populations.

  18. What Is the Relationship between Reading Scores on the THEA and Graduation Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Nicole; Kadhi, Tau

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate: What is the relationship between the reading scores of the Texas Higher Education Assessment (THEA) and the Graduation rates of students at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU)? A Correlational analysis was done using the classification of students, earned credit hours, and THEA scores.…

  19. Comparing Two CBM Maze Selection Tools: Considering Scoring and Interpretive Metrics for Universal Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jeremy W.; Missall, Kristen N.; Hosp, John L.; Kuhle, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in maze selection curriculum-based measurement have led to several published tools with technical information for interpretation (e.g., norms, benchmarks, cut-scores, classification accuracy) that have increased their usefulness for universal screening. A range of scoring practices have emerged for evaluating student performance on maze…

  20. Contextualizing Object Detection and Classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Song, Zheng; Dong, Jian; Huang, Zhongyang; Hua, Yang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how to iteratively and mutually boost object classification and detection performance by taking the outputs from one task as the context of the other one. While context models have been quite popular, previous works mainly concentrate on co-occurrence relationship within classes and few of them focus on contextualization from a top-down perspective, i.e. high-level task context. In this paper, our system adopts a new method for adaptive context modeling and iterative boosting. First, the contextualized support vector machine (Context-SVM) is proposed, where the context takes the role of dynamically adjusting the classification score based on the sample ambiguity, and thus the context-adaptive classifier is achieved. Then, an iterative training procedure is presented. In each step, Context-SVM, associated with the output context from one task (object classification or detection), is instantiated to boost the performance for the other task, whose augmented outputs are then further used to improve the former task by Context-SVM. The proposed solution is evaluated on the object classification and detection tasks of PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge (VOC) 2007, 2010 and SUN09 data sets, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

  1. Accountancy, teaching methods, sex, and American College Test scores.

    PubMed

    Heritage, J; Harper, B S; Harper, J P

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the significance of sex, methodology, academic preparation, and age as related to development of judgmental and problem-solving skills. Sex, American College Test (ACT) Mathematics scores, Composite ACT scores, grades in course work, grade point average (GPA), and age were used in studying the effects of teaching method on 96 students' ability to analyze data in financial statements. Results reflect positively on accounting students compared to the general college population and the women students in particular.

  2. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  3. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Beare, Richard J; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E; Loh, Wai Y; Matthews, Lillian G; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Spittle, Alicia J; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Seal, Marc L; Thompson, Deanne K

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T 2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T 2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T 2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T 2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical

  4. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard J.; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E.; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Loh, Wai Y.; Matthews, Lillian G.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Seal, Marc L.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical gray

  5. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times.

  6. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  7. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  8. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  9. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  10. Optimum Reliability of Gain Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, K. K.; Gupta, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a mathematical treatment to findings of Zimmerman and Williams and establishes a minimum reliability for gain scores when the pretest and posttest have equal reliabilities and equal standard deviations. It discusses the behavior of the reliability of gain scores in terms of variations in other test parameters. (Author/LMO)

  11. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  12. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  13. Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Validation of the Severity Score

    PubMed Central

    Chaikitamnuaychok, Rangson; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2013-01-01

    Background A simple scoring system was developed earlier to classify patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage into mild, moderates and severe. To validate the derived simple UGIH severity scoring system to another set of data obtained from consecutive patients. Methods The score was developed earlier from data of patients with UGIH in 2009 - 2010. The same scoring system was assigned to another set of data from patients of the following year. Classification of patients into 3 urgency levels reflecting their severity was compared. Performance similarity of the score in the two sets of data was tested with a chi-squared test for homogeneity. The ability of the score to discriminate mild patients from moderate/severe, and to discriminate severe patients from mild/moderate was identified and compared with analysis of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC). Results Patients from the validation data were similar to those from the development data in overall aspects. The severity of UGIH and the score distribution in the two sets were similar. The score successfully classified patients in the validation data into 3 severity levels similar to the development data (P = 0.381, chi-squared for homogeneity), and similarly discriminated mild patients from moderate/severe patients (P = 0.360, AuROC analysis), and similarly discriminated severe patients from mild/moderate patients (P = 0.589, AuROC analysis) Conclusion The simple scoring scheme developed earlier to classify UGIH patients into 3 severity/urgency levels performed similarly in the validation data obtained from patients in the following year. Advantages of the scoring scheme should be tested when applied to patient care to assure clinical adoption into routine practice.

  14. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    PubMed

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost.

  15. Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Pereira, Danillo R.; Papa, João P.; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84) using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available. PMID:27654941

  16. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had

  17. [Coronary risk assessment in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. General population-based scores or specific scores?].

    PubMed

    Hernáez, Rubén; Choque, Lucía; Giménez, Margarita; Costa, Angels; Márquez, Juan I; Conget, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Coronary risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be calculated using population-based scores or diabetes-specific scores. Our objective was to compare the results with both scores in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the results for 101 patients aged 40 to 65 years with type 2 diabetes and no prior cardiovascular disease. Two scales were used, one based on the general population (Framingham function adapted from the REGICOR study), and the other based on the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (UKPDS risk engine). The average 10-year likelihood of coronary events was 5.8 (2.5)% and 15.7 (8.4)% for the REGICOR risk score and the UKPDS risk score, respectively (P<.001), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.525 (P<.01). Risk was higher in men (19.2 [8.7]% based on the UKPDS score, and 5.6 [2.8]% based on the REGICOR score, P<.001). The figures for women were 11.3 [5.9]% and 5.9 [2.1]% with the UKPDS and REGICOR scores, respectively (P<.001). Our results suggest that substantially different findings are obtained when general population-based scores or specific scores are used to assess cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Risk Modeling Study for Individual Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-02-01

    The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT.In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database. The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity. The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824-0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively. Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were independent risk

  19. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    PubMed

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores.

  20. Artificial metaplasticity neural network applied to credit scoring.

    PubMed

    Marcano-Cedeño, Alexis; Marin-de-la-Barcena, A; Jimenez-Trillo, J; Piñuela, J A; Andina, D

    2011-08-01

    The assessment of the risk of default on credit is important for financial institutions. Different Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been suggested to tackle the credit scoring problem, however, the obtained error rates are often high. In the search for the best ANN algorithm for credit scoring, this paper contributes with the application of an ANN Training Algorithm inspired by the neurons' biological property of metaplasticity. This algorithm is especially efficient when few patterns of a class are available, or when information inherent to low probability events is crucial for a successful application, as weight updating is overemphasized in the less frequent activations than in the more frequent ones. Two well-known and readily available such as: Australia and German data sets has been used to test the algorithm. The results obtained by AMMLP shown have been superior to state-of-the-art classification algorithms in credit scoring.

  1. Speed Reading Scores in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brenda Golembesky

    1975-01-01

    Cites the factors that influence reading rates and comprehension scores on timed speed reading tests, concluding that the reading speed achieved for any particular test or timed reading is the speed for that situation only. (RB)

  2. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  3. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  4. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence scored items in the population under study, and should facilitate assessment of developmental disturbances (if any) in a study group. The lack of published consensus in the literature led us to produce a classification list with a twofold goal. First, we wanted to enhance uniformity in the scoring and classification of apparently abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  5. Classification Shell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzold, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Discusses shell classification exercises. Through keying students advanced from the "I know what a shell looks like" stage to become involved in the classification process: observing, labeling, making decisions about categories, and identifying marine animals. (Author/JN)

  6. One-class kernel subspace ensemble for medical image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yungang; Zhang, Bailing; Coenen, Frans; Xiao, Jimin; Lu, Wenjin

    2014-12-01

    Classification of medical images is an important issue in computer-assisted diagnosis. In this paper, a classification scheme based on a one-class kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) model ensemble has been proposed for the classification of medical images. The ensemble consists of one-class KPCA models trained using different image features from each image class, and a proposed product combining rule was used for combining the KPCA models to produce classification confidence scores for assigning an image to each class. The effectiveness of the proposed classification scheme was verified using a breast cancer biopsy image dataset and a 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal image set. The combination of different image features exploits the complementary strengths of these different feature extractors. The proposed classification scheme obtained promising results on the two medical image sets. The proposed method was also evaluated on the UCI breast cancer dataset (diagnostic), and a competitive result was obtained.

  7. Classification of caregiving families according to the Family Caregivers' Appraisal Checklist.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kazuko; Iwata, Noboru; Matsuda, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to classify caregiving families according to the Family Caregivers' Appraisal Checklist (FACL; Horiguchi et al., 2012), which was originally developed to evaluate the probability of continuing caregiving. After nationwide targeting in Japan, the selected survey candidates included 1279 families utilizing domiciliary nursing services chosen by stratified two-stage sampling, and available data were obtained from 945 out of 1020 returned responses (return ratio: 79.8%). Scores for the seven components of FACL were cluster analyzed, and the following six clusters were extracted: Cluster A (12.8%) yielded high scores for all components; Cluster B (34.0%) yielded average scores; Cluster C (20.7%) scored mostly average but low for "quality of care service"; Cluster D (15.8%) showed relatively low scores for all components; Cluster E (11.4%) yielded low scores for all components except for "quality of care service" and "preparedness for emergencies"; and Cluster F (5.3%) scored significantly poorly for all components except for "preparedness for emergencies". Significant intercluster differences were observed for care recipient's age, the number of medical care, employment status, principal caregiver's subjective health, and the advice from family and friends. Caregiving duration was significantly associated with "positive appraisal of family caregiving", the number of medical care and the number of care types, and marginally with the level of care stipulated by the public long-term care insurance program (p < 0.07). Implications of classification of family type according to the FACL and the importance of positive appraisal of caregiving are discussed along with the future direction of use of the FACL. PMID:23666400

  8. Measurement of ECG abnormalities and cardiovascular risk classification: a cohort study of primary care patients in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Anne; Bots, Michiel L; Rutten, Frans H; den Ruijter, Hester M; Numans, Mattijs E; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background GPs need accurate tools for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. Abnormalities in resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) relate to increased CV risk. Aim To determine whether measurement of ECG abnormalities on top of established risk estimation (SCORE) improves CV risk classification in a primary care population. Design and setting A cohort study of patients enlisted with academic general practices in the Netherlands (the Utrecht Health Project [UHP]). Method Incident CV events were extracted from the GP records. MEANS algorithm was used to assess ECG abnormalities. Cox proportional hazards modelling was applied to relate ECG abnormalities to CV events. For a prediction model only with SCORE variables, and a model with SCORE+ECG abnormalities, the discriminative value (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC]) and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) were estimated. Results A total of 2370 participants aged 38–74 years were included, all eligible for CV risk assessment. During a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 172 CV events occurred. In 19% of the participants at least one ECG abnormality was found (Lausanne criteria). Presence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) and myocardial infarction (MI) were significantly related to CV events. The AUC of the SCORE risk factors was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.79). Addition of MI or AF resulted in an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI = 0.72 to 0.79) and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.72 to 0.79), respectively. The NRI with the addition of ECG abnormalities was small (MI 1.0%; 95% CI = −3.2% to 6.9%; AF 0.5%; 95% CI = −3.5% to 3.3%). Conclusion Performing a resting ECG in a primary care population does not seem to improve risk classification when SCORE information — age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio — is already available. PMID:25548311

  9. Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

  10. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  11. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  12. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study. PMID:21532133

  13. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  14. Caregiver Burden: Looking Beyond the Unidimensional Total Score.

    PubMed

    Lau, Sabrina; Chong, Mei Sian; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chan, Mark; Chua, Kia Chong; Lim, Wee Shiong

    2015-01-01

    The Zarit Burden Interview allows caregiver burden to be interpreted from a total score. However, recent studies propose a multidimensional Zarit Burden Interview model. This study aims to determine the agreement between unidimensional (UD) and multidimensional (MD) classification of burden, and differences in predictors among identified groups. We studied 165 dyads of dementia patients and primary caregivers. Caregivers were dichotomized into low-burden and high-burden groups based upon: (1) UD score using quartile cutoffs; and (2) MD model via exploratory cluster analysis. We compared UD versus MD 2×2 classification of burden using κ statistics. Caregivers not showing agreement by either definition were classified as "intermediate" burden. We performed binary logistic regression to ascertain differences in predictive factors. The 2 models showed moderate agreement (κ=0.72, P<0.01), yielding 104 low, 20 intermediate (UD "low burden"/MD "high burden"), and 41 high-burden caregivers. Neuropsychiatric symptoms [odds ratio (OR)=1.27, P=0.003], coresidence (OR=6.32, P=0.040), and decreased caregiving hours (OR=0.99, P=0.018) were associated with intermediate burden, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms (OR=1.21, P=0.001) and adult children caregivers (OR=2.80, P=0.055) were associated with high burden. Our results highlight the differences between UD and MD classification of caregiver burden. Future studies should explore the significance of the noncongruent intermediate group and its predictors.

  15. Effects of two classification strategies on a Benthic Community Index for streams in the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butcher, Jason T.; Stewart, Paul M.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-four sites were used to analyze the effects of two different classification strategies on the Benthic Community Index (BCI). The first, a priori classification, reflected the wetland status of the streams; the second, a posteriori classification, used a bio-environmental analysis to select classification variables. Both classifications were examined by measuring classification strength and testing differences in metric values with respect to group membership. The a priori (wetland) classification strength (83.3%) was greater than the a posteriori (bio-environmental) classification strength (76.8%). Both classifications found one metric that had significant differences between groups. The original index was modified to reflect the wetland classification by re-calibrating the scoring criteria for percent Crustacea and Mollusca. A proposed refinement to the original Benthic Community Index is suggested. This study shows the importance of using hypothesis-driven classifications, as well as exploratory statistical analysis, to evaluate alternative ways to reveal environmental variability in biological assessment tools.

  16. Impact of structure space continuity on protein fold classification

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinrui; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Protein structure classification hierarchically clusters domain structures based on structure and/or sequence similarities and plays important roles in the study of protein structure-function relationship and protein evolution. Among many classifications, SCOP and CATH are widely viewed as the gold standards. Fold classification is of special interest because this is the lowest level of classification that does not depend on protein sequence similarity. The current fold classifications such as those in SCOP and CATH are controversial because they implicitly assume that folds are discrete islands in the structure space, whereas increasing evidence suggests significant similarities among folds and supports a continuous fold space. Although this problem is widely recognized, its impact on fold classification has not been quantitatively evaluated. Here we develop a likelihood method to classify a domain into the existing folds of CATH or SCOP using both query-fold structure similarities and within-fold structure heterogeneities. The new classification differs from the original classification for 3.4–12% of domains, depending on factors such as the structure similarity score and original classification scheme used. Because these factors differ for different biological purposes, our results indicate that the importance of considering structure space continuity in fold classification depends on the specific question asked. PMID:27006112

  17. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  18. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  19. Assessment of optimized Markov models in protein fold classification.

    PubMed

    Lampros, Christos; Simos, Thomas; Exarchos, Themis P; Exarchos, Konstantinos P; Papaloukas, Costas; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2014-08-01

    Protein fold classification is a challenging task strongly associated with the determination of proteins' structure. In this work, we tested an optimization strategy on a Markov chain and a recently introduced Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with reduced state-space topology. The proteins with unknown structure were scored against both these models. Then the derived scores were optimized following a local optimization method. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the annotation of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database were used for the evaluation of the proposed methodology. The results demonstrated that the fold classification accuracy of the optimized HMM was substantially higher compared to that of the Markov chain or the reduced state-space HMM approaches. The proposed methodology achieved an accuracy of 41.4% on fold classification, while Sequence Alignment and Modeling (SAM), which was used for comparison, reached an accuracy of 38%. PMID:25152041

  20. Nanodispersion, nonlinear image filtering, and materials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Lee, Jun S.

    2011-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate-alumina nano-composites from two production processes gave rise to materials H and T, further divided into four and, respectively, three classes of belonging. Electron microscope images of the materials had been visually scored by an expert in terms of an index, β, aimed at assessing filler dispersion and distribution. These properties characterize the nano-composite. Herewith a classification algorithm which includes image spatial differentiation and non-linear filtering interlaced with multivariate statistics is applied to the same images of materials Hand T. The classification algorithm depends on a few parameters, which are automatically determined by maximizing a figure of merit in the supervised training stage. The classifier output is a display on the plane of the first two principal components. By regressing the 1st principal component affinely against β a remarkable agreement is found between automated classification and visual scoring of material H. The regression result for materialT is not significant, because the assigned classes reduce from 3 to 2, both by visual and automated scoring. The output from the non-linear image filter can be related to filler dispersion and distribution.

  1. Probabilistic classification learning in Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kéri, Szabolcs; Szlobodnyik, Csaba; Benedek, György; Janka, Zoltán; Gádoros, Júlia

    2002-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterised by stereotyped involuntary movements, called tics. Some evidence suggests that structural and functional abnormalities of the basal ganglia may explain these motor symptoms. In this study, the probabilistic classification learning (PCL) test was used to evaluate basal ganglia functions in 10 children with less severe tics (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores<30) and in 10 children with more severe symptoms (YGTSS score>30). In the PCL task, participants are asked to decide whether different combinations of four geometric forms (cues) predict rainy or sunny weather. Each cue is probabilistically related to a weather outcome, and feedback is provided after each decision. After completion of the probabilistic stimulus-response learning procedure, subjects received a transfer test to assess explicit knowledge about the cues. The children with TS exhibited impaired learning in the PCL task in comparison with the 20 healthy control subjects. This impairment was more pronounced in the TS patients with severe symptoms, and there was a significant negative relationship between the final classification performance and the YGTSS scores. The patients showed normal learning in the transfer test. These results suggest that the neostriatal habit learning system, which may play a central role in the acquisition of probabilistic associations, is dysfunctional in TS, especially in the case of more severe motor symptoms. The classification performance and the severity of tics were independent of the explicit knowledge obtained during the test.

  2. Pain Scores Are Not Predictive of Pain Medication Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Suzanne; Chimhanda, Maryann; Sloan, Jayme; Anderson, Charles; Sinacore, James; Brubaker, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores with overall postoperative pain medication requirements including cumulative dose and patterns of medication utilization and to determine whether VAS scores predict pain medication utilization. Methods. VAS scores and pain medication data were collected from participants in a randomized trial of the utility of phenazopyridine for improved pain control following gynecologic surgery. Results. The mean age of the 219 participants was 54 (range19 to 94). We did not detect any association between VAS and pain medication utilization for patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) or RN administered (intravenous or oral) medications. We also did not detect any association between the number of VAS scores recorded and mean pain scores. Conclusion. Postoperative VAS scores do not predict pain medication use in catheterized women inpatients following gynecologic surgery. Increased pain severity, as reflected by higher VAS scores, is not associated with an increase in pain assessment. Our findings suggest that VAS scores are of limited utility for optimal pain control. Alternative or complimentary methods may improve pain management. PMID:22110938

  3. Availability of patient classification using clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Bong, MyoungRye.; Kim, KyoungOk.; Kim, LeeYoung.; Jeong, YoungSeon.; An, YeongHui.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is examine the reliability and validity of the patient classification which is based on clinical data with comparing to nurse’s check Method: Nurse Experts estimated the content validity of extracting KPCS-1(Korea patient classification system for nurses Version 1) activities score from clinical data in storage of AMIS (Asan Medical Center information system). After verifying the content validity of extraction method from clinical data, two methods extracting KPCS-1 score (from clinical data vs. nurses’ recording) were compared for 348 patients. Results: This study demonstrated that extracting patient classification from clinical data is high value of validity (except 4 items excluded from this study), reliability between two methods extracting KPCS-1(from clinical data and nurses’ recording) is high value (ICC=0.96, p<.001) and construct validity of two methods has similarity. Conclusions: It is believed that the patient classification system which is made from only clinical data without nurse’s work burden is available. And 4 items which was excluded on KPCS-1 and examine area which had low level of reliability are needed to be amended. PMID:24199043

  4. Manual classification strategies in the ECOD database

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hua; Liao, Yuxing; Schaeffer, R. Dustin; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-01-01

    ECOD (Evolutionary Classification Of protein Domains) is a comprehensive and up-to-date protein structure classification database. The majority of new structures released from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) every week already have close homologs in the ECOD hierarchy and thus can be reliably partitioned into domains and classified by software without manual intervention. However, those proteins that lack confidently detectable homologs require careful analysis by experts. Although many bioinformatics resources rely on expert curation to some degree, specific examples of how this curation occurs and in what cases it is necessary are not always described. Here, we illustrate the manual classification strategy in ECOD by example, focusing on two major issues in protein classification: domain partitioning and the relationship between homology and similarity scores. Most examples show recently released and manually classified PDB structures. We discuss multi-domain proteins, discordance between sequence and structural similarities, difficulties with assessing homology with scores, and integral membrane proteins homologous to soluble proteins. By timely assimilation of newly available structures into its hierarchy, ECOD strives to provide a most accurate and updated view of the protein structure world as a result of combined computational and expert-driven analysis. PMID:25917548

  5. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  6. Seniors Increase Scores on NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The latest administration of the assessment provides state-by-state results for 12th graders for the first time. Twelfth graders' reading and mathematics scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress have improved only modestly in the past four years, according to results from the latest administration, prompting renewed recognition…

  7. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    Certain governmental information must be classified for national security reasons. However, the national security benefits from classifying information are usually accompanied by significant costs -- those due to a citizenry not fully informed on governmental activities, the extra costs of operating classified programs and procuring classified materials (e.g., weapons), the losses to our nation when advances made in classified programs cannot be utilized in unclassified programs. The goal of a classification system should be to clearly identify that information which must be protected for national security reasons and to ensure that information not needing such protection is not classified. This document was prepared to help attain that goal. This document is the first of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. Volume 1 broadly describes the need for classification, the basis for classification, and the history of classification in the United States from colonial times until World War 2. Classification of information since World War 2, under Executive Orders and the Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954, is discussed in more detail, with particular emphasis on the classification of atomic energy information. Adverse impacts of classification are also described. Subsequent volumes will discuss classification principles, classification management, and the control of certain unclassified scientific and technical information. 340 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  9. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  10. Development and evaluation of a self-administered on-line test of memory and attention for middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Angela K.; Rowe, Gillian; Murphy, Kelly J.; Levine, Brian; Leach, Larry; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable Internet-based screening tools for cognitive assessment in middle-aged and older adults. We report the psychometric properties of an on-line tool designed to screen for cognitive deficits that require further investigation. The tool is composed of measures of memory and executive attention processes known to be sensitive to brain changes associated with aging and with cognitive disorders that become more prevalent with age. Measures included a Spatial Working Memory task, Stroop Interference task, Face-Name Association task, and Number-Letter Alternation task. Normative data were collected from 361 healthy adults age 50–79 who scored in the normal range on a standardized measure of general cognitive ability. Participants took the 20-minute on-line test on their home computers, and a subset of 288 participants repeated the test 1 week later. Analyses of the individual tasks indicated adequate internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and alternate version reliability. As expected, scores were correlated with age. The four tasks loaded on the same principle component. Demographically-corrected z-scores from the individual tasks were combined to create an overall score, which showed good reliability and classification consistency. These results indicate the tool may be useful for identifying middle-aged and older adults with lower than expected scores who may benefit from clinical evaluation of their cognition by a health care professional. PMID:25540620

  11. Relationships between Scores of Gifted Children on the Stanford-Binet IV and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five gifted children, ages 11-17, were tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. Results indicated 18 of 20 correlations between the area and composite scores were significant. The Stanford-Binet Short-Term Memory standard age score mean was lower than other scores' means. (Author/JDD)

  12. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  13. Classification of breast tissue density by optical transillumination spectroscopy: optical and physiological effects governing predictive value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle K.; Jong, Roberta A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-12-01

    Preventive oncology is in need of a risk assessment technique that can identify individuals at high risk for breast cancer and that has the ability to monitor the efficacy of a risk reducing intervention. Optical transillumination spectroscopy (OTS) was shown to give information about breast tissue composition and tissue density. OTS is non-invasive, and in contrast to mammography, uses non-ionizing radiation. It is safe and can be used frequently on younger women, potentially permitting early risk detection and thus increasing the time available for risk reduction interventions to assert their influence. Before OTS can be used as a risk assessment and/or monitoring technique, its predictive ability needs to be demonstrated and maximized through the construction of mathematical models relating OTS and risk. To establish a correlation between OTS and mammographic density, Principle Components Analysis (PCA), using risk classification, is employed. PCA scores are presented in 3D cluster plots and a plane of differentiation that separates high and low tissue density is used to calculate the predictive value. Stratificaiton of PCA for measurement position on the breast in cranial-caudal projection is introduced. Analysis of PCA scores as a function of the volunteer's age and body mass index (BMI) is examined. A small but significant correlation between the component scores and age or BMI is noted but the correlation is dependnet on the tissue density category examined. Correction of the component scores for age and BMI is not recommended, since a priori knowledge of a women's tissue density is required. Stratification for the center and distal measurement positions provides a predictive value for OTS above 96%.

  14. Classification of Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response to itch. Enough damage can be done to the skin by scratching to cause changes in the primary clinical picture, often leading to a clinical picture predominated by the development of chronic scratch lesions (IFSI classification group III). An internationally recognized, standardized classification system was created by the IFSI to not only aid in clarifying terms and definitions, but also to harmonize the global nomenclature for itch. PMID:27578063

  15. Classification Models for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV Infection Based on Demographic and Clinical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Pérez-Álvarez, Núria; Muñoz-Murillo, Amalia; Prats, Anna; Garolera, Maite; Jurado, M. Àngels; Fumaz, Carmina R.; Negredo, Eugènia; Ferrer, Maria J.; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used demographic and clinical data to design practical classification models for prediction of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people with HIV infection. Methods The study population comprised 331 HIV-infected patients with available demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive data collected using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Classification and regression trees (CART) were developed to obtain detailed and reliable models to predict NCI. Following a practical clinical approach, NCI was considered the main variable for study outcomes, and analyses were performed separately in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Results The study sample comprised 52 treatment-naïve and 279 experienced patients. In the first group, the variables identified as better predictors of NCI were CD4 cell count and age (correct classification [CC]: 79.6%, 3 final nodes). In treatment-experienced patients, the variables most closely related to NCI were years of education, nadir CD4 cell count, central nervous system penetration-effectiveness score, age, employment status, and confounding comorbidities (CC: 82.1%, 7 final nodes). In patients with an undetectable viral load and no comorbidities, we obtained a fairly accurate model in which the main variables were nadir CD4 cell count, current CD4 cell count, time on current treatment, and past highest viral load (CC: 88%, 6 final nodes). Conclusion Practical classification models to predict NCI in HIV infection can be obtained using demographic and clinical variables. An approach based on CART analyses may facilitate screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and complement clinical information about risk and protective factors for NCI in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25237895

  16. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit Kurz, Kathinka D.; Solbakken, Tore; Larsen, Jan Petter Kurz, Martin W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  17. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  18. Classification/Categorization Model of Instruction for Learning Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    Learning-disabled students deficient in classification and categorization require specific instruction in these skills. Use of a classification/categorization instructional model improved the questioning strategies of 60 learning-disabled students, aged 10 to 12. The use of similar models is discussed as a basis for instruction in science, social…

  19. Students' Alternative Conceptions of Animals and Animal Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowbridge, John E.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    1985-01-01

    Examined alternative conceptions of animals and animal classification by interviewing fifth grade, eighth grade, and freshmen/sophmore college students (N=62). Subjects were asked to name five animals, state critical attributes, and complete a classification task. Results indicate all ages fail to generalize and discriminate among examples and…

  20. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-06-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292) , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively). These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  1. Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Bishop, Somer; Gotham, Katherine; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a parent-completed screening questionnaire often used to measure ASD severity. Although child characteristics are known to influence scores from other ASD-symptom measures, as well as parent-questionnaires more broadly, there has been limited consideration of how non-ASD-specific factors may affect interpretation of SRS scores. Previous studies have explored effects of behavior problems on SRS specificity, but have not addressed influences on the use of the SRS as a quantitative measure of ASD-symptoms. Method Raw scores (SRS-Raw) from parent-completed SRS were analyzed for 2,368 probands with ASD and 1,913 unaffected siblings. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between SRS scores and demographic, language, cognitive, and behavior measures. Results For probands, higher SRS-Raw were associated with greater non-ASD behavior problems, higher age, and more impaired language and cognitive skills, as well as scores from other parent report measures of social development and ASD-symptoms. For unaffected siblings, having more behavior problems predicted higher SRS-Raw; male gender, younger age and poorer adaptive social and expressive communication skills also showed small, but significant effects. Conclusions When using the SRS as a quantitative phenotype measure, the influence of behavior problems, age, and expressive language or cognitive level on scores must be considered. If effects of non-ASD-specific factors are not addressed, SRS scores are more appropriately interpreted as indicating general levels of impairment, than as severity of ASD-specific symptoms or social impairment. Further research is needed to consider how these factors influence the SRS’ sensitivity and specificity in large, clinical samples including individuals with disorders other than ASD. PMID:22823182

  2. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1–4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12 to 30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages. PMID:25832801

  3. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores.

    PubMed

    Esler, Amy N; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12-30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages.

  4. Functional movement screen scores in a group of running athletes.

    PubMed

    Loudon, Janice K; Parkerson-Mitchell, Amy J; Hildebrand, Laurie D; Teague, Connie

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mean values of the functional movement screen (FMS) in a group of long-distance runners. The secondary aims were to investigate whether the FMS performance differed between sexes and between young and older runners. Forty-three runners, 16 women (mean age = 33.5 years, height = 165.2 cm, weight = 56.3 kg, and body mass index [BMI] = 20.6) and 27 men (mean age = 39.3 years, height = 177.6 cm, weight = 75.8 kg, and BMI = 24.2) performed the FMS. All the runners were injury-free and ran >30 km·wk. Independent t-tests were performed on the composite scores to examine the differences between men and women and also between young (<40 years) and older runners (>40 years). Contingency tables (2 × 2) were developed for each of the 7 screening tests to further look at the differences in groups for each single test. The χ values were calculated to determine significant differences. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There was no significant difference in the composite score between women and men. There were significant differences between the sexes in the push-up and straight leg test scores, with the women scoring better on each test. A significant difference was found in the composite scores between younger and older runners (p < 0.000). Additional score differences were found for the squat, hurdle step, and in-line lunge tests with the younger runners scoring better. This study provided mean values for the FMS in a cohort of long-distance runners. These values can be used as a reference for comparing FMST scores in other runners who are screened with this tool.

  5. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  6. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  7. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  8. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  9. Library Classification 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  10. The Borwn-Peterson Paradigm: A Comparison of Scoring Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, John J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The short term memory performance of three groups of nonretarded and one group of 36 mentally retarded persons (mean mental age of 8.95 years) who were tested using the Brown-Peterson paradigm was compared using two scoring methods. (Author/SW)

  11. Two Language Screening Tests Compared with Developmental Sentence Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxley, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The performance of 90 children between the ages of four and six years on two language screening tests was compared with their performance on Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) to determine the accuracy of these screening tests in identifying language impairments. The Bankson Language Screening Test was generally accurate in the identification of…

  12. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  13. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  14. Endogeneity in prison risk classification.

    PubMed

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Bierie, David M; Stock, Amber

    2013-10-01

    Security designation tools are a key feature of all prisons in the United States, intended as objective measures of risk that funnel inmates into security levels-to prison environments varying in degree of intrusiveness, restriction, dangerousness, and cost. These tools are mostly (if not all) validated by measuring inmates on a set of characteristics, using scores from summations of that information to assign inmates to prisons of varying security level, and then observing whether inmates assumed more risky did in fact offend more. That approach leaves open the possibility of endogeneity--that the harsher prisons are themselves bringing about higher misconduct and thus biasing coefficients assessing individual risk. The current study assesses this potential bias by following an entry cohort of inmates to more than 100 facilities in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and exploiting the substantial variation in classification scores within a given prison that derive from systematic overrides of security-level designations for reasons not associated with risk of misconduct. By estimating pooled models of misconduct along with prison-fixed effects specifications, the data show that a portion of the predictive accuracy thought associated with the risk-designation tool used in BOP was a function of facility-level contamination (endogeneity).

  15. Improving classification of psychoses.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Stephen M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Saks, Elyn; Burns, Tom; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Psychosis has been recognised as an abnormal state in need of care throughout history and by diverse cultures. Present classifications of psychotic disorder remain based on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms, relative to affective and other symptoms, and their sequence and duration. Although extant diagnostic classifications have restricted validity, they have proven reliability and most clinicians and some patients find them useful. Moreover, these classifications have yet to be replaced by anything better. We propose that an expansion of the subgrouping approach inherent to classification will provide incremental improvement to present diagnostic constructs-as has worked in the rest of medicine. We also propose that subgroups could be created both within and across present diagnostic classifications, taking into consideration the potential value of continuous measures (eg, duration of psychotic symptoms and intelligence quotient). Health-care workers also need to work with service users and carers to develop and adapt approaches to diagnosis that are seen as helpful.

  16. Improving classification of psychoses.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Stephen M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Saks, Elyn; Burns, Tom; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Psychosis has been recognised as an abnormal state in need of care throughout history and by diverse cultures. Present classifications of psychotic disorder remain based on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms, relative to affective and other symptoms, and their sequence and duration. Although extant diagnostic classifications have restricted validity, they have proven reliability and most clinicians and some patients find them useful. Moreover, these classifications have yet to be replaced by anything better. We propose that an expansion of the subgrouping approach inherent to classification will provide incremental improvement to present diagnostic constructs-as has worked in the rest of medicine. We also propose that subgroups could be created both within and across present diagnostic classifications, taking into consideration the potential value of continuous measures (eg, duration of psychotic symptoms and intelligence quotient). Health-care workers also need to work with service users and carers to develop and adapt approaches to diagnosis that are seen as helpful. PMID:27063387

  17. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore » most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  18. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Baltich, L. K.

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using the most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.

  19. ECG scores for a triage of patients with acute myocardial infarction transported by the emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, R J; Grzybowski, M; Ross, M A; Blaustein, N; Bock, B

    2000-01-01

    Prehospital triage of cardiac patients for bypass from community hospitals to cardiac centers may improve survival. This article determines if electrocardiogram (ECG)-based scoring triage methods (Aldrich MI scoring, QRS distortion, and the TIMI classification) and location of infarct (via 12 lead ECG) are associated with mortality before and after adjusting for age, sex, and race. It is a retrospective study of 291 AMI adult patients transported by ambulance to community hospitals or cardiac centers. Patients with an ED chief complaint of chest pain or dyspnea, presence of MI as defined by ECG findings of 0.1 mV of ST segment elevation in two leads or positive CPK-MB were eligible for the study. The primary outcome variable was 2-year mortality as determined with a metropolitan Detroit tri-county death index. Logistic regression was used to calculate the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (with 95% CIs) of the predictor variables with mortality. Of the initial population selected for the study (n = 291), 229 patients were eligible for the analysis. The mean age was 66 years (SD of 14.4) with 63.8% being male and 54% being white. The overall mortality point estimate was 21.3% (95% CI of 15.2 to 27.3%). Aldrich scores and QRS distortion (yes/no) were not associated with mortality. Patients classified as a "high risk" for AMI per TIMI status were almost 3 times more likely to die than those at "low risk" and reached borderline statistical significance (P = .06) after adjusting for the covariates. Having an anterior infarct, as opposed to an inferior infarct, was significantly associated with death before and after adjusting for the covariates (Unadjusted OR = 2.6, Adjusted OR = 2.8). Properly training emergency medical system professionals in this area may prove useful for identifying higher risk AMI patients in the prehospital setting. PMID:11265729

  20. Scoring of precision spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Budinski, K.G. )

    1994-09-01

    A group of manufacturing machines employed precision spur gears as the timing mechanism for machine operations. These machines had worked successfully for about ten years with little or no problems with gear wear or deterioration. When new machines were brought on line with recently made gears there were immediate problems with gear tooth scoring. A laboratory study was conducted to determine if metallurgical conditions were related to the gear scoring. Recent gears were made from a modification of the alloy used in early gears. The new alloy has been modified to make it more resistant to softening in coating operations. Reciprocating wear tests and galling tests were conducted to compare the tribological characteristics of the old and new gear steels. It was determined that the threshold galling stress of the gear steels was strongly dependent on the hardness. The reciprocating wear tests indicated that the wear resistance was affected by the volume fraction of hard phases in the steels. The recommended short-term solution was to alter the tempering procedure for the steel to keep Rockwell C hardness above 60; the long-term solution was to change the gear material and lubrication.

  1. Expanded Koppitz Scoring System of the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test for Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Larry M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)

  2. Comparison of original EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk models in a Turkish cardiac surgical cohort†

    PubMed Central

    Kunt, Ayse Gul; Kurtcephe, Murat; Hidiroglu, Mete; Cetin, Levent; Kucuker, Aslihan; Bakuy, Vedat; Ruchan Akar, Ahmet; Sener, Erol

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to compare additive and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE), EuroSCORE II and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) models in calculating mortality risk in a Turkish cardiac surgical population. METHODS The current patient population consisted of 428 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2004 and 2012, extracted from the TurkoSCORE database. Observed and predicted mortalities were compared for the additive/logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk calculator. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) values were calculated for these models to compare predictive power. RESULTS The mean patient age was 74.5 ± 3.9 years at the time of surgery, and 35.0% were female. For the entire cohort, actual hospital mortality was 7.9% (n = 34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.4–10.5). However, the additive EuroSCORE-predicted mortality was 6.4% (P = 0.23 vs observed; 95% CI 6.2–6.6), logistic EuroSCORE-predicted mortality was 7.9% (P = 0.98 vs observed; 95% CI 7.3–8.6), EuroSCORE II- predicted mortality was 1.7% (P = 0.00 vs observed; 95% CI 1.6–1.8) and STS predicted mortality was 5.8% (P = 0.10 vs observed; 95% CI 5.4–6.2). The mean predictive performance of the analysed models for the entire cohort was fair, with 0.7 (95% CI 0.60–0.79). AUC values for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk calculator were 0.70 (95% CI 0.60–0.79), 0.70 (95% CI 0.59–0.80), 0.72 (95% CI 0.62–0.81) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.51–0.73), respectively. CONCLUSIONS EuroSCORE II significantly underestimated mortality risk for Turkish cardiac patients, whereas additive and logistic EuroSCORE and STS risk calculators were well calibrated. PMID:23403767

  3. Oocyte Scoring Enhances Embryo-Scoring in Predicting Pregnancy Chances with IVF Where It Counts Most

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaroni-Tealdi, Emanuela; Barad, David H.; Albertini, David F.; Yu, Yao; Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Russell, Helena; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gleicher, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Context Our center’s quality improvement optimization process on many occasions anecdotally suggested that oocyte assessments might enhance embryo assessment in predicting pregnancy chances with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Objective To prospectively compare a morphologic oocyte grading system to standard day-3 morphologic embryo assessment. Design, Setting, Patients We prospectively investigated in a private academically-affiliated infertility center 94 consecutive IVF cycles based on 6 criteria for oocyte quality: morphology, cytoplasm, perivitelline space (PVS), zona pellucida (ZP), polar body (PB) and oocyte size, each assigned a value of -1 (worst), 0 (average) or +1 (best), so establishing an average total oocyte score (TOS). Embryo assessment utilized grade and cell numbers of each embryo on day-3 after oocyte retrieval. Clinical pregnancy was defined by presence of at least one intrauterine gestational sac. Interventions Standard IVF cycles in infertile women. Main Outcome Measures Predictability of pregnancy based on oocyte and embryo-grading systems. Results Average age for all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 years; mean oocyte yield was 7.97± 5.76; Patient specific total oocyte score (PTOS) was -1.05 ± 2.24. PTOS, adjusted for patient age, was directly related to odds of increased embryo cell numbers (OR 1.12, P = 0.025), embryo grade (OR 1.19, P < 0.001) and clinical pregnancy [OR 1.58 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.02), P < 0.001]. Restricting the analysis to day three embryos of high quality (8-cell/ good grades), TOS was still predictive of clinical pregnancy (OR 2.08 (95%CI 1.26 to 3.44, P = 0.004). Among the 69 patients with embryos of Grade 4 or better available for transfer 23 achieved Clinical Pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to the 69 transfers with good quality embryos (≥ Grade 4) the Oocyte Scoring System (TOS) (AUC±SE 0.863±0.044, oocyte score) provided significantly greater predictive value for clinical pregnancy compared to the embryo grade

  4. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  5. Quasi-Supervised Scoring of Human Sleep in Polysomnograms Using Augmented Input Variables

    PubMed Central

    Yaghouby, Farid; Sunderam, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of manual sleep scoring make computerized methods highly desirable. Scoring errors can arise from human rater uncertainty or inter-rater variability. Sleep scoring algorithms either come as supervised classifiers that need scored samples of each state to be trained, or as unsupervised classifiers that use heuristics or structural clues in unscored data to define states. We propose a quasi-supervised classifier that models observations in an unsupervised manner but mimics a human rater wherever training scores are available. EEG, EMG, and EOG features were extracted in 30s epochs from human-scored polysomnograms recorded from 42 healthy human subjects (18 to 79 years) and archived in an anonymized, publicly accessible database. Hypnograms were modified so that: 1. Some states are scored but not others; 2. Samples of all states are scored but not for transitional epochs; and 3. Two raters with 67% agreement are simulated. A framework for quasi-supervised classification was devised in which unsupervised statistical models—specifically Gaussian mixtures and hidden Markov models—are estimated from unlabeled training data, but the training samples are augmented with variables whose values depend on available scores. Classifiers were fitted to signal features incorporating partial scores, and used to predict scores for complete recordings. Performance was assessed using Cohen's K statistic. The quasi-supervised classifier performed significantly better than an unsupervised model and sometimes as well as a completely supervised model despite receiving only partial scores. The quasi-supervised algorithm addresses the need for classifiers that mimic scoring patterns of human raters while compensating for their limitations. PMID:25679475

  6. Validation of the Alder Hey Triage Pain Score

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, B; Lancaster, G; Lawson, J; Williams, K; Daly, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the validation and reliability of a new pain tool (the Alder Hey Triage Pain Score, AHTPS) for children at triage in the accident and emergency (A&E) setting. Methods: A new behavioural observational pain tool was developed because of dissatisfaction with available tools and a lack of confidence in self-assessment scores at triage. The study was conducted in a large paediatric A&E department; 575 children (aged 0–16 years) were included. Inter-rater reliability and various aspects of validity were assessed. In addition this tool was compared to the Wong-Baker self-assessment tool.1 The children were concurrently scored by a research nurse and triage nurses to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the research nurse's triage score with the research nurse reassessment score after intervention and/or analgesia. Known group construct validity was assessed by comparing the research nurse's score at triage with the level of pain of the condition as judged by the discharge diagnosis. Predictive validity was assessed by comparing the research nurse's AHTPS with the level of analgesia needed by each patient. The AHTPS was also compared to a self-assessment score. Results: A high level of inter-rater reliability, kappa statistic 0.84 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.88), was shown. Construct validity was well demonstrated; known group construct validity and predictive validity were also demonstrated to a varying degree. Conclusions: Results support the use of this observational pain scoring tool in the triage of children in A&E. PMID:15210492

  7. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

    PubMed Central

    Soundarya, Mahalingam; Basavaprabhu, Achappa; Raghuveera, Kamila; Baliga, BS; Shivanagaraja, BSV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fetal malnutrition (FM) implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score) and anthropometry. No previous studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed by CAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI), Body mass index (BMI) and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC) calculated and compared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC) were found well nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC) with statistical significance(0.0001). BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition. Conclusion FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns. PMID:23056862

  8. Classification accuracy improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Improvements made in processing system designed for MIDAS (prototype multivariate interactive digital analysis system) effects higher accuracy in classification of pixels, resulting in significantly-reduced processing time. Improved system realizes cost reduction factor of 20 or more.

  9. Update on diabetes classification.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal.

  10. An Easy Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    File folders can be used effectively to develop and retrieve information about animal classification systems. Animal characters are drawn separately on the front side of a file cover and holes are punched next to each character. (PS)

  11. European conformation and fat scores have no relationship with eating quality.

    PubMed

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    European conformation and fat grades are a major factor determining carcass value throughout Europe. The relationships between these scores and sensory scores were investigated. A total of 3786 French, Polish and Irish consumers evaluated steaks, grilled to a medium doneness, according to protocols of the ���Meat Standards Australia��� system, from 18 muscles representing 455 local, commercial cattle from commercial abattoirs. A mixed linear effects model was used for the analysis. There was a negative relationship between juiciness and European conformation score. For the other sensory scores, a maximum of three muscles out of a possible 18 demonstrated negative effects of conformation score on sensory scores. There was a positive effect of European fat score on three individual muscles. However, this was accounted for by marbling score. Thus, while the European carcass classification system may indicate yield, it has no consistent relationship with sensory scores at a carcass level that is suitable for use in a commercial system. The industry should consider using an additional system related to eating quality to aid in the determination of the monetary value of carcasses, rewarding eating quality in addition to yield.

  12. Interobserver Agreement in the Classification of Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears Using the Snyder Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher S.; Davis, Shane M.; Doremus, Brittany; Kouk, Shalen; Stetson, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: At present, there is no widely accepted classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, and as a result, optimal treatment remains controversial. Purpose: To examine the interobserver reliability and accuracy of classifying partial rotator cuff tears using the Snyder classification system. We hypothesized that the Snyder classification would be reproducible with high reliability and accuracy. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Twenty-seven orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 10 video-recorded shoulder arthroscopies. Each surgeon was provided with a description of the Snyder classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and was then instructed to use this system to describe each tear. Interrater kappa statistics and percentage agreement between observers were calculated to measure the level of agreement. Surgeon experience as well as fellowship training was evaluated to determine possible correlations. Results: A kappa coefficient of 0.512 indicated moderate reliability between surgeons using the Snyder classification to describe partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. The mean correct score was 80%, which indicated “very good” agreement. There was no correlation between the number of shoulder arthroscopies performed per year and fellowship training and the number of correct scores. Conclusion: The Snyder classification system is reproducible and can be used in future research studies in analyzing the treatment options of partial rotator cuff tears. PMID:27738643

  13. Stratification of the severity of critically ill patients with classification trees

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of three classification trees (CT) based on the CART (Classification and Regression Trees), CHAID (Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection) and C4.5 methodologies for the calculation of probability of hospital mortality; the comparison of the results with the APACHE II, SAPS II and MPM II-24 scores, and with a model based on multiple logistic regression (LR). Methods Retrospective study of 2864 patients. Random partition (70:30) into a Development Set (DS) n = 1808 and Validation Set (VS) n = 808. Their properties of discrimination are compared with the ROC curve (AUC CI 95%), Percent of correct classification (PCC CI 95%); and the calibration with the Calibration Curve and the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR CI 95%). Results CTs are produced with a different selection of variables and decision rules: CART (5 variables and 8 decision rules), CHAID (7 variables and 15 rules) and C4.5 (6 variables and 10 rules). The common variables were: inotropic therapy, Glasgow, age, (A-a)O2 gradient and antecedent of chronic illness. In VS: all the models achieved acceptable discrimination with AUC above 0.7. CT: CART (0.75(0.71-0.81)), CHAID (0.76(0.72-0.79)) and C4.5 (0.76(0.73-0.80)). PCC: CART (72(69-75)), CHAID (72(69-75)) and C4.5 (76(73-79)). Calibration (SMR) better in the CT: CART (1.04(0.95-1.31)), CHAID (1.06(0.97-1.15) and C4.5 (1.08(0.98-1.16)). Conclusion With different methodologies of CTs, trees are generated with different selection of variables and decision rules. The CTs are easy to interpret, and they stratify the risk of hospital mortality. The CTs should be taken into account for the classification of the prognosis of critically ill patients. PMID:20003229

  14. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  15. New Ballard Score, expanded to include extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ballard, J L; Khoury, J C; Wedig, K; Wang, L; Eilers-Walsman, B L; Lipp, R

    1991-09-01

    The Ballard Maturational Score was refined and expanded to achieve greater accuracy and to include extremely premature neonates. To test validity, accuracy, interrater reliability, and optimal postnatal age at examination, the resulting New Ballard Score (NBS) was assessed for 578 newly born infants and the results were analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 20 to 44 weeks and postnatal ages at examination ranged from birth to 96 hours. In 530 infants, gestational age by last menstrual period was confirmed by agreement within 2 weeks with gestational age by prenatal ultrasonography (C-GLMP). For these infants, correlation between gestational age by NBS and C-GLMP was 0.97. Mean differences between gestational age by NBS and C-GLMP were 0.32 +/- 1.58 weeks and 0.15 +/- 1.46 weeks among the extremely premature infants (less than 26 weeks) and among the total population, respectively. Correlations between the individual criteria and C-GLMP ranged from 0.72 to 0.82. Interrater reliability of NBS, as determined by correlation between raters who rated the same subgroup of infants, ws 0.95. For infants less than 26 weeks of gestational age, the greatest validity (97% within 2 weeks of C-GLMP) was seen when the examination was performed before 12 hours of postnatal age. For infants at least 26 weeks of gestational age, percentages of agreement with C-GLMP remained constant, averaging 92% for all postnatal age categories up to 96 hours. The NBS is a valid and accurate gestational assessment tool for extremely premature infants and remains valid for the entire newborn infant population. PMID:1880657

  16. The Scoring of Writing Portfolios: Phase 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Edward M.

    2005-01-01

    Although most portfolio evaluation currently uses some adaptation of holistic scoring, the problems with scoring portfolios holistically are many, much more than for essays, and the problems are not readily resolvable. Indeed, many aspects of holistic scoring work against the principles behind portfolio assessment. We have from the start needed a…

  17. Local Linear Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    Two methods of local linear observed-score equating for use with anchor-test and single-group designs are introduced. In an empirical study, the two methods were compared with the current traditional linear methods for observed-score equating. As a criterion, the bias in the equated scores relative to true equating based on Lord's (1980)…

  18. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  19. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  20. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  1. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  2. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  3. A comparative study on classification of sleep stage based on EEG signals using feature selection and classification algorithms.

    PubMed

    Şen, Baha; Peker, Musa; Çavuşoğlu, Abdullah; Çelebi, Fatih V

    2014-03-01

    Sleep scoring is one of the most important diagnostic methods in psychiatry and neurology. Sleep staging is a time consuming and difficult task undertaken by sleep experts. This study aims to identify a method which would classify sleep stages automatically and with a high degree of accuracy and, in this manner, will assist sleep experts. This study consists of three stages: feature extraction, feature selection from EEG signals, and classification of these signals. In the feature extraction stage, it is used 20 attribute algorithms in four categories. 41 feature parameters were obtained from these algorithms. Feature selection is important in the elimination of irrelevant and redundant features and in this manner prediction accuracy is improved and computational overhead in classification is reduced. Effective feature selection algorithms such as minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR); fast correlation based feature selection (FCBF); ReliefF; t-test; and Fisher score algorithms are preferred at the feature selection stage in selecting a set of features which best represent EEG signals. The features obtained are used as input parameters for the classification algorithms. At the classification stage, five different classification algorithms (random forest (RF); feed-forward neural network (FFNN); decision tree (DT); support vector machine (SVM); and radial basis function neural network (RBF)) classify the problem. The results, obtained from different classification algorithms, are provided so that a comparison can be made between computation times and accuracy rates. Finally, it is obtained 97.03 % classification accuracy using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method indicate the ability to design a new intelligent assistance sleep scoring system.

  4. Bias-corrected diagonal discriminant rules for high-dimensional classification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song; Tong, Tiejun; Zhao, Hongyu

    2010-12-01

    Diagonal discriminant rules have been successfully used for high-dimensional classification problems, but suffer from the serious drawback of biased discriminant scores. In this article, we propose improved diagonal discriminant rules with bias-corrected discriminant scores for high-dimensional classification. We show that the proposed discriminant scores dominate the standard ones under the quadratic loss function. Analytical results on why the bias-corrected rules can potentially improve the predication accuracy are also provided. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the proposed rules over the original ones through extensive simulation studies and real case studies.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the main causes of death in developed countries, and diet and lifestyle can influence CAD incidence. Objective To evaluate the association of coronary artery disease risk score with dietary, anthropometric and biochemical components in adults clinically selected for a lifestyle modification program. Methods 362 adults (96 men, 266 women, 53.9 ± 9.4 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria by presenting all the required data. The Framingham score was calculated and the IV Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis was adopted for classification of the CAD risks. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated through 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of CAD risks according to the altered components of MS, dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical components. Results For a sample with a BMI 28.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2 the association with lower risk (<10% CAD) were lower age (<60 years old), and plasma values of uric acid. The presence of MS within low, intermediary, and high CAD risk categories was 30.8%, 55.5%, and 69.8%, respectively. The independent risk factors associated with CAD risk score was MS and uric acid, and the protective factors were recommended intake of saturated fat and fiber and muscle mass index. Conclusion Recommended intake of saturated fat and dietary fiber, together with proper muscle mass, are inversely associated with CAD risk score. On the other hand, the presence of MS and high plasma uric acid are associated with CAD risk score. PMID:21554698

  6. Committee Opinion No. 644: The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered to be evidence of or a consequence of asphyxia, does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome, and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during a resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  7. Final Gleason Score Prediction Using Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Based on Preoperative Multiparametric MR Imaging of Prostate Cancer at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Citak-Er, Fusun; Vural, Metin; Acar, Omer; Esen, Tarik; Onay, Aslihan; Ozturk-Isik, Esin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at evaluating linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for estimating final Gleason score preoperatively using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and clinical parameters. Materials and Methods. Thirty-three patients who underwent mp-MRI on a 3T clinical MR scanner and radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. The input features for classifiers were age, the presence of a palpable prostate abnormality, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, index lesion size, and Likert scales of T2 weighted MRI (T2w-MRI), diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI), and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) estimated by an experienced radiologist. SVM based recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) was used for eliminating features. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data uncorrelation. Results. Using a standard PCA before final Gleason score classification resulted in mean sensitivities of 51.19% and 64.37% and mean specificities of 72.71% and 39.90% for LDA and SVM, respectively. Using a Gaussian kernel PCA resulted in mean sensitivities of 86.51% and 87.88% and mean specificities of 63.99% and 56.83% for LDA and SVM, respectively. Conclusion. SVM classifier resulted in a slightly higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than LDA method for final Gleason score prediction for prostate cancer for this limited patient population. PMID:25544944

  8. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David A.; Blennow, Kaj; Carrillo, Maria C.; Feldman, Howard H.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Hampel, Harald; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Scheltens, Philip; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dubois, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the “A/T/N” system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. “A” refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); “T,” the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); and “N,” biomarkers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury ([18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET, structural MRI, or CSF total tau). Each biomarker category is rated as positive or negative. An individual score might appear as A+/T+/N−, or A+/T−/N−, etc. The A/T/N system includes the new modality tau PET. It is agnostic to the temporal ordering of mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. It includes all individuals in any population regardless of the mix of biomarker findings and therefore is suited to population studies of cognitive aging. It does not specify disease labels and thus is not a diagnostic classification system. It is a descriptive system for categorizing multidomain biomarker findings at the individual person level in a format that is easy to understand and use. Given the present lack of consensus among AD specialists on terminology across the clinically normal to dementia spectrum, a biomarker classification scheme will have broadest acceptance if it is independent from any one clinically defined diagnostic scheme. PMID:27371494

  9. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R; Bennett, David A; Blennow, Kaj; Carrillo, Maria C; Feldman, Howard H; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Hampel, Harald; Jagust, William J; Johnson, Keith A; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Scheltens, Philip; Sperling, Reisa A; Dubois, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the "A/T/N" system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. "A" refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); "T," the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); and "N," biomarkers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury ([(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, structural MRI, or CSF total tau). Each biomarker category is rated as positive or negative. An individual score might appear as A+/T+/N-, or A+/T-/N-, etc. The A/T/N system includes the new modality tau PET. It is agnostic to the temporal ordering of mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. It includes all individuals in any population regardless of the mix of biomarker findings and therefore is suited to population studies of cognitive aging. It does not specify disease labels and thus is not a diagnostic classification system. It is a descriptive system for categorizing multidomain biomarker findings at the individual person level in a format that is easy to understand and use. Given the present lack of consensus among AD specialists on terminology across the clinically normal to dementia spectrum, a biomarker classification scheme will have broadest acceptance if it is independent from any one clinically defined diagnostic scheme.

  10. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  11. Age, Intelligence, and Inspection Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettelbeck, T.; Lally, M.

    1979-01-01

    Ten young males (aged 16-to-22 years) whose IQ scores ranged from 51 to 77 were compared on a simple discrimination task with ten male university students (aged 18-to-23 years) and 28 nonretarded male children (aged 7-to-11 years) in order to determine if reaction time is a consequence of mental retardation.

  12. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  13. Online risk engines and scoring tools in endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    With evolution of evidence-based medicine, risk prediction equations have been formulated and validated. Such risk engines and scoring systems are able to predict disease outcome and risks of possible complications with varying degrees of accuracy. From health policy makers point of view it helps in appropriate disbursement of available resources for greatest benefit of population at risk. Understandably, the accuracy of prediction of different risk engines and scoring systems are highly variable and has several limitations. Each risk engine or clinical scoring tool is derived from data obtained from a particular population and its results are not generalizable and hence its ability to predict risk/outcome in a different population with differences in ethnicity, ages, and differences in distribution of risk factors over time both within and between populations. These scoring systems and risk engines to begin with were available for manual calculations and references/use of formula and paper charts were essential. However, with evolution of information technology such calculations became easier to make with use of online web-based tools. In recent times with advancement of android technology, easy to download apps (applications) has helped further to have the benefits of these online risk engines and scoring systems at our finger tips. PMID:24910820

  14. Online risk engines and scoring tools in endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    With evolution of evidence-based medicine, risk prediction equations have been formulated and validated. Such risk engines and scoring systems are able to predict disease outcome and risks of possible complications with varying degrees of accuracy. From health policy makers point of view it helps in appropriate disbursement of available resources for greatest benefit of population at risk. Understandably, the accuracy of prediction of different risk engines and scoring systems are highly variable and has several limitations. Each risk engine or clinical scoring tool is derived from data obtained from a particular population and its results are not generalizable and hence its ability to predict risk/outcome in a different population with differences in ethnicity, ages, and differences in distribution of risk factors over time both within and between populations. These scoring systems and risk engines to begin with were available for manual calculations and references/use of formula and paper charts were essential. However, with evolution of information technology such calculations became easier to make with use of online web-based tools. In recent times with advancement of android technology, easy to download apps (applications) has helped further to have the benefits of these online risk engines and scoring systems at our finger tips.

  15. Osteoporosis diagnosis in men: the T-score controversy revisited.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Neil; Adler, Robert; Bilezikian, John P

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis becomes common with aging in both sexes, but is often ignored in men. The 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry consensus conference endorsed a Caucasian female referent database for T-score calculation in men. This recommendation has generated controversy and concern. Accumulating data indicate that at the same DXA-measured body mineral density (BMD) (g/cm(2)), men and women are at approximately the same fracture risk. With this point in mind, using the same database to derive the T-score in men and women is reasonable. As a result, a greater proportion of men who sustain a fragility fracture will have T-scores that are higher than they would if a male database were used; in fact, many men will fracture at T-scores that are "normal." This highlights the importance of diagnosing osteoporosis not just by T-score, but also by the presence of fragility fracture and/or by estimations of fracture risk as generated by tools such as the FRAX calculator. The practical consequences of this change in densitometric definition of osteoporosis in men should be monitored, including the proportion of men at risk identified and treated as well as defining the response to treatment in those assessed by this more comprehensive approach. PMID:25255867

  16. Factor Analysis of Temperament Category Scores in a Sample of Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, John F.; Simonds, M. Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Mothers of children attending nursery schools completed the Behavior Style Questionnaire (BSQ) from which scores for nine temperament categories were derived. Found membership in groups based on factor scores independent of sex, socioeconomic class, age but not ordinal birth position. (Author)

  17. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt: Is It Developmental?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the developmental aspects of the Koppitz scoring system with 652 children who took the Bender Motor Gestalt Test. Scores were fitted to various developmental curves by computer. Results indicated only 35 percent of the Bender test performance variance was accounted for by age. (JAC)

  18. IQ and Perceptual Motor Scores as Predictors of Achievement Among Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thompson, J., Sr.; Amble, Bruce R.

    1970-01-01

    The Koppitz scoring of the Bender Gestalt Test for young children was used to predict educational attainment for 74 EMH students on reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Only on the arithmetic criterion did Bender scores increase prediction, beyond the factors of chronological age and IQ.

  19. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  20. Construct Validity Evidence for Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition, Spanish Form Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Arlene; Clinton, Amanda; Schaefer, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent and discriminant validity evidence was examined for scores on the Spanish Record Form of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition (BSRA-3). Participants included a sample of 68 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children ages 4 to 5 years enrolled in preschool programs in Puerto Rico. Scores obtained from the BSRA-3 Spanish Record…

  1. Prevalence of low scores in children and adolescents on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Koushik, Nikhil S; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; Horton, Arthur MacNeill; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2013-01-01

    It is important to consider the prevalence of low scores when administering a battery of psychological tests. Understanding the prevalence of low scores is important for minimizing false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on base rates for use in children and adolescents. Participants were 408 healthy children and adolescents (M(age) = 13.1 years, SD = 3.7) and 139 children and adolescents (M(age) = 12.4 years, SD = 3.1) diagnosed with a medical, neurological, or learning condition. All participants were administered the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ). The clinical sample performed significantly lower compared with the healthy control participants on three of the five TVCF scores. When all scores were considered simultaneously, 38% of healthy children obtained one or more scores below the 16th percentile and 15% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower. By comparison, significantly higher proportions of children in the clinical sample had low scores below each of the five cutoffs (i.e., 63% had one or more test scores below the 16th percentile and 37% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower). Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the prevalence of low TVCF scores in everyday clinical practice with children and adolescents.

  2. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  3. Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

  4. Are the Best Scores the Best Scores for Predicting College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The College Board's SAT[R] Score Choice[TM] policy allows students to choose which set(s) of scores to send to colleges and universities to which they plan to apply. Based on data gathered before the implementation of that policy, the following study evaluated the predictive validity of the various sets of SAT scores. The value of five score sets…

  5. Relationship between Praxis 1 Scores and SAT/ACT Scores: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanabhavan, Sheila; Jones, Enid B.; Wilson, Carolyn H.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the premise that there is a significant correlation between Praxis1 scores and SAT scores among African American students who are applying for admission into the teacher education program. Data for the study included the Praxis 1 (reading, writing and math) scores and SAT (reading, writing and math) scores of…

  6. CD-HPF: New habitability score via data analytic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, K.; Saha, S.; Agrawal, S.; Safonova, M.; Routh, S.; Narasimhamurthy, A.

    2016-10-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, Earth Similarity Index (ESI) and Planetary Habitability Index (PHI), describe heuristic methods to score habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets (or exomoons). ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability, and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the potential habitability of any given planet, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: presence of a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which computes the habitability score by using measured and estimated planetary input parameters. As an initial set, we used radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of a planet. The values of the input parameters are normalized to the Earth Units (EU). The proposed metric, with exponents accounting for metric elasticity, is endowed with analytical properties that ensure global optima, and scales up to accommodate finitely many input parameters. The model is elastic, and, as we discovered, the standard PHI turns out to be a special case of the CDHS. Computed CDHS scores are fed to K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor) classification algorithm with probabilistic herding that facilitates the assignment of exoplanets to appropriate classes via supervised feature learning methods, producing granular clusters of habitability. The proposed work describes a decision-theoretical model using the power of convex optimization and

  7. Links Among High EPDS Scores, State of Mind Regarding Attachment, and Symptoms of Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Steele, Howard; Mehlhase, Heike; Cordes, Katharina; Steele, Miriam; Harder, Susanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard

    2015-12-01

    Underlying persistent psychological difficulties have been found to moderate potential adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on parenting and infant development. The authors examined whether mothers presenting postpartum depressive symptoms showed higher levels of personality pathology and more insecure state of mind regarding attachment compared to nondepressed mothers. Participants (N = 85) were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Present State Examination, the Adult Attachment Interview, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II. Mothers with high EPDS scores were more likely to have a preoccupied insecure state of mind and to have personality disorder compared with mothers scoring below clinical cutoff. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that personality disorder and AAI classification were independently related to EPDS score, and that these two factors together accounted for 48% of the variance in EPDS score. Findings are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in PPD populations and underline the importance of examining potential coexisting psychological difficulties when studying PPD.

  8. Classification images with uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Tjan, Bosco S.; Nandy, Anirvan S.

    2009-01-01

    Classification image and other similar noise-driven linear methods have found increasingly wider applications in revealing psychophysical receptive field structures or perceptual templates. These techniques are relatively easy to deploy, and the results are simple to interpret. However, being a linear technique, the utility of the classification-image method is believed to be limited. Uncertainty about the target stimuli on the part of an observer will result in a classification image that is the superposition of all possible templates for all the possible signals. In the context of a well-established uncertainty model, which pools the outputs of a large set of linear frontends with a max operator, we show analytically, in simulations, and with human experiments that the effect of intrinsic uncertainty can be limited or even eliminated by presenting a signal at a relatively high contrast in a classification-image experiment. We further argue that the subimages from different stimulus-response categories should not be combined, as is conventionally done. We show that when the signal contrast is high, the subimages from the error trials contain a clear high-contrast image that is negatively correlated with the perceptual template associated with the presented signal, relatively unaffected by uncertainty. The subimages also contain a “haze” that is of a much lower contrast and is positively correlated with the superposition of all the templates associated with the erroneous response. In the case of spatial uncertainty, we show that the spatial extent of the uncertainty can be estimated from the classification subimages. We link intrinsic uncertainty to invariance and suggest that this signal-clamped classification-image method will find general applications in uncovering the underlying representations of high-level neural and psychophysical mechanisms. PMID:16889477

  9. Classification images with uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Tjan, Bosco S; Nandy, Anirvan S

    2006-04-04

    Classification image and other similar noise-driven linear methods have found increasingly wider applications in revealing psychophysical receptive field structures or perceptual templates. These techniques are relatively easy to deploy, and the results are simple to interpret. However, being a linear technique, the utility of the classification-image method is believed to be limited. Uncertainty about the target stimuli on the part of an observer will result in a classification image that is the superposition of all possible templates for all the possible signals. In the context of a well-established uncertainty model, which pools the outputs of a large set of linear frontends with a max operator, we show analytically, in simulations, and with human experiments that the effect of intrinsic uncertainty can be limited or even eliminated by presenting a signal at a relatively high contrast in a classification-image experiment. We further argue that the subimages from different stimulus-response categories should not be combined, as is conventionally done. We show that when the signal contrast is high, the subimages from the error trials contain a clear high-contrast image that is negatively correlated with the perceptual template associated with the presented signal, relatively unaffected by uncertainty. The subimages also contain a "haze" that is of a much lower contrast and is positively correlated with the superposition of all the templates associated with the erroneous response. In the case of spatial uncertainty, we show that the spatial extent of the uncertainty can be estimated from the classification subimages. We link intrinsic uncertainty to invariance and suggest that this signal-clamped classification-image method will find general applications in uncovering the underlying representations of high-level neural and psychophysical mechanisms.

  10. Oral phenotype and scoring of vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael; Gogly, Bruno; Golmard, Lisa; Naveau, Adrien; Chérifi, Hafida; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaultier, Frédérick; Berdal, Ariane; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutations in the COL3A1 gene, responsible of vascular, digestive and uterine accidents. Difficulty of clinical diagnosis has led to the design of diagnostic criteria, summarised in the Villefranche classification. The goal was to assess oral features of vEDS. Gingival recession is the only oral sign recognised as a minor diagnostic criterion. The authors aimed to check this assumption since bibliographical search related to gingival recession in vEDS proved scarce. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Dental surgery department in a French tertiary hospital. Participants 17 consecutive patients with genetically proven vEDS, aged 19–55 years, were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls. Observations Complete oral examination (clinical and radiological) with standardised assessment of periodontal structure, temporomandibular joint function and dental characteristics were performed. COL3A1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of genomic or complementary DNA. Results Prevalence of gingival recession was low among patients with vEDS, as for periodontitis. Conversely, patients showed marked gingival fragility, temporomandibular disorders, dentin formation defects, molar root fusion and increased root length. After logistic regression, three variables remained significantly associated to vEDS. These variables were integrated in a diagnostic oral score with 87.5% and 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions Gingival recession is an inappropriate diagnostic criterion for vEDS. Several new specific oral signs of the disease were identified, whose combination may be of greater value in diagnosing vEDS. PMID:22492385

  11. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  12. Age, Sex, and Contact with Elderly Adults as Predictors of Knowledge about Psychological Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested Australian undergraduates' (N=179) knowledge of mental health in old age. Results showed women scored higher than men and scores rose with age and with contact when age was partialed out. Australian students averaged two more items correct than did the American students for whom the test was developed. (Author)

  13. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions.Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments.This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = -1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8∼-0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.1∼-0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and other

  14. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  15. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Remyasri; Bhandary, Nithish M.; D’Souza, Ashton D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases). The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001). SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015) percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically significant (P

  16. Stability of Scores on Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Test-retest data on Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised for a group of predominantly White ("N" = 995) women (mean age = 23.5 years, SD = 8.07) and men (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.80) showed stability in mean-level scores over a period of 1 year for the sample as a whole. However, low raw score and rank order stability…

  17. [Malignant lymphoma: REAL classification to new WHO classification].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, M

    2000-03-01

    The Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms(REAL) proposed in 1994 represented a new paradigm for the classification of lymphomas. This classification emphasized that each disease was a distinct entity, defined by a constellation of clinical and laboratory features, i.e., morphology and genetic features, immunophenotype, clinical presentation, and course. And it also noted that the site(s) of presentation were a signpost for important underlying biologic distinctions. A new WHO classification is planed to be proposed, re-categorizing entities of the REAL classification. Now, WHO members planed to publish the new classification as the bluebook of WHO at first in 1998 and now in 2000. This paper reports mainly different points in the new WHO classification of malignant lymphoma from the REAL classification.

  18. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  19. Sequence and intramolecular distance scoring analyses of microbial rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Miki; Ide, Shunta; Kamata, Atsushi; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Okada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Recent accumulation of sequence and structural data, in conjunction with systematical classification into a set of families, has significantly advanced our understanding of diverse and specific protein functions. Analysis and interpretation of protein family data requires comprehensive sequence and structural alignments. Here, we present a simple scheme for analyzing a set of experimental structures of a given protein or family of proteins, using microbial rhodopsins as an example. For a data set comprised of around a dozen highly similar structures to each other (overall pairwise root-mean-squared deviation < 2.3 Å), intramolecular distance scoring analysis yielded valuable information with respect to structural properties, such as differences in the relative variability of transmembrane helices. Furthermore, a comparison with recent results for G protein-coupled receptors demonstrates how the results of the present analysis can be interpreted and effectively utilized for structural characterization of diverse protein families in general. PMID:26998236

  20. Correspondence between nasalance scores and listener judgments of hypernasality and hyponasality.

    PubMed

    Hardin, M A; Van Demark, D R; Morris, H L; Payne, M M

    1992-07-01

    The relationship between nasalance scores and perceptual judgments of hypernasality and hyponasality was examined for 74 subjects (51 with cleft palate and 23 noncleft controls). Twenty-nine of the 51 subjects with cleft palate had received pharyngeal flap surgery. Predictive analyses were performed to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the Nasometer as a screening instrument. The overall relationship between perceptual judgments of hypernasality and nasalance scores was good for the nonflap subjects when a nasalance cutoff score of 26 was used. A sensitivity coefficient of 0.87 and a specificity coefficient of 0.93 were obtained. Ninety-one percent of the nasometry-based classifications accurately reflected listener judgments of hypernasality. The correspondence between nasalance scores and clinical judgments of hyponasality was also good for the nonflap subjects when a nasalance cutoff score of 50 was used. Ninety-one percent of these classifications were consistent with the listener judgments. Efficiency of nasometry was poorer for the flap subjects.

  1. Toward an Etiologic Classification of Pediatric Social Illness: A Descriptive Epidemiology of Child Abuse and Neglect, Failure to Thrive, Accidents and Poisonings in Children Under Four Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; And Others

    This study examined the underlying common origins of pediatric social illnesses (i.e., child abuse and neglect, failure to thrive, accidents, and poisonings) in children under age 4. Subjects were 560 children admitted to the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. Children admitted with pediatric social diagnoses were matched on the basis…

  2. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  3. Homographs: Classification and Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacak, M.; Henisz, Bozena

    1968-01-01

    Homographs are defined in this study as sets of word forms which are spelled alike but which have entirely or partially different meanings and which may have different syntactic functions (that is, they belong to more than one form class or to more than one subclass of a form class). This report deals with the classification and identification of…

  4. Shark Teeth Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  5. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  6. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  7. Teach Classification with Slides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Deborah

    1980-01-01

    Described is a creative approach to the use of contact slides as a means of student participation in a learning unit on animal classification. The finished product is a slide presentation in which students themselves have made the slides and taped the narration. (CS)

  8. FRESCO: flexible alignment with rectangle scoring schemes.

    PubMed

    Dalca, A V; Brudno, M

    2008-01-01

    While the popular DNA sequence alignment tools incorporate powerful heuristics to allow for fast and accurate alignment of DNA, most of them still optimize the classical Needleman Wunsch scoring scheme. The development of novel scoring schemes is often hampered by the difficulty of finding an optimizing algorithm for each non-trivial scheme. In this paper we define the broad class of rectangle scoring schemes, and describe an algorithm and tool that can align two sequences with an arbitrary rectangle scoring scheme in polynomial time. Rectangle scoring schemes encompass some of the popular alignment scoring metrics currently in use, as well as many other functions. We investigate a novel scoring function based on minimizing the expected number of random diagonals observed with the given scores and show that it rivals the LAGAN and Clustal-W aligners, without using any biological or evolutionary parameters. The FRESCO program, freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/fresco, gives bioinformatics researchers the ability to quickly compare the performance of other complex scoring formulas without having to implement new algorithms to optimize them.

  9. [The cardiovascular surgeon and the Syntax score].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Soulé-Egea, Mauricio; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Barragán-García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score. PMID:25595855

  10. [The cardiovascular surgeon and the Syntax score].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Soulé-Egea, Mauricio; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Barragán-García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score.

  11. Reliability Assessment of an Innovative Wound Score.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Michael B; Moon, Hojin; Busch, Jeremy A; Jones, Christopher K; Nhan, Lisa; Miller, Stuart; Le, Phi-Nga Jeannie

    2016-06-01

    The authors describe an innovative wound score and demonstrate its versatility for scoring a variety of wound types in addition to diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). To further test its merits, they determined its interobserver reliability in a prospective series of patients. The Wound Score system the authors created integrates the most important features of 4 predominantly used wound scoring systems. It utilizes a logical 0 to 10 format based on 5 assessments each graded from 2 (best) to 0 (worst). The versatility and reliability of the Wound Score were studied in a prospective series of 94 patients with lower extremity wounds. The Wound Score was quick to determine, applicable to a variety of wound types and locations, and highly objective for grading the severity of each of the 5 assessments. The Wound Score categorized wound types as "healthy," "problem," or "futile" for evaluation and management. Diabetes was present in 75.9%, with 70% of the DFUs scoring in the "problem" wound range. Interobserver reli- ability was high (r = 0.81). The objectivity, versatility, and reliability of the Wound Score system facilitates making decisions about the management of wounds, whether DFUs or not, and provides quantification for compara- tive effectiveness research for wound management. PMID:27377611

  12. Validation of cardiovascular risk scores in a liver transplant population.

    PubMed

    Guckelberger, Olaf; Mutzke, Florian; Glanemann, Matthias; Neumann, Ulf P; Jonas, Sven; Neuhaus, Ruth; Neuhaus, Peter; Langrehr, Jan M

    2006-03-01

    Increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors has been acknowledged in liver transplant recipients, and an increased incidence of cardiovascular events has been suspected. Individual risk determination, however, has not yet been established. Outpatient charts of 438 primary liver transplants have been reviewed, and suspected cardiovascular risk factors were correlated with cardiovascular events observed during a follow-up period of 10 yr. Receiver operation characteristics curve (ROC) analysis was performed to validate established cardiovascular risk scores. For calibration, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was performed. A total of 303 of 438 patients were available for risk factor analysis at 6 months and demonstrated complete follow-up data (175 male, 128 female). A total of 40 of those 303 patients experienced fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events (13.2%). In univariate analysis, age (P < 0.001), gender (P = 0.002), body mass index (P = 0.018), cholesterol (P = 0.044), creatinine (P = 0.006), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.017), glucose (0.006), and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.043), but not cyclosporine A (P = 0.743), tacrolimus (P = 0.870), or steroid medication (P = 0.991), were significantly associated with cardiovascular events. Multivariate analysis, however, identified only age, gender, and cholesterol as independent predictors. In ROC analysis, corresponding areas under the curve for Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project (SCORE), Prospective Cardiovascular Münster Study (PROCAM), and Framingham risk scores (FRSs) were calculated with 0.800, 0.778, and 0.707, respectively. Calibration demonstrated an improved goodness of fit for PROCAM compared to SCORE risk calculations. In conclusion, SCORE and PROCAM proved to be valuable in discriminating our liver transplant recipients for their individual risk of cardiovascular events. Furthermore, calibrated PROCAM risk estimates are required to calculate the number of patients needed to treat in the setup of

  13. The Development of a Gridded Weather Typing Classification Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cameron C.

    Since their development in the 1990s, gridded reanalysis data sets have proven quite useful for a broad range of synoptic climatological analyses, especially those utilizing a map pattern classification approach. However, their use in broad-scale, surface weather typing classifications and applications have not yet been explored. This research details the development of such a gridded weather typing classification (GWTC) scheme using North American Regional Reanalysis data for 1979-2010 for the continental United States. Utilizing eight-times daily observations of temperature, dew point, pressure, cloud cover, u-wind and v-wind components, the GWTC categorizes the daily surface weather of 2,070 locations into one of 11 discrete weather types, nine core types and two transitional types, that remain consistent throughout the domain. Due to the use of an automated deseasonalized z-score initial typing procedure, the character of each type is both geographically and seasonally relative, allowing each core weather type to occur at every location, at any time of the year. Diagnostic statistics reveal a high degree of spatial cohesion among the weather types classified at neighboring locations, along with an effective partitioning of the climate variability of individual locations (via a Variability Skill Score metric) into these 11 weather types. Daily maps of the spatial distribution of GWTC weather types across the United States correspond well to traditional surface weather maps, and comparisons of the GWTC with the Spatial Synoptic Classification are also favorable. While the potential future utility of the classification is expected to be primarily for the resultant calendars of daily weather types at specific locations, the automation of the methodology allows the classification to be easily repeatable, and therefore, easily transportable to other locations, atmospheric levels, and data sets (including output from gridded general circulation models). Further, the

  14. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  15. Z-Score Linear Discriminant Analysis for EEG Based Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Peng; Guo, Lanjin; Zhang, Yangsong; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA), which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy. PMID:24058565

  16. Z-score linear discriminant analysis for EEG based brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Peng; Guo, Lanjin; Zhang, Yangsong; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA), which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

  17. Gait asymmetry: composite scores for mechanical analyses of sprint running.

    PubMed

    Exell, T A; Gittoes, M J R; Irwin, G; Kerwin, D G

    2012-04-01

    Gait asymmetry analyses are beneficial from clinical, coaching and technology perspectives. Quantifying overall athlete asymmetry would be useful in allowing comparisons between participants, or between asymmetry and other factors, such as sprint running performance. The aim of this study was to develop composite kinematic and kinetic asymmetry scores to quantify athlete asymmetry during maximal speed sprint running. Eight male sprint trained athletes (age 22±5 years, mass 74.0±8.7 kg and stature 1.79±0.07 m) participated in this study. Synchronised sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected via a CODA motion analysis system, synchronised to two Kistler force plates. Bilateral, lower limb data were collected during the maximal velocity phase of sprint running (velocity=9.05±0.37 ms(-1)). Kinematic and kinetic composite asymmetry scores were developed using the previously established symmetry angle for discrete variables associated with successful sprint performance and comparisons of continuous joint power data. Unlike previous studies quantifying gait asymmetry, the scores incorporated intra-limb variability by excluding variables from the composite scores that did not display significantly larger (p<0.05) asymmetry than intra-limb variability. The variables that contributed to the composite scores and the magnitude of asymmetry observed for each measure varied on an individual participant basis. The new composite scores indicated the inter-participant differences that exist in asymmetry during sprint running and may serve to allow comparisons between overall athlete asymmetry with other important factors such as performance.

  18. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  19. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Helen E; Smith, Isabel M; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-09-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups (N = 289). At school entry, 24 % of children met criteria for intellectual disability (cognitive and adaptive behaviour scores <70). No children with both scores ≥70 at diagnosis later met criteria for intellectual disability. Outcomes were more variable for children with initial delays in both areas (in 57 %, both scores remained <70). Findings are relevant to clinical decision-making, including specification of intellectual disability in young children with ASD.

  20. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  1. Widening clinical applications of the SYNTAX Score.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W

    2014-02-01

    The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.

  2. Validation of scores of use of inhalation devices: valoration of errors *

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli-Simões, Letícia; Martins, Maria Cleusa; Possari, Juliana Carneiro da Cunha; Carvalho, Greice Borges; Coelho, Ana Carla Carvalho; Cipriano, Sonia Lucena; de Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto; Stelmach, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To validate two scores quantifying the ability of patients to use metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs); to identify the most common errors made during their use; and to identify the patients in need of an educational program for the use of these devices. Methods: This study was conducted in three phases: validation of the reliability of the inhaler technique scores; validation of the contents of the two scores using a convenience sample; and testing for criterion validation and discriminant validation of these instruments in patients who met the inclusion criteria. Results: The convenience sample comprised 16 patients. Interobserver disagreement was found in 19% and 25% of the DPI and MDI scores, respectively. After expert analysis on the subject, the scores were modified and were applied in 72 patients. The most relevant difficulty encountered during the use of both types of devices was the maintenance of total lung capacity after a deep inhalation. The degree of correlation of the scores by observer was 0.97 (p < 0.0001). There was good interobserver agreement in the classification of patients as able/not able to use a DPI (50%/50% and 52%/58%; p < 0.01) and an MDI (49%/51% and 54%/46%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The validated scores allow the identification and correction of inhaler technique errors during consultations and, as a result, improvement in the management of inhalation devices. PMID:26398751

  3. Age versus Schooling Effects on Intelligence Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

    1989-01-01

    A study of effects of age and schooling in grades five and six on raw scores from a variety of general ability tests found that schooling: (1) is the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age; and (2) has a larger effect on verbal than nonverbal tests. (RH)

  4. Adult Age Differences in Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Lisa Laumann; Shaw, Raymond J.

    2000-01-01

    Younger (n=41, ages 18-27) and older (n=39, ages 55-85) adults were given rare words to define. Older adults gave more complete definitions and had higher vocabulary test scores, but lower working memory scores. For older adults existing vocabulary knowledge contributed more than working memory to the ability to derive meaning from context. (SK)

  5. Screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders: are subscale scores reliable? A bifactor model analysis.

    PubMed

    DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Zibetti, Murilo Ricardo; Trentini, Clarissa Marceli; Koller, Silvia Helena; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of creating and scoring subscales for the self-report version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) by examining whether subscale scores provide reliable information after accounting for a general anxiety factor in a bifactor model analysis. A total of 2420 children aged 9-18 answered the SCARED in their schools. Results suggested adequate fit of the bifactor model. The SCARED score variance was hardly influenced by the specific domains after controlling for the common variance in the general factor. The explained common variance (ECV) for the general factor was large (63.96%). After accounting for the general total score (ωh=.83), subscale scores provided very little reliable information (ωh ranged from .005 to .04). Practitioners that use the SCARED should be careful when scoring and interpreting the instrument subscales since there is more common variance to them than specific variance.

  6. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  7. Predictors of MCAT Scores for Black Americans

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, J. W.; Bauer, Joanne; Hunter, Jacqueline R.; Labat, Deidre D.; Sevenair, John P.

    1987-01-01

    If minority students likely to score low on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) can be identified in advance, they can be advised to take existing preparatory programs, or programs can be developed to meet their needs. Correlation coefficients for a number of available independent variables with MCAT scores were determined for a population of premedical students at Xavier University of Louisiana. American College Testing (ACT) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were found to have similar ability to predict MCAT scores, with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 between ACT composite and MCAT total scores. Correlations of sophomore year grade point average (GPA) with MCAT scores were only slightly weaker. Use of subtest scores for the ACT and SAT, grades in science courses, and Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores did not improve prediction to any real extent, either when used alone or in multiple linear regression analysis. In contrast to some previous studies, predictions for black men were as good as those for black women. Use of only ACT composite and sophomore year GPA together gave correlations only slightly weaker than predictions using a full range of variables; data from ACT composite and sophomore year GPA can be used for calculating predictive equations on many available micro-computers. These procedures may not be applicable to minority students at majority institutions. PMID:3612830

  8. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  9. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  10. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  11. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  12. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  13. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  14. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  15. Methodological Approaches to Online Scoring of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.

    This report examines the feasibility of scoring essays using computer-based techniques. Essays have been incorporated into many of the standardized testing programs. Issues of validity and reliability must be addressed to deploy automated approaches to scoring fully. Two approaches that have been used to classify documents, surface- and word-based…

  16. Causal Moderation Analysis Using Propensity Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on previous studies in applying propensity score methods to study multiple treatment variables to examine the causal moderator effect. The propensity score methods will be demonstrated in a case study to examine the causal moderator effect, where the moderators are categorical and continuous variables. Moderation analysis is an…

  17. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  18. An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). AES systems are mainly used to overcome time, cost, reliability, and generalizability issues in writing assessment (Bereiter, 2003; Burstein,…

  19. Observed Score Linear Equating with Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…

  20. Understanding Scoring Rubrics: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Carol, Ed.

    This compilation provides an introduction to using scoring rubrics in the classroom. When good rubrics are used well, teachers and students receive extensive feedback on the quality and quantity of student learning. When scoring rubrics are used in large-scale assessment, technical questions related to interrater reliability tend to dominate the…

  1. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  2. 10 Tips for Higher Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Ten suggestions to help students increase standardized test scores include: read directions carefully; peek at the questions before reading stories or articles; note key words; use parts of questions to help plan answers; look back at the text; think before writing; write clearly and legibly; pay attention to how the test is scored; manage time…

  3. Selecting the Right Similarity-Scoring Matrix.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William R

    2013-01-01

    Protein sequence similarity searching programs like BLASTP, SSEARCH (UNIT 3.10), and FASTA use scoring matrices that are designed to identify distant evolutionary relationships (BLOSUM62 for BLAST, BLOSUM50 for SEARCH and FASTA). Different similarity scoring matrices are most effective at different evolutionary distances. "Deep" scoring matrices like BLOSUM62 and BLOSUM50 target alignments with 20 - 30% identity, while "shallow" scoring matrices (e.g. VTML10 - VTML80), target alignments that share 90 - 50% identity, reflecting much less evolutionary change. While "deep" matrices provide very sensitive similarity searches, they also require longer sequence alignments and can sometimes produce alignment overextension into non-homologous regions. Shallower scoring matrices are more effective when searching for short protein domains, or when the goal is to limit the scope of the search to sequences that are likely to be orthologous between recently diverged organisms. Likewise, in DNA searches, the match and mismatch parameters set evolutionary look-back times and domain boundaries. In this unit, we will discuss the theoretical foundations that drive practical choices of protein and DNA similarity scoring matrices and gap penalties. Deep scoring matrices (BLOSUM62 and BLOSUM50) should be used for sensitive searches with full-length protein sequences, but short domains or restricted evolutionary look-back require shallower scoring matrices.

  4. Model feedback in Bayesian propensity score estimation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Corwin M; Watts, Krista; Yeh, Robert W; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A; Dominici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Methods based on the propensity score comprise one set of valuable tools for comparative effectiveness research and for estimating causal effects more generally. These methods typically consist of two distinct stages: (1) a propensity score stage where a model is fit to predict the propensity to receive treatment (the propensity score), and (2) an outcome stage where responses are compared in treated and untreated units having similar values of the estimated propensity score. Traditional techniques conduct estimation in these two stages separately; estimates from the first stage are treated as fixed and known for use in the second stage. Bayesian methods have natural appeal in these settings because separate likelihoods for the two stages can be combined into a single joint likelihood, with estimation of the two stages carried out simultaneously. One key feature of joint estimation in this context is "feedback" between the outcome stage and the propensity score stage, meaning that quantities in a model for the outcome contribute information to posterior distributions of quantities in the model for the propensity score. We provide a rigorous assessment of Bayesian propensity score estimation to show that model feedback can produce poor estimates of causal effects absent strategies that augment propensity score adjustment with adjustment for individual covariates. We illustrate this phenomenon with a simulation study and with a comparative effectiveness investigation of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy among 123,286 Medicare beneficiaries hospitlized for stroke in 2006 and 2007. PMID:23379793

  5. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  6. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  7. Brain extraction based on locally linear representation-based classification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Qianjin

    2014-05-15

    Brain extraction is an important procedure in brain image analysis. Although numerous brain extraction methods have been presented, enhancing brain extraction methods remains challenging because brain MRI images exhibit complex characteristics, such as anatomical variability and intensity differences across different sequences and scanners. To address this problem, we present a Locally Linear Representation-based Classification (LLRC) method for brain extraction. A novel classification framework is derived by introducing the locally linear representation to the classical classification model. Under this classification framework, a common label fusion approach can be considered as a special case and thoroughly interpreted. Locality is important to calculate fusion weights for LLRC; this factor is also considered to determine that Local Anchor Embedding is more applicable in solving locally linear coefficients compared with other linear representation approaches. Moreover, LLRC supplies a way to learn the optimal classification scores of the training samples in the dictionary to obtain accurate classification. The International Consortium for Brain Mapping and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases were used to build a training dataset containing 70 scans. To evaluate the proposed method, we used four publicly available datasets (IBSR1, IBSR2, LPBA40, and ADNI3T, with a total of 241 scans). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the four common brain extraction methods (BET, BSE, GCUT, and ROBEX), and is comparable to the performance of BEaST, while being more accurate on some datasets compared with BEaST. PMID:24525169

  8. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

    PubMed Central

    Subari, Norazian; Saleh, Junita Mohamad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data. PMID:23202033

  9. Brain extraction based on locally linear representation-based classification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Qianjin

    2014-05-15

    Brain extraction is an important procedure in brain image analysis. Although numerous brain extraction methods have been presented, enhancing brain extraction methods remains challenging because brain MRI images exhibit complex characteristics, such as anatomical variability and intensity differences across different sequences and scanners. To address this problem, we present a Locally Linear Representation-based Classification (LLRC) method for brain extraction. A novel classification framework is derived by introducing the locally linear representation to the classical classification model. Under this classification framework, a common label fusion approach can be considered as a special case and thoroughly interpreted. Locality is important to calculate fusion weights for LLRC; this factor is also considered to determine that Local Anchor Embedding is more applicable in solving locally linear coefficients compared with other linear representation approaches. Moreover, LLRC supplies a way to learn the optimal classification scores of the training samples in the dictionary to obtain accurate classification. The International Consortium for Brain Mapping and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases were used to build a training dataset containing 70 scans. To evaluate the proposed method, we used four publicly available datasets (IBSR1, IBSR2, LPBA40, and ADNI3T, with a total of 241 scans). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the four common brain extraction methods (BET, BSE, GCUT, and ROBEX), and is comparable to the performance of BEaST, while being more accurate on some datasets compared with BEaST.

  10. A hybrid sensing approach for pure and adulterated honey classification.

    PubMed

    Subari, Norazian; Mohamad Saleh, Junita; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Zakaria, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data. PMID:23202033

  11. Validity of APCS score as a risk prediction score for advanced colorectal neoplasia in Chinese asymptomatic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Lili; Hao, Jianyu; Wu, Yongdong; Lu, Di; Zhao, Haiying; Wang, Zhenjie; Xu, Tianming; Yang, Hong; Qian, Jiaming; Li, Jingnan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score is a risk-stratification tool that helps predict the risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in asymptomatic Asian populations, but has not yet been assessed for its validity of use in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to assess the validity of APCS score in asymptomatic Chinese population, and to identify other risk factors associated with ACN. Asymptomatic subjects (N = 1010) who underwent colonoscopy screening between 2012 and 2014 in Beijing were enrolled. APCS scores based on questionnaires were used to stratify subjects into high, moderate, and average-risk tiers. Cochran–Armitage test for trend was used to assess the association between ACN and risk tiers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with ACN as the outcome, adjusting for APCS score, body mass index, alcohol consumption, self-reported diabetes, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as independent variables. The average age was 53.5 (standard deviation 8.4) years. The prevalence of ACN was 4.1% overall, and in the high, moderate, and average-risk tiers, the prevalence was 8.8%, 2.83%, and 1.55%, respectively (P < 0.001). High-risk tier had 3.3 and 6.1-fold increased risk of ACN as compared with those in the moderate and average-risk tiers, respectively. In univariate analysis, high-risk tier, obesity, diabetes, and alcohol consumption were associated with ACN. In multivariate analysis, only high-risk tier was an independent predictor of ACN. The APCS score can effectively identify a subset of asymptomatic Chinese population at high risk for ACN. Further studies are required to identify other risk factors, and the acceptability of the score to the general population will need to be further examined. PMID:27741134

  12. Prognostic score systems and community-acquired bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Spindler, C; Ortqvist, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three score systems: the pneumonia severity index (PSI); CURB-65 (confusion; urea >7 mM; respiratory rate > or =30 breaths x min(-1); blood pressure <90 mmHg systolic or < or =60 mmHg diastolic; aged > or =65 yrs old); and modified American Thoracic Society rule for predicting intensive care unit (ICU) need and mortality due to bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. All adult patients (n = 114) with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia at the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, 1999-2000, were included in the study. Severity scores were calculated and the independent prognostic importance of different variables was analysed by multiple regression analyses. PSI > or = IV, CURB-65 > or = 2, and the presence of one major or more than one minor risk factor in mATS all had a high sensitivity, but somewhat lower specificity for predicting death and ICU need. The death rate was 12% (13 out of 114). Severity score and treatment in departments other than the Dept of Infectious Diseases were the only factors independently correlated to death. Patients treated in other departments more often had severe underlying illnesses and were more severely ill on admission. However, a significant difference in death rates remained after adjustment for severity between the two groups. In conclusion, all score systems were useful for predicting the need for intensive care unit treatment and death due to bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. The pneumonia severity index was the most sensitive, but CURB-65 was easier to use.

  13. Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

  14. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances. PMID:27441407

  15. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances.

  16. Propensity score weighting with multilevel data.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Landrum, Mary Beth

    2013-08-30

    Propensity score methods are being increasingly used as a less parametric alternative to traditional regression to balance observed differences across groups in both descriptive and causal comparisons. Data collected in many disciplines often have analytically relevant multilevel or clustered structure. The propensity score, however, was developed and has been used primarily with unstructured data. We present and compare several propensity-score-weighted estimators for clustered data, including marginal, cluster-weighted, and doubly robust estimators. Using both analytical derivations and Monte Carlo simulations, we illustrate bias arising when the usual assumptions of propensity score analysis do not hold for multilevel data. We show that exploiting the multilevel structure, either parametrically or nonparametrically, in at least one stage of the propensity score analysis can greatly reduce these biases. We applied these methods to a study of racial disparities in breast cancer screening among beneficiaries of Medicare health plans.

  17. A Novel Approach for Lie Detection Based on F-Score and Extreme Learning Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junfeng; Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Wenjia; Tao, Chunyi; Guan, Jinan; Rao, Nini

    2013-01-01

    A new machine learning method referred to as F-score_ELM was proposed to classify the lying and truth-telling using the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from 28 guilty and innocent subjects. Thirty-one features were extracted from the probe responses from these subjects. Then, a recently-developed classifier called extreme learning machine (ELM) was combined with F-score, a simple but effective feature selection method, to jointly optimize the number of the hidden nodes of ELM and the feature subset by a grid-searching training procedure. The method was compared to two classification models combining principal component analysis with back-propagation network and support vector machine classifiers. We thoroughly assessed the performance of these classification models including the training and testing time, sensitivity and specificity from the training and testing sets, as well as network size. The experimental results showed that the number of the hidden nodes can be effectively optimized by the proposed method. Also, F-score_ELM obtained the best classification accuracy and required the shortest training and testing time. PMID:23755136

  18. Improving the assessment of the outcome of nonsynonymous SNVs with a consensus deleteriousness score, Condel.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Abel; López-Bigas, Nuria

    2011-04-01

    Several large ongoing initiatives that profit from next-generation sequencing technologies have driven--and in coming years will continue to drive--the emergence of long catalogs of missense single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the human genome. As a consequence, researchers have developed various methods and their related computational tools to classify these missense SNVs as probably deleterious or probably neutral polymorphisms. The outputs produced by each of these computational tools are of different natures and thus difficult to compare and integrate. Taking advantage of the possible complementarity between different tools might allow more accurate classifications. Here we propose an effective approach to integrating the output of some of these tools into a unified classification; this approach is based on a weighted average of the normalized scores of the individual methods (WAS). (In this paper, the approach is illustrated for the integration of five tools.) We show that this WAS outperforms each individual method in the task of classifying missense SNVs as deleterious or neutral. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this WAS can be used not only for classification purposes (deleterious versus neutral mutation) but also as an indicator of the impact of the mutation on the functionality of the mutant protein. In other words, it may be used as a deleteriousness score of missense SNVs. Therefore, we recommend the use of this WAS as a consensus deleteriousness score of missense mutations (Condel). PMID:21457909

  19. Utility scores for vesicoureteral reflux and anti-reflux surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Caleb; Routh, Jonathan C.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Rosoklija, Ilina; Kokorowski, Paul; Prosser, Lisa A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) continues to be controversial. In conditions of uncertainty, decision analytic techniques such as cost-utility analysis (CUA) can help to structure the decision-making process. However, CUA analyses require a “utility,” a value between 0 (death) and 1 (perfect health) corresponding to the quality of life associated with a health state. Ideally, utility values are elicited directly from representative community samples, but utilities have not been rigorously measured for pediatric urology conditions. Objectives To elicit utility scores for VUR and open anti-reflux surgery (ARS) from a representative, well-characterized community sample of adults who have been parents. Methods Cross-sectional survey of nationally representative adults who had ever been parents. Each respondent saw one of four descriptions of VUR, with or without continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) and occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). A 6-week postoperative health state following ARS was also assessed. We used the time trade-off (TTO) method to elicit utility scores. Factors associated with utility score were assessed with a multivariate linear regression model. Results The survey was completed by 1200 individuals. Data were weighted to adjust for demographic differences between responders and non-responders. Mean age was 52 ± 15 years, 44% were male, and 68% were White. In terms of education, 29% had a college degree or higher. The mean utility score for VUR overall was 0.82 ± 0.28. VUR utility scores did not differ significantly based on inclusion of CAP or UTI in the health state description (p=0.21). The 6-week postoperative period garnered a utility of 0.71 ± 0.43. Discussion Our results showed that VUR has a mean utility score of 0.82, which indicates that the community perceives this condition to be a substantial burden. For comparison, conditions with similar utility scores include compensated hepatitis

  20. Clinical Scores for Dyspnoea Severity in Children: A Prospective Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Hendriekje; Brand, Paul; Reimink, Roelien; Bekhof, Jolita

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute dyspnoeic children, assessment of dyspnoea severity and treatment response is frequently based on clinical dyspnoea scores. Our study aim was to validate five commonly used paediatric dyspnoea scores. Methods Fifty children aged 0–8 years with acute dyspnoea were clinically assessed before and after bronchodilator treatment, a subset of 27 children were videotaped and assessed twice by nine observers. The observers scored clinical signs necessary to calculate the Asthma Score (AS), Asthma Severity Score (ASS), Clinical Asthma Evaluation Score 2 (CAES-2), Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) and respiratory rate, accessory muscle use, decreased breath sounds (RAD). Results A total of 1120 observations were used to assess fourteen measurement properties within domains of validity, reliability and utility. All five dyspnoea scores showed overall poor results, scoring insufficiently on more than half of the quality criteria for measurement properties. The AS and PRAM were the most valid with good values on six and moderate values on three properties. Poor results were mainly due to insufficient measurement properties in the validity and reliability domains whereas utility properties were moderate to good in all scores. Conclusion This study shows that commonly used dyspnoea scores show insufficient validity and reliability to allow for clinical use without caution. PMID:27382963

  1. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  2. The classification of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. K.; Eaton, N.; Green, S. F.; McCheyne, R. S.; Meadows, A. J.

    A numerical taxonomy of asteroids is proposed and illustrated for a sample of 82 well-characterized asteroids in the TRIAD file described by Zellner (1979). The growth of different classification schemes, reflecting the rapid increase in knowledge of the physical and orbital properties of asteroids, is traced since about 1970. The proposed system is adapted from a microbiological taxonomy program and uses only physical parameters: albedo, red/blue ratio, visible-spectrum curvature, Fe(2+) absorption near 0.9 microns, U-B, and B-V. A dendrogram is presented and interpreted, and the scheme is found to agree reasonably well with conventional classifications, to allow the incorporation of new kinds of data, and to facilitate the identification of objects with particular charcteristics to plan future observations.

  3. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  4. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafer surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.

  5. SLC classification: an update.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, A; Yee, S W; Sali, A; Giacomini, K M

    2013-07-01

    The 386 human SLC superfamily members are diverse in sequence, structure, and function. Using sequence similarity, we previously classified the SLC superfamily members and identified relationships among families. With the recent determination of new SLC structures and identification of previously unknown human SLC families, an update of our previous classification is timely. Here, we comprehensively compare the SLC sequences and structures and discuss the applicability of structure-based ligand discovery to key SLC members.

  6. Granular loess classification based

    SciTech Connect

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess.

  7. Prediction of 18-month survival in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome. A regression model and scoring system based on the combination of chromosome findings and the Bournemouth score.

    PubMed

    Parlier, V; van Melle, G; Beris, P; Schmidt, P M; Tobler, A; Haller, E; Bellomo, M J

    1995-06-01

    The predictive potential of six selected factors was assessed in 72 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of survival at 18 months. Factors were age (above median of 69 years), dysplastic features in the three myeloid bone marrow cell lineages, presence of chromosome defects, all metaphases abnormal, double or complex chromosome defects (C23), and a Bournemouth score of 2, 3, or 4 (B234). In the multivariate approach, B234 and C23 proved to be significantly associated with a reduction in the survival probability. The similarity of the regression coefficients associated with these two factors means that they have about the same weight. Consequently, the model was simplified by counting the number of factors (0, 1, or 2) present in each patient, thus generating a scoring system called the Lausanne-Bournemouth score (LB score). The LB score combines the well-recognized and easy-to-use Bournemouth score (B score) with the chromosome defect complexity, C23 constituting an additional indicator of patient outcome. The predicted risk of death within 18 months calculated from the model is as follows: 7.1% (confidence interval: 1.7-24.8) for patients with an LB score of 0, 60.1% (44.7-73.8) for an LB score of 1, and 96.8% (84.5-99.4) for an LB score of 2. The scoring system presented here has several interesting features. The LB score may improve the predictive value of the B score, as it is able to recognize two prognostic groups in the intermediate risk category of patients with B scores of 2 or 3. It has also the ability to identify two distinct prognostic subclasses among RAEB and possibly CMML patients. In addition to its above-described usefulness in the prognostic evaluation, the LB score may bring new insights into the understanding of evolution patterns in MDS. We used the combination of the B score and chromosome complexity to define four classes which may be considered four possible states of

  8. Value of the "TAVI2-SCORe" versus surgical risk scores for prediction of one year mortality in 511 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Debonnaire, Philippe; Fusini, Laura; Wolterbeek, Ron; Kamperidis, Vasileios; van Rosendael, Philippe; van der Kley, Frank; Katsanos, Spyridon; Joyce, Emer; Tamborini, Gloria; Muratori, Manuela; Gripari, Paola; Bax, Jeroen J; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Pepi, Mauro; Delgado, Victoria

    2015-01-15

    A bedside-available transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)-dedicated prognostic risk score is an unmet clinical need. We aimed to develop such a risk score predicting 1-year mortality post-TAVI and to compare it with the performance of the logistic EuroSCORE (LES) I and LES-II and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' (STS) score. Baseline variables of 511 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI that were independently associated with 1-year mortality post-TAVI were included in the "TAVI2-SCORe." Discrimination and calibration abilities of the novel score were assessed and compared with surgical risk scores. One-year mortality was 17.0% (n = 80 of 471). Porcelain thoracic aorta (hazard ratio [HR] 2.56), anemia (HR 2.03), left ventricular dysfunction (HR 1.98), recent myocardial infarction (HR 3.78), male sex (HR 1.81), critical aortic valve stenosis (HR 2.46), old age (HR 1.68), and renal dysfunction (HR 1.76) formed the TAVI2-SCORe (all p <0.05). According to the number of points assigned (1 for each variable and 2 for infarction), patients were stratified into 5 risk categories: 0, 1 (HR 2.6), 2 (HR 3.6), 3 (HR 10.5), and ≥4 (HR 17.6). TAVI2-SCORe showed better discrimination ability (Harrells' C statistic 0.715) compared with LES-I, LES-II, and STS score (0.609, 0.633, and 0.50, respectively). Cumulative 1-year survival rate was 54% versus 88% for patients with TAVI2-SCORE ≥3 versus <3 points, respectively (p <0.001). Contrary to surgical risk scores, there was no significant difference between observed and expected 1-year mortality for all TAVI2-SCORe risk strata (all p >0.05, Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic 0.304), suggesting superior calibration performance. In conclusion, the TAVI2-SCORe is an accurate, simple, and bedside-available score predicting 1-year mortality post-TAVI, outperforming conventional surgical risk scores for this end point. PMID:25432413

  9. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  10. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  11. Neuromuscular disease classification system.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns. PMID:23804164

  12. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  13. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation. PMID:26948349

  14. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  15. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  16. [Inter-observes agreement of Ishak and Metavir scores in histological evaluation of chronic viral hepatitis B and C].

    PubMed

    Rammeh, Soumaya; Khadra, Hajer Ben; Znaidi, Nadia Sabbegh; Romdhane, Neila Attia; Najjar, Taoufik; Bouzaidi, Slim; Zermani, Rachida

    2014-01-01

    Many classification systems are currently used for histological evaluation of the severity of chronic viral hepatitis, including the Ishak and Metavir scores, but there is not a consensus classification. The objective of this work was to study the intra and inter-observers agreement of these two scores in the histopathological analysis of liver biopsies in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C. Fifty nine patients were included in the study, 26 had chronic hepatitis C and 33 had chronic hepatitis B. To investigate the inter-observers agreement, the liver biopsies were analyzed separately by two pathologists without prior consensus reading. The two pathologists conducted then a consensual reading before reviewing all cases independently. Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated and in case of asymmetry Spearman's rho coefficient. Before the consensus reading, the agreement was moderate for the analysis of histological activity with both scores (Metavir: kappa=0.41, Ishak: rho=0.58). For the analysis of fibrosis, the agreement was good with both scores (Metavir: kappa=0.61, Ishak: rho=0.86). The consensus reading has improved the reproducibility of the activity that has become good with both scores (Metavir: kappa=0.77, Ishak: rho=0.76). For fibrosis improvement was observed with the Ishak score which agreement became excellent (kappa=0.81). In conclusion, we recommend in routine practice, a combined score: Metavir for activity and Ishak for fibrosis and to make a double reading for each biopsy.

  17. Proposal of an ultrasonographic classification for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis: Echinococcosis multilocularis Ulm classification-ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Gruener, Beate; Kaltenbach, Tanja EM; Ansari-Bitzenberger, Sarina; Kern, Peter; Fuchs, Michael; Mason, Richard A; Barth, Thomas FE; Haenle, Mark M; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Graeter, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish an ultrasonographic classification based on a large sample of patients with confirmed hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE). METHODS: Clinical data and ultrasonography (US) findings of 185 patients (100 males; 85 females; mean age at diagnosis: 51.4 ± 17.6 years; mean age at time of US examination: 58.7 ± 18.2 years) were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the US morphology of hepatic AE lesions. The sonomorphological findings were grouped according to a five-part classification scheme. RESULTS: Application of the new classification resulted in the following distribution of sonomorphological patterns among the patients examined: hailstorm (54.1%); pseudocystic (13.5%); ossification (13.0%); hemangioma-like (8.1%); and metastasis-like (6.5%). Only 4.9% of lesions could not be assigned to a sonomorphological pattern. CONCLUSION: The sonomorphological classification proposed in the present study facilitates the diagnosis, interpretation and comparison of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in routine practice and in the context of scientific studies. PMID:26604646

  18. Estimating one's own personality and intelligence scores.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2004-05-01

    One hundred and eighty-seven university students completed the full NEO-PI-R assessing the five super-traits and 30 primary traits, and the Wonderlic Personnel Test of general intelligence. Two months later (before receiving feedback on their psychometric scores), they estimated their own scores on these variables. Results at the super-factor level indicated that participants could significantly predict/estimate their own Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness scores. The correlation between estimated and psychometrically measured IQ was r=.30, showing that participants could, to some extent, accurately estimate their intelligence. In addition, there were a number of significant correlations between estimated intelligence and psychometrically assessed personality (particularly Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Extraversion). Disagreeable people tended to award themselves higher self-estimated intelligence scores. Similarly, stable people tended to award themselves higher estimates of intelligence (even when other variables were controlled). Regressing both estimated and psychometric IQ scores onto estimated and psychometric personality scores indicated that the strongest significant effect was the relationship between trait scores and self-estimated intelligence. PMID:15142299

  19. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  20. Robust tissue classification for reproducible wound assessment in telemedicine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wannous, Hazem; Treuillet, Sylvie; Lucas, Yves

    2010-04-01

    In telemedicine environments, a standardized and reproducible assessment of wounds, using a simple free-handled digital camera, is an essential requirement. However, to ensure robust tissue classification, particular attention must be paid to the complete design of the color processing chain. We introduce the key steps including color correction, merging of expert labeling, and segmentation-driven classification based on support vector machines. The tool thus developed ensures stability under lighting condition, viewpoint, and camera changes, to achieve accurate and robust classification of skin tissues. Clinical tests demonstrate that such an advanced tool, which forms part of a complete 3-D and color wound assessment system, significantly improves the monitoring of the healing process. It achieves an overlap score of 79.3 against 69.1% for a single expert, after mapping on the medical reference developed from the image labeling by a college of experts.

  1. Superiority of Classification Tree versus Cluster, Fuzzy and Discriminant Models in a Heartbeat Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Abächerli, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a 2-stage heartbeat classifier of supraventricular (SVB) and ventricular (VB) beats. Stage 1 makes computationally-efficient classification of SVB-beats, using simple correlation threshold criterion for finding close match with a predominant normal (reference) beat template. The non-matched beats are next subjected to measurement of 20 basic features, tracking the beat and reference template morphology and RR-variability for subsequent refined classification in SVB or VB-class by Stage 2. Four linear classifiers are compared: cluster, fuzzy, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification tree (CT), all subjected to iterative training for selection of the optimal feature space among extended 210-sized set, embodying interactive second-order effects between 20 independent features. The optimization process minimizes at equal weight the false positives in SVB-class and false negatives in VB-class. The training with European ST-T, AHA, MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases found the best performance settings of all classification models: Cluster (30 features), Fuzzy (72 features), LDA (142 coefficients), CT (221 decision nodes) with top-3 best scored features: normalized current RR-interval, higher/lower frequency content ratio, beat-to-template correlation. Unbiased test-validation with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database rates the classifiers in descending order of their specificity for SVB-class: CT (99.9%), LDA (99.6%), Cluster (99.5%), Fuzzy (99.4%); sensitivity for ventricular ectopic beats as part from VB-class (commonly reported in published beat-classification studies): CT (96.7%), Fuzzy (94.4%), LDA (94.2%), Cluster (92.4%); positive predictivity: CT (99.2%), Cluster (93.6%), LDA (93.0%), Fuzzy (92.4%). CT has superior accuracy by 0.3–6.8% points, with the advantage for easy model complexity configuration by pruning the tree consisted of easy interpretable ‘if-then’ rules. PMID:26461492

  2. Beyond Correlational Analysis of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS): A Classification Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the classification validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) using a sample of kindergarteners (N = 177). Results indicated the cutoff scores for determining "at-risk" status on the DIBELS produced substantial false negative rates. Cutoff scores identifying students as at "some risk"…

  3. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  4. [Male aspect towards good aging].

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Matti O

    2009-01-01

    Columnist "Kirsti" of Helsingin Sanomat newspaper divided middle age into three stages: early middle age (35-45 years), mid-middle age (45-55) and late middle age (55-65). Similarly, those at 65-75 are living juvenile old age, those at 75-85 midlife old age and those over 85, senescent old age. Classification of these ages according to the years of life does, however, not correspond with personal feelings. The intrinsic relation to life and death may provide a better definition of the stages of life. At the middle age we become aware of the limitation of life and begin to count the remaining years. PMID:19585910

  5. Kernel score statistic for dependent data.

    PubMed

    Malzahn, Dörthe; Friedrichs, Stefanie; Rosenberger, Albert; Bickeböller, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The kernel score statistic is a global covariance component test over a set of genetic markers. It provides a flexible modeling framework and does not collapse marker information. We generalize the kernel score statistic to allow for familial dependencies and to adjust for random confounder effects. With this extension, we adjust our analysis of real and simulated baseline systolic blood pressure for polygenic familial background. We find that the kernel score test gains appreciably in power through the use of sequencing compared to tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms for very rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with <1% minor allele frequency.

  6. Metagenome fragment classification based on multiple motif-occurrence profiles.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Naoki; Seno, Shigeto; Takenaka, Yoichi; Matsuda, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A vast amount of metagenomic data has been obtained by extracting multiple genomes simultaneously from microbial communities, including genomes from uncultivable microbes. By analyzing these metagenomic data, novel microbes are discovered and new microbial functions are elucidated. The first step in analyzing these data is sequenced-read classification into reference genomes from which each read can be derived. The Naïve Bayes Classifier is a method for this classification. To identify the derivation of the reads, this method calculates a score based on the occurrence of a DNA sequence motif in each reference genome. However, large differences in the sizes of the reference genomes can bias the scoring of the reads. This bias might cause erroneous classification and decrease the classification accuracy. To address this issue, we have updated the Naïve Bayes Classifier method using multiple sets of occurrence profiles for each reference genome by normalizing the genome sizes, dividing each genome sequence into a set of subsequences of similar length and generating profiles for each subsequence. This multiple profile strategy improves the accuracy of the results generated by the Naïve Bayes Classifier method for simulated and Sargasso Sea datasets.

  7. Metagenome fragment classification based on multiple motif-occurrence profiles.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Naoki; Seno, Shigeto; Takenaka, Yoichi; Matsuda, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A vast amount of metagenomic data has been obtained by extracting multiple genomes simultaneously from microbial communities, including genomes from uncultivable microbes. By analyzing these metagenomic data, novel microbes are discovered and new microbial functions are elucidated. The first step in analyzing these data is sequenced-read classification into reference genomes from which each read can be derived. The Naïve Bayes Classifier is a method for this classification. To identify the derivation of the reads, this method calculates a score based on the occurrence of a DNA sequence motif in each reference genome. However, large differences in the sizes of the reference genomes can bias the scoring of the reads. This bias might cause erroneous classification and decrease the classification accuracy. To address this issue, we have updated the Naïve Bayes Classifier method using multiple sets of occurrence profiles for each reference genome by normalizing the genome sizes, dividing each genome sequence into a set of subsequences of similar length and generating profiles for each subsequence. This multiple profile strategy improves the accuracy of the results generated by the Naïve Bayes Classifier method for simulated and Sargasso Sea datasets. PMID:25210663

  8. Classification performance prediction using parametric scattering feature models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hung-Chih; Moses, Randolph L.; Potter, Lee C.

    2000-08-01

    We consider a method for estimating classification performance of a model-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition system. Target classification is performed by comparing an unordered feature set extracted from a measured SAR image chip with an unordered feature set predicted from a hypothesized target class and pose. A Bayes likelihood metric that incorporates uncertainty in both the predicted and extracted feature vectors is used to compute the match score. Evaluation of the match likelihoods requires a correspondence between the unordered predicted and extracted feature sets. This is a bipartite graph matching problem with insertions and deletions; we show that the optimal match can be found in polynomial time. We extend the results in 1 to estimate classification performance for a ten-class SAR ATR problem. We consider a synthetic classification problem to validate the classifier and to address resolution and robustness questions in the likelihood scoring method. Specifically, we consider performance versus SAR resolution, performance degradation due to mismatch between the assumed and actual feature statistics, and performance impact of correlated feature attributes.

  9. Scoring of coronary artery calcium scans: history, assumptions, current limitations, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Krishna; Joshi, Parag H; Henry, Travis S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning is a reliable, noninvasive technique for estimating overall coronary plaque burden and for identifying risk for future cardiac events. Arthur Agatston and Warren Janowitz published the first technique for scoring CAC scans in 1990. Given the lack of available data correlating CAC with burden of coronary atherosclerosis at that time, their scoring algorithm was remarkable, but somewhat arbitrary. Since then, a few other scoring techniques have been proposed for the measurement of CAC including the Volume score and Mass score. Yet despite new data, little in this field has changed in the last 15 years. The main focus of our paper is to review the implications of the current approach to scoring CAC scans in terms of correlation with the central disease - coronary atherosclerosis. We first discuss the methodology of each available scoring system, describing how each of these scores make important indirect assumptions in the way they account (or do not account) for calcium density, location of calcium, spatial distribution of calcium, and microcalcification/emerging calcium that might limit their predictive power. These assumptions require further study in well-designed, large event-driven studies. In general, all of these scores are adequate and are highly correlated with each other. Despite its age, the Agatston score remains the most extensively studied and widely accepted technique in both the clinical and research settings. After discussing CAC scoring in the era of contrast enhanced coronary CT angiography, we discuss suggested potential modifications to current CAC scanning protocols with respect to tube voltage, tube current, and slice thickness which may further improve the value of CAC scoring. We close with a focused discussion of the most important future directions in the field of CAC scoring. PMID:25585030

  10. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments

    PubMed Central

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently “universally” recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  11. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments.

    PubMed

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-06-18

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently "universally" recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  12. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Definition and classification].

    PubMed

    Deslandre, C

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a group of diseases defined by the presence of arthritis of more than 6 weeks duration in patients aged less than 16 years and with unknown etiology. The international classification based on clinical and biological criteria define each type of JIA: systemic, oligoarticular, polyarticular with and without rheumatoid factor, enthesitis-related arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. However, some discussions persist concerning systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, whose clinical symptoms and pathogenic mechanisms are quite similar to those observed in autoinflammatory diseases, arthritis with antinuclear factors (poly- and oligoarticular) that could be considered as a homogenous group, and a family history of psoriasis that frequently led to unclassified arthritis. Better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms should improve the initial clinical classification with more homogeneous groups of patients and reduce the number of unclassified cases of arthritis. PMID:26968301

  13. CHADS2 score has a better predictive value than CHA2DS2-VASc score in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yunli; Ma, Qing; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Cuiying; Zhang, Dai; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Aim The study aims to compare the ability of CHA2DS2-VASc (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [two scores], type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism [TE] [doubled], vascular disease, age 65–74 years, and sex category) and CHADS2 (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke [doubled]) scores to predict the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) or TE among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods A total of 413 patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, and not on oral anticoagulants for the previous 6 months, were enrolled in the study. The predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores for IS/TE events was evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Results During a follow-up period of 1.99±1.29 years, 104 (25.2%) patients died and 59 (14.3%) patients developed IS/TE. The CHADS2 score performed better than the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting IS/TE as assessed by c-indexes (0.647 vs 0.615, respectively; P<0.05). Non-CHADS2 risk factors, such as vascular disease and female sex, were not found to be predictive of IS/TE (hazard ratio 1.518, 95% CI: 0.832–2.771; hazard ratio 1.067, 95% CI: 0.599–1.899, respectively). No differences in event rates were found in patients with the CHADS2 scores of 1 and 2 (7.1% vs 7.8%). It was observed that patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were most in need of anticoagulation therapy. Conclusion In patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, the CHADS2 score was found to be significantly better in predicting IS/TE events when compared to the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were associated with high risk of IS/TE events. PMID:27478371

  14. Quality control and standardization of embryo morphology scoring and viability markers.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Kersti; Ahlström, Aisling

    2015-10-01

    A so-called 'good-quality embryo' may be defined as an embryo that has the potential to implant into the uterine endometrium and give rise to the birth of a healthy child. A standardized and objective scoring of embryo 'quality' is therefore crucial in the classification and selection of embryos. However, embryo scoring is still being performed mainly via ocular evaluation, which often results in different interpretations of embryo quality. The addition of viability markers, such as measuring gene expression or the uptake/release of metabolites, proteins or RNA/DNA molecules in the culture media, would increase the possibility of standardized measurements. However, no single biomarker has yet been introduced into standard clinical practice, mainly due to the complexity of the techniques and the influence of biological variations and differences in culture conditions. In this paper different methods for the scoring of embryos and the possibility of standardizing and implementing quality control systems are discussed.

  15. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Some Fine Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    1980-01-01

    An essential function of the school guidance worker is the translation of test results into plain language and/or concrete recommendations. To do so requires a thorough understanding of the various test scores publishers provide. (Author)

  17. Multifactor Screener in OPEN: Scoring Procedures & Results

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables.

  18. 7 CFR 52.3764 - Score sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product... weight (ounces) Size Style Average count per pound (whole style) Factors Score points Color 30 (A)...

  19. 7 CFR 52.3764 - Score sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... count per pound (whole style) Factors Score points Color 30 (A) 27-30 (B) 24-26 (C) 1 21-23 (SStd.) 1...

  20. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139