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Sample records for age classification scores

  1. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  2. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  3. Trabecular bone score in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, A; Ponti, F; Diano, D; Amadori, M; Albisinni, U; Battista, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this work was to report on trabecular bone score (TBS) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of healthy Italian subjects to be used as a reference standard for future study in clinical and research settings. The secondary aim was to investigate the link between TBS and conventional parameters of bone and body composition by DXA. Methods: 250 individuals of 5 age bands (spanning from 18 to 70 years of age, equally distributed for both age and sex) were prospectively recruited. A lumbar spine (LS) DXA scan (Lunar iDXA™; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) was acquired for each subject and then analysed with the latest version of TBS iNsight v. 2.1 (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France) software. LS bone mineral density (LS BMD), Z-score, T-score and TBS values were collected. Pearson's test was used to investigate the correlations between TBS and LS BMD and the influence of age, body mass index (BMI) and body composition on these parameters. Results: A significant decrease of TBS and LS BMD was observed with ageing in both males (TBS mean values from 1.486 to 1.374; LS BMD mean values from 1.219 to 1.187) and females (TBS mean values from 1.464 to 1.306; LS BMD mean values from 1.154 to 1.116). No statistically significant difference was achieved among males and females of the same age group for both TBS and LS BMD, with the exception of the fifth age group. A significant correlation was found between LS BMD and TBS values in both sexes (r  = 0.555–0.655, p < 0.0001). BMI influenced LS BMD but not TBS. TBS values were inversely correlated with some fat mass parameters, in particular with visceral adipose tissue (in males: r = −0.332, p < 0.001; in females: r = −0.348, p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between TBS and total lean mass, opposite to LS BMD (in males: r = 0.418; p < 0.0001; in females: r = −0.235; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This report is an attempt to start building a database for

  4. Fruit classification based on weighted score-level feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hulin; Hang Chan, Leanne Lai; Liu, Cairong; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We describe an object classification method based on weighted score-level feature fusion using learned weights. Our method is able to recognize 20 object classes in a customized fruit dataset. Although the fusion of multiple features is commonly used to distinguish variable object classes, the optimal combination of features is not well defined. Moreover, in these methods, most parameters used for feature extraction are not optimized and the contribution of each feature to an individual class is not considered when determining the weight of the feature. Our algorithm relies on optimizing a single feature during feature selection and learning the weight of each feature for an individual class from the training data using a linear support vector machine before the features are linearly combined with the weights at the score level. The optimal single feature is selected using cross-validation. The optimal combination of features is explored and tested experimentally using a customized fruit dataset with 20 object classes and a variety of complex backgrounds. The experiment results show that the proposed feature fusion method outperforms four state-of-the-art fruit classification algorithms and improves the classification accuracy when compared with some state-of-the-art feature fusion methods.

  5. Sleep Classification According to AASM and Rechtschaffen & Kales: Effects on Sleep Scoring Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Doris; Anderer, Peter; Gruber, Georg; Parapatics, Silvia; Loretz, Erna; Boeck, Marion; Kloesch, Gerhard; Heller, Esther; Schmidt, Andrea; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Saletu, Bernd; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Dorffner, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate differences between visual sleep scoring according to the classification developed by Rechtschaffen and Kales (R&K, 1968) and scoring based on the new guidelines of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM, 2007). Design: All-night polysomnographic recordings were scored visually according to the R&K and AASM rules by experienced sleep scorers. Descriptive data analysis was used to compare the resulting sleep parameters. Participants: Healthy subjects and patients (38 females and 34 males) aged between 21 and 86 years. Interventions: N/A Measurement and Results: While sleep latency and REM latency, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency were not affected by the classification standard, the time (in minutes and in percent of total sleep time) spent in sleep stage 1 (S1/N1), stage 2 (S2/N2) and slow wave sleep (S3+S4/N3) differed significantly between the R&K and the AASM classification. While light and deep sleep increased (S1 vs. N1 [+10.6 min, (+2.8%)]: P < 0.01; S3+S4 vs. N3 [+9.1 min (+2.4%)]: P < 0.01), stage 2 sleep decreased significantly according to AASM rules (S2 vs. N2 [−20.5 min, (−4.9%)]: P < 0.01). Moreover, wake after sleep onset was significantly prolonged by approximately 4 minutes (P < 0.01) according to the AASM standard. Interestingly, the effects on stage REM were age-dependent (intercept at 20 years: −7.5 min; slope: 1.6 min for 10-year age increase). No effects of sex and diagnosis were observed. Conclusion: The study shows significant and age-dependent differences between sleep parameters derived from conventional visual sleep scorings on the basis of R&K rules and those based on the new AASM rules. Thus, new normative data have to be established for the AASM standard. Citation: Moser D; Anderer P; Gruber G; Parapatics S; Loretz E; Boeck M; Kloesch G; Heller E; Schmidt A; Danker-Hopfe H; Saletu B; Zeitlhofer J; Dorffner G. Sleep classification according to AASM and rechtschaffen & kales: effects on

  6. Customer Credit Scoring Method Based on the SVDD Classification Model with Imbalanced Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bo; Nan, Lin; Zheng, Qin; Yang, Lei

    Customer credit scoring is a typical class of pattern classification problem with imbalanced dataset. A new customer credit scoring method based on the support vector domain description (SVDD) classification model was proposed in this paper. Main techniques of customer credit scoring were reviewed. The SVDD model with imbalanced dataset was analyzed and the predication method of customer credit scoring based on the SVDD model was proposed. Our experimental results confirm that our approach is effective in ranking and classifying customer credit.

  7. Examining Classification Criteria: A Comparison of Three Cut Score Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This study compared 3 different methods of creating cut scores for a screening instrument, T scores, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and the Rasch rating scale method (RSM), for use with the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Teacher Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007). Using…

  8. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time 1…

  10. Does Maximizing Information at the Cut Score Always Maximize Classification Accuracy and Consistency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…

  11. Classification Consistency when Scores Are Converted to Grades: Examination Marks versus Moderated School Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    In educational systems, concern has been expressed about the accuracy of classification when marks are aligned to grades or levels. In particular, it has been claimed that a school assessment-based grading would have much greater levels of accuracy than one based on examination scores. This paper investigates classification consistency by…

  12. Deep Learning for Cerebellar Ataxia Classification and Functional Score Regression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Shenghua; Carass, Aaron; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxia is a progressive neuro-degenerative disease that has multiple genetic versions, each with a characteristic pattern of anatomical degeneration that yields distinctive motor and cognitive problems. Studying this pattern of degeneration can help with the diagnosis of disease subtypes, evaluation of disease stage, and treatment planning. In this work, we propose a learning framework using MR image data for discriminating a set of cerebellar ataxia types and predicting a disease related functional score. We address the difficulty in analyzing high-dimensional image data with limited training subjects by: 1) training weak classifiers/regressors on a set of image subdomains separately, and combining the weak classifier/regressor outputs to make the decision; 2) perturbing the image subdomain to increase the training samples; 3) using a deep learning technique called the stacked auto-encoder to develop highly representative feature vectors of the input data. Experiments show that our approach can reliably classify between one of four categories (healthy control and three types of ataxia), and predict the functional staging score for ataxia. PMID:25553339

  13. Discriminative likelihood score weighting based on acoustic-phonetic classification for speaker identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Hoirin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a new discriminative likelihood score weighting technique is proposed for speaker identification. The proposed method employs a discriminative weighting of frame-level log-likelihood scores with acoustic-phonetic classification in the Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based speaker identification. Experiments performed on the Aurora noise-corrupted TIMIT database showed that the proposed approach provides meaningful performance improvement with an overall relative error reduction of 15.8% over the maximum likelihood-based baseline GMM approach.

  14. On the Development and Scoring of Classification and Observation Science Performance Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Shavelson, Richard J.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Schults, Susan Elise; Wiley, Edward W.; Brown, Janet H.

    In a project on the development of performance assessments in science, researchers have developed four types of assessment: comparative, component identification, classification, and observation. They have noted that assessments belonging to the same type of task can be scored for the same performance properties. This paper reports on the…

  15. Classification Accuracy of Nonword Repetition when Used with Preschool-Age Spanish-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to (a) describe and compare the nonword repetition (NWR) performance of preschool-age Spanish-speaking children (3- to 5-year-olds) with and without language impairment (LI) across 2 scoring approaches and (b) to contrast the classification accuracy of a Spanish NWR task when item-level and percentage…

  16. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  17. Intensive care nursing scoring system. Part 1: Classification of nursing diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, A K; Laurila, J; Ala-Kokko, T I; Hentinen, M; Janhonen, S A

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of computer-based information management systems to intensive care units offers new possibilities to describe and document the content of nursing. In different countries and health care organizations, the hospital culture and the approach taken by nurses and medical colleagues determine what, how and to what extent nursing is documented. There are nursing diagnosis classifications that are used in North America, such as NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), and the European Union Telenurse project will promote the use of the ICNP (International Classifications of Nursing Practice) throughout Europe. The above classifications are used to describe individual, family or community responses to potential or actual health problems or life processes. But there is no nursing diagnosis classification that would take into account both the aims and the unique context of intensive care nursing. This first article describes part of our research: the action research process and the result of the development of a nursing diagnosis classification compatible with the goals of intensive care in three adult intensive care units in the Oulu University Hospital. The classification of nursing diagnoses is part of the Intensive Care Nursing Scoring System (ICNSS) which was developed in the course of this study. The other parts deal with nursing outcomes and nursing interventions. ICNSS is used to facilitate information exchange in the process of intensive care nursing and to describe the nursing workload. PMID:11091466

  18. Age, Creatinine and Ejection Fraction Score in Brazil: Comparison with InsCor and the EuroSCORE

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Omar Asdrúbal Vilca; Matrangolo, Bruna La Regina; Titinger, David Provenzale; de Faria, Leandro Batisti; Dallan, Luís Roberto Palma; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto Ferreira; Dallan, Luís Alberto Oliveira; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk scores for cardiac surgery cannot continue to be neglected. Objective To assess the performance of “Age, Creatinine and Ejection Fraction Score” (ACEF Score) to predict mortality in patients submitted to elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve surgery, and to compare it to other scores. Methods A prospective cohort study was carried out with the database of a Brazilian tertiary care center. A total of 2,565 patients submitted to elective surgeries between May 2007 and July 2009 were assessed. For a more detailed analysis, the ACEF Score performance was compared to the InsCor’s and EuroSCORE’s performance through correlation, calibration and discrimination tests. Results Patients were stratified into mild, moderate and severe for all models. Calibration was inadequate for ACEF Score (p = 0.046) and adequate for InsCor (p = 0.460) and EuroSCORE (p = 0.750). As for discrimination, the area under the ROC curve was questionable for the ACEF Score (0.625) and adequate for InsCor (0.744) and EuroSCORE (0.763). Conclusion Although simple to use and practical, the ACEF Score, unlike InsCor and EuroSCORE, was not accurate for predicting mortality in patients submitted to elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart valve surgery in a Brazilian tertiary care center. PMID:26312550

  19. A Serial Risk Score Approach to Disease Classification that Accounts for Accuracy and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Dat; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Summary The performance of diagnostic tests for disease classification is often measured by accuracy (e.g. sensitivity or specificity); however, costs of the diagnostic test are a concern as well. Combinations of multiple diagnostic tests may improve accuracy, but incur additional costs. Here we consider serial testing approaches that maintain accuracy while controlling costs of the diagnostic tests. We present a serial risk score classification approach. The basic idea is to sequentially test with additional diagnostic tests just until persons are classified. In this way, it is not necessary to test all persons with all tests. The methods are studied in simulations and compared with logistic regression. We applied the methods to data from HIV cohort studies to identify HIV infected individuals who are recently infected (< 1 year) by testing with assays for multiple biomarkers. We find that the serial risk score classification approach can maintain accuracy while achieving a reduction in cost compared to testing all individuals with all assays. PMID:25156309

  20. Multicenter retrospective evaluation of the validity of the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score system in children.

    PubMed

    Sellin, Jonathan N; Steele, William J; Simpson, Lauren; Huff, Wei X; Lane, Brandon C; Chern, Joshua J; Fulkerson, Daniel H; Sayama, Christina M; Jea, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) system was developed to streamline injury assessment and guide surgical decision making. To the best of the authors' knowledge, external validation in the pediatric age group has not been undertaken prior to this report. METHODS This study evaluated the use of the TLICS in a large retrospective series of children and adolescents treated at 4 pediatric medical centers (Texas Children's Hospital, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Riley Children's Hospital, and Doernbecher Children's Hospital). A total of 147 patients treated for traumatic thoracic or lumbar spine trauma between February 1, 2002, and September 1, 2015, were included in this study. Clinical and radiographic data were evaluated. Injuries were classified using American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) status, Denis classification, and TLICS. RESULTS A total of 102 patients (69%) were treated conservatively, and 45 patients (31%) were treated surgically. All patients but one in the conservative group were classified as ASIA E. In this group, 86/102 patients (84%) had Denis type compression injuries. The TLICS in the conservative group ranged from 1 to 10 (mean 1.6). Overall, 93% of patients matched TLICS conservative treatment recommendations (score ≤ 3). No patients crossed over to the surgical group in delayed fashion. In the surgical group, 26/45 (58%) were ASIA E, whereas 19/45 (42%) had neurological deficits (ASIA A, B, C, or D). One of 45 (2%) patients was classified with Denis type compression injuries; 25/45 (56%) were classified with Denis type burst injuries; 14/45 (31%) were classified with Denis type seat belt injuries; and 5/45 (11%) were classified with Denis type fracture-dislocation injuries. The TLICS ranged from 2 to 10 (mean 6.4). Eighty-two percent of patients matched TLICS surgical treatment recommendations (score ≥ 5). No patients crossed over to the conservative management group. Eight patients (8

  1. Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Injury Severity Score System: A Literature Review of Its Safety

    PubMed Central

    Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; de Almeida Bastos, Dhiego Chaves; Jorge Torres, Hélio Henrique; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic literature review. Objective The Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score System (TLICS) is widely used to help guide the treatment of thoracolumbar spine trauma. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of the TLICS in clinical practice. Methods Using the Medline database without time restriction, we performed a systematic review using the keyword “Thoracolumbar Injury Classification,” searching for articles utilizing the TLICS. We classified the results according to their level of evidence and main conclusions. Results Nine articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. One article evaluated the safety of the TLICS based on its clinical application (level II). The eight remaining articles were based on retrospective application of the score, comparing the proposed treatment suggested by the TLICS with the treatment patients actually received (level III). The TLICS was safe in surgical and nonsurgical treatment with regards to neurologic status. Some studies reported that the retrospective application of the TLICS had inconsistencies with the treatment of burst fractures without neurologic deficits. Conclusions This literature review suggested that the TLICS use was safe especially with regards to preservation or improvement of neurologic function. Further well-designed multicenter prospective studies of the TLICS application in the decision making process would improve the evidence of its safety. Special attention to the TLICS application in the treatment of stable burst fractures is necessary. PMID:26835205

  2. Optimal query-based relevance feedback in medical image retrieval using score fusion-based classification.

    PubMed

    Behnam, Mohammad; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) framework using an effective classification method and a novel relevance feedback (RF) approach are proposed. For a large-scale database with diverse collection of different modalities, query image classification is inevitable due to firstly, reducing the computational complexity and secondly, increasing influence of data fusion by removing unimportant data and focus on the more valuable information. Hence, we find probability distribution of classes in the database using Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for each feature descriptor and then using the fusion of obtained scores from the dependency probabilities, the most relevant clusters are identified for a given query. Afterwards, visual similarity of query image and images in relevant clusters are calculated. This method is performed separately on all feature descriptors, and then the results are fused together using feature similarity ranking level fusion algorithm. In the RF level, we propose a new approach to find the optimal queries based on relevant images. The main idea is based on density function estimation of positive images and strategy of moving toward the aggregation of estimated density function. The proposed framework has been evaluated on ImageCLEF 2005 database consisting of 10,000 medical X-ray images of 57 semantic classes. The experimental results show that compared with the existing CBMIR systems, our framework obtains the acceptable performance both in the image classification and in the image retrieval by RF. PMID:25246167

  3. [A comparative study of clinical score and lung function tests in the classification of asthma by severity of disease].

    PubMed

    Nakaie, C M; Rozov, T; Manissadjian, A

    1998-01-01

    Fifty nine asthmatic children and adolescents, clinically stable, aged 6 to 15 years, 37 boys and 22 girls, from Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, were studied from September to November, 1994. The patients were classified by the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. They performed baseline spirometry and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), before and after bronchodilator, and measured PEFR three times a day (6 pm, at bedtime and on waking), for one day, at home. Five PEF measurements were made serially and the best readings were considered. Variability of PFE was calculated for 24 hours, as assessed by maximal amplitude. The results were summited to statistical analysis of the Laboratorio de Informática Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The results of PEFR and it's variability were compared to spirometry, (functional score, FEV1-forced expiratory volume in the first second) and to the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. In case of disagreement between the clinical parameters, the more severe one was chosen. The clinical score classified 20.3% of our patients as mild obstruction, 49.2% as moderate and 30.5% as severely compromised. According to FEV1, 58% of patients were classified as normal while the PEFR and its variability classified as normal 76% and 71%. The PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, correlated with the VEF1, as gold standard, showed good specificity, 91% and 76% respectively and low sensibility, 44% and 32%. It was detected a low level of agreement between FEV1, PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, in the clinical severity classification of asthma. The results of this study showed that FEV1 and PEFR had a low level of agreement in the clinical severity classification of asthma and when they were correlated to the clinical score of the International Consensus, they both presented low sensitivity. PMID:9699357

  4. Automatic classification of prostate cancer Gleason scores from multiparametric magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Duc; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Wibmer, Andreas; Gondo, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Vargas, Herbert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive, radiological image-based detection and stratification of Gleason patterns can impact clinical outcomes, treatment selection, and the determination of disease status at diagnosis without subjecting patients to surgical biopsies. We present machine learning-based automatic classification of prostate cancer aggressiveness by combining apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MRI-based texture features. Our approach achieved reasonably accurate classification of Gleason scores (GS) 6(3+3) vs. ≥7 and 7(3+4) vs. 7(4+3) despite the presence of highly unbalanced samples by using two different sample augmentation techniques followed by feature selection-based classification. Our method distinguished between GS 6(3+3) and ≥7 cancers with 93% accuracy for cancers occurring in both peripheral (PZ) and transition (TZ) zones and 92% for cancers occurring in the PZ alone. Our approach distinguished the GS 7(3+4) from GS 7(4+3) with 92% accuracy for cancers occurring in both the PZ and TZ and with 93% for cancers occurring in the PZ alone. In comparison, a classifier using only the ADC mean achieved a top accuracy of 58% for distinguishing GS 6(3+3) vs. GS ≥7 for cancers occurring in PZ and TZ and 63% for cancers occurring in PZ alone. The same classifier achieved an accuracy of 59% for distinguishing GS 7(3+4) from GS 7(4+3) occurring in the PZ and TZ and 60% for cancers occurring in PZ alone. Separate analysis of the cancers occurring in TZ alone was not performed owing to the limited number of samples. Our results suggest that texture features derived from ADC and T2-w MRI together with sample augmentation can help to obtain reasonably accurate classification of Gleason patterns. PMID:26578786

  5. Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Risk Classification for Coronary Heart Disease Prediction: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, Tamar S.; McClelland, Robyn L.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Bild, Diane E.; Burke, Gregory L.; Guerci, Alan D.; Greenland, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Context Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has been shown to predict future coronary heart disease (CHD) events. However, the extent to which adding CACS to traditional CHD risk factors improves classification of risk is unclear. Objective To determine whether adding CACS to a prediction model based on traditional risk factors improves classification of risk. Design, Setting and Participants CACS was measured by computed tomography on 6,814 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based cohort without known cardiovascular disease. Recruitment spanned July 2000 to September 2002; follow-up extended through May 2008. Participants with diabetes were excluded for the primary analysis. Five-year risk estimates for incident CHD were categorized as 0-<3%, 3-<10%, and ≥10% using Cox proportional hazards models. Model 1 used age, gender, tobacco use, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and race/ethnicity. Model 2 used these risk factors plus CACS. We calculated the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and compared the distribution of risk using Model 2 versus Model 1. Main Outcome Measures Incident CHD events Results Over 5.8 years median follow-up, 209 CHD events occurred, of which 122 were myocardial infarction, death from CHD, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. Model 2 resulted in significant improvements in risk prediction compared to Model 1 (NRI=0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.34, P<0.001). With Model 1, 69% of the cohort was classified in the highest or lowest risk categories, compared to 77% with Model 2. An additional 23% of those who experienced events were reclassified to high risk, and an additional 13% without events were reclassified to low risk using Model 2. Conclusions In the MESA cohort, addition of CACS to a prediction model based on traditional risk factors significantly improved the classification of risk and placed more individuals in

  6. Susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis in the mare: relationship to endometrial biopsy score and age, and variations between seasons.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Christoffersen, M; Campos, J; Squires, E L; Troedsson, M H T

    2012-08-01

    The objectives were to: (1) investigate the associations of age and endometrial biopsy score with uterine fluid retention after insemination; and (2) determine if a strict classification of susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) based on biopsy score, endometrial cytology, and fluid retention after inseminations, is consistent over subsequent breeding seasons. In Experiment 1, 57 mares were inseminated with 10(9) freeze-killed sperm during estrus and evaluated for uterine fluid retention 48 h and 96 h after insemination. Comparisons were made between fluid retention and biopsy score or age. In Experiment 2, a subset of 14 mares was classified for susceptibility to persistent breeding-induced endometritis in two subsequent breeding seasons. Biopsy score and age were associated with fluid retention (P < 0.001). In addition, age was related to biopsy score (P < 0.001). Of the mares examined for susceptibility, 36% (5 of 14) changed status during subsequent seasons. Three mares changed to a more severe classification (intermediate to susceptible, or resistant to intermediate), whereas two mares changed to a less severe classification (susceptible to intermediate). PMID:22494681

  7. Classification of splice-junction sequences via weighted position specific scoring approach.

    PubMed

    Nasibov, Efendi; Tunaboylu, Sezin

    2010-12-01

    The prediction of the complete structure of genes is one of the very important tasks of bioinformatics, especially in eukaryotes. A crucial part in the gene structure prediction is to determine the splice sites in the coding region. Identification of splice sites depends on the precise recognition of the boundaries between exons and introns of a given DNA sequence. This problem can be formulated as a classification of sequence elements into 'exon-intron' (EI), 'intron-exon' (IE) or 'None' (N) boundary classes. In this study we propose a new Weighted Position Specific Scoring Method (WPSSM) to recognize splice sites which uses a position-specific scoring matrix constructed by nucleotide base frequencies. A genetic algorithm is used in order to tune the weight and threshold parameters of the positions on. This method consists of two phases: learning phase and identification phase. The proposed WPSS method poses efficient results compared with the performance of many methods proposed in the literature. Computational experiments are performed on the DNA sequence datasets from 'UCI Repository of machine learning databases'. PMID:21056007

  8. Classification of histologically scored human knee osteochondral plugs by quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images at 3T.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Vanessa A; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Lin, Ping-Chang; Schär, Michael; Schneider, Erika; Neu, Corey P; Spencer, Richard G; Reiter, David A

    2015-05-01

    This work evaluates the ability of quantitative MRI to discriminate between normal and pathological human osteochondral plugs characterized by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) histological system. Normal and osteoarthritic human osteochondral plugs were scored using the OARSI histological system and imaged at 3 T using MRI sequences producing T1 and T2 contrast and measuring T1, T2, and T2* relaxation times, magnetization transfer, and diffusion. The classification accuracies of quantitative MRI parameters and corresponding weighted image intensities were evaluated. Classification models based on the Mahalanobis distance metric for each MRI measurement were trained and validated using leave-one-out cross-validation with plugs grouped according to OARSI histological grade and score. MRI measurements used for classification were performed using a region-of-interest analysis which included superficial, deep, and full-thickness cartilage. The best classifiers based on OARSI grade and score were T1- and T2-weighted image intensities, which yielded accuracies of 0.68 and 0.75, respectively. Classification accuracies using OARSI score-based group membership were generally higher when compared with grade-based group membership. MRI-based classification--either using quantitative MRI parameters or weighted image intensities--is able to detect early osteoarthritic tissue changes as classified by the OARSI histological system. These findings suggest the benefit of incorporating quantitative MRI acquisitions in a comprehensive clinical evaluation of OA. PMID:25641500

  9. Multidimensional classification of hippocampal shape features discriminates Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment from normal aging.

    PubMed

    Gerardin, Emilie; Chételat, Gaël; Chupin, Marie; Cuingnet, Rémi; Desgranges, Béatrice; Kim, Ho-Sung; Niethammer, Marc; Dubois, Bruno; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Garnero, Line; Eustache, Francis; Colliot, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    We describe a new method to automatically discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls, based on multidimensional classification of hippocampal shape features. This approach uses spherical harmonics (SPHARM) coefficients to model the shape of the hippocampi, which are segmented from magnetic resonance images (MRI) using a fully automatic method that we previously developed. SPHARM coefficients are used as features in a classification procedure based on support vector machines (SVM). The most relevant features for classification are selected using a bagging strategy. We evaluate the accuracy of our method in a group of 23 patients with AD (10 males, 13 females, age+/-standard-deviation (SD)=73+/-6 years, mini-mental score (MMS)=24.4+/-2.8), 23 patients with amnestic MCI (10 males, 13 females, age+/-SD=74+/-8 years, MMS=27.3+/-1.4) and 25 elderly healthy controls (13 males, 12 females, age+/-SD=64+/-8 years), using leave-one-out cross-validation. For AD vs controls, we obtain a correct classification rate of 94%, a sensitivity of 96%, and a specificity of 92%. For MCI vs controls, we obtain a classification rate of 83%, a sensitivity of 83%, and a specificity of 84%. This accuracy is superior to that of hippocampal volumetry and is comparable to recently published SVM-based whole-brain classification methods, which relied on a different strategy. This new method may become a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19463957

  10. Prognostic relevance of morphological classification models for myelodysplastic syndromes in an era of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System.

    PubMed

    van Spronsen, Margot F; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Westers, Theresia M; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A

    2016-03-01

    Numerous morphological classification models have been developed to organise the heterogeneous spectrum of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). While the 2008 update of the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the current standard, the publication of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) has illustrated the need for supplemental prognostic information. The aim of this study was to investigate whether morphological classification models for MDS - of both the French-American-British (FAB) group and WHO - provide reliable criteria for their classification into homogeneous and clinically relevant categories with prognostic relevance beyond the IPSS-R. We reclassified 238 MDS patients using each of the FAB, WHO 2001 and WHO 2008 criteria and studied classification categories in terms of clinical, haematological and cytogenetic features. Subsequently, we calculated prognostic scores using the IPSS-R and investigated whether the morphological classification models had significantly prognostic value in patients stratified by the IPSS-R and vice versa. By adopting the FAB, WHO 2001 and WHO 2008 classifications, MDS patients were organised into homogeneous categories with intrinsic prognostic information. However, whereas the morphological classification models showed no prognostic value beyond the IPSS-R, the IPSS-R had significant prognostic value beyond the FAB, WHO 2001 and WHO 2008 classifications. Even though morphological classification models for MDS might be clinically relevant from a prognostic point of view, their relevance in terms of risk stratification is evidently limited in light of the IPSS-R. Therefore, we suggest to stop the use of morphological classification models for MDS for risk stratification in routine clinical practice. PMID:26798967

  11. Sound credit scores and financial decisions despite cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Gao, Jie; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Zaval, Lisa; Weber, Elke U.; Johnson, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deterioration in cognitive ability may compromise the ability of older adults to make major financial decisions. We explore whether knowledge and expertise accumulated from past decisions can offset cognitive decline to maintain decision quality over the life span. Using a unique dataset that combines measures of cognitive ability (fluid intelligence) and of general and domain-specific knowledge (crystallized intelligence), credit report data, and other measures of decision quality, we show that domain-specific knowledge and expertise provide an alternative route for sound financial decisions. That is, cognitive aging does not spell doom for financial decision-making in domains where the decision maker has developed expertise. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective interventions and decision aids. PMID:25535381

  12. Sound credit scores and financial decisions despite cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Gao, Jie; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Zaval, Lisa; Weber, Elke U; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deterioration in cognitive ability may compromise the ability of older adults to make major financial decisions. We explore whether knowledge and expertise accumulated from past decisions can offset cognitive decline to maintain decision quality over the life span. Using a unique dataset that combines measures of cognitive ability (fluid intelligence) and of general and domain-specific knowledge (crystallized intelligence), credit report data, and other measures of decision quality, we show that domain-specific knowledge and expertise provide an alternative route for sound financial decisions. That is, cognitive aging does not spell doom for financial decision-making in domains where the decision maker has developed expertise. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective interventions and decision aids. PMID:25535381

  13. Alternative conceptions in animal classification: A cross-age study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowbridge, John E.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    Employing a cross-age design, this study examined students' alternative conceptions in animal classification at the elementary, secondary, and college levels. Based on a previous study that made use of clinical interviews and a classification task, subjects (N = 468) were administered a multiple-choice/free-response instrument that probed understanding of the concept animal, the vertebrate/invertebrate distinction, and the principal vertebrate classes. Results suggest that students subscribe to a highly restricted view of animals; applying the label almost exclusively to vertebrates, especially to common mammals. When asked to distinguish between vertebrate and invertebrate animals and to classify several species into vertebrate groups, a wide range of alternative conceptions emerged. Cross-age comparisons indicate that many of these alternative views remain intact throughout the school years, while others yield more readily to formal instruction and/or nonschool experiences. Considered within the context of a neoconstructivist view of learning, several suggestions are offered for teaching concepts in animal classification.

  14. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Lucas S.; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B.; Heddle, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details. PMID:23508239

  15. Age-Related Differences and Heterogeneity in Executive Functions: Analysis of NAB Executive Functions Module Scores.

    PubMed

    Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz

    2016-05-01

    Normative data from the German adaptation of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery were used to examine age-related differences in 6 executive function tasks. A multivariate analysis of variance was employed to investigate the differences in performance in 484 participants aged 18-99 years. The coefficient of variation was calculated to compare the heterogeneity of scores between 10 age groups. Analyses showed an increase in the dispersion of scores with age, varying from 7% to 289%, in all subtests. Furthermore, age-dependent heterogeneity appeared to be associated with age-dependent decline because the subtests with the greatest increase in dispersion (i.e., Mazes, Planning, and Categories) also exhibited the greatest decrease in mean scores. In contrast, scores for the subtests Letter Fluency, Word Generation, and Judgment had the lowest increase in dispersion with the lowest decrease in mean scores. Consequently, the results presented here show a pattern of age-related differences in executive functioning that is consistent with the concept of crystallized and fluid intelligence. PMID:26953227

  16. Revised trauma scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality in the emergency department: Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure score

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to assess whether the new Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure (GAP) scoring system, which is a modification of the Mechanism, Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Arterial Pressure (MGAP) scoring system, better predicts in-hospital mortality and can be applied more easily than previous trauma scores among trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). Methods This multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to analyze readily available variables in the ED, which are associated with mortality rates among trauma patients. The data used in this study were derived from the Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB), which consists of 114 major emergency hospitals in Japan. A total of 35,732 trauma patients in the JTDB from 2004 to 2009 who were 15 years of age or older were eligible for inclusion in the study. Of these patients, 27,154 (76%) with complete sets of important data (patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate and Injury Severity Score (ISS)) were included in our analysis. We calculated weight for the predictors of the GAP scores on the basis of the records of 13,463 trauma patients in a derivation data set determined by using logistic regression. Scores derived from four existing scoring systems (Revised Trauma Score, Triage Revised Trauma Score, Trauma and Injury Severity Score and MGAP score) were calibrated using logistic regression models that fit in the derivation set. The GAP scoring system was compared to the calibrated scoring systems with data from a total of 13,691 patients in a validation data set using c-statistics and reclassification tables with three defined risk groups based on a previous publication: low risk (mortality < 5%), intermediate risk, and high risk (mortality > 50%). Results Calculated GAP scores involved GCS score (from three to fifteen points), patient age < 60 years (three points) and SBP (> 120 mmHg, six points; 60 to 120

  17. Ossification score is a better indicator of maturity related changes in eating quality than animal age.

    PubMed

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    Ossification score and animal age are both used as proxies for maturity-related collagen crosslinking and consequently decreases in beef tenderness. Ossification score is strongly influenced by the hormonal status of the animal and may therefore better reflect physiological maturity and consequently eating quality. As part of a broader cross-European study, local consumers scored 18 different muscle types cooked in three ways from 482 carcasses with ages ranging from 590 to 6135 days and ossification scores ranging from 110 to 590. The data were studied across three different maturity ranges; the complete range of maturities, a lesser range and a more mature range. The lesser maturity group consisted of carcasses having either an ossification score of 200 or less or an age of 987 days or less with the remainder in the greater maturity group. The three different maturity ranges were analysed separately with a linear mixed effects model. Across all the data, and for the greater maturity group, animal age had a greater magnitude of effect on eating quality than ossification score. This is likely due to a loss of sensitivity in mature carcasses where ossification approached and even reached the maximum value. In contrast, age had no relationship with eating quality for the lesser maturity group, leaving ossification score as the more appropriate measure. Therefore ossification score is more appropriate for most commercial beef carcasses, however it is inadequate for carcasses with greater maturity such as cull cows. Both measures may therefore be required in models to predict eating quality over populations with a wide range in maturity. PMID:26687476

  18. Classification Trees for Quality Control Processes in Automated Constructed Response Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Hone, Anne S.; Miller, Susan; Bejar, Isaac I.

    As the automated scoring of constructed responses reaches operational status, the issue of monitoring the scoring process becomes a primary concern, particularly when the goal is to have automated scoring operate completely unassisted by humans. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination and data for 326 cases with both human…

  19. Age estimation of an Indian population by using the Kim's scoring system of occlusal tooth wear

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Lahari A.; Patil, Karthikeya; Mahima, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Age is one of the prime factors employed to establish the identity of an individual and the use of teeth for this purpose has been considered reliable. Tooth wear is widely accepted as a physiological consequence of aging and evaluation of tooth wear can be a simple and convenient tool to estimate age in adults. Aims: The present study was conducted to record the degree of tooth wear among Indian adults and to estimate their ages from the degree of tooth wear based on Kim's scoring system. Materials and Methods: Dental stone casts of 120 participants were used to assess the degree of occlusal tooth wear based on the criteria given by Kim et al. Statistical Analysis Used: The age of all subjects was estimated based on these scores using multiple regression analysis function. Results: The degree of tooth wear showed a significant positive correlation with age in each and every examined tooth of both males and females. The predicted age was within ± 5 years of actual age in 70% of males and 68.3% females, and within ± 3 years of actual age in 50% of males and 50.1% of females. Conclusions: Kim's scoring system has proven to be a useful tool in estimation of age using occlusal wear in an Indian population with a high level of accuracy in adults. PMID:24695780

  20. Gleason score stratification according to age at diagnosis in 1028 men

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Gleason score stratification according to age at diagnosis has been retrospectively evaluated in 1028 men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods From January 2006 to December 2014, 2435 Caucasian men aged between 37 and 92 years underwent transperineal prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. The indications were as follows: abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA values > 10 ng/ml or between 4.1–10 or 2.6–4 ng/ml, with free/total PSA < 25% and < 20%, respectively. Results In 1028 (42.2%) patients with median PSA of 9.6 ng/ml a PCa was found (median age 62.3 years; range: 42–92 years); 757 (73.7%) vs. 271 (26.3%) men had a T1c vs. T2 clinical stage, respectively. Median Gleason score was 7 (range: 6–10). The Gleason score progressively increased with the age of the patients at diagnosis, and a significantly correlation between Gleason score ≥ 8 and men older than 80 years was demonstrated (p = 0.0001). Conclusions The detection rate of aggressiveness of PCa progressively increased with the age at diagnosis; Gleason score ≥ 8 was more frequently diagnosed in men older than 80 years with PSA values > 10 ng/ml (about 80% of the cases) and abnormal DRE (about 60% of the cases). PMID:26843845

  1. Effects of Item Difficulty Heterogeneity on the Estimation of True-Score and Classification Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Judith A.; Welch, Catherine J.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that large within-examinee item difficulty variability had on estimates of the proportion of consistent classification of examinees into mastery categories over two test administrations. The classification consistency estimate was based on a single test administration from an estimation procedure…

  2. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  3. Adding carotid total plaque area to the Framingham risk score improves cardiovascular risk classification

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hernan A.; Spence, John David; Armando, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular events (CE) due to atherosclerosis are preventable. Identification of high-risk patients helps to focus resources on those most likely to benefit from expensive therapy. Atherosclerosis is not considered for patient risk categorization, even though a fraction of CE are predicted by Framingham risk factors. Our objective was to assess the incremental value of combining total plaque area (TPA) with the Framingham risk score (FramSc) using post-test probability (Ptp) in order to categorize risk in patients without CE and identify those at high risk and requiring intensive treatment. Material and methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in the primary care setting in an Argentine population aged 22–90 years without CE. Both FramSc based on body mass index and Ptp-TPA were employed in 2035 patients for risk stratification and the resulting reclassification was compared. Total plaque area was measured with a high-resolution duplex ultrasound scanner. Results 57% male, 35% hypertensive, 27% hypercholesterolemia, 14% diabetes. 20.1% were low, 28.5% moderate, and 51.5% high risk. When patients were reclassified, 36% of them changed status; 24.1% migrated to a higher and 13.6% to a lower risk level (κ index = 0.360, SE κ = 0.16, p < 0.05, FramSc vs. Ptp-TPA). With this reclassification, 19.3% were low, 18.9% moderate and 61.8% high risk. Conclusions Quantification of Ptp-TPA leads to higher risk estimation than FramSc, suggesting that Ptp-TPA may be more sensitive than FramSc as a screening tool. If our observation is confirmed with a prospective study, this reclassification would improve the long-term benefits related to CE prevention. PMID:27279842

  4. The Application of Genetic Risk Scores in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Hoffman, Joshua D.; Sardell, Rebecca J.; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a highly prevalent and impactful disease of aging, is inarguably influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Various risk scores have been tested that assess measurable genetic and environmental contributions to disease. We herein summarize and review the ability and utility of these numerous models for prediction of AMD and suggest additional risk factors to be incorporated into clinically useful predictive models of AMD. PMID:26959068

  5. The Application of Genetic Risk Scores in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Hoffman, Joshua D; Sardell, Rebecca J; Scott, William K; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Haines, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a highly prevalent and impactful disease of aging, is inarguably influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Various risk scores have been tested that assess measurable genetic and environmental contributions to disease. We herein summarize and review the ability and utility of these numerous models for prediction of AMD and suggest additional risk factors to be incorporated into clinically useful predictive models of AMD. PMID:26959068

  6. Child and Mother Client Satisfaction Questionnaire Scores regarding Mental Health Services: Race, Age, and Gender Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Valire Carr; Koeske, Gary; Greeno, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) to examine the level of consumer satisfaction with children's (ages 8 to 17 years) outpatient mental health services. Analyses were completed using both individual satisfaction items and a summed scale score. The CSQ scale had satisfactory internal consistency reliability for both…

  7. Age classification using facial feature extraction on female and male images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Toygar, Önsen

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents age classification on facial images using subpattern-based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) method. Classification of age intervals are conducted separately on female and male facial images since the aging process for female and male is different for human beings in real life. The age classification performance of the holistic approaches is compared with the performance of subpattern-based LBP approach in order to demonstrate the performance differences between these two types of approaches. To be consistent with the research of others, our work has been tested on two publicly available databases namely FGNET and MORPH. The experiments are performed on these aging databases to demonstrate the age classification performance on female and male facial images of human beings using subpatternbased LBP method with several parameter settings. The results are then compared with the results of age classification of the holistic PCA and holistic subspace LDA methods.

  8. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

  9. An Inmate Classification System Based on PCL: SV Factor Scores in a Sample of Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wogan, Michael; Mackenzie, Marci

    2007-01-01

    Psychopaths represent a significant management challenge in a prison population. A sample of ninety-five male inmates from three medium security prisons was tested using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). Using traditional criteria, 22% of the inmates were classified as psychopaths. Scores on the two factor dimensions of…

  10. Inclusion of Neuropsychological Scores in Atrophy Models Improves Diagnostic Classification of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Goryawala, Mohammed; Zhou, Qi; Barker, Warren; Loewenstein, David A.; Duara, Ranjan; Adjouadi, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are difficult to demarcate to assess the progression of AD. This study presents a statistical framework on the basis of MRI volumes and neuropsychological scores. A feature selection technique using backward stepwise linear regression together with linear discriminant analysis is designed to classify cognitive normal (CN) subjects, early MCI (EMCI), late MCI (LMCI), and AD subjects in an exhaustive two-group classification process. Results show a dominance of the neuropsychological parameters like MMSE and RAVLT. Cortical volumetric measures of the temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions are found to be significant classification factors. Moreover, an asymmetrical distribution of the volumetric measures across hemispheres is seen for CN versus EMCI and EMCI versus AD, showing dominance of the right hemisphere; whereas CN versus LMCI and EMCI versus LMCI show dominance of the left hemisphere. A 2-fold cross-validation showed an average accuracy of 93.9%, 90.8%, and 94.5%, for the CN versus AD, CN versus LMCI, and EMCI versus AD, respectively. The accuracy for groups that are difficult to differentiate like EMCI versus LMCI was 73.6%. With the inclusion of the neuropsychological scores, a significant improvement (24.59%) was obtained over using MRI measures alone. PMID:26101520

  11. Sleep classification according to AASM and Rechtschaffen and Kales: effects on sleep scoring parameters of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Luana; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the new American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) rules and the old Rechtschaffen and Kales (R&K) criteria for sleep scoring have been shown to produce significantly different results in adults. The aim of this study was to describe in detail such differences in a group of normal children. Polysomnographic recordings from 45 healthy children (18 females and 27 males) aged between 3 and 16 years were scored following both systems and the results compared. Several significant differences between the two scoring systems were found: N1 (AASM) was significantly higher than S1 (R&K) while Stages N2 and R (AASM) were significantly smaller than S2 and rapid eye movement (R&K). The Kendall Tau correlation coefficient revealed a relatively low concordance between the two systems for the scoring of number of stage shifts per hour, minutes and percentage of Stage N1/S1, and of a percentage of Stage S2/N2. The significant differences between R&K and AASM scoring systems suggest taking some caution in adopting the new scoring criteria in children; these might be shown to be potentially useful if careful selection of the appropriate indicators derived from this new method is carried out, such as the percentage of N1 and the number of stage shifts, which are measures very sensitive to the occurrence of arousals in the new AASM system. PMID:19912509

  12. Coordinated Analysis of Age, Sex, and Education Effects on Change in MMSE Scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Method. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Results. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. Conclusion. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ. PMID:23033357

  13. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  14. The ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) stroke risk score: a biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Ziad; Lindbäck, Johan; Alexander, John H.; Hanna, Michael; Held, Claes; Hylek, Elaine M.; Lopes, Renato D.; Oldgren, Jonas; Siegbahn, Agneta; Stewart, Ralph A.H.; White, Harvey D.; Granger, Christopher B.; Wallentin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, which is currently estimated by clinical characteristics. The cardiac biomarkers N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin high-sensitivity (cTn-hs) are independently associated with risk of stroke in AF. Our objective was to develop and validate a new biomarker-based risk score to improve prognostication of stroke in patients with AF. Methods and results A new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 701 patients with AF and biomarkers levels determined at baseline, median follow-up of 1.9 years. Biomarkers and clinical variables significantly contributing to predicting stroke or systemic embolism were assessed by Cox-regression and each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. External validation was performed in 1400 patients with AF, median follow-up of 3.4 years. The most important predictors were prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack, NT-proBNP, cTn-hs, and age, which were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history) stroke risk score. The ABC-stroke score was well calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than the widely used CHA2DS2-VASc score in both the derivation cohort (0.68 vs. 0.62, P < 0.001) and the external validation cohort (0.66 vs. 0.58, P < 0.001). Moreover, the ABC-stroke score consistently provided higher c-indices in several important subgroups. Conclusion A novel biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in AF was successfully developed and internally validated in a large cohort of patients with AF and further externally validated in an independent AF cohort. The ABC-stroke score performed better than the presently used clinically based risk score and may provide improved decision support in AF. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier NCT00412984, NCT00799903. PMID:26920728

  15. Ability to learn inhaler technique in relation to cognitive scores and tests of praxis in old age

    PubMed Central

    Allen, S; Ragab, S

    2002-01-01

    Clinical observations have shown that some older patients are unable to learn to use a metered dose inhaler (MDI) despite having a normal abbreviated mental test (AMT) score, possibly because of dyspraxia or unrecognised cognitive impairment. Thirty inhaler-naive inpatients (age 76–94) with an AMT score of 8–10 (normal) were studied. Standard MDI training was given and the level of competence reached was scored (inhalation score). A separate observer performed the minimental test (MMT), Barthel index, geriatric depression score (GDS), ideational dyspraxia test (IDT), and ideomotor dyspraxia test (IMD). No correlative or threshold relationship was found between inhalation score and Barthel index, GDS, or IDT. However, a significant correlation was found between inhalation score and IMD (r = 0.45, p = 0.039) and MMT (r = 0.48, p = 0.032) and threshold effects emerged in that no subject with a MMT score of less than 23/30 had an inhalation score of 5/10 or more (adequate technique requires 6/10 or more), and all 17/18 with an inhalation score of 6/10 or more had an IMD of 14/20 or more. The three patients with a MMT >22 and inhalation score <6 had abnormal IMD scores. Inability to learn an adequate inhaler technique in subjects with a normal AMT score appears to be due to unrecognised cognitive impairment or dyspraxia. The MMT is probably a more useful screening test than the AMT score in this context. PMID:11796871

  16. Fetal autonomic brain age scores, segmented heart rate variability analysis, and traditional short term variability.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Tetschke, Florian; Nowack, Samuel; Rudolph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Kynass, Isabelle; Bode, Franziska; Tegtmeyer, Janine; Kumm, Kathrin; Moraru, Liviu; Götz, Theresa; Haueisen, Jens; Witte, Otto W; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of fetal autonomic brain development can be evaluated from fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) reflecting the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Although HRP analysis from cardiotocographic (CTG) recordings is established for fetal surveillance, temporal resolution is low. Fetal magnetocardiography (MCG), however, provides stable continuous recordings at a higher temporal resolution combined with a more precise heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A direct comparison of CTG and MCG based HRV analysis is pending. The aims of the present study are: (i) to compare the fetal maturation age predicting value of the MCG based fetal Autonomic Brain Age Score (fABAS) approach with that of CTG based Dawes-Redman methodology; and (ii) to elaborate fABAS methodology by segmentation according to fetal behavioral states and HRP. We investigated MCG recordings from 418 normal fetuses, aged between 21 and 40 weeks of gestation. In linear regression models we obtained an age predicting value of CTG compatible short term variability (STV) of R (2) = 0.200 (coefficient of determination) in contrast to MCG/fABAS related multivariate models with R (2) = 0.648 in 30 min recordings, R (2) = 0.610 in active sleep segments of 10 min, and R (2) = 0.626 in quiet sleep segments of 10 min. Additionally segmented analysis under particular exclusion of accelerations (AC) and decelerations (DC) in quiet sleep resulted in a novel multivariate model with R (2) = 0.706. According to our results, fMCG based fABAS may provide a promising tool for the estimation of fetal autonomic brain age. Beside other traditional and novel HRV indices as possible indicators of developmental disturbances, the establishment of a fABAS score normogram may represent a specific reference. The present results are intended to contribute to further exploration and validation using independent data sets and multicenter research structures. PMID:25505399

  17. The Use of Classification for Problem Solving: A Comparison of Middle and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Douglas R.; Denney, Nancy Wadsworth

    1973-01-01

    Groups of middle-aged and elderly women were compared on problem solving behavior. Results indicated a decline in the use of classification skills among the elderly and an inability to use constraint-seeking questions. (ST)

  18. Assessing Growth in Young Children: A Comparison of Raw, Age-Equivalent, and Standard Scores Using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Winter, Suzanne M.; Sass, Daniel A.; Svenkerud, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Many tests provide users with several different types of scores to facilitate interpretation and description of students' performance. Common examples include raw scores, age- and grade-equivalent scores, and standard scores. However, when used within the context of assessing growth among young children, these scores should not be…

  19. Prognostic sub-classification of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter cohort study with propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Ramya; Pinato, David J; Kubota, Keiichi; Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Arizumi, Tadaaki; Kudo, Masatoshi; Jang, Jeong Won; Kim, Young Woon; Pirisi, Mario; Allara, Elias; Sharma, Rohini

    2016-10-01

    There is significant heterogeneity in the clinicopathological characteristics of intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (IHCC). This also translates to treatment as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is used as first-line therapy for patients with IHCC; however, in Asia liver resection (LR) is preferred. Prognostic tools are required to help guide clinicians in deciding treatment options. This study evaluates the prognostic impact of the Intermediate Stage Score (ISS) on overall survival (OS) in a large, multicenter cohort study of patients with IHCC treated with TACE or surgery LR. Consecutive patients from centers in Japan, Korea, Italy and the United Kingdom who underwent TACE or LR between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled. Propensity score (PS) adjustment was used to remove residual confounding and applied to LR (n = 162) and TACE (n = 449) to determine the prognostic significance of ISS. Among 611 patients, 75 % were men and 25 % women, with a mean age of 70 years. ISS is a valid prognostic tool in the BCLC-B population with a median OS ISS 1-51, 2-38.3, 3-24.3, 4-15.6, 5-16 months (p < 0.0001). ISS was analyzed within each treatment modality, and this was a valid prognostic score among those treated with TACE and LR (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.008). In the PS-adjusted model, ISS retained its prognostic utility in TACE and LR groups (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.007). ISS optimizes prognostic prediction in IHCC, reducing clinical heterogeneity, and is a useful tool for patients treated for TACE or LR. PMID:27601241

  20. Putting Predictive Models to Use: Scoring of Unseen Streaming Data using a Multivariate Time Series Classification Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipes, T.; Karimabadi, H.; Imber, S. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Pothier, N. M.; Coeli, R.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in data collection and data storage technologies have made the assembly of multivariate time series data more common. Data analysis and extraction of knowledge from such massive and complex datasets encountered in space physics today present a major obstacle to fully utilizing our vast data repositories and to scientific progress. In the previous years we introduced a time series classification tool MineTool-TS [Karimabadi et al, 2009] and its extension to simulation and streaming data [Sipes& Karimabadi, 2012, 2013]. In this work we demonstrate the applicability and real world utility of the predictive models created using the tool to scoring and labeling of a large dataset of unseen, streaming data. Predictive models that are created are based on the assumption that the training data used to create them is a true representative of the population. Multivariate time series datasets are also characterized by large amounts of variability and potential background noise. Moreover, there are multiple issues being raised by the streaming nature of the data. In this work we illustrate how we dealt with these challenges and demonstrate the results in a study of flux ropes in the plasma sheet. We have used an iterative process of building a predictive model using the original labeled training set, tested it on a week worth of streaming data, had the results checked by a scientific expert in the domain, and fed the results and the labels back into the training set, creating a large training set and using it to produce the final model. This final model was then put to use to predict a very large, unseen, six month period of streaming data. In this work we present the results of our machine learning approach to automatically detect flux ropes in spacecraft data.

  1. Validation of WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) for myelodysplastic syndromes and comparison with the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A study of the International Working Group for Prognosis in Myelodysplasia (IWG-PM).

    PubMed

    Della Porta, M G; Tuechler, H; Malcovati, L; Schanz, J; Sanz, G; Garcia-Manero, G; Solé, F; Bennett, J M; Bowen, D; Fenaux, P; Dreyfus, F; Kantarjian, H; Kuendgen, A; Levis, A; Cermak, J; Fonatsch, C; Le Beau, M M; Slovak, M L; Krieger, O; Luebbert, M; Maciejewski, J; Magalhaes, S M M; Miyazaki, Y; Pfeilstöcker, M; Sekeres, M A; Sperr, W R; Stauder, R; Tauro, S; Valent, P; Vallespi, T; van de Loosdrecht, A A; Germing, U; Haase, D; Greenberg, P L; Cazzola, M

    2015-07-01

    A risk-adapted treatment strategy is mandatory for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We refined the World Health Organization (WHO)-classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) by determining the impact of the newer clinical and cytogenetic features, and we compared its prognostic power to that of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A population of 5326 untreated MDS was considered. We analyzed single WPSS parameters and confirmed that the WHO classification and severe anemia provide important prognostic information in MDS. A strong correlation was found between the WPSS including the new cytogenetic risk stratification and WPSS adopting original criteria. We then compared WPSS with the IPSS-R prognostic system. A highly significant correlation was found between the WPSS and IPSS-R risk classifications. Discrepancies did occur among lower-risk patients in whom the number of dysplastic hematopoietic lineages as assessed by morphology did not reflect the severity of peripheral blood cytopenias and/or increased marrow blast count. Moreover, severe anemia has higher prognostic weight in the WPSS versus IPSS-R model. Overall, both systems well represent the prognostic risk of MDS patients defined by WHO morphologic criteria. This study provides relevant in formation for the implementation of risk-adapted strategies in MDS. PMID:25721895

  2. Estimating Geriatric Mortality after Injury Using Age, Injury Severity, and Performance of a Transfusion: The Geriatric Trauma Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Frank Z.; Wolf, Steven E.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Rhodes, Ramona L.; Paulk, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: A tool to determine the probability of mortality for severely injured geriatric patients is needed. Objective: We sought to create an easily calculated geriatric trauma prognostic score based on parameters available at the bedside to aid in mortality probability determination. Methods: All patients ≥65 years of age were identified from our Level I trauma center's registry between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013. Measurements included age, Injury Severity score (ISS), units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfused in the first 24 hours, and patients' mortality status at the end of their index hospitalization. As a first step, a logistic regression model with maximum likelihood estimation and robust standard errors was used to estimate the odds of mortality from age, ISS, and PRBCs after dichotomizing PRBCs as yes/no. We then constructed a Geriatric Trauma Outcome (GTO) score that became the sole predictor in the re-specified logistic regression model. Results: The sample (n=3841) mean age was 76.5±8.1 years and the mean ISS was 12.4±9.8. In-hospital mortality was 10.8%, and 11.9% received a transfusion by 24 hours. Based on the logistic regression model, the equation with the highest discriminatory ability to estimate probability of mortality was GTO Score=age+(2.5×ISS)+22 (if given PRBCs). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for this model was 0.82. Selected GTO scores and their related probability of dying were: 205=75%, 233=90%, 252=95%, 310=99%. The range of GTO scores was 67.5 (survivor) to 275.1 (died). Conclusion: The GTO model accurately estimates the probability of dying, and can be calculated at bedside by those possessing a working knowledge of ISS calculation. PMID:25974408

  3. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  4. Weight-for-age standard score - distribution and effect on in-hospital mortality: A retrospective analysis in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    George, Antony; Jagannath, Pushpa; Joshi, Shreedhar S.; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score) in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score) to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical unit at our institute were enrolled. Z score for weight for age was calculated. Patients were classified according to Z score and mortality across the classes was compared. Discrimination and calibration of the for Z score model was assessed. Improvement in predictability of mortality after addition of Z score to Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity (ACC) score was analyzed. Results: The median Z score was -3.2 (Interquartile range -4.24 to -1.91] with weight (mean±SD) of 8.4 ± 3.38 kg. Overall mortality was 11.5%. 71% and 52.59% of patients had Z score < -2 and < -3 respectively. Lower Z score classes were associated with progressively increasing mortality. Z score as continuous variable was associated with O.R. of 0.622 (95% CI- 0.527 to 0.733, P < 0.0001) for in-hospital mortality and remained significant predictor even after adjusting for age, gender, bypass duration and ACC score. Addition of Z score to ACC score improved its predictability for in-hosptial mortality (δC - 0.0661 [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.0169], IDI- 3.83% [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.00042]). Conclusion: Z scores were lower in our cohort and were associated with in-hospital mortality. Addition of Z score to ACC score significantly improves predictive ability for in-hospital mortality. PMID:26139742

  5. Inverse correlation of genetic risk score with age at onset in bout-onset and progressive-onset multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sorosina, Melissa; Esposito, Federica; Guaschino, Clara; Clarelli, Ferdinando; Barizzone, Nadia; Osiceanu, Ana Maria; Brambilla, Paola; Mascia, Elisabetta; Cavalla, Paola; Gallo, Paolo; Martinelli, Vittorio; Leone, Maurizio; Comi, Giancarlo; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    We correlated the weighted genetic risk score measured using 107 established susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis (MS) with the age at onset in bout-onset (BOMS, n=906) and progressive-onset MS Italian patients (PrMS) (n=544). We observed an opposite relationship in the two disease courses: a higher weighted genetic risk score was associated with an earlier age at onset in BOMS (rho= -0.1; p=5 × 10(-3)) and a later age at onset in PrMS cases (rho=0.07; p=0.15) (p of difference of regression=1.4 × 10(-2)). These findings suggest that established MS risk variants anticipate the onset of the inflammatory phase, while they have no impact on, or even delay, the onset of the progressive phase. PMID:25533292

  6. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  7. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects. PMID:27027323

  8. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  9. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  10. Scoring mode and age-related effects on youth soccer teams' defensive performance during small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carlos Humberto; Duarte, Ricardo; Volossovitch, Anna; Ferreira, António Paulo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the scoring mode (line goal, double goal or central goal) and age-related effects on the defensive performance of youth soccer players during 4v4 small-sided games (SSGs). Altogether, 16 male players from 2 age groups (U13, n = 8, mean age: 12.61 ± 0.65 years; U15, n = 8, 14.86 ± 0.47 years) were selected as participants. In six independent sessions, participants performed the three SSGs each during 10-min periods. Teams' defensive performance was analysed at every instant ball possession was regained through the variables: ball-recovery type, ball-recovery sector, configuration of play and defence state. Multinomial logistic regression analysis used in this study revealed the following significant main effects of scoring mode and age: (1) line goal (vs. central goal) increased the odds of regaining possession through tackle and in the defensive midfield sector, and decreased the odds of successful interceptions; (2) double goal (vs. central goal) decreased the odds of regaining possession through turnover won and with elongated playing shapes; (3) the probability of regaining possession through interception significantly decreased with age. Moreover, as youth players move forward in age groups, teams tend to structurally evolve from elongated playing shapes to flattened shapes and, at a behavioural level, from defending in depth to more risky flattened configurations. Overall, by manipulating the scoring mode in SSGs, coaches can promote functional and coadaptive behaviours between teams not only in terms of configurations of play, but also on the pitch locations that teams explore to regain possession. PMID:26910232

  11. Use of the Complete Rockall Score and the Forrest Classification to Assess Outcome in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Subject to After-hours Endoscopy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Giese, A; Grunwald, C; Zieren, J; Büchner, NJ; Henning, BF

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of the Forrest classification and the complete Rockall score with customary cut-off values for assessing the risk of adverse events in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGI-B) subject to after-hours emergency oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (E-EGD) within six hours after admission. Methods: The medical records of patients with non-variceal UGI-B proven by after-hours endoscopy were analysed. For 'high risk' situations (Forrest stage Ia–IIb/complete Rockall score > 2), univariate analysis was conducted to evaluate odds ratio for reaching the study endpoints (30-day and one-year mortality, re-bleeding, hospital stay ≥ 3 days). Results: During the study period (75 months), 86 cases (85 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Patients 'age was 66.36 ± 14.38 years; 60.5% were male. Mean duration of hospital stay was 15.21 ± 19.24 days. Mortality rate was 16.7% (30 days) and 32.9% (one year); 14% of patients re-bled. Univariate analysis of post-endoscopic Rockall score ≥ 2 showed an odds ratio of 6.09 for death within 30 days (p = 0.04). No other significant correlations were found. Conclusion: In patients with UGI-B subject to after-hours endoscopy, a 'high-risk' Rockall score permits an estimation of the risk of death within 30 days but not of re-bleeding. A 'high-risk ' Forrest score is not significantly associated with the study endpoints. PMID:25303191

  12. Perceived Complexity of Various Liver Resections: Results of a Survey of Experts with Development of a Complexity Score and Classification

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Major K; Gao, Feng; Strasberg, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver resections have classically been distinguished as “minor” or “major” based on the number of segments removed. However, it is clear that the number of segments alone does not convey the complexity of a resection. To date, no study has been conducted that formally assesses the complexity of various anatomic liver resections. Study Design A four-question survey was administered to 135 expert liver surgeons in 14 countries. The first three questions related to the country in which the surgeon was practicing and the surgeon's experience. In the fourth question, the experts were asked to rate the difficulty of various open, anatomic liver resections on a scale of 1-10. Results 66 of 135 (48.9%) surgeons responded to the survey. Twelve procedures were rated. The lowest mean score of 1.37—indicating least difficulty—was given to peripheral wedge resection. Left trisectionectomy with caudate resection was deemed most difficult with a score of 8.28. The mean scores for the two procedures perceived as least difficult—peripheral wedge resection and left lateral sectionectomy—were lower than the mean scores of all the rest of the procedures at a highly statistically significant level (p < 0.0001). The four procedures with the highest scores shared the common attribute that they involved the right intersectional plane. Conclusions These data represent the first quantitative assessment of the perceived difficulty of a variety of liver resections. The complexity scores generated allow for separation of liver resections into three categories of complexity (Low Complexity, Medium Complexity, and High Complexity) on a quantitative basis. PMID:25451665

  13. In-vivo differentiation of photo-aged epidermis skin by texture-based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Weng, Cuncheng; Yu, Biying; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Two sets of in vivo female cheek skin epidermis images were analyzed through gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and fast fourier transform (FFT). One set was derived from women in their 20s and the other from women more than 60 years of age. GLCM was used to evaluate the texture features of the regions of interest within the cheek epidermis, and texture classification was subsequently performed. During texture classification, 25 images (320×240 pixels) in each age set were randomly selected. Three texture features, i.e., energy, contrast, and correlation, were obtained from the skin images and analyzed at four orientations (0°, 45°,90°, and 135°), accompanied by different distances between two pixels. The textures of the different aging skins were characterized by FFT, which provides the dermatoglyph orientation index. The differences in the textures between the young and old skin samples can be well described by the FFT dermatoglyph orientation index. The texture features varied among the different aging skins, which provide a versatile platform for differentiating the statuses of aging skins.

  14. Malingering in Toxic Exposure. Classification Accuracy of Reliable Digit Span and WAIS-III Digit Span Scaled Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Springer, Steven; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Black, F. William; Heinly, Matthew T.; Love, Jeffrey M.; Swift, Douglas A.; Ciota, Megan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity and false-positive error rate of reliable digit span (RDS) and the WAIS-III Digit Span (DS) scaled score in persons alleging toxic exposure and determined whether error rates differed from published rates in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain (CP). Data were obtained from the files of 123 persons…

  15. Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nikunj

    2012-03-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. A set of training examples— examples with known output values—is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate’s measurements. The generalization performance of a learned model (how closely the target outputs and the model’s predicted outputs agree for patterns that have not been presented to the learning algorithm) would provide an indication of how well the model has learned the desired mapping. More formally, a classification learning algorithm L takes a training set T as its input. The training set consists of |T| examples or instances. It is assumed that there is a probability distribution D from which all training examples are drawn independently—that is, all the training examples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). The ith training example is of the form (x_i, y_i), where x_i is a vector of values of several features and y_i represents the class to be predicted.* In the sunspot classification example given above, each training example

  16. Geochronological database and classification system for age uncertainties in Neotropical pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flantua, S. G. A.; Blaauw, M.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2016-02-01

    The newly updated inventory of palaeoecological research in Latin America offers an important overview of sites available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. From the collected literature supporting this inventory, we collected all available age model metadata to create a chronological database of 5116 control points (e.g. 14C, tephra, fission track, OSL, 210Pb) from 1097 pollen records. Based on this literature review, we present a summary of chronological dating and reporting in the Neotropics. Difficulties and recommendations for chronology reporting are discussed. Furthermore, for 234 pollen records in northwest South America, a classification system for age uncertainties is implemented based on chronologies generated with updated calibration curves. With these outcomes age models are produced for those sites without an existing chronology, alternative age models are provided for researchers interested in comparing the effects of different calibration curves and age-depth modelling software, and the importance of uncertainty assessments of chronologies is highlighted. Sample resolution and temporal uncertainty of ages are discussed for different time windows, focusing on events relevant for research on centennial- to millennial-scale climate variability. All age models and developed R scripts are publicly available through figshare, including a manual to use the scripts.

  17. Pacing, Forcing, or Chance? Milankovitch Plays Dice and Scores Ice Ages. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the role of orbital forcing in the ice ages has now occupied paleoclimatologists and paleoceanographers for many decades, and still we don’t really know how this works. Are ice ages directly forced by orbits, or are orbits a pacemaker that organize ice-age oscillations that would occur anyway (i.e., in the absence of orbital forcing)? Tuning of marine d18O (and other) records gives plausibly satisfying results in many contexts, but radiometric dates have led some to suggest that that glacial terminations can precede presumed forcing, and thus must be independent of, or at least only very weakly coupled to, Earth’s orbital variations. Several early efforts sought to separate the background variability and organized orbital pacing of ice ages, and concluded that a large fraction of climate change is stochastic. Simple models of various types imply that thresholds and limits must exist within the glacial system. Combining these ideas of stochasticity and thresholds implies that the timing of glacial-interglacial transition must be to some extent indeterminate, and if so the precise dating of any particular event is not important to defining the orbital controls of climate. Instead the overall pattern of variation in multiple parts of the climate system, if sufficiently constrained in a sequence, may provide better insights.

  18. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  19. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children aging 1 year through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations. PMID:26935428

  20. Classification of complex biological aging images using fuzzy Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan D.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid advancement of biomedical imaging device technology, the role of image processing coupled with pattern recognition, which is the science of classification of objects into a number categories or classes, is increasingly becoming important for the study of biological and medical images. As a matter of fact, the term Bioimage Informatics has been coined in the community of bioinformatics to emphasize the essential application of computational methods in assisting life-science researchers in the quantitative analysis of large volumes of images. This paper presents the formulation of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy under the mechanism of fuzzy uncertainty as an effective image feature for complex pattern classification. In this study, the particular focus is on classifying biological images relating to aging. The performance of the proposed method was tested against several current challenging image datasets that are benchmarks for comparing image classification techniques for overcoming the limited capacity of existing automated biological image analysis. The results demonstrate the superiority of the use of the new image feature for classifying difficult image objects in current biology.

  1. Classification of wet aged related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Anam; Mir, Fouwad Jamil; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Wet Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of age related macular degeneration. In order to detect Wet AMD we look for Pigment Epithelium detachment (PED) and fluid filled region caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This form of AMD can cause vision loss if not treated in time. In this article we have proposed an automated system for detection of Wet AMD in Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. The proposed system extracts PED and CNV from OCT images using segmentation and morphological operations and then detailed feature set are extracted. These features are then passed on to the classifier for classification. Finally performance measures like accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are calculated and the classifier delivering the maximum performance is selected as a comparison measure. Our system gives higher performance using SVM as compared to other methods.

  2. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  3. Comparison of two classification systems in predicting the outcome of diabetic foot ulcers: the Wagner grade and the Saint Elian Wound score systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Xie, Ting; Cao, Yemin; Wu, MinJie; Yu, LeiLei; Lu, ShuLiang; Xu, Gang; Hu, Jiale; Ruan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two systems of classification in a consecutive population with diabetic foot ulcers: the Wagner grade and the Saint Elian Wound Score System (SEWSS). Sociodemographic information, patient-related and ulcer-related data at first presentation was recorded, and the patients were followed up until wound healing or accepting major amputation or for 24 weeks. One hundred eighty-six patients were included in the study, of which 172 patients were completely followed up. Among the remaining 172 patients, 53.5% (n = 92) were healed without minor amputation, 32% (n = 55) were healed with minor amputation, 9.3% (n = 16) were not healed at study termination, 3.5% (n = 6) died and 1.7% (n = 3) underwent major amputation. The median healing time for Wagner 1, Wagner 2, Wagner 3, and Wagner 4 were 23, 50, 54, 119 days, respectively. The log-rank test showed significant differences in healing time for Wagner 1, Wagner 2, Wagner 3, and Wagner 4; The median healing time for SEWSS I, SEWSS II and SEWSS III were 12, 51, and 150 days, respectively. The log-rank test showed significant differences in healing time for SEWSS I, SEWSS II and SEWSS III. Cox regression analysis showed a decreasing probability of healing with or without minor amputation with a higher SEWSS value, an increase in the SEWSS by one score reduced the probability for healing by 24%. ROC analysis showed Wagner 3 and a cut-point 17 of SEWSS had the highest Youden's index. Both the Wagner grade and SEWSS system were associated with the ulcer healing time for the patients with active DFUs. The SEWSS score makes it a better prediction tool of DFU outcome synthetically. PMID:25817047

  4. Evidence for age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive provided by scoring principal components of the resting EEG spectrum in sleep-provoking conditions.

    PubMed

    Putilov, Arcady A; Donskaya, Olga G

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated changes in different bandwidths of the human electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum are well documented, but their functional significance is poorly understood. This spectrum seems to represent summation of simultaneous influences of several sleep-wake regulatory processes. Scoring of its orthogonal (uncorrelated) principal components can help in separation of the brain signatures of these processes. In particular, the opposite age-associated changes were documented for scores on the two largest (1st and 2nd) principal components of the sleep EEG spectrum. A decrease of the first score and an increase of the second score can reflect, respectively, the weakening of the sleep drive and disinhibition of the opposing wake drive with age. In order to support the suggestion of age-associated disinhibition of the wake drive from the antagonistic influence of the sleep drive, we analyzed principal component scores of the resting EEG spectra obtained in sleep deprivation experiments with 81 healthy young adults aged between 19 and 26 and 40 healthy older adults aged between 45 and 66 years. At the second day of the sleep deprivation experiments, frontal scores on the 1st principal component of the EEG spectrum demonstrated an age-associated reduction of response to eyes closed relaxation. Scores on the 2nd principal component were either initially increased during wakefulness or less responsive to such sleep-provoking conditions (frontal and occipital scores, respectively). These results are in line with the suggestion of disinhibition of the wake drive with age. They provide an explanation of why older adults are less vulnerable to sleep deprivation than young adults. PMID:27253971

  5. Effect of genotype and age on some carcass and meat quality traits of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system.

    PubMed

    Soji, Z; Muchenje, V

    2016-07-01

    Genotype and age effects on pH24, L*, a*, b*, tenderness (WBSF), cooking (CL %), and thawing loss (TL %) of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system were determined. Carcass traits (bruising, subcutaneous fat (SF), and conformation) were also measured. Meat quality measurements were taken on the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n=175) of A, AB, B, and C carcasses from Angus, Bonsmara, Fleckvieh, Non-descript, and Simmental genotypes. No bruises were evident in all carcasses. All carcasses scored medium conformation (class 3) while in SF classification, class 2 had the greatest frequency (66.3%). Genotypic effects (P<0.05) were observed for a*, hue angle (HA), pH24, TL%, CL%, and WBSF between steers with six, seven, and eight incisors. Notable differences (P<0.05) were observed for tenderness where Angus and Simmental had least tender meat while Non-descript and Fleckvieh had the tenderest meat within the C-age class. Meat quality varied within animals of the same age-class across genotypes. PMID:26995775

  6. Differences in pain measures by mini-mental state examination scores of residents in aged care facilities: examining the usability of the Abbey pain scale-Japanese version.

    PubMed

    Takai, Yukari; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Ko, Ayako; Heilemann, Marysue V

    2014-03-01

    The validity and reliability of the Abbey Pain Scale-Japanese version (APS-J) have been examined. However, the range of cognitive levels for which the APS-J can be accurately used in older adults has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the differences between total/item scores of the APS-J and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of residents in aged care facilities who self-reported the presence or absence of pain. This descriptive study included 252 residents in aged care facilities. Self-reported pain, MMSE scores, and item/total APS-J scores for pain intensity were collected. The MMSE scores were used to create four groups on the basis of the cognitive impairment level. Self-reports of pain and the APS-J scores were compared with different MMSE score groups. The total APS-J score for pain intensity as well as scores for individual items such as "vocalization" and "facial expression" were significantly higher in those who reported pain than in those reporting no pain across all MMSE groups. The total APS-J score and item scores for "vocalization," "change in body language," and "behavioral changes" showed significant differences in the four MMSE groups. Pain intensity tended to be overestimated by the APS-J, especially among those with low MMSE scores. The APS-J can be used to assess pain intensity in residents despite their cognitive levels. However, caution is required when using it to compare scores among older adults with different cognitive capacity because of the possibility of overestimation of pain among residents with low cognitive capacity. PMID:23237690

  7. Harmonizing the Classification of Age-related Macular Degeneration in the Three Continent AMD Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Meuer, Stacy M.; Myers, Chelsea E.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Rochtchina, Elena; Choudhury, Farzana; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Gao, Xiaoyi; Lee, Kristine E.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Mitchell, Paul; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wang, Jie Jin; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe methods to harmonize the classification of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes across four population-based cohort studies: the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES), and Rotterdam Study (RS). Methods AMD grading protocols, definitions of categories, and grading forms from each study were compared to determine whether there were systematic differences in AMD severity definitions and lesion categorization among the three grading centers. Each center graded the same set of 60 images using their respective systems to determine presence and severity of AMD lesions. A common five-step AMD severity scale and definitions of lesion measurement cutpoints and early and late AMD were developed from this exercise. Results Applying this severity scale changed the age-sex adjusted prevalence of early AMD from 18.7% to 20.3% in BDES, from 4.7% to 14.4% in BMES, from 14.1% to 15.8% in LALES, and from 7.5% to 17.1% in RS. Age-sex adjusted prevalences of late AMD remained unchanged. Comparison of each center’s grades of the 60 images converted to the consortium scale showed that exact agreement of AMD severity among centers varied from 61.0% to 81.4%, and one-step agreement varied from 84.7% to 98.3%. Conclusion Harmonization of AMD classification reduced categorical differences in phenotypic definitions across the studies, resulted in a new 5-step AMD severity scale, and enhanced similarity of AMD prevalence among four cohorts. Despite harmonization it may still be difficult to remove systematic differences in grading, if present. PMID:24467558

  8. Retinal Image Classification for the Screening of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijazi, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad; Coenen, Frans; Zheng, Yalin

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in old-age. Early identification of AMD can allow for mitigation (but not cure). One of the fist symptoms of AMD is the presence of fatty deposits, called drusen, on the retina. The presence of drusen may be identified through inspection of retina images. Given the aging global population, the prevalence of AMD is increasing. Many health authorities therefore run screening programmes. The automation, or at least partial automation, of retina image screening is therefore seen as beneficial. This paper describes a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) approach to retina image classification to provide support for AMD screening programmes. In the proposed approach images are represented in the form of spatial-histograms that store both colour and spatial image information. Each retina image is represented using a series of histograms each encapsulated as a time series curve. The Case Base (CB) is populated with a labelled set of such curves. New cases are classified by finding the most similar case (curve) in the CB. Similarity checking is achieved using the Dynamic Time warping (DTW).

  9. Alcohol imagery and branding, and age classification of films popular in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Ian; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol products in feature films is a risk factor for use of alcohol by young people. This study was designed to document the extent to which alcohol imagery and brand appearances occur in popular UK films, and in relation to British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) age ratings intended to protect children and young people from harmful imagery. Methods Alcohol appearances (classified as ‘alcohol use, inferred alcohol use, other alcohol reference and alcohol brand appearances’) were measured using 5-min interval coding of 300 films, comprising the 15 highest grossing films at the UK Box Office each year over a period of 20 years from 1989 to 2008. Results At least one alcohol appearance occurred in 86% of films, at least one episode of alcohol branding in 35% and nearly a quarter (23%) of all intervals analysed contained at least one appearance of alcohol. The occurrence of ‘alcohol use and branded alcohol appearances’ was particularly high in 1989, but the frequency of these and all other appearance categories changed little in subsequent years. Most films containing alcohol appearances, including 90% of those including ‘alcohol brand appearances’, were rated as suitable for viewing by children and young people. The most frequently shown brands were American beers: Budweiser, Miller and Coors. Alcohol appearances were similarly frequent in films originating from the UK, as from the USA. Conclusion Alcohol imagery is extremely common in all films popular in the UK, irrespective of BBFC age classification. Given the relationship between exposure to alcohol imagery in films and use of alcohol by young people, we suggest that alcohol imagery should be afforded greater consideration in determining the suitability of films for viewing by children and young people. PMID:22039199

  10. A risk score for predicting 1-year mortality in patients ≥75 years of age presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Fabio; Cavallini, Claudio; Verdecchia, Paolo; Morici, Nuccia; Del Pinto, Maurizio; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Antonicelli, Roberto; Murena, Ernesto; Bossi, Irene; De Servi, Stefano; Savonitto, Stefano

    2015-07-15

    Approximately 1/3 of patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are ≥75 years of age. Risk stratification in these patients is generally difficult because supporting evidence is scarce. The investigators developed and validated a simple risk prediction score for 1-year mortality in patients ≥75 years of age presenting with NSTE ACS. The derivation cohort was the Italian Elderly ACS trial, which included 313 patients with NSTE ACS aged ≥75 years. A logistic regression model was developed to predict 1-year mortality. The validation cohort was a registry cohort of 332 patients with NSTE ACS meeting the same inclusion criteria as for the Italian Elderly ACS trial but excluded from the trial for any reason. The risk score included 5 statistically significant covariates: previous vascular event, hemoglobin level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, and elevated troponin level. The model allowed a maximum score of 6. The score demonstrated a good discriminating power (C statistic = 0.739) and calibration, even among subgroups defined by gender and age. When validated in the registry cohort, the scoring system confirmed a strong association with the risk for all-cause death. Moreover, a score ≥3 (the highest baseline risk group) identified a subset of patients with NSTE ACS most likely to benefit from an invasive approach. In conclusion, the risk for 1-year mortality in patients ≥75 years of age with NSTE ACS is substantial and can be predicted through a score that can be easily derived at the bedside at hospital presentation. The score may help in guiding treatment strategy. PMID:25978978

  11. Logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale: age and education norms and alternate-form reliability of two scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, H; Alvir, J; Hong, G; Sukoff, R; Orazio, J; Solomon, S; Saravay, S

    1987-08-01

    The Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale has been characterized by imprecise scoring instructions which can make data interpretation and study comparisons difficult. A total of 339 adults, from 18 to 83 years old, took either Form I or Form II of the LM. Verbal recall of the story passages was evaluated using gist and verbatim scoring systems. Interrater reliability was very high for both scoring approaches. The two forms were equivalent for gist recall. However, verbatim recall of Form I was more difficult than Form II because the former consists of more words to remember. Recall was related more to educational level than to age. For both gist and verbatim scoring, age and education norms were generated for immediate, delayed, and 24-h recall. PMID:3597734

  12. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  13. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples-the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  14. Changes in cardiovascular health score and atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons in China: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingsheng; Bao, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Huang, Zhe; Xing, Aijun; Wang, Yang; An, Shasha; Cai, Jun; Wu, Shouling; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The American Heart Association (AHA) proposed a definition of 4 cardiovascular health behaviours and 3 health factors. On the basis of the 7 metrics, the cardiovascular health score (CHS) was used to estimate individual-level changes in cardiovascular health status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in CHS (⊿CHS) at different time-points are associated with atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons. Design Prospective cohort study in China. Settings We defined 8 groups (≤−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2 and ≥3) according to ⊿CHS. The impact of ⊿CHS on the change of brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (⊿baPWV) and atherosclerosis progression was analysed. Participants A total of 3951 individuals met the inclusion criteria (≥40 years old; no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or myocardial infarction) and had complete information. Results ⊿baPWV decreased gradually (126.46±355.91, 78.4±343.81, 69.6±316.27, 49.59±287.57, 57.07±261.17, 40.45±264.27, 37.45±283.26 and 21.66±264.17 cm/s, respectively) with increasing ⊿CHS (p for trend<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis suggested a negative relationship between these 2 variables, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors. Each increase in CHS was associated with a reduced baPWV for 15.22 cm/s (B value −15.22, p<0.001). Conclusions ⊿CHS were negatively related to ⊿baPWV, which proved to be an independent predictor of the progression of atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older persons. Trial registration number Kailuan study (ChiCTR-TNC-11001489). PMID:26310397

  15. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  16. Survival Prediction Score: A Simple but Age-Dependent Method Predicting Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Palliative Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dalhaug, Astrid; Pawinski, Adam; Haukland, Ellinor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Validation of a Canadian three-tiered prognostic model (survival prediction score, SPS) in Norwegian cancer patients referred for palliative radiotherapy (PRT), and evaluation of age-dependent performance of the model. Patients and Methods. We analyzed all 579 PRT courses administered at a dedicated PRT facility between 20.06.07 and 31.12.2009. SPS was assigned as originally described, That is, by taking into consideration three variables: primary cancer type, site of metastases, and performance status. Results. Patients with poor prognosis (non-breast cancer, metastases other than bone, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≤ 60) had median survival of 13 weeks. Those with intermediate prognosis (two of these parameters) survived for a median of 29 weeks, and patients with good prognosis for a median of 114 weeks, P < 0.001. While this model performed well in patients who were 60 years or older, it was less satisfactory in younger patients (no significant difference between the good and intermediate prognosis groups). Conclusion. SPS should mainly be used to predict survival of elderly cancer patients. However, even in this group accuracy is limited because the good prognosis group contained patients with short survival, while the poor prognosis group contained long-term survivors. Thus, improved models should be developed. PMID:25006508

  17. Automated age-related macular degeneration classification in OCT using unsupervised feature learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venhuizen, Freerk G.; van Ginneken, Bram; Bloemen, Bart; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Philipsen, Rick; Hoyng, Carel; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2015-03-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common eye disorder with high prevalence in elderly people. The disease mainly affects the central part of the retina, and could ultimately lead to permanent vision loss. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is becoming the standard imaging modality in diagnosis of AMD and the assessment of its progression. However, the evaluation of the obtained volumetric scan is time consuming, expensive and the signs of early AMD are easy to miss. In this paper we propose a classification method to automatically distinguish AMD patients from healthy subjects with high accuracy. The method is based on an unsupervised feature learning approach, and processes the complete image without the need for an accurate pre-segmentation of the retina. The method can be divided in two steps: an unsupervised clustering stage that extracts a set of small descriptive image patches from the training data, and a supervised training stage that uses these patches to create a patch occurrence histogram for every image on which a random forest classifier is trained. Experiments using 384 volume scans show that the proposed method is capable of identifying AMD patients with high accuracy, obtaining an area under the Receiver Operating Curve of 0:984. Our method allows for a quick and reliable assessment of the presence of AMD pathology in OCT volume scans without the need for accurate layer segmentation algorithms.

  18. Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less

  19. A Pilot Evaluation of the Test-Retest Score Reliability of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igoe, Deirdre; Peralta, Christopher; Jean, Lindsey; Vo, Sandra; Yep, Linda Ngan; Zabjek, Karl; Wright, F. Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Preschool-aged children continually learn new skills and perfect existing ones. "Mastery motivation" is theorized to be a personality trait linked to skill learning. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) quantifies mastery motivation. This pilot study evaluated DMQ test-retest score reliability (preschool-version) and included exploratory…

  20. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses.…

  1. Probabilistic age classification with Bayesian networks: A study on the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Emanuele; Pinchi, Vilma; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the rise of criminal, civil and asylum cases involving young people lacking valid identification documents has generated an increase in the demand of age estimation. The chronological age or the probability that an individual is older or younger than a given age threshold are generally estimated by means of some statistical methods based on observations performed on specific physical attributes. Among these statistical methods, those developed in the Bayesian framework allow users to provide coherent and transparent assignments which fulfill forensic and medico-legal purposes. The application of the Bayesian approach is facilitated by using probabilistic graphical tools, such as Bayesian networks. The aim of this work is to test the performances of the Bayesian network for age estimation recently presented in scientific literature in classifying individuals as older or younger than 18 years of age. For these exploratory analyses, a sample related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis available in scientific literature was used. Results obtained in the classification are promising: in the criminal context, the Bayesian network achieved, on the average, a rate of correct classifications of approximatively 97%, whilst in the civil context, the rate is, on the average, close to the 88%. These results encourage the continuation of the development and the testing of the method in order to support its practical application in casework. PMID:26699731

  2. Active learning for solving the incomplete data problem in facial age classification by the furthest nearest-neighbor criterion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Sung, Eric; Yau, Wei-Yun

    2011-07-01

    Facial age classification is an approach to classify face images into one of several predefined age groups. One of the difficulties in applying learning techniques to the age classification problem is the large amount of labeled training data required. Acquiring such training data is very costly in terms of age progress, privacy, human time, and effort. Although unlabeled face images can be obtained easily, it would be expensive to manually label them on a large scale and getting the ground truth. The frugal selection of the unlabeled data for labeling to quickly reach high classification performance with minimal labeling efforts is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an active learning approach based on an online incremental bilateral two-dimension linear discriminant analysis (IB2DLDA) which initially learns from a small pool of labeled data and then iteratively selects the most informative samples from the unlabeled set to increasingly improve the classifier. Specifically, we propose a novel data selection criterion called the furthest nearest-neighbor (FNN) that generalizes the margin-based uncertainty to the multiclass case and which is easy to compute, so that the proposed active learning algorithm can handle a large number of classes and large data sizes efficiently. Empirical experiments on FG-NET and Morph databases together with a large unlabeled data set for age categorization problems show that the proposed approach can achieve results comparable or even outperform a conventionally trained active classifier that requires much more labeling effort. Our IB2DLDA-FNN algorithm can achieve similar results much faster than random selection and with fewer samples for age categorization. It also can achieve comparable results with active SVM but is much faster than active SVM in terms of training because kernel methods are not needed. The results on the face recognition database and palmprint/palm vein database showed that our approach can handle

  3. Canada acute coronary syndrome score was a stronger baseline predictor than age ≥75 years of in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients in western Romania

    PubMed Central

    Pogorevici, Antoanela; Citu, Ioana Mihaela; Bordejevic, Diana Aurora; Caruntu, Florina; Tomescu, Mirela Cleopatra

    2016-01-01

    Background Several risk scores were developed for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, but their use is limited by their complexity. Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify predictors at admission for in-hospital mortality in ACS patients in western Romania, using a simple risk-assessment tool – the new Canada acute coronary syndrome (C-ACS) risk score. Patients and methods The baseline risk of patients admitted with ACS was retrospectively assessed using the C-ACS risk score. The score ranged from 0 to 4; 1 point was assigned for the presence of each of the following parameters: age ≥75 years, Killip class >1, systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg, and heart rate >100 bpm. Results A total of 960 patients with ACS were included, 409 (43%) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 551 (57%) with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). The C-ACS score predicted in-hospital mortality in all ACS patients with a C-statistic of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93–0.96), in STEMI patients with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89–0.94), and in NSTE-ACS patients with a C-statistic of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95–0.98). Of the 960 patients, 218 (22.7%) were aged ≥75 years. The proportion of patients aged ≥75 years was 21.7% in the STEMI subgroup and 23.4% in the NSTE-ACS subgroup (P>0.05). Age ≥75 years was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in ACS patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.24–8.25) and in the STEMI subgroup (OR >3.99, 95% CI: 1.28–12.44). Female sex was strongly associated with mortality in the NSTE-ACS subgroup (OR: 27.72, 95% CI: 1.83–39.99). Conclusion We conclude that C-ACS score was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in all ACS patients while age ≥75 years predicted the mortality well in the STEMI subgroup. PMID:27217732

  4. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was −1.25 (1.14) (n  =  801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n  =  797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  5. Screening Outcomes in Older US Women Undergoing Multiple Mammograms in Community Practice: Does Interval, Age, or Comorbidity Score Affect Tumor Characteristics or False Positive Rates?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity. PMID:23385442

  6. Clinical Utility of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction Gene Score in UK Healthy Middle Aged Men and in the Pakistani Population

    PubMed Central

    Beaney, Katherine E.; Cooper, Jackie A.; Ullah Shahid, Saleem; Ahmed, Waqas; Qamar, Raheel; Drenos, Fotios; Crockard, Martin A.; Humphries, Steve E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous risk prediction algorithms based on conventional risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) are available but provide only modest discrimination. The inclusion of genetic information may improve clinical utility. Methods We tested the use of two gene scores (GS) in the prospective second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHSII) of 2775 healthy UK men (284 cases), and Pakistani case-control studies from Islamabad/Rawalpindi (321 cases/228 controls) and Lahore (414 cases/219 controls). The 19-SNP GS included SNPs in loci identified by GWAS and candidate gene studies, while the 13-SNP GS only included SNPs in loci identified by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. Results In NPHSII, the mean of both gene scores was higher in those who went on to develop CHD over 13.5 years of follow-up (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=7x10-3). In combination with the Framingham algorithm the GSs appeared to show improvement in discrimination (increase in area under the ROC curve, 19-SNP p=0.48, 13-SNP p=0.82) and risk classification (net reclassification improvement (NRI), 19-SNP p=0.28, 13-SNP p=0.42) compared to the Framingham algorithm alone, but these were not statistically significant. When considering only individuals who moved up a risk category with inclusion of the GS, the improvement in risk classification was statistically significant (19-SNP p=0.01, 13-SNP p=0.04). In the Pakistani samples, risk allele frequencies were significantly lower compared to NPHSII for 13/19 SNPs. In the Islamabad study, the mean gene score was higher in cases than controls only for the 13-SNP GS (2.24 v 2.34, p=0.04). There was no association with CHD and either score in the Lahore study. Conclusion The performance of both GSs showed potential clinical utility in European men but much less utility in subjects from Pakistan, suggesting that a different set of risk loci or SNPs may be required for risk prediction in the South Asian population. PMID:26133560

  7. Dynamic Assessment of School-Age Children's Narrative Ability: An Experimental Investigation of Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Elizabeth D.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Malek, Melynn; Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Resendiz, Maria; Fiestas, Christine; Sabel, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments examined reliability and classification accuracy of a narration-based dynamic assessment task. Purpose: The first experiment evaluated whether parallel results were obtained from stories created in response to 2 different wordless picture books. If so, the tasks and measures would be appropriate for assessing pretest and posttest…

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF IRANIAN NURSES ACCORDING TO THEIR MENTAL HEALTH OUTCOMES USING GHQ-12 QUESTIONNAIRE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS AND K-MEANS CLUSTERING WITH TRADITIONAL SCORING METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses constitute the most providers of health care systems. Their mental health can affect the quality of services and patients’ satisfaction. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a general screening tool used to detect mental disorders. Scoring method and determining thresholds for this questionnaire are debatable and the cut-off points can vary from sample to sample. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among Iranian nurses using GHQ-12 and also compare Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and K-means clustering with traditional scoring method. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran in 2014. Participants were 771 Iranian nurses, who filled out the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Traditional scoring method, LCA and K-means were used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder among Iranian nurses. Cohen’s kappa statistic was applied to assess the agreement between the LCA and K-means with traditional scoring method of GHQ-12. Results: The nurses with mental disorder by scoring method, LCA and K-mean were 36.3% (n=280), 32.2% (n=248), and 26.5% (n=204), respectively. LCA and logistic regression revealed that the prevalence of mental disorder in females was significantly higher than males. Conclusion: Mental disorder in nurses was in a medium level compared to other people living in Iran. There was a little difference between prevalence of mental disorder estimated by scoring method, K-means and LCA. According to the advantages of LCA than K-means and different results in scoring method, we suggest LCA for classification of Iranian nurses according to their mental health outcomes using GHQ-12 questionnaire PMID:26622202

  9. A risk score for the prediction of advanced age-related macular degeneration: Development and validation in 2 prospective cohorts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We aimed to develop an eye specific model which used readily available information to predict risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We used the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) as our training dataset, which consisted of the 4,507 participants (contributing 1,185 affected v...

  10. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild I A.; Knüppel, Sven; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Quirós, J. Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hedblad, Bo; Wallström, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Middleton, Lefkos; May, Anne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. Methods We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53°758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG) for the next 5 years (derivation sample). Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining ≥10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample). Results Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63–0.65) in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI  = 0.56–0.58) in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of ≥200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score. PMID:23874419

  11. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. < LOQ), whereas WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. < LOD). Conclusion: We found no evidence that prenatal OP exposure adversely affected cognitive function in 6-year-olds, perhaps because of the population’s socioeconomic status, which was higher than in previous studies, though other causal and noncausal explanations are also possible. The negative association between WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner

  12. The interactive association of dietary diversity scores and breast-feeding status with weight and length in Filipino infants aged 6–24 months

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Melecia J; Bentley, Margaret E; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess how breast-feeding and dietary diversity relate to infant length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ). Design Breast-feeding, dietary and anthropometric data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey were analysed using sex-stratified fixed-effects longitudinal regression models. A dietary diversity score (DDS) based on seven food groups was classified as low (<4) or high (≥4). The complementary feeding patterns were: (i) non-breast-fed with low DDS (referent); (ii) breast-fed with low DDS; (iii) non-breast-fed with high DDS; and (iv) breast-fed with high DDS (optimal). Interactions between age, energy intake and complementary feeding patterns were included. Setting Philippines. Subjects Infants (n 2822) measured bimonthly from 6 to 24 months. Results Breast-feeding (regardless of DDS) was significantly associated with higher LAZ (until 24 months) and WAZ (until 20 months). For example, at 6 months, breast-fed boys with low DDS were 0·246 (95 % CI 0·191, 0·302) SD longer and 0·523 (95 % CI 0·451, 0·594) SD heavier than the referent group. There was no significant difference in size between breast-fed infants with high v. low DDS. Similarly, high DDS conferred no advantage in LAZ or WAZ among non-breast- fed infants. There were modest correlations between the 7-point DDS and nutrient intakes but these correlations were substantially attenuated after energy adjustment. We elucidated several interactions between sex, age, energy intake and complementary feeding patterns. Conclusions These results demonstrate the importance of prolonged breast-feeding up to 24 months. The DDS provided qualitative information on infant diets but did not confer a significant advantage in LAZ or WAZ. PMID:25728248

  13. Description and classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain magnetic resonance imaging morphology measures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gonzalez, Jorge Luis; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Cosío, Fernando Arámbula; Jiménez, Juan Ramón; Medina-Bañuelos, Veronica

    2014-10-01

    We present a discrete compactness (DC) index, together with a classification scheme, based both on the size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A set of 30 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes for each group was segmented and two indices were measured for several structures: three-dimensional DC and normalized volumes (NVs). The discrimination power of these indices was determined by means of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic, where the proposed compactness index showed an average AUC of 0.7 for HC versus MCI comparison, 0.9 for HC versus AD separation, and 0.75 for MCI versus AD groups. In all cases, this index outperformed the discrimination capability of the NV. Using selected features from the set of DC and NV measures, three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pairwise separation of the three classes. Our analysis shows classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD, 85% between HC and MCI, and 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indices to classify different aging stages. PMID:26158061

  14. Description and classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain magnetic resonance imaging morphology measures

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gonzalez, Jorge Luis; Yanez-Suarez, Oscar; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Cosío, Fernando Arámbula; Jiménez, Juan Ramón; Medina-Bañuelos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present a discrete compactness (DC) index, together with a classification scheme, based both on the size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A set of 30 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes for each group was segmented and two indices were measured for several structures: three-dimensional DC and normalized volumes (NVs). The discrimination power of these indices was determined by means of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic, where the proposed compactness index showed an average AUC of 0.7 for HC versus MCI comparison, 0.9 for HC versus AD separation, and 0.75 for MCI versus AD groups. In all cases, this index outperformed the discrimination capability of the NV. Using selected features from the set of DC and NV measures, three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pairwise separation of the three classes. Our analysis shows classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD, 85% between HC and MCI, and 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indices to classify different aging stages. PMID:26158061

  15. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  16. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  17. Spoken Language Scores of Children Using Cochlear Implants Compared to Hearing Age-Mates at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann E.; Moog, Jean S.; Biedenstein, Julia; Brenner, Christine; Hayes, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three questions: Is it realistic to expect age-appropriate spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants (CIs) who received auditory-oral intervention during the preschool years? What characteristics predict successful spoken language development in this population? Are children with CIs more proficient in some…

  18. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  19. THE EFFECT OF AGE AS A VARIABLE ON THE SCORES OF THE HARRIS-GOODENOUGH DRAWING TEST OF EDUCABLE RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVY, IRWIN S.

    IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE RELIABILITY OF PERFORMANCE OF RETARDED ADOLESCENTS ON THE HARRIS REVISION OF THE GOODENOUGH DRAW-A-MAN TEST (DAM) AND WHETHER THE DECLINE IN PERFORMANCE WHICH OCCURS IN NORMAL ADOLESCENTS AT THE MID-TEENS ALSO OCCURS WITH RETARDED ADOLESCENTS, 213 MALE AND 130 FEMALE SUBJECTS, AGED 11-20 YEARS AND WITH IQ'S OF 56-72, IN…

  20. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  1. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight < 30 days. Data from males and females were analyzed separately. Models of SD observations revealed that TBS and BMD had similar curvilinear declines with age for both male and female astronauts. However, models of LD observations showed TBS declining with age while

  2. Scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil *

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Christo; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; de Oliveira, Roselene Lopes; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in smear-negative indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age with the modified Brazilian National Ministry of Health Scoring System (mBNMH-SS). METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study involving 49 indigenous patients under 15 years of age with tuberculosis, treated between 2007 and 2010 in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients, 27 (56%) were under 5 years of age, 33 (67%) had symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 (49%) were underweight, and 36 (73.5%) had been BCG vaccinated. The tuberculin skin test was positive in 28 patients (57%), 18 (64%) of whom had an induration ≥ 10 mm. Chest X-rays were performed in 37 (76%) of the patients, 31 (84%) of whom had only one chest X-ray taken. Among those 37 patients, the radiological findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 16 (43%), infiltration/condensation in 10 (27%), and normal in 4 (11%). The Indigenous Health Care Teams made the diagnosis in 31 (63%) of the cases, using the original BNMH-SS in only 14 (45%). We calculated the mBNMH-SS scores for 30 (61%) of the 49 patients. Among the 30 cases scored, a diagnosis of tuberculosis was found to be highly likely, possible, and unlikely in 16 (53%), 11 (37%), and 3 (10%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of highly likely and possible diagnoses was consistent with the standard proportion of cases diagnosed by the teams (90%), demonstrating the epidemiological applicability of the mBNMH-SS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the indigenous population, within the scenario of the health care provided. PMID:23503490

  3. Automated tissue classification of pediatric brains from magnetic resonance images using age-specific atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Andrew; Benavides, Amanda; Nopoulos, Peg; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop two age appropriate atlases (neonatal and one year old) that account for the rapid growth and maturational changes that occur during early development. Tissue maps from this age group were initially created by manually correcting the resulting tissue maps after applying an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and an adult atlas to pediatric subjects. The EM algorithm classified each voxel into one of ten possible tissue types including several subcortical structures. This was followed by a novel level set segmentation designed to improve differentiation between distal cortical gray matter and white matter. To minimize the req uired manual corrections, the adult atlas was registered to the pediatric scans using high -dimensional, symmetric image normalization (SyN) registration. The subject images were then mapped to an age specific atlas space, again using SyN registration, and the resulting transformation applied to the manually corrected tissue maps. The individual maps were averaged in the age specific atlas space and blurred to generate the age appropriate anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to re-segment the initial training set as well as an independent testing set. The results from the adult and age-specific anatomical priors were compared to the manually corrected results. The age appropriate atlas provided superior results as compared to the adult atlas. The image analysis pipeline used in this work was built using the open source software package BRAINSTools.

  4. Multivariate Analyses and Classification of Inertial Sensor Data to Identify Aging Effects on the Timed-Up-and-Go Test

    PubMed Central

    Vervoort, Danique; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Kosse, Nienke; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Many tests can crudely quantify age-related mobility decrease but instrumented versions of mobility tests could increase their specificity and sensitivity. The Timed-up-and-Go (TUG) test includes several elements that people use in daily life. The test has different transition phases: rise from a chair, walk, 180° turn, walk back, turn, and sit-down on a chair. For this reason the TUG is an often used test to evaluate in a standardized way possible decline in balance and walking ability due to age and or pathology. Using inertial sensors, qualitative information about the performance of the sub-phases can provide more specific information about a decline in balance and walking ability. The first aim of our study was to identify variables extracted from the instrumented timed-up-and-go (iTUG) that most effectively distinguished performance differences across age (age 18–75). Second, we determined the discriminative ability of those identified variables to classify a younger (age 18–45) and older age group (age 46–75). From healthy adults (n = 59), trunk accelerations and angular velocities were recorded during iTUG performance. iTUG phases were detected with wavelet-analysis. Using a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, from the 72-iTUG variables calculated across phases, those that explained most of the covariance between variables and age were extracted. Subsequently, a PLS-discriminant analysis (DA) assessed classification power of the identified iTUG variables to discriminate the age groups. 27 variables, related to turning, walking and the stand-to-sit movement explained 71% of the variation in age. The PLS-DA with these 27 variables showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 85%. Based on this model, the iTUG can accurately distinguish young and older adults. Such data can serve as a reference for pathological aging with respect to a widely used mobility test. Mobility tests like the TUG supplemented with smart technology could be used in clinical

  5. Multivariate Analyses and Classification of Inertial Sensor Data to Identify Aging Effects on the Timed-Up-and-Go Test.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Danique; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Kosse, Nienke; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2016-01-01

    Many tests can crudely quantify age-related mobility decrease but instrumented versions of mobility tests could increase their specificity and sensitivity. The Timed-up-and-Go (TUG) test includes several elements that people use in daily life. The test has different transition phases: rise from a chair, walk, 180° turn, walk back, turn, and sit-down on a chair. For this reason the TUG is an often used test to evaluate in a standardized way possible decline in balance and walking ability due to age and or pathology. Using inertial sensors, qualitative information about the performance of the sub-phases can provide more specific information about a decline in balance and walking ability. The first aim of our study was to identify variables extracted from the instrumented timed-up-and-go (iTUG) that most effectively distinguished performance differences across age (age 18-75). Second, we determined the discriminative ability of those identified variables to classify a younger (age 18-45) and older age group (age 46-75). From healthy adults (n = 59), trunk accelerations and angular velocities were recorded during iTUG performance. iTUG phases were detected with wavelet-analysis. Using a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, from the 72-iTUG variables calculated across phases, those that explained most of the covariance between variables and age were extracted. Subsequently, a PLS-discriminant analysis (DA) assessed classification power of the identified iTUG variables to discriminate the age groups. 27 variables, related to turning, walking and the stand-to-sit movement explained 71% of the variation in age. The PLS-DA with these 27 variables showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 85%. Based on this model, the iTUG can accurately distinguish young and older adults. Such data can serve as a reference for pathological aging with respect to a widely used mobility test. Mobility tests like the TUG supplemented with smart technology could be used in clinical practice

  6. Accuracy of scoring of the epiphyses at the knee joint (SKJ) for assessing legal adult age of 18 years.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Mihanović, Frane; Giuliodori, Alice; Conforti, Federica; Cingolani, Mariano; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Important aspects of forensic practice are age estimation and discrimination of individuals of unknown age as adults and minors. The developing knee joint was recognized as a potential site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed a sample of anteroposterior x-rays of the knee joints from 446 living individuals from Umbria, Italy (234 males and 212 females), aged between 12 and 26 years. We evaluated the ossification of the distal femoral (DF), proximal tibial (PT), and proximal fibular (PF) epiphyses. We took into account possible persistence of the epiphyseal scars in the ossified epiphyses by the adopted stages of those previously introduced by Cameriere et al. (2012). We also used measurements from all three epiphyses to calculate the total score of maturation for the knee joint (SKJ). Cohen Kappa coefficients of intrarater agreement for staging the DF, PT, and PF epiphyses were 0.839, 0.894, and 0.907, while interrater agreement was 0.919, 0.791, and 0.907, respectively. The resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of SKJ show better discriminatory power than those for DF, PT, and PF epiphyses in predicting that the participant, either male or female, was an adult or a minor. The areas under the curves for SKJ were 0.991 and 0.968 vs. 0.944, 0.962, 0.974 and 0.891, 0.910, 0.918 for males and females, respectively. The results of the 2 by 2 contingency tables showed that SKJ score of 4 in males and SKJ score of 5 in females were the most suitable cut-off value in discriminating between adults and minors. Principally, the sensitivity test for males was 0.94, with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.90 to 0.97 and specificity was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.98). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.97). For females, the sensitivity test was 0.89 (95 % CI 0.84 to 0.92) and specificity was 0.92 (95 % CI 0.87 to 0.96), the proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.90 (95 % CI 0

  7. Terrestrial age and classification of the Mar'inka iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Malyshev, V. V.; Kolesov, G. M.; Barsukova, L. D.; Osadchii, E. G.

    In terms of composition the Mar'inka meteorite is shown to belong to group IIB; in terms of structure, it is probably a very coarse octahedrite. The terrestrial age of the meteorite, based on the content of the radionuclide Mn-53, is less than 10 myr; hence, it could not have been buried in a layer of coal, whose age is 285-340 myr.

  8. Chronotropic response during treadmill exercise and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis after adjusting for the calibrated SCORE risk classification: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liontou, Catherine; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, John; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2016-02-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis (CA) and chronotropic incompetence (CI) during exercise are two independent cardiovascular risk factors. Aim of the current study was to investigate the possible association between them, in apparently healthy individuals, after adjusting for the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score. This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 apparently healthy subjects, 40-65 years old, who underwent treadmill exercise test (Bruce protocol used), which showed no evidence of ischemia. Heart rate reserve (HR reserve) was calculated to assess chronotropic response; a value of ≤ 0.80 is considered CI. CA was assessed by the presence of carotid plaque(s) in common and internal carotid arteries and carotid bulb bilaterally, using B-mode ultrasound. A calibrated version of SCORE (i.e., HellenicSCORE) was used to estimate the 10-year fatal CVD risk; participants were classified into low-, moderate- or high-risk group. CI was present in 7.9 % and CA in 18.7 % of the participants. After adjusting for 10-year CVD risk and other key confounders, odds of CA were 8.6 times higher in subjects with CI compared to their counterparts with normal chronotropic response to exercise. The results of the study indicate that CI during exercise can lead to high clinical suspicion of CA in apparently healthy individuals. PMID:25252777

  9. [Can the classification of patients for phase B, C and D of neurological rehabilitation be done by FIM(tm) scores?].

    PubMed

    Nosper, M

    2002-02-01

    The classification of patients for phase B, C and D of neurological rehabilitation follows the suggestions of the Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft für Rehabilitation (BAR) based on defined clinical criteria and on neurological rehabilitation assessment. The focus of this study is to define the intervals of the complete FIM(tm)-index, intervals covered empirically as well as by evaluations of physicians, that permit utmost accuracy in assigning patients to phase B, C and D of neurological rehabilitation. Therefore, data records of 3686 patients from 4 neurological rehabilitation centres were evaluated. The patients' functional autonomy was classified by FIM(tm) on admission, in intervals of 14 days and at discharge, at the same time all patients in addition were assigned to phases B, C or D by the rehabilitation centre physicians. Statistical analysis of a total of 11,247 links of the phase classifications and FIM-indexes at 6 measurement points showed that correct correlation to phase B, C and D could be obtained on average in 79 to 89 % of the cases, based on the assumption that 18 - 36 points of the FIM-index assign to phase B, 37 - 90 points to phase C and 91 - 126 points to phase D. Discrimination between phases B and C could be obtained accurately in an average of 84 %, discrimination between phases C and D in an average of 89 %. Conformance of the FIM-intervals with TAR-based groups of care efforts compared to the evaluation by physicians indicate that the FIM(tm) represents the need for care with greater validity. If assignment to phases B, C and D would have been done on the basis of the FIM-index instead of evaluation by a physician, 8,9 % fewer patients would on admission have been classified for phase C but, instead, 4,5 % more patients for phase B and 4,4 % for phase D. In case of using the FIM-intervals for classification, 12,1 % more phase B patients could have changed to phases C or D. Of the phase C cases, 17,7 % could have been transferred to phase D

  10. Classification of abnormal fundus autofluorescence patterns in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy in patients with age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bindewald, A; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Jorzik, J J; Dolar-Szczasny, J; Sieber, H; Keilhauer, C; Weinberger, A W A; Dithmar, S; Pauleikhoff, D; Mansmann, U; Wolf, S; Holz, F G

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe and classify patterns of abnormal fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in the junctional zone of geographic atrophy (GA) in patients with age related macular degeneration. Methods: Digital FAF images were recorded in 164 eyes of 107 patients using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO; excitation 488 nm, detection above 500 nm) as part of a prospective multicentre natural history study (FAM Study). FAF images were obtained in accordance with a standardised protocol for digital image acquisition and generation of mean images after automated alignment. Results: Image quality was sufficient for classification of FAF patterns in 149 eyes (90.9%) with lens opacities being the most common reason for insufficient image quality. Abnormal FAF outside GA in 149 eyes was classified into four patterns: focal (12.1%), banded (12.8%), patchy (2.0%), and diffuse (57.0%), whereby 12.1% had normal background FAF in the junctional zone. In 4% there was no predominant pattern. The diffuse pattern was subdivided into four groups including reticular (4.7%), branching (27.5%), fine granular (18.1%), and fine granular with peripheral punctate spots (6.7%). Conclusions: Different phenotypic patterns of abnormal FAF in the junctional zone of GA can be identified with cSLO FAF imaging. These distinct patterns may reflect heterogeneity at a cellular and molecular level in contrast with a non-specific ageing process. A refined phenotypic classification may be helpful to identify prognostic determinants for the spread of atrophy and visual loss, for identification of genetic risk factors as well as for the design of future interventional trials. PMID:15965170

  11. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ⩽4.1 × 10−5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10−18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

  12. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  13. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  14. Lunar crater arcs. [origins, distribution and age classification of Pre-Imbrian families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Bulkley, E. O.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the tendency of large lunar craters to lie along circles. A catalog of the craters at least 50 km in diameter was prepared first, noting position, diameter, rim sharpness and completion, nature of underlying surface, and geological age. The subset of those craters 50-400 km in diameter was then used as input to computer programs which identified each 'family' of four or more craters of selected geological age lying on a circular arc. For comparison, families were also identified for randomized crater models in which the crater spatial density was matched to that on the moon, either overall or separately for mare and highland areas. The observed frequency of lunar arcuate families was statistically highly significantly greater than for the randomized models, for craters classified as either late-pre-Imbrian (Nectarian), middle pre-Imbrian, or early pre-Imbrian, as well as for a number of larger age-classes. The lunar families tend to center in specific areas of the moon; these lie in highlands rather than maria and are different for families of Nectarian craters than for pre-Nectarian. The origin of the arcuate crater groupings is not understood.

  15. Association between the French nutritional guideline-based score and 6-year anthropometric changes in a French middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Castetbon, Katia; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-15

    In light of increasing obesity among the elderly, understanding the role of nutritional guidelines in preventing weight gain is of major importance. The authors evaluated the impact of the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)-Guideline Score (GS) (maximum score, 15 points) on anthropometric changes in a large population-based study. Subjects in the present analysis (n = 3,531) were participants in the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study (1994-2002) and had available data for estimating the PNNS-GS and anthropometric data at baseline and 6 years later. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear regression models for the association with anthropometric changes and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios of becoming overweight or obese. The authors found a significant negative association between PNNS-GS and changes in markers of anthropometry. In addition, better adherence to the PNNS-GS was associated with a lower incidence of overweight (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.99) and obesity (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.99) after a 6-year follow-up period. These observations support the role of nutritional guidelines in prevention of age-related weight increase and development of obesity. PMID:19656810

  16. [The aging heart and its pathology. An epidemiological study of 229 cases based on a clinical and radiological classification].

    PubMed

    Tamburrini, L R; Di Monte, M; Gerometta, R; Ponte, E; Cherubini, M

    1989-12-01

    The paper studies epidemiological distribution of the aging heart and its pathology in a sample of 229 subjects (101 male and 128 female) on the basis of a clinical and radiological classification into cardiological phenotypes. This study involved the use of mathematical statistical procedures following a standard method using SIR database (Scientific Information Retrieval) software implemented on the CDC Cyber 170/730 mainframe in the Trieste University Computing Center that is connected with the Chair of Geriatric Pathology. Using this software it was possible to assess the epidemiological significance of the usual clinical parameters, and show that the most representative cardiopathy is the 3rd type, i.e. the hypertrophic-ischemic cardiopathy belonging to the large aortic heart. Its natural pathogenesis is independent of risk factors and relates to the aging of muscular and connective tissues in which the coronary circulation is involved in the deterioration of the cardiovascular system and is therefore different from the primary ischemias of adults. PMID:2622569

  17. A Comparison of Two Scoring Methods for an Automated Speech Scoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Higgins, Derrick; Zechner, Klaus; Williamson, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative scoring methods--multiple regression and classification trees--for an automated speech scoring system used in a practice environment. The two methods were evaluated on two criteria: construct representation and empirical performance in predicting human scores. The empirical performance of the two scoring models…

  18. Local configuration pattern features for age-related macular degeneration characterization and classification.

    PubMed

    Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Fujita, Hamido; Koh, Joel E W; Tan, Jen Hong; Noronha, Kevin; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Chua, Chua Kuang; Lim, Choo Min; Laude, Augustinus; Tong, Louis

    2015-08-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is an irreversible and chronic medical condition characterized by drusen, Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) and Geographic Atrophy (GA). AMD is one of the major causes of visual loss among elderly people. It is caused by the degeneration of cells in the macula which is responsible for central vision. AMD can be dry or wet type, however dry AMD is most common. It is classified into early, intermediate and late AMD. The early detection and treatment may help one to stop the progression of the disease. Automated AMD diagnosis may reduce the screening time of the clinicians. In this work, we have introduced LCP to characterize normal and AMD classes using fundus images. Linear Configuration Coefficients (CC) and Pattern Occurrence (PO) features are extracted from fundus images. These extracted features are ranked using p-value of the t-test and fed to various supervised classifiers viz. Decision Tree (DT), Nearest Neighbour (k-NN), Naive Bayes (NB), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify normal and AMD classes. The performance of the system is evaluated using both private (Kasturba Medical Hospital, Manipal, India) and public domain datasets viz. Automated Retinal Image Analysis (ARIA) and STructured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) using ten-fold cross validation. The proposed approach yielded best performance with a highest average accuracy of 97.78%, sensitivity of 98.00% and specificity of 97.50% for STARE dataset using 22 significant features. Hence, this system can be used as an aiding tool to the clinicians during mass eye screening programs to diagnose AMD. PMID:26093788

  19. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  20. The relation of autologous serum and plasma skin test results with urticarial activity score, sex and age in patients with chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Sirac; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Calka, Omer; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some previous studies reported autoimmunity as an etiologic factor in chronic urticaria (CU), but the results of some autoimmunity tests in these studies are conflicting. Aim To concretize whether there was any relation of autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) results with sex, age and urticarial activity score (UAS) in patients with CU. Material and methods Fifty patients with CU and twenty healthy subjects admitted to our dermatology clinic were included in the present study. The ASST and APST were applied to all individuals. Results The positiveness rates of ASST and APST were significantly higher in the patient group than controls (p = 0.027, p = 0.001, respectively). Among patients, the APST positiveness rate (72%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ASST (46%). It was seen that 48% of patients with negative ASST results had positive APST. However, no patient with negative APST results had positive ASST. There were significant (p < 0.05) relations of the tests’ positiveness rates with sex and old age but with UAS. The diameter of the erythematous papule was remarkably (p < 0.05) larger in APST than ASST and also significantly (p < 0.05) larger in females compared to males in both tests (p < 0.05). It was positively increased with old age (p < 0.05). Conclusions We can suggest that APST is more sensitive than ASST in the assessment of autoimmunity in CU. A high positiveness rate of APST results may be attributed to high numbers of autoantibodies and coagulation factors present in plasma that might probably play a role in etiopathogenesis of CU. PMID:26161057

  1. AB226. The relationship between self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and International Prostate Symptom Score in middle-aged men complaining of ejaculating prematurely in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Tang, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective We performed this study to evaluate the association between International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in men with the four premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes. Methods From June 2012 to January 2014, a total of 690 men aged 40–59 years complaining of ejaculating prematurely and another 452 male healthy subjects of the same age without these complaints were included in this study. Men with the complaints of ejaculating prematurely were classified as one of the four PE syndromes: lifelong PE, acquired PE (APE), variable PE, and subjective PE. Each of them completed a detailed questionnaire including information on demographics, medical and sexual history (e.g., self-estimated IELT), IPSS, and International Index of Erectile Function-5. Results Men complaining of ejaculating prematurely reported higher IPSS (11.2±6.0 vs. 5.5±3.3) and shorter self-estimated IELT (2.1±1.6 vs. 4.8±3.3 min) than men without complaints (P<0.001 for each). By unilabiate analysis, self-estimated IELT in men with the four PE syndromes showed significant correlations with IPSS (P<0.001 for all). After adjusting for age, self-estimated IELT was negatively associated with IPSS in men with PE complaints (adjusted r=−0.378, P<0.001). Also, the association was stronger in men with APE (adjusted r=−0.502, P<0.001). Conclusions Men complaining of ejaculating prematurely reported worse IPSS than men without these complaints. Self-estimated IELT was negatively associated with IPSS in men complaining of ejaculating prematurely, and the correlation was the strongest in men with APE.

  2. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  3. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  4. The Effect of Age Correction on Multivariate Classification in Alzheimer's Disease, with a Focus on the Characteristics of Incorrectly and Correctly Classified Subjects.

    PubMed

    Falahati, Farshad; Ferreira, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Eriksdotter, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The similarity of atrophy patterns in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in normal aging suggests age as a confounding factor in multivariate models that use structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. To study the effect and compare different age correction approaches on AD diagnosis and prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) progression as well as investigate the characteristics of correctly and incorrectly classified subjects. Data from two multi-center cohorts were included in the study [AD = 297, MCI = 445, controls (CTL) = 340]. 34 cortical thickness and 21 subcortical volumetric measures were extracted from MRI. The age correction approaches involved: using age as a covariate to MRI-derived measures and linear detrending of age-related changes based on CTL measures. Orthogonal projections to latent structures was used to discriminate between AD and CTL subjects, and to predict MCI progression to AD, up to 36-months follow-up. Both age correction approaches improved models' quality in terms of goodness of fit and goodness of prediction, as well as classification and prediction accuracies. The observed age associations in classification and prediction results were effectively eliminated after age correction. A detailed analysis of correctly and incorrectly classified subjects highlighted age associations in other factors: ApoE genotype, global cognitive impairment and gender. The two methods for age correction gave similar results and show that age can partially masks the influence of other aspects such as cognitive impairment, ApoE-e4 genotype and gender. Age-related brain atrophy may have a more important association with these factors than previously believed. PMID:26440606

  5. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  6. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  7. Understanding the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification in Spanish Students Aged 16-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…

  8. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  9. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. PMID:26971084

  10. A Nonparametric Approach to Estimate Classification Accuracy and Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Quinn N.; Cheng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    When cut scores for classifications occur on the total score scale, popular methods for estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) require assumptions about a parametric form of the test scores or about a parametric response model, such as item response theory (IRT). This article develops an approach to estimate CA…

  11. Comparison of Program Effects: The Use of Mastery Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Jennie P.; Moy, Raymond

    The setting of a cut-off score on a mastery test usually involves a consideration of one or more of the following elements: (1) the distribution of observed test scores; (2) the type of mastery criterion used; (3) the level of acceptable risks of mis-classification; (4) the loss of functions of mis-classifications; and (5) the distribution of true…

  12. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. PMID:25832130

  13. An assessment of the test–retest reliability of the New Nordic Diet score

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in the New Nordic Diet (NND) as a potentially health promoting, environmentally friendly, and palatable regional diet. Also, dietary scores are gaining ground as a complementary approach for examining relations between dietary patterns and various health outcomes. A score assessing adherence to the NND has earlier been published, yet not tested for reliability. Objective To assess the test–retest reliability of the NND score in a sample of parents of toddlers, residing in Southern Norway. Design A questionnaire survey was completed on two occasions, approximately 14 days apart, by 67 parents of toddlers [85% females, mean age 34 years (SD=5.3 years)]. The NND score was constructed from 24 items and comprised 10 subscales that summarize meal pattern and intake of typical Nordic foods. Each subscale was dichotomized by the median and assigned values of ‘0’ or ‘1’. Adding the subscales yielded a score ranging from 0 to 10, which was further trichotomized. Test–retest reliability of the final NND score and individual subscales was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, respectively. Additionally, cross tabulation and kappa measure of agreement (k) were used to assess the test–retest agreement of classification into the NND score, and the subscales. Results Test–retest correlations of the NND score and subscales were r=0.80 (Pearson) and r=0.54–0.84 (Spearman), respectively, all p<0.001. There were 69% (k=0.52) and 67–88% (k=0.32–0.76) test–retest correct classification of the trichotomized score and the dichotomized subscales, respectively. Conclusion The NND score and the 10 subscales appear to have acceptable test–retest reliability when tested in a sample of parents of toddlers. PMID:26268707

  14. An audit of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture frame size scoring system.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D

    2014-06-01

    Feedlot and carcass data from steers (n = 16,700) and heifers (n = 6,357) originating from 16 different states and fed in 17 feedlots located in southwest Iowa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the USDA frame score for predicting final BW of fed cattle. Frame score was recorded by USDA or state personnel for cattle either before leaving the state of origin or on arrival at the terminal feedlot. Mixed model procedures were used to investigate relationships between USDA frame score and measures of live performance and carcass traits. Other fixed effects included in the model included USDA muscle score, sex, age classification on feedlot entry (calf: ≤270 d of age, yearling: 271-365 d of age, and long yearling: >365 d of age), BCS on feedlot arrival, number of treatments for respiratory disease, hide color, and site of frame or muscle scoring; the interactions of sex × frame score and hide color × frame score were also included; fat thickness was included as a fixed effect (covariate) in the analysis of ADG, final BW, days on feed, LM area, marbling score, and quality grade. Random effects included in the model were year of feedlot arrival and feedlot in which cattle were fed. The system accurately projects the minimum target final BW for large frame steers and heifers; however, the final BW of the smallest medium frame steers and heifers exceeds the target minimum final BW by 35 and 40 kg, respectively. When frame score was assigned post facto based on actual final BW (adjusted to 1.27 cm fat thickness), it was determined that large frame was over-assigned by graders (62 vs. 35% for steers and 54 vs. 32% for heifers, actual score vs. postharvest score, respectively), medium frame was underassigned (37 vs. 51% and 46 vs. 58% for steers and heifers), and small frame was underassigned (0.7 vs. 15% and 0.6 vs. 10% for steers and heifers; K = 0.01, P < 0.01). Across sexes, of the cattle assigned to small, medium, or large frame score, 40, 59, and 43% actually had

  15. Examining Guidelines for Developing Accurate Proficiency Level Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye

    2006-01-01

    One attempt to make scores from large-scale assessments more interpretable has been to provide proficiency level scores to describe the meaning of student performance on tests. This study has examined the accuracy of Ercikan and Julian's (2002) guidelines for developing proficiency level scores and the classification accuracy of proficiency level…

  16. The Growth of Democratic Tradition: The Age of Enlightenment. Tenth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Marie A.

    This lesson plan begins with an overview of the age of enlightenment and those ideas that influenced the founders of the United States. The lesson plan provides information sheets about five enlightenment thinkers: John Locke (1632-1704), Mary Wolstonecraft (1759-1898), Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788), and John…

  17. Snacking is associated with improved healthy eating index (HEI-2005 scores in adolescents aged 12-18 years: NHANES, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of snacking with diet quality in adolescents aged 12-18 years (n = 5,811). Snacks/drinks were combined when eating occasions were named in the 24-h recall, but analysis separated snacks from snacks/drinks that were only drinks. Adolescents were cl...

  18. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. Impact of New York Heart Association classification, advanced age and patient-prosthesis mismatch on outcomes in aortic valve replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Zapolanski, Alex; Mak, Andrew W C; Ferrari, Giovanni; Johnson, Christopher; Shaw, Richard E; Brizzio, Mariano E; Sperling, Jason S; Grau, Juan B

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVES More elderly patients (>80 years of age) are being referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without CABG. Current risk stratification models may not accurately predict the preoperative risk in these patients. We sought to determine which perioperative variables were relevant in determining short-term (30-day to in-hospital) outcomes in our intuition's series of consecutive AVR and AVR+CABG surgeries. We constructed a novel variable, patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) in the presence of diminished functional status (NYHA) classification, and studied its role as a predictor of mortality risk. METHODS From 2006 to 2010, 509 patients undergoing AVR or AVR+CABG were evaluated. We created four groups based on the age and procedure (AVR >80, AVR+CABG >80, AVR <80 and AVR+CABG <80). PPM was defined as a calculated effective orifice area index value of ≤ 0.85, and it was calculated from manufacturer-generated charts. In-hospital and 30-day outcomes were assessed using the Chi-square and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS Overall observed 30-day mortality for all groups was lower (n = 8, 1.6%) than the STS-predicted mortality. Reoperation and PPM+NYHA class III-IV were associated with short-term mortality, but age >80 years was not. Octogenarians referred for surgery often had advanced heart failure. CONCLUSIONS Overall, short-term outcomes after AVR with or without CABG were excellent and lower than predicted by the STS model. The low risk of AVR with CABG supports the consideration for earlier surgical referral and intervention for patients with a high likelihood of aortic stenosis progression before the onset of advanced heart failure ensues, regardless of the age. This should help further decrease the already very low mortality observed in these series. Efforts to avoid PPM in the setting of advanced heart failure may improve short-term results in this subset of patients. PMID:22665381

  1. HIV and coronary artery calcium score: comparison of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cardiovascular Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Young, Rebekah; Valcour, Nicole; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lum, Corey J.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of HIV, immunologic, and inflammatory factors on coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Cross-sectional study comparing baseline data of males from Hawaii Aging with HIV –Cardiovascular Study (HAHCS) with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. The cohorts were pooled to determine effects of HIV on CAC and explore immunologic and inflammatory factors that may explain development of CAC in HIV. Multivariable regression models compared CAC prevalence in HAHCS with MESA adjusting for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk profiles. Results We studied 100 men from HAHCS and 2733 men from MESA. Positive CAC was seen in 58% HAHCS participants and 57% MESA participants. Mean CAC was 260.8 in HAHCS and 306.5 in MESA. Using relative risk (RR) regression, HAHCS participants had a greater risk (RR=1.20, P<0.05) of having positive CAC than MESA when adjusting for age, smoking status, diabetes, antihypertensive therapy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. Among participants with positive CAC, HIV infection was not associated with larger amounts of CAC. Among HAHCS participants, current HIV viral load, CD4, length of HIV, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were not associated with the presence or amount of CAC. Discussion HIV was independently associated with a positive CAC in men with increased likelihood occurring between 45 and 50 years of age. Current HIV viral load, CD4 count, length of HIV, and inflammatory markers were unrelated to either presence or amount of CAC. PMID:26038953

  2. Classification of selected cardiopulmonary variables of elite athletes of different age, gender, and disciplines during incremental exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Incremental exercise testing is frequently used as a tool for evaluating determinants of endurance performance. The available reference values for the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), % of VO2peak, running speed at the lactate threshold (vLT), running economy (RE), and maximal running speed (vpeak) for different age, gender, and disciplines are not sufficient for the elite athletic population. The key variables of 491 young athletes (age range 12-21 years; 250 males, 241 females) assessed during a running step test protocol (2.4 m s(-1); increase 0.4 m s(-1) 5 min(-1)) were analysed in five subgroups, which were related to combat-, team-, endurance-, sprint- and power-, and racquet-related disciplines. Compared with female athletes, male athletes achieved a higher vpeak (P = 0.004). The body mass, lean body mass, height, abs. VO2peak (ml min(-1)), rel. VO2peak (ml kg(-1) min(-1)), rel. VO2peak (ml min(-1) kg(-0.75)), and RE were higher in the male participants compared with the females (P < 0.01). The % of VO2 at vLT was lower in the males compared with the females (P < 0.01). No differences between gender were detected for the vLT (P = 0.17) and % of VO2 at vLT (P = 0.42). This study is one of the first to provide a broad spectrum of data to classify nearly 500 elite athletes aged 12-21 years of both gender and different disciplines. PMID:26413450

  3. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score): A Prospective Cohort Study with External Validation

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Background Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. Methods and Findings This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥15 years) patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model). Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0–5), ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration) was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥3, sensitivity was 62.5–74.0%, specificity 85.9–91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2–17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3–99.3%. Patients with a score ≤1 had a low mortality (≤1%); with 2, intermediate mortality (2–5%); and ≥3, high mortality (≥10%). Conclusions Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values. PMID:25867881

  4. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  5. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Koerner, John D; Vialle, Luiz R; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  6. Accurate age classification of 6 and 12 month-old infants based on resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, John R.; Kandala, Sridhar; Hoertel, Sarah; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Elison, Jed T.; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Feczko, Eric; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Nardos, Binyam; Power, Jonathan D.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Botteron, Kelly N.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Evans, Alan C.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Dager, Stephen R.; Paterson, Sarah; Schultz, Robert T.; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Das, Samir; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Constantino, John N.; Estes, Annette M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Piven, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Human large-scale functional brain networks are hypothesized to undergo significant changes over development. Little is known about these functional architectural changes, particularly during the second half of the first year of life. We used multivariate pattern classification of resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) data obtained in an on-going, multi-site, longitudinal study of brain and behavioral development to explore whether fcMRI data contained information sufficient to classify infant age. Analyses carefully account for the effects of fcMRI motion artifact. Support vector machines (SVMs) classified 6 versus 12 month-old infants (128 datasets) above chance based on fcMRI data alone. Results demonstrate significant changes in measures of brain functional organization that coincide with a special period of dramatic change in infant motor, cognitive, and social development. Explorations of the most different correlations used for SVM lead to two different interpretations about functional connections that support 6 versus 12-month age categorization. PMID:25704288

  7. Predicting Parkinson disease in the community using a nonmotor risk score.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Koudstaal, Peter J; Stricker, Bruno H; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-07-01

    At present, there are no validated methods to identify persons who are at increased risk for Parkinson Disease (PD) from the general population. We investigated the clinical usefulness of a recently proposed non-motor risk score for PD (the PREDICT-PD risk score) in the population-based Rotterdam Study. At baseline (1990), we constructed a weighted risk score based on 10 early nonmotor features and risk factors in 6492 persons free of parkinsonism and dementia. We followed these persons for up to 20 years (median 16.1 years) for the onset of PD until 2011. We studied the association between the PREDICT-PD risk score and incident PD using competing risk regression models with adjustment for age and sex. In addition, we assessed whether the PREDICT-PD risk score improved discrimination (C-statistics) and risk classification (net reclassification improvement) of incident PD beyond age and sex. During follow-up, 110 persons were diagnosed with incident PD. The PREDICT-PD risk score was associated with incident PD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.30; 95 % confidence interval [1.06; 1.59]) and yielded a small, non-significant improvement in overall discrimination (ΔC-statistic = 0.018[-0.005; 0.041]) and risk classification (net reclassification improvement = 0.172[-0.017; 0.360]) of incident PD. In conclusion, the PREDICT-PD risk score only slightly improves long-term prediction of PD in the community. PMID:26898908

  8. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  9. Using within-subject pattern classification to understand lifespan age differences in oscillatory mechanisms of working memory selection and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Karch, Julian D; Sander, Myriam C; von Oertzen, Timo; Brandmaier, Andreas M; Werkle-Bergner, Markus

    2015-09-01

    In lifespan studies, large within-group heterogeneity with regard to behavioral and neuronal data is observed. This casts doubt on the validity of group-statistics-based approaches to understand age-related changes on cognitive and neural levels. Recent progress in brain-computer interface research demonstrates the potential of machine learning techniques to derive reliable person-specific models, representing brain behavior mappings. The present study now proposes a supervised learning approach to derive person-specific models for the identification and quantification of interindividual differences in oscillatory EEG responses related to working memory selection and maintenance mechanisms in a heterogeneous lifespan sample. EEG data were used to discriminate different levels of working memory load and the focus of visual attention. We demonstrate that our approach leads to person-specific models with better discrimination performance compared to classical person-nonspecific models. We show how these models can be interpreted both on an individual as well as on a group level. One of the key findings is that, with regard to the time dimension, the between-person variance of the obtained person-specific models is smaller in older than in younger adults. This is contrary to what we expected because of increased behavioral and neuronal heterogeneity in older adults. PMID:25929619

  10. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT. In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database. The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity. The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824–0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively. Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were

  11. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections

    PubMed Central

    Frenk, Steven M.; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon. PMID:25392566

  12. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Steven M; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon. PMID:25392566

  13. Multisite functional connectivity MRI classification of autism: ABIDE results

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jared A.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Systematic differences in functional connectivity MRI metrics have been consistently observed in autism, with predominantly decreased cortico-cortical connectivity. Previous attempts at single subject classification in high-functioning autism using whole brain point-to-point functional connectivity have yielded about 80% accurate classification of autism vs. control subjects across a wide age range. We attempted to replicate the method and results using the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) including resting state fMRI data obtained from 964 subjects and 16 separate international sites. Methods: For each of 964 subjects, we obtained pairwise functional connectivity measurements from a lattice of 7266 regions of interest covering the gray matter (26.4 million “connections”) after preprocessing that included motion and slice timing correction, coregistration to an anatomic image, normalization to standard space, and voxelwise removal by regression of motion parameters, soft tissue, CSF, and white matter signals. Connections were grouped into multiple bins, and a leave-one-out classifier was evaluated on connections comprising each set of bins. Age, age-squared, gender, handedness, and site were included as covariates for the classifier. Results: Classification accuracy significantly outperformed chance but was much lower for multisite prediction than for previous single site results. As high as 60% accuracy was obtained for whole brain classification, with the best accuracy from connections involving regions of the default mode network, parahippocampaland fusiform gyri, insula, Wernicke Area, and intraparietal sulcus. The classifier score was related to symptom severity, social function, daily living skills, and verbal IQ. Classification accuracy was significantly higher for sites with longer BOLD imaging times. Conclusions: Multisite functional connectivity classification of autism outperformed chance using a simple leave-one-out classifier

  14. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  15. Remote Sensing Classification Uncertainty: Validating Probabilistic Pixel Level Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettas, Michail; Cornford, Dan; Bastin, Lucy; Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    There already exists an extensive literature on classification of remotely sensed imagery, and indeed classification more widely, that considers a wide range of probabilistic and non-probabilistic classification methodologies. Although for many probabilistic classification methodologies posterior class probabilities are produced per pixel (observation) these are often not communicated at the pixel level, and typically not validated at the pixel level. Most often the probabilistic classification in converted into a hard classification (of the most probable class) and the accuracy of the resulting classification is reported in terms of a global confusion matrix, or some score derived from this. For applications where classification accuracy is spatially variable and where pixel level estimates of uncertainty can be meaningfully exploited in workflows that propagate uncertainty validating and communicating the pixel level uncertainty opens opportunities for more refined and accountable modelling. In this work we describe our recent work applying and validation of a range of probabilistic classifiers. Using a multi-temporal Landsat data set of the Ebro Delta in Catalonia, which has been carefully radiometrically and geometrically corrected, we present a range of Bayesian classifiers from simple Bayesian linear discriminant analysis to a complex variational Gaussian process based classifier. Field study derived labelled data, classified into 8 classes, which primarily consider land use and the degree of flooding in what is a rice growing region, are used to train the pixel level classifiers. Our focus is not so much on the classification accuracy, but rather the validation of the probabilistic classification made by all methods. We present a range of validation plots and scores, many of which are used for probabilistic weather forecast verification, but are new to remote sensing classification including of course the standard measures of misclassification, but also

  16. Apgar scores at 10 min and outcomes at 6–7 years following hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; Bann, Carla M; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Hintz, Susan R; Vohr, Betty R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and 6–7-year outcomes in children with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN) whole body cooling randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods Evaluations at 6–7 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale. Primary outcome was death/moderate or severe disability. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between 10 min Apgar scores and outcomes after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, outborn status, hypothermia treatment and centre. Results In the study cohort (n=174), 64/85 (75%) of those with 10 min Apgar score of 0–3 had death/disability compared with 40/89 (45%) of those with scores >3. Each point increase in 10 min Apgar scores was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of death/disability, death, death/IQ <70, death/cerebral palsy (CP) and disability, IQ<70 and CP among survivors (all p<0.05). Among the 24 children with a 10 min Apgar score of 0, five (20.8%) survived without disability. The risk-adjusted probabilities of death/disability were significantly lower in cooled infants with Apgar scores of 0–3; there was no significant interaction between cooling and Apgar scores (p=0.26). Conclusions Among children with perinatal HIE enrolled in the NICHD cooling RCT, 10 min Apgar scores were significantly associated with school-age outcomes. A fifth of infants with 10 min Apgar score of 0 survived without disability to school age, suggesting the need for caution in limiting resuscitation to a specified duration. PMID:23896791

  17. Classification Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Children, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The interview presents opinions of Nicholas Hobbs on the classification of exceptional children, including topics such as ecologically oriented classification systems, the role of parents, and need for revision of teacher preparation programs. (IM)

  18. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ)

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of the English Developmental Sentence Scoring model (Lee, 1974). Using this measure, we calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8 and 5;2 on the basis of 100-sentence samples collected from free-play child-adult conversations. The analysis showed a high correlation of the DSSJ overall score with the Mean Length of Utterance. The analysis of the DSSJ subarea scores revealed large variations between these subarea scores for children with similar overall DSSJ scores. When investigating the high-scoring children (over 1 SD over group average), most children scored high in three to five subareas, but the combination of scores for these subareas varied from child to child. It is concluded that DSSJ is a valuable tool especially for the language acquisition research. The overall DSSJ score reliably reflects the overall morpho-syntactic development of Japanese children, and the subarea scores provide specific information on individual acquisition patterns. PMID:25414535

  19. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. PMID:26416932

  20. Recategorized WISC-R Scores of Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Martin G.; Hubble, Larry M.

    1981-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised scores of a male delinquent sample were grouped by A. Bannatyne's classification of Wechsler's subtests, and these recategorized scores were compared with results of a previous study of learning disabled children. Findings failed to support a theory that learning disabled youth possess a unique…

  1. Automated sleep scoring and sleep apnea detection in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek

    2005-12-01

    This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.

  2. Multiple Regression Analysis of Factors that May Influence Middle School Science Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative multiple regression study was to determine whether a relationship existed between Maryland State Assessment (MSA) reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, age, and MSA science scores. Also examined was if MSA reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, and age can be used in combination or alone…

  3. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  4. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  5. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  6. Endodontic classification.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Seltzer, S; Sinai, I; Biron, G

    1977-04-01

    Clinical and histopathologic findings are mixed in current endodontic classifications. A new system, based on symptomatology, may be more useful in clincial practice. The classifications are vital asymptomatic, hypersensitive dentin, inflamed-reversible, inflamed/dengenerating without area-irreversible, inflamed/degenerating with area-irreversible, necrotic without area, and necrotic with area. PMID:265327

  7. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  8. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures. PMID:26862701

  9. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R.P.; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I.; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Summary Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures. PMID:26862701

  10. Reliability of inferred age, and coincidence between inferred age and chronological age.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, J; Ohara, S; Shibata, S; Maie, K

    1996-06-01

    Outdoor research is restricted by many factors. The age inference was one of the biggest problems for the outdoor researchers. We have investigated the reliability of inferred age for the Japanese people, and took out the estimation formula for the age, even if it was based on the inferred age. The age classification was the most popular method for this purpose, and there were many classifications. We took the classification of young, middle aged, and elderly groups, in which classification of the SDs were rather small, that is, 4, 5, and 7 years for the young, middle aged, and elderly age groups, respectively. PMID:9551138

  11. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  12. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  13. A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children.

    PubMed

    Troesch, Barbara; van Stuijvenberg, Martha E; van Stujivenberg, Martha E; Smuts, Cornelius M; Kruger, H Salomè; Biebinger, Ralf; Hurrell, Richard F; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in a single serving. The aim was to test the efficacy of a low-iron and -zinc (each 2.5 mg) MNP containing iron as NaFeEDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), and an exogenous phytase active at gut pH. In a double-blind controlled trial, South African school children with low iron status (n = 200) were randomized to receive either the MNP or the unfortified carrier added just before consumption to a high-phytate maize porridge 5 d/wk for 23 wk; primary outcomes were iron and zinc status and a secondary outcome was somatic growth. Compared with the control, the MNP increased serum ferritin (P < 0.05), body iron stores (P < 0.01) and weight-for-age Z-scores (P < 0.05) and decreased transferrin receptor (P < 0.05). The prevalence of iron deficiency fell by 30.6% (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of zinc deficiency decreased by 11.8% (P < 0.05). Absorption of iron from the MNP was estimated to be 7-8%. Inclusion of an exogenous phytase combined with NaFeEDTA and AA may allow a substantial reduction in the iron dose from existing MNP while still delivering adequate iron and zinc. In addition, the MNP is likely to enhance absorption of the high native iron content of complementary foods based on cereals and/or legumes. PMID:21178093

  14. Outcome Predictors in Prosthetic Joint Infections--Validation of a risk stratification score for Prosthetic Joint Infections in 120 cases.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Matthias D; Randau, Thomas M; Friedrich, Max J; Ploeger, Milena M; Schmolder, Jan; Strauss, Andreas C; Pennekamp, Peter H; Vavken, Patrick; Gravius, Sascha

    2016-03-01

    Prosthetic joint infections are a major challenge in total joint arthroplasty, especially in times of accumulating drug resistancies. Even though predictive risk classifications are a widely accepted tool to define a suitable treatment protocol a classification is still missing considering the difficulty in treating the -causative pathogen antibiotically. In this study, we present and evaluate a new predictive risk stratification for prosthetic joint infections in 120 cases, treated with a two-stage exchange. Treatment outcomes in 120 patients with proven prosthetic joint infections in hip and knee prostheses were regressed on time of infection, systemic risk factors, local risk factors and the difficulty in treating the causing pathogen. The main outcome variable was "definitely free of infection" after two years as published. Age, gender, and BMI were included as covariables and analyzed in a logistic regression model. 66 male and 54 female patients, with a mean age at surgery of 68.3 years±12.0 and a mean BMI of 26.05±6.21 were included in our survey and followed for 29.0±11.3 months. We found a significant association (p<0.001) between our score and the outcome parameters evaluated. Age, gender and BMI did not show a significant association with the outcome. These results show that our score is an independent and reliable predictor for the cure rate in prosthetic joint infections in hip and knee prostheses treated within a two-stage exchange protocol. Our score illustrates, that there is a statistically significant, sizable decrease in cure rate with an increase in score. In patients with prosthetic joint infections the validation of a risk score may help to identify patients with local and systemic risk factors or with infectious organisms identified as "difficult to treat" prior to the treatment or the decision about the treatment concept. Thus, appropriate extra care should be considered and provided. PMID:26984667

  15. Proposal for a New Prognostic Score for Linac-Based Radiosurgery in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Wiesbauer, Hannah; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Huber, Peter; Debus, Juergen; Zabel-du Bois, Angelika

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: We evaluate patient-, angioma-, and treatment-specific factors for successful obliteration of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) to develop a new appropriate score to predict patient outcome after linac-based radiosurgery (RS). Methods and Materials: This analysis in based on 293 patients with cerebral AVM. Mean age at treatment was 38.8 years (4-73 years). AVM classification according Spetzler-Martin was 55 patients Grade I (20.5%), 114 Grade II (42.5%), 79 Grade III (29.5%), 19 Grade IV (7.1%), and 1 Grade V (0.4%). Median maximum AVM diameter was 3.0 cm (range, 0.3-10 cm). Median dose prescribed to the 80% isodose was 18 Gy (range, 12-22 Gy). Eighty-five patients (29.1%) had prior partial embolization; 141 patients (51.9%) experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 4.2 years. Results: Age at treatment, maximum diameter, nidus volume, and applied dose were significant factors for successful obliteration. Under presumption of proportional hazard in the dose range between 12 and 22 Gy/80% isodose, an increase of obliteration rate of approximately 25% per Gy was seen. On the basis of multivariate analysis, a prediction score was calculated including AVM maximum diameter and age at treatment. The prediction error up to the time point 8 years was 0.173 for the Heidelberg score compared with the Kaplan-Meier value of 0.192. An increase of the score of 1 point results in a decrease of obliteration chance by a factor of 0.447. Conclusion: The proposed score is linac-based radiosurgery-specific and easy to handle to predict patient outcome. Further validation on an independent patient cohort is necessary.

  16. Rapid conversion of adolescent MMPI raw scores to T scores using the HP-67 programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hembling, D W

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator (HP-67, 97, 41C, 41CV) to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. The program is stored on one side of a standard HP magnetic card. The norm data for adolescents (or optionally any other group) in the age groups less than 15, 15, 16, and 17 occupy two sides per sex per age group of eight magnetic data cards. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. PMID:6547731

  17. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood Compared to Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…

  18. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  19. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  20. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  1. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  2. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  3. Form classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. V. Umamaheswara; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-01-01

    The problem of form classification is to assign a single-page form image to one of a set of predefined form types or classes. We classify the form images using low level pixel density information from the binary images of the documents. In this paper, we solve the form classification problem with a classifier based on the k-means algorithm, supported by adaptive boosting. Our classification method is tested on the NIST scanned tax forms data bases (special forms databases 2 and 6) which include machine-typed and handwritten documents. Our method improves the performance over published results on the same databases, while still using a simple set of image features.

  4. Automated Classification of Pathology Reports.

    PubMed

    Oleynik, Michel; Finger, Marcelo; Patrão, Diogo F C

    2015-01-01

    This work develops an automated classifier of pathology reports which infers the topography and the morphology classes of a tumor using codes from the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O). Data from 94,980 patients of the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center was used for training and validation of Naive Bayes classifiers, evaluated by the F1-score. Measures greater than 74% in the topographic group and 61% in the morphologic group are reported. Our work provides a successful baseline for future research for the classification of medical documents written in Portuguese and in other domains. PMID:26262339

  5. Physical Activity Level Improves the Predictive Accuracy of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score: The ATTICA Study (2002–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Bougatsas, Dimitrios; Chatzigeorgiou, Michael; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity (PA) has long been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessment of PA status has never been used as a part of CVD risk prediction tools. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the inclusion of PA status in a CVD risk model improves its predictive accuracy. Methods: Data from the 10-year follow-up (2002–2012) of the n = 2020 participants (aged 18–89 years) of the ATTICA prospective study were used to test the research hypothesis. The HellenicSCORE (that incorporates age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure levels) was calculated to estimate the baseline 10-year CVD risk; assessment of PA status was based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The estimated CVD risk was tested against the observed 10-year incidence (i.e., development of acute coronary syndromes, stroke, or other CVD according to the World Health Organization [WHO]-International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 criteria). Changes in the predictive ability of the nested CVD risk model that contained the HellenicSCORE plus PA assessment were evaluated using Harrell's C and net reclassification index. Results: Both HellenicSCORE and PA status were predictors of future CVD events (P < 0.05). However, the estimating classification bias of the model that included only the HellenicSCORE was significantly reduced when PA assessment was included (Harrel's C = 0.012, P = 0.032); this reduction remained significant even when adjusted for diabetes mellitus and dietary habits (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CVD risk scores seem to be more accurate by incorporating individuals’ PA status; thus, may be more effective tools in primary prevention by efficiently allocating CVD candidates. PMID:27076890

  6. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  7. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  8. Classifying Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakowski, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the experience of a group of first-grade teachers as they tackled the science process of classification, a targeted learning objective for the first grade. While the two-year process was not easy and required teachers to teach in a new, more investigation-oriented way, the benefits were great. The project helped teachers and…

  9. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

  10. A Study in Predicting English Grades for First-Time-in-College Students Using the Career Planning Program (CPP) and Multiple Assessment and Program Services (MAPS) Reading and Language Scores, Age, Gender, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randell G.

    To identify a set of predictor variables for student grades in a first-quarter English course, a study was undertaken of students' reading and language scores on the Career Planning Program (CPP) and the Multiple Assessment and Program Services (MAPS) placement tests. In addition, the relationship was examined between the first-quarter English…

  11. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting articulation of school aged children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to identify factors influencing handwriting articulation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and to recommend effective evaluation and intervention strategies to improve the handwriting of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 96 elementary school children with cerebral palsy and the study was conducted from 04/07/2011 to 29/08/2011. [Methods] Factors related to handwriting articulation were investigated based on the ICF model. [Results] Wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed of body function and education of personal factor were significantly associated with handwriting articulation. [Conclusion] Efforts to manage and improve the handwriting articulation of children with cerebral palsy should focus on wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed, and education. PMID:27065517

  12. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  13. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P.; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  14. A novel score predicting PEG placement in ICH – the GRAVo score

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysphagia after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to morbidity, often necessitating placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. This study describes a novel risk prediction score for PEG placement after ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 234 ICH patients presenting during a 4-year period. One hundred and eighty nine patients met inclusion criteria. The sample was randomly divided into a development and a validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop a risk score by weighting predictors of PEG placement based on strength of association. Results Age (OR 1.64 per 10 years increase in age, 95% CI 1.02–2.65), African American race (OR 3.26, 95% CI 0.96–11.05), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62–1.03), and ICH volume (OR 1.38 per 10 cc increase in ICH volume) were independent predictors of PEG placement. The final model for score development achieved an AUC of 0.7911 (95% CI 0.6931–0.8892) in the validation group. The score was named the GRAVo score: GCS ≤12 (2 points), Race (1 point for African-American), Age >50 years (2 points), and ICH Volume >30 cc (1 point). A score >4 was associated with nearly 12 times higher odds of PEG placement compared to a score ≤4 (OR 11.81, 95% CI 5.04–27.66), predicting PEG placement with 46.55% sensitivity and 93.13% specificity. Conclusion The GRAVo score, combining information about GCS, race, age, and ICH volume, may be a useful predictor of PEG placement in ICH patients. PMID:25468881

  15. [Scoring systems in intensive care medicine : principles, models, application and limits].

    PubMed

    Fleig, V; Brenck, F; Wolff, M; Weigand, M A

    2011-10-01

    Scoring systems are used in all diagnostic areas of medicine. Several parameters are evaluated and rated with points according to their value in order to simplify a complex clinical situation with a score. The application ranges from the classification of disease severity through determining the number of staff for the intensive care unit (ICU) to the evaluation of new therapies under study conditions. Since the introduction of scoring systems in the 1980's a variety of different score models has been developed. The scoring systems that are employed in intensive care and are discussed in this article can be categorized into prognostic scores, expenses scores and disease-specific scores. Since the introduction of compulsory recording of two scoring systems for accounting in the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system, these tools have gained more importance for all intensive care physicians. Problems remain in the valid calculation of scores and interpretation of the results. PMID:21997474

  16. Recalibration of the SCORE risk chart for the Russian population.

    PubMed

    Jdanov, Dmitri A; Deev, Alexander D; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shalnova, Svetlana A; Shkolnikova, Maria A; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2014-09-01

    Persisting high levels of cardiovascular mortality in Russia present a specific case among developed countries. Application of cardiovascular risk prediction models holds great potential for primary prevention in this country. Using a unique set of cohort follow-up data from Moscow and Saint Petersburg, this study aims to test and recalibrate the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) methods for predicting CVD mortality risks in the general population. The study is based on pooled epidemiological cohort data covering the period 1975-2001. The algorithms from the SCORE project were used for the calibration of the SCORE equation for the Moscow and St. Petersburg populations (SCORE-MoSP). Age-specific 10-year cumulative cardiovascular mortality rates were estimated according to the original SCORE-High and SCORE-Low equations and compared to the estimates based on the recalibrated SCORE-MoSP model and observed CVD mortality rates. Ten-year risk prediction charts for CVD mortality were derived and compared using conventional SCORE-High and recalibrated SCORE-MoSP methods. The original SCORE-High model tends to substantially under-estimate 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk for females. The SCORE-MoSP model provided better results which were closer to the observed rates. For males, both the SCORE-High and SCORE-MoSP provided similar estimates which tend to under-estimate CVD mortality risk at younger ages. These differences are also reflected in the risk prediction charts. Using non-calibrated scoring models for Russia may lead to substantial under-estimation of cardiovascular mortality risk in some groups of individuals. Although the SCORE-MoSP provide better results for females, more complex scoring methods involving a wider range of risk factors are needed. PMID:25179794

  17. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging classification of autism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey S; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; DuBray, Molly B; Druzgal, T Jason; Cariello, Annahir N; Cooperrider, Jason R; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Fletcher, P Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2011-12-01

    Group differences in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity between individuals with autism and typically developing controls have been widely replicated for a small number of discrete brain regions, yet the whole-brain distribution of connectivity abnormalities in autism is not well characterized. It is also unclear whether functional connectivity is sufficiently robust to be used as a diagnostic or prognostic metric in individual patients with autism. We obtained pairwise functional connectivity measurements from a lattice of 7266 regions of interest covering the entire grey matter (26.4 million connections) in a well-characterized set of 40 male adolescents and young adults with autism and 40 age-, sex- and IQ-matched typically developing subjects. A single resting state blood oxygen level-dependent scan of 8 min was used for the classification in each subject. A leave-one-out classifier successfully distinguished autism from control subjects with 83% sensitivity and 75% specificity for a total accuracy of 79% (P = 1.1 × 10(-7)). In subjects <20 years of age, the classifier performed at 89% accuracy (P = 5.4 × 10(-7)). In a replication dataset consisting of 21 individuals from six families with both affected and unaffected siblings, the classifier performed at 71% accuracy (91% accuracy for subjects <20 years of age). Classification scores in subjects with autism were significantly correlated with the Social Responsiveness Scale (P = 0.05), verbal IQ (P = 0.02) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic's combined social and communication subscores (P = 0.05). An analysis of informative connections demonstrated that region of interest pairs with strongest correlation values were most abnormal in autism. Negatively correlated region of interest pairs showed higher correlation in autism (less anticorrelation), possibly representing weaker inhibitory connections, particularly for long connections (Euclidean distance >10 cm

  18. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood compared to Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with ASD followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of ID also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges of ability, actual scores declined from age 2 to 19, likely due in part to limitations of appropriate tests. Use of Vineland-II DLS scores in place of NVIQ did not statistically improve the correspondence between age 2 and age 19 scores. Clinicians and researchers should use caution when making comparisons based on exact scores or specific ability ranges within or across individuals with ASD of different ages. PMID:25239176

  19. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  20. Validation of the Pittsburgh Cardiac Arrest Category illness severity score

    PubMed Central

    Coppler, Patrick J.; Elmer, Jonathan; Calderon, Luis; Sabedra, Alexa; Doshi, Ankur A.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Dezfulian, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of an early post-cardiac arrest illness severity classification to predict patient outcomes. Methods The Pittsburgh Cardiac Arrest Category (PCAC) is a 4-level illness severity score that was found to be strongly predictive of outcomes in the initial derivation study. We assigned PCAC scores to consecutive in and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest subjects treated at two tertiary care centers between January 2011 and September 2013. We made assignments prospectively at Site 1 and retrospectively at Site 2. Our primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Inter-rater reliability of retrospective PCAC assessments was assessed. Secondary outcomes were favorable discharge disposition (home or acute rehabilitation), Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge. We tested the association of PCAC with each outcome using unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression. Results We included 607 cardiac arrest patients during the study (393 at Site 1 and 214 at Site 2). Site populations differed in age, arrest location, rhythm, use of hypothermia and distribution of PCAC. Inter-rater reliability of retrospective PCAC assignments was excellent (κ=0.81). PCAC was associated with survival (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for Site 1: 0.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.41)) Site 2: 0.32 (95%CI 0.24–0.43)) even after adjustment for other clinical variables (adjusted OR Site 1: 0.32 (95%CI 0.25–0.41)) Site 2: 0.31 (95%CI 0.22–0.44)). PCAC was predictive of secondary outcomes. Conclusions Our results confirm that PCAC is strongly predictive of survival and good functional outcome after cardiac arrest. PMID:25636896

  1. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  2. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  3. Revised international prognostic scoring system for myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Peter L; Tuechler, Heinz; Schanz, Julie; Sanz, Guillermo; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Solé, Francesc; Bennett, John M; Bowen, David; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, Francois; Kantarjian, Hagop; Kuendgen, Andrea; Levis, Alessandro; Malcovati, Luca; Cazzola, Mario; Cermak, Jaroslav; Fonatsch, Christa; Le Beau, Michelle M; Slovak, Marilyn L; Krieger, Otto; Luebbert, Michael; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Magalhaes, Silvia M M; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Sekeres, Mikkael; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Stauder, Reinhard; Tauro, Sudhir; Valent, Peter; Vallespi, Teresa; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef

    2012-09-20

    The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) is an important standard for assessing prognosis of primary untreated adult patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). To refine the IPSS, MDS patient databases from international institutions were coalesced to assemble a much larger combined database (Revised-IPSS [IPSS-R], n = 7012, IPSS, n = 816) for analysis. Multiple statistically weighted clinical features were used to generate a prognostic categorization model. Bone marrow cytogenetics, marrow blast percentage, and cytopenias remained the basis of the new system. Novel components of the current analysis included: 5 rather than 3 cytogenetic prognostic subgroups with specific and new classifications of a number of less common cytogenetic subsets, splitting the low marrow blast percentage value, and depth of cytopenias. This model defined 5 rather than the 4 major prognostic categories that are present in the IPSS. Patient age, performance status, serum ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase were significant additive features for survival but not for acute myeloid leukemia transformation. This system comprehensively integrated the numerous known clinical features into a method analyzing MDS patient prognosis more precisely than the initial IPSS. As such, this IPSS-R should prove beneficial for predicting the clinical outcomes of untreated MDS patients and aiding design and analysis of clinical trials in this disease. PMID:22740453

  4. The AFC Score: Validation of a 4-Item Predicting Score of Postoperative Mortality After Colorectal Resection for Cancer or Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Arnaud; Panis, Yves; Mantion, Georges; Slim, Karem; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Vicaut, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present prospective study was to validate externally a 4-item predictive score of mortality after colorectal surgery (the AFC score) by testing its generalizability on a new population. Summary Background Data: We have recently reported, in a French prospective multicenter study, that age older than 70 years, neurologic comorbidity, underweight (body weight loss >10% in <6 months), and emergency surgery significantly increased postoperative mortality after resection for cancer or diverticulitis. Patients and Methods: From June to September 2004, 1049 consecutive patients (548 men and 499 women) with a mean age of 67 ± 14 years, undergoing open or laparoscopic colorectal resection, were prospectively included. The AFC score was validated in this population. We assessed also the predictive value of other scores, such as the “Glasgow” score and the ASA score. To express and compare the predictive value of the different scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Results: Postoperative mortality rate was 4.6%. Variables already identified as predictors of mortality and used in the AFC score were also found to be associated with a high odds ratio in this study: emergency surgery, body weight loss >10%, neurologic comorbidity, and age older than 70 years in a multivariate logistic model. The validity of the AFC score in this population was found very high based both on the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test (P = 0.37) and on the area under the ROC curve (0.89). We also found that discriminatory capacity was higher than other currently used risk scoring systems such as the Glasgow or ASA score. Conclusion: The present prospective study validated the AFC score as a pertinent predictive score of postoperative mortality after colorectal surgery. Because it is based on only 4 risk factors, the AFC score can be used in daily practice. PMID:17592296

  5. Influences on nurses' scoring of children's post-operative pain.

    PubMed

    Simons, Joan; Moseley, Laurence

    2009-06-01

    There is a lack of clarity as to why some nurses are not delivering optimal pain management to children post-operatively. This retrospective chart review study examined nurses' pain scoring on 175 children during the first 24 hours post-operatively. Data were analysed on the amount of assessments made, assessment scores recorded, as well as the age, gender and type of surgery performed. One-quarter of children had no assessment record of their pain in the first 24 hours post-operatively. When the pain tool was part of an observation chart, nurses recorded more pain scores. Nurses' scoring of children's pain is influenced positively by children under five years of age and those who undergo abdominal surgery. Nurses who had access to one document for recording vital signs as well as pain scores were more likely to assess and record a child's pain score than nurses who had to use a separate chart. PMID:19458166

  6. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  7. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  8. Classification of ADHD children through multimodal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Dai; Wang, Jieqiong; Hua, Jing; He, Huiguang

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school-age children. To date, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly subjective and studies of objective diagnostic method are of great importance. Although many efforts have been made recently to investigate the use of structural and functional brain images for the diagnosis purpose, few of them are related to ADHD. In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection, and classifier training methods. The effects of using different features are compared against each other. In addition, we integrate multimodal image features using multi-kernel learning (MKL). The performance of our framework has been validated in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, which is a world-wide classification contest on the ADHD-200 datasets. In this competition, our classification framework using features of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) was ranked the 6th out of 21 participants under the competition scoring policy and performed the best in terms of sensitivity and J-statistic. PMID:22969710

  9. Effect of harmless acute pancreatitis score, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on the mortality of patients with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis at the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Gülen, Bedia; Sonmez, Ertan; Yaylaci, Serpil; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Dur, Ali; Turkdogan, Figen Tunali; Söğüt, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harmless acute pancreatitis score (HAPS), neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are used to determine the early prognosis of patients diagnosed with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (K 85.9) in the ED according to the ICD10 coding during one year were included in the study. Patients with chronic pancreatitis and those who had missing data in their files were excluded from the study. Patients who did not have computed tomography (CT) in the ED were not included in the study. RESULTS: Ultimately, 322 patients were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 53.1 (IQR=36–64). Of the patients, 68.1% (n=226) had etiological causes of the biliary tract. The mortality rate of these patients within the first 48 hours was 4.3% (n=14). In the logistic regression analysis performed by using Balthazar classification, HAPS score, RDW, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio, age, diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure, the only independent variable in determining mortality was assigned as Balthazar classification (OR: 15; 95% CI: 3.5 to 64.4). CONCLUSIONS: HAPS, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and RDW were not effective in determining the mortality of nontraumatic acute pancreatitis cases within the first 48 hours. The only independent variable for determining the mortality was Balthazar classification. PMID:25802563

  10. Two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis for classification of three-way chemical data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adenilton C da; Soares, Sófacles F C; Insausti, Matías; Galvão, Roberto K H; Band, Beatriz S F; Araújo, Mário César U de

    2016-09-28

    The two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA) algorithm was originally proposed in the context of face image processing for the extraction of features with maximal discriminant power. However, despite its promising performance in image processing tasks, the 2D-LDA algorithm has not yet been used in applications involving chemical data. The present paper bridges this gap by investigating the use of 2D-LDA in classification problems involving three-way spectral data. The investigation was concerned with simulated data, as well as real-life data sets involving the classification of dry-cured Parma ham according to ageing by surface autofluorescence spectrometry and the classification of edible vegetable oils according to feedstock using total synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The results were compared with those obtained by using the spectral data with no feature extraction, U-PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis applied to the unfolded data), and LDA employing TUCKER-3 or PARAFAC scores. In the simulated data set, all methods yielded a correct classification rate of 100%. However, in the Parma ham and vegetable oil data sets, better classification rates were obtained by using 2D-LDA (86% and 100%), compared with no feature extraction (76% and 77%), U-PLS-DA (81% and 92%), PARAFAC-LDA (76% and 86%) and TUCKER3-LDA (86% and 93%). PMID:27619086

  11. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage prognostic decision-making algorithm using classification and regression tree analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Benjamin W. Y.; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Angle, Mark; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; Macdonald, R. Loch; Farrokhyar, Forough; Thabane, Lehana; Levine, Mitchell A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Classification and regression tree analysis involves the creation of a decision tree by recursive partitioning of a dataset into more homogeneous subgroups. Thus far, there is scarce literature on using this technique to create clinical prediction tools for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: The classification and regression tree analysis technique was applied to the multicenter Tirilazad database (3551 patients) in order to create the decision-making algorithm. In order to elucidate prognostic subgroups in aneurysmal SAH, neurologic, systemic, and demographic factors were taken into account. The dependent variable used for analysis was the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score at 3 months. Results: Classification and regression tree analysis revealed seven prognostic subgroups. Neurological grade, occurrence of post-admission stroke, occurrence of post-admission fever, and age represented the explanatory nodes of this decision tree. Split sample validation revealed classification accuracy of 79% for the training dataset and 77% for the testing dataset. In addition, the occurrence of fever at 1-week post-aneurysmal SAH is associated with increased odds of post-admission stroke (odds ratio: 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.56–2.45, P < 0.01). Conclusions: A clinically useful classification tree was generated, which serves as a prediction tool to guide bedside prognostication and clinical treatment decision making. This prognostic decision-making algorithm also shed light on the complex interactions between a number of risk factors in determining outcome after aneurysmal SAH. PMID:27512607

  12. Investigating Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Animal Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Jacob N.; Duran, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted regarding alternative conceptions about animal diversity and classification, many of which have used a cross-age approach to investigate how students' conceptions change over time. None of these studies, however, have investigated teachers' conceptions of animal classification. This study was intended to…

  13. A comparison of WISC-IV and SB-5 intelligence scores in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Katherine T; Shear, Paula K; Howe, Steven R; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-08-01

    In autism spectrum disorders, results of cognitive testing inform clinical care, theories of neurodevelopment, and research design. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Stanford-Binet are commonly used in autism spectrum disorder evaluations and scores from these tests have been shown to be highly correlated in typically developing populations. However, they have not been compared in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, whose core symptoms can make testing challenging, potentially compromising test reliability. We used a within-subjects research design to evaluate the convergent validity between the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., and Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., in 40 youth (ages 10-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder. Corresponding intelligence scores were highly correlated (r = 0.78 to 0.88), but full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores (t(38) = -2.27, p = 0.03, d = -0.16) and verbal IQ scores (t(36) = 2.23, p = 0.03; d = 0.19) differed between the two tests. Most participants obtained higher full-scale IQ scores on the Stanford-Binet, 5th ed., compared to Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., with 14% scoring more than one standard deviation higher. In contrast, verbal indices were higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th ed., Verbal-nonverbal discrepancy classifications were only consistent for 60% of the sample. Comparisons of IQ test scores in autism spectrum disorder and other special groups are important, as it cannot necessarily be assumed that convergent validity findings in typically developing children and adolescents hold true across all pediatric populations. PMID:25398894

  14. Variability and Diagnostic Accuracy of Speech Intelligibility Scores in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…

  15. Evaluation of outcome change scores for patients with pneumonia or heart failure.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Cindy A; Head, Barbara J; Hertzog, Melody; Swanson, Elizabeth; Reed, David; Maas, Meridean L; Moorhead, Sue; Conley, Deborah Marks; Kozel, Marie; Clarke, Mary; Gillette, Susan; Weinberg, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the variance in selected Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) outcome change scores of hospitalized older patients with pneumonia (n = 216) or heart failure (HF; n = 67) that could be explained by age, length of stay (LOS), number of comorbid conditions, number of nursing diagnoses, and number of nursing interventions. Investigators used a descriptive correlational design to analyze data sets from three U.S. community hospitals. Study participants had at least two ratings on one of nine outcomes selected for their frequency and use across the three hospitals. A significant portion of the variance in the outcomes Knowledge: Illness Care and Fall Prevention Behavior was explained for pneumonia patients. None of the regression models for HF patients showed significance. Individual independent variables were significant in some of the models (i.e., LOS [pneumonia], number of nursing diagnoses [pneumonia and HF]). Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:21447806

  16. What Is the Relationship between Reading Scores on the THEA and Graduation Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Nicole; Kadhi, Tau

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate: What is the relationship between the reading scores of the Texas Higher Education Assessment (THEA) and the Graduation rates of students at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU)? A Correlational analysis was done using the classification of students, earned credit hours, and THEA scores.…

  17. C57BL/6 Neuromuscular Healthspan Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Developing a scoring system based on physiological and functional measurements is critical to test the efficacy of potential interventions for sarcopenia and frailty in aging animal models; therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a neuromuscular healthspan scoring system (NMHSS). We examined three ages of male C57BL/6 mice: adults (6–7 months old, 100% survival), old (24–26 months old, 75% survival), and elderly group (>28 months old, ≤50% survival)—as well as mice along this age continuum. Functional performance (as determined by the rotarod and inverted-cling grip test) and in vitro muscle contractility were the determinants. A raw score was derived for each determinant, and the NMHSS was then derived as the sum of the individual determinant scores. In comparison with individual determinants, the NMHSS reduced the effect of individual variability within age groups, thus potentially providing an enhanced ability to detect treatment effects in future studies. PMID:23585418

  18. Classification in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  19. Effects of Movement Instruction on Children's Singing Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mary Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of movement instruction on children's singing achievement scores. When controlling for age, four overarching questions and nine sub-questions were asked. First, when controlling for age, how do pitch achievement scores at the outset compare to pitch achievement scores after movement…

  20. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  1. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  2. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  3. The effect of whole grain consumption (WG) on diet quality and healthy eating index (HEI) scores in children aged 1 to 18 years: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of whole grain (WG) consumption on diet quality and nutrient intake in children: 2-5 y n=2,278), 6-12 y (n=3,868), and 13-18 y (n=4,931) using a secondary analysis of NHANES 1999-2004 data. Age groups were divided into four WG consumption groups:...

  4. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  5. Coronary artery calcium scores and cardiovascular risk factors in 31,545 asymptomatic Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sung Mok; Sung, Jidong; Cho, Soo Jin; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the distribution of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) by age group and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and to evaluate the association between CV risk factors and CACS classification in asymptomatic adults. The study included 31,545 asymptomatic Koreans, over 20 years of age with no previous history of malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or stroke, who underwent CACS computed tomography at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 2005 and June 2013. Mean (±SD) age was 53.8 (±8.5) years overall, 56.1 (±8.3) in men, and 53.3 (±8.5) in women. They were classified into five groups based on their resting CACS: none (CAC = 0), minimal (0 < CAC ≤ 10), mild (10 < CAC ≤ 100), moderate (100 < CAC ≤ 400), and extensive (400 > CAC). Older age groups exhibited higher CACS values. The proportion of CACS classification in our study was 55.5 % with no CACS, 9.5 % with minimal CACS, 19.8 % with mild CACS, 10.8 % with moderate CACS, and 4.3 % with extensive CACS. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for CV risk factors to determine their association with CACS. When analyzed according to sex, in males, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, chronic kidney disease, and smoking status. While, in females, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of HT, DM, and obesity. CV risk factors appear to be significantly associated with CACS in the Korean population. PMID:27119164

  6. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard J.; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E.; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Loh, Wai Y.; Matthews, Lillian G.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Seal, Marc L.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical gray

  7. Assessment of prognostic scores in brain metastases from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tabouret, Emeline; Metellus, Philippe; Gonçalves, Anthony; Esterni, Benjamin; Charaffe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Viens, Patrice; Tallet, Agnés

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of brain metastases (BM). Optimal management of BM from BC is still debated. In an attempt to provide appropriate treatment and to assist with optimal patient selection, several specific prognostic classifications for BM from BC have been established. We evaluated the prognostic value and validity of the 6 proposed scoring systems in an independent population of BC patients with BM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive BC patients referred to our institution for newly diagnosed BM between October 1995 and July 2011 (n = 149). Each of the 6 scores proposed for BM from BC (Sperduto, Niwinska, Park, Nieder, Le Scodan, and Claude) was applied to this population. The discriminative ability of each score was assessed using the Brier score and the C-index. Individual prognostic values of clinical and histological factors were analyzed using uni- and multivariate analyses. Results Median overall survival was 15.1 months (95% CI,11.5–18.7). Sperduto-GPA (P < .001), Nieder (P < .001), Park (P < .001), Claude (P < .001), Niwinska (P < .001), and Le Scodan (P = .034) scores all showed significant prognostic value. The Nieder score showed the best discriminative ability (C-index, 0.672; Brier score error reduction, 16.1%). Conclusion The majority of prognostic scores were relevant for patients with BM from BC in our independent population, and the Nieder score seems to present the best predictive value but showed a relatively low positive predictive value. Thus, these results remain insufficient and challenge the routine use of these scoring systems. PMID:24311640

  8. REMODELING CHARACTERISTICS AND COLLAGEN DISTRIBUTION IN BIOLOGICAL SCAFFOLD MATERIALS EXPLANTED FROM HUMAN SUBJECTS AFTER ABDOMINAL SOFT TISSUE RECONSTRUCTION: AN ANALYSIS OF SCAFFOLD REMODELING CHARACTERISTICS BY PATIENT RISK FACTORS AND SURGICAL SITE CLASSIFICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Jaime A.; Roma, Andres A.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Ousley, Jenny; Creamer, Jennifer; Pichert, Matthew D.; Baalman, Sara; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.; Deeken, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The study purpose was to evaluate the associations between patient characteristics or surgical site classifications and the histologic remodeling scores of biologic meshes biopsied from abdominal soft tissue repair sites in the first attempt to generate a multivariable risk prediction model of non-constructive remodeling. INTRODUCTION Host characteristics and surgical site assessments may predict remodeling degree for biologic meshes used to reinforce abdominal tissue repair sites. METHODS Biologic meshes were biopsied from the abdominal tissue repair sites of n=40 patients during an abdominal re-exploration, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated according to a semi-quantitative scoring system for remodeling characteristics [cell types (CT), cell infiltration (CI), extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, scaffold degradation (SD), fibrous encapsulation (FE), and neovascularization (NEO)] and a mean composite score (CR). Biopsies were stained with Sirius Red & Fast Green, and analyzed to determine the collagen I:III ratio. Based on univariate analyses between subject clinical characteristics or surgical site classification and the histologic remodeling scores, cohort variables were selected for multivariable regression models using a p-value ≤0.200. RESULTS The model selection process for CI score yielded 2 variables: age at mesh implantation and mesh classification (c-statistic=0.989). For CR score, the model selection process yielded 2 variables: age at mesh implantation and mesh classification (r2=0.449). CONCLUSION These preliminary results constitute the first steps in generating a risk prediction model that predicts the patients and clinical circumstances most likely to experience non-constructive remodeling of abdominal tissue repair sites with biologic mesh reinforcement. PMID:24374547

  9. Remodeling characteristics and collagen distribution in synthetic mesh materials explanted from human subjects after abdominal wall reconstruction: an analysis of remodeling characteristics by patient risk factors and surgical site classifications

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Jaime A.; Roma, Andres A.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Ousley, Jenny; Creamer, Jennifer; Pichert, Matthew D.; Baalman, Sara; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between patient characteristics or surgical site classifications and the histologic remodeling scores of synthetic meshes biopsied from their abdominal wall repair sites in the first attempt to generate a multivariable risk prediction model of non-constructive remodeling. Methods Biopsies of the synthetic meshes were obtained from the abdominal wall repair sites of 51 patients during a subsequent abdominal re-exploration. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated according to a semi-quantitative scoring system for remodeling characteristics (cell infiltration, cell types, extracellular matrix deposition, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and neovascularization) and a mean composite score (CR). Biopsies were also stained with Sirius Red and Fast Green, and analyzed to determine the collagen I:III ratio. Based on univariate analyses between subject clinical characteristics or surgical site classification and the histologic remodeling scores, cohort variables were selected for multivariable regression models using a threshold p value of ≤0.200. Results The model selection process for the extracellular matrix score yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation, and mesh classification (c-statistic = 0.842). For CR score, the model selection process yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation and mesh classification (r2 = 0.464). The model selection process for the collagen III area yielded a model with two variables: subject body mass index at time of mesh explantation and pack-year history (r2 = 0.244). Conclusion Host characteristics and surgical site assessments may predict degree of remodeling for synthetic meshes used to reinforce abdominal wall repair sites. These preliminary results constitute the first steps in generating a risk prediction model that predicts the patients and clinical circumstances for which non

  10. Functional connectivity classification of autism identifies highly predictive brain features but falls short of biomarker standards

    PubMed Central

    Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Martin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on early-manifesting clinical symptoms, including markedly impaired social communication. We assessed the viability of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures as diagnostic biomarkers for ASD and investigated which connectivity features are predictive of a diagnosis. Methods Rs-fMRI scans from 59 high functioning males with ASD and 59 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) males were used to build a series of machine learning classifiers. Classification features were obtained using 3 sets of brain regions. Another set of classifiers was built from participants' scores on behavioral metrics. An additional age and IQ-matched cohort of 178 individuals (89 ASD; 89 TD) from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access dataset (http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/abide/) were included for replication. Results High classification accuracy was achieved through several rs-fMRI methods (peak accuracy 76.67%). However, classification via behavioral measures consistently surpassed rs-fMRI classifiers (peak accuracy 95.19%). The class probability estimates, P(ASD|fMRI data), from brain-based classifiers significantly correlated with scores on a measure of social functioning, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), as did the most informative features from 2 of the 3 sets of brain-based features. The most informative connections predominantly originated from regions strongly associated with social functioning. Conclusions While individuals can be classified as having ASD with statistically significant accuracy from their rs-fMRI scans alone, this method falls short of biomarker standards. Classification methods provided further evidence that ASD functional connectivity is characterized by dysfunction of large-scale functional networks, particularly those involved in social information processing. PMID:25685703

  11. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  12. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  13. Improving Test Scores. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their…

  14. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  15. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  16. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  17. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  18. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had

  19. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Risk Modeling Study for Individual Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-02-01

    The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT.In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database. The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity. The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824-0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively. Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were independent risk

  20. Scoring Systems for Outcome Prediction of Patients with Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peritonitis continues to be one of the major infectious problems confronting a surgeon. Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for en Umeration of Mortality (POSSUM) and Morbidity and sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute have been devised for risk assessment and for prediction of postoperative outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to find the accuracy of these scores in predicting outcome in terms of mortality in patients undergoing exploratory laprotomy for perforation peritonitis. Materials and Methods The prospective study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of perforation at our centre in a single unit over a period of 21 months from December 2012 to August 2014. Study was conducted on all cases of peritonitis albeit primary, tertiary, iatrogenic and those with age less than 12 years were excluded from the study. All the relevant data were collected and three scores were computed from one set of data from the patient. The main outcome measure was survival of the patient. The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were obtained for the three scores. Area Under the Curves (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at a cut off point obtained from the ROC curves. Results POSSUM had an AUC of 0.99, sepsis score had an AUC of 0.98 and MPI had an AUC of 0.95. The cut off point score of 51 for POSSUM had an accuracy of 93.8 and positive predictive value of 70.5, the score of 29 for MPI had an accuracy of 82.8 and positive predictive value of 46 and the score of 22 for sepsis score had an accuracy of 95.9 and positive predictive value of 86.67. Conclusion POSSUM score was found to be superior in prediction of mortality as compared to sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute and MPI. POSSUM and MPI over predicted mortality in some cases. None of these scores are strictly preoperative. PMID:27134924

  1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with intracranial extension in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy: case-control study using propensity score matching method.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cai-Neng; Luo, Jing-Wei; Gao, Li; Xu, Guo-Zhen; Yi, Jun-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Li, Su-Yan; Xiao, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate long-term survival outcomes and toxicity of T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with intracranial extension (IE group) or without intracranial extension (non-IE group) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the propensity score matching method. After generating propensity scores given the covariates of age, sex, N classification, and concurrent chemotherapy, 132 patients in each group were matched. The 5-year local failure-free survival rate and the 5-year overall survival rate in the IE group were lower than the patients in the non-IE group (74.6 vs. 88.9 %, p = .008; 51.1 vs. 71.9 %, p = .005). Grade 2 hypothyroidism was more common in the IE group (13.2 vs. 3.4 %, p = .029). For patients with T4 classification NPC after IMRT, patients with intracranial extension need more attention to the thyroid gland function and are more likely to experience local failure and death than patients without intracranial extension. PMID:26282900

  2. Genetic scores of smoking behaviour in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; He, Yao; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to structure a genetic score for smoking behaviour in a Chinese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were evaluated in a community-representative sample (N = 3,553) of Beijing, China. The candidate SNPs were tested in four genetic models (dominance model, recessive model, heterogeneous codominant model and additive model), and 7 SNPs were selected to structure a genetic score. A total of 3,553 participants (1,477 males and 2,076 females) completed the survey. Using the unweighted score, we found that participants with a high genetic score had a 34% higher risk of trying smoking and a 43% higher risk of SI at ≤18 years of age after adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and sports activity time. The unweighted genetic scores were chosen to best extrapolate and understand these results. Importantly, genetic score was significantly associated with smoking behaviour (smoking status and SI at ≤18 years of age). These results have the potential to guide relevant health education for individuals with high genetic scores and promote the process of smoking control to improve the health of the population. PMID:26948517

  3. Validation of cone-beam computed tomography as a predictor of osteoporosis using the Klemetti classification.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Maria Beatriz Carrazzone Cal; Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Lopes, Luciana Jácome; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    2016-05-31

    This study aimed at evaluating the validity of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for assessing mandibular bone quality using the Klemetti classification. The morphology of the endosteal mandibular cortex of 30 (60 hemi-mandibles) postmenopausal women between the ages of 45 and 80 years was evaluated based on the Klemetti classification in panoramic radiographs used as reference images. Afterwards, panoramic reconstruction and cross-sectional slices of CBCT examinations of these patients were analyzed and categorized according to the same classification. All the images were assessed by two oral radiologists. The McNemar-Bowker test compared the agreement between the CBCT images and the reference images. No differences were found between the diagnostic results based on panoramic radiography and panoramic reconstruction. However, the mean scores for the cross-sectional evaluation were higher, and the results, statistically different from the others. Based on the disagreement found between the panoramic radiographs and the CBCT cross-sectional slices, the Klemetti classification is not an adequate means of assessing bone quality with CBCT. On the other hand, the higher values found for the cross-sectional slices could be associated with better visibility on the CBCT images. PMID:27253142

  4. Patterns of cognitive decline in aged rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Herndon, J G; Moss, M B; Rosene, D L; Killiany, R J

    1997-08-01

    Although cognitive decline has been well established as a consequence of aging in non-human primate models, the prevalence or frequency of impairment for specific age ranges has not been described. The first aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of cognitive impairment on each of the six tests of cognitive performance by comparing the performance of early-aged (19-23 years old), advanced-aged (24-28 years old), and oldest-aged (29+ years old) monkeys to that of young adults (< 15 years old). The second aim was to derive a single overall measure of cognitive performance to help classify behavioral function in our aged monkeys. Accordingly, we obtained performance measures for these age groups on six behavioral measures: (1) acquisition of the delayed non-matching-to-sample task (DNMS); (2) performance of the DNMS with a delay of 120 sec; (3) the spatial condition of the delayed recognition span test (DRST); (4) the color condition of the DRST; (5) spatial reversal learning; and (6) object reversal learning. Early-aged monkeys displayed prevalence rates of impairment significantly greater than zero on all tasks except the DRST-color. The highest prevalence of impairment was observed in this age group in a task measuring spatial memory (DRST). Significant trends toward progressively higher impairment rates in advanced-aged and oldest-aged monkeys were observed for DNMS-acquisition, DRST-color and spatial reversal learning tasks. A linear transformation of standardized scores on the six cognitive tests was derived by means of principal components analysis (PCA). The first PCA (PCA1) included data from 30 monkeys with available data on all six measures, and yielded a composite measure which declined linearly with increasing age (r = -0.74). A second PCA (PCA2) was performed on data from 53 monkeys for which three test scores (DNMS-acquisition, DNMS-120s delay, and DRST-spatial condition) were available. The composite score derived from this analysis was highly

  5. Scores and scales used in emergency medicine. Practicability in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Oprita, B; Aignatoaie, B; Gabor-Postole, D A

    2014-01-01

    Medical scores, criteria and classification systems support clinical decision-making and management. They enable the clinician to predict the outcome, stratify risk, assess conditions and diagnose diseases accurately. In the emergency medicine, it is very important to ascertain safety criteria to discharge patients, time to remain in the E.R., and also ascertain the time intervals for discharge/admission. The use of the scores in the emergency medicine, toxicology and other areas of intensive medicine have become increasingly efficient. Creating a prognostic score for the acute intoxications to be used by the personnel from the Emergency Departments may have positive effects in the management of the poisoned patients (e.g. the admission in a certain treatment space: cases expected to have a trend towards worsening will be directed to the resuscitation space and after a short period of time admitted in the appropriate facility; this way, the bed occupancy time in the Emergency Department will be shortened). PMID:25870686

  6. Classification of Liver Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Hanna, Sherif S.; Kahnamoui, Kamyar

    1996-01-01

    The classification of liver injuries is important for clinical practice, clinical research and quality assurance activities. The Organ Injury Scaling (OIS) Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma proposed the OIS for liver trauma in 1989. The purpose ofthe present study was to apply this scale to a cohort ofliver trauma patients managed at a single Canadian trauma centre from January 1987 to June 1992.170 study patients were identified and reviewed. The mean age was 30, with 69% male and a mean ISS of 33.90% had a blunt mechanism ofinjury. The 170 patients were categorized into the 60IS grades ofliver injury. The number of units of blood transfused, the magnitude of the operative treatment required, the liver-related complications and the liver-related mortality correlated well with the OIS grade. The OIS grade was unable to predict the need for laparotomy or the length of stay in hospital. We conclude that the OIS is a useful, practical and important tool for the categorization of liver injuries, and it may prove to be the universally accepted classification scheme in liver trauma. PMID:8809585

  7. Free Energy Score Spaces: Using Generative Information in Discriminative Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Perina, Alessandro; Cristani, Marco; Castellani, Umberto; Murino, Vittorio; Jojic, Nebojsa

    2012-07-01

    A score function induced by a generative model of the data can provide a feature vector of a fixed dimension for each data sample. Data samples themselves may be of differing lengths (e.g., speech segments or other sequential data), but as a score function is based on the properties of the data generation process, it produces a fixed-length vector in a highly informative space, typically referred to as "score space." Discriminative classifiers have been shown to achieve higher performances in appropriately chosen score spaces with respect to what is achievable by either the corresponding generative likelihood-based classifiers or the discriminative classifiers using standard feature extractors. In this paper, we present a novel score space that exploits the free energy associated with a generative model. The resulting free energy score space (FESS) takes into account the latent structure of the data at various levels and can be shown to lead to classification performance that at least matches the performance of the free energy classifier based on the same generative model and the same factorization of the posterior. We also show that in several typical computer vision and computational biology applications the classifiers optimized in FESS outperform the corresponding pure generative approaches, as well as a number of previous approaches combining discriminating and generative models. PMID:22156097

  8. Is there a relationship between spinal instability in neoplastic disease and Tokuhashi scoring system?

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, Jose Marcus; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) classification evaluates spinal stability by adding together six radiographic and clinical components. The objective of this study was to verify the association between SINS and Tokuhashi scoring system (TSS) score. Fifty-eight patients with vertebral metastases were admitted from 2010 to 2014 at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. They were evaluated according to their SINS and Tokuhashi SS score. Fourteen patients (24.13 %) scored from 0 to 6 points (stable spine), 37 (63.79 %) scored from 7 to 12 (potentially unstable), and 7 (12.06 %) scored from 13 to 18 (unstable). In stable spine patients according to SINS, the mean TSS score was 9.2. In potentially unstable spine patients, the mean TSS score was 8.24. In unstable spine patients, mean TSS score was 6.28. There was a statistically significant difference of the TSS score between stable and unstable patients. After evaluating TSS score in each patient, the worse the SINS, the worse was also the TSS score. PMID:26860530

  9. The Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System for myelofibrosis predicts outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bart L; Gooley, Ted A; Sorror, Mohamed L; Rezvani, Andrew R; Linenberger, Michael L; Grim, Jonathan; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Myerson, David; Chauncey, Thomas R; Storb, Rainer; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Radich, Jerald P; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Deeg, H Joachim

    2012-03-15

    Studies by the International Working Group showed that the prognosis of myelofibrosis patients is predicted by the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) risk categorization, which includes patient age, constitutional symptoms, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, and circulating blasts. We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of the DIPSS in 170 patients with myelofibrosis, 12 to 78 years of age (median, 51.5 years of age), who received hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) between 1990 and 2009 from related (n = 86) or unrelated donors (n = 84). By DIPSS, 21 patients had low-risk disease, 48 had intermediate-1, 50 had intermediate-2, and 51 had high-risk disease. Five-year incidence of relapse, relapse-free survival, overall survival, and nonrelapse mortality for all patients were 10%, 57%, 57%, and 34%, respectively. Among patients with DIPSS high-risk disease, the hazard ratio for post-HCT mortality was 4.11 (95% CI, 1.44-11.78; P = .008), and for nonrelapse mortality was 3.41 (95% CI, 1.15-10.09; P = .03) compared with low-risk patients. After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, the median survivals have not been reached for DIPSS risk groups low and intermediate-1, and were 7 and 2.5 years for intermediate-2 and high-risk patients, respectively. Thus, HCT was curative for a large proportion of patients with myelofibrosis, and post-HCT success was dependent on pre-HCT DIPSS classification. PMID:22234678

  10. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  11. Cardiac Infarction Injury Score predicts cardiovascular mortality in apparently healthy men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, J M; Schouten, E G; Pool, J; Kok, F J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The Cardiac Infarction Injury Score (CIIS) is an electrocardiogram classification system that was developed to identify ischaemic heart disease. As well as being of diagnostic value, the CIIS may also be of prognostic value. DESIGN--The prognostic value of the CIIS for mortality of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease was assessed in a 28 year follow up study of 3091 apparently healthy middle aged men and women (Dutch Civil Servants Study). RESULTS--The rates of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease mortality during the first 15 years of follow up were significantly higher in men and women with a CIIS of > 10 than in those with a CIIS of < or = 0 (rate ratio of coronary heart disease mortality 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.8) for men and 5.6 (2.0 to 15.5) for women). Coronary heart disease mortality was also higher in men with a CIIS of 1-10 than in men with CIIS of < or = 0. When individuals with major Minnesota code items were excluded, the associations were weaker and no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSION--These results indicate that a high CIIS is a risk indicator for coronary heart disease mortality in the general population. Classification of electrocardiograms by means of the CIIS seems to be equivalent to classification by a combination of Minnesota code items. Because CIIS coding is simpler and can be performed by computer it may be more efficient than the Minnesota code for classifying cardiac injury in epidemiological studies. PMID:8068467

  12. Classification of caregiving families according to the Family Caregivers' Appraisal Checklist.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kazuko; Iwata, Noboru; Matsuda, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to classify caregiving families according to the Family Caregivers' Appraisal Checklist (FACL; Horiguchi et al., 2012), which was originally developed to evaluate the probability of continuing caregiving. After nationwide targeting in Japan, the selected survey candidates included 1279 families utilizing domiciliary nursing services chosen by stratified two-stage sampling, and available data were obtained from 945 out of 1020 returned responses (return ratio: 79.8%). Scores for the seven components of FACL were cluster analyzed, and the following six clusters were extracted: Cluster A (12.8%) yielded high scores for all components; Cluster B (34.0%) yielded average scores; Cluster C (20.7%) scored mostly average but low for "quality of care service"; Cluster D (15.8%) showed relatively low scores for all components; Cluster E (11.4%) yielded low scores for all components except for "quality of care service" and "preparedness for emergencies"; and Cluster F (5.3%) scored significantly poorly for all components except for "preparedness for emergencies". Significant intercluster differences were observed for care recipient's age, the number of medical care, employment status, principal caregiver's subjective health, and the advice from family and friends. Caregiving duration was significantly associated with "positive appraisal of family caregiving", the number of medical care and the number of care types, and marginally with the level of care stipulated by the public long-term care insurance program (p < 0.07). Implications of classification of family type according to the FACL and the importance of positive appraisal of caregiving are discussed along with the future direction of use of the FACL. PMID:23666400

  13. A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

  14. Assessment of Children Referred for Evaluation of School Difficulties Who Have Adequate Academic Achievement Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Allison E.; Singer-Harris, Naomi; Bernstein, Jane H.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2000-01-01

    Forty children (ages 7-11) referred for evaluation of learning problems, who had normal scores on measures of academic achievement, were compared to 81 similarly referred children who had scored low. Children with normal achievement scores had higher IQs and better decoding skills, however, the two groups showed similar neuropsychological…

  15. One-class kernel subspace ensemble for medical image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yungang; Zhang, Bailing; Coenen, Frans; Xiao, Jimin; Lu, Wenjin

    2014-12-01

    Classification of medical images is an important issue in computer-assisted diagnosis. In this paper, a classification scheme based on a one-class kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) model ensemble has been proposed for the classification of medical images. The ensemble consists of one-class KPCA models trained using different image features from each image class, and a proposed product combining rule was used for combining the KPCA models to produce classification confidence scores for assigning an image to each class. The effectiveness of the proposed classification scheme was verified using a breast cancer biopsy image dataset and a 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal image set. The combination of different image features exploits the complementary strengths of these different feature extractors. The proposed classification scheme obtained promising results on the two medical image sets. The proposed method was also evaluated on the UCI breast cancer dataset (diagnostic), and a competitive result was obtained.

  16. Endoscopic atrophic classification before and after H. pylori eradication is closely associated with histological atrophy and intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Masaaki; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Ogawa, Ryo; Mizukami, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The relationship between endoscopic atrophy classification (EAC) and histological gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) was examined before and after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in order to evaluate the usefulness of EAC for detecting the risk of gastric cancer following eradication. Patients and methods: A total of 230 patients (137 males, 93 females; mean age: 58.0 ± 11.8 y) with successful eradication were enrolled. EAC score was defined as follows: C0(none): 0, C1: 1, C2: 2, C3: 3, O1: 4, O2: 5, and O3(severe): 6. Histological atrophy and IM score (0 to 3) from the antrum and the corpus were evaluated with updated Sydney system for histological atrophy and IM. Results: The mean EAC scores were 3.46 before eradication and 3.20 after eradication (P = 0.026). The mean atrophy scores before and after eradication were 1.45 and 0.92 at the antrum (P < 0.001) and 0.50 and 0.07 at the corpus (P < 0.001), respectively. The mean IM scores before and after eradication were 0.55 and 0.47 at the antrum (P = 0.154), and 0.09 and 0.05 at the corpus (P = 0.096), respectively. The histological atrophy scores showed significant improvement after eradication, while IM showed no significant change. The Mantel-Haenszel test for trend indicated there was a significant correlation between EAC and histological atrophy and IM, except antral atrophy after eradication. Conclusions: EAC exhibited a significant correlation between histological atrophy and IM, and represents a noninvasive classification method. EAC may be beneficial in evaluating the risk of gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication. PMID:26357676

  17. Can Score Databanks Help Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Background Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378–4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495–3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (p<0.0001 for both AUC). When scores conferred by single courses were compared over time, three time-trend patterns emerged: low variation, upward trend and erratic pattern. Conclusion/Significance An early identification of students with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance. PMID:21246033

  18. The Construction and Use of Log-Odds Substitution Scores for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Altschul, Stephen F.; Wootton, John C.; Zaslavsky, Elena; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Most pairwise and multiple sequence alignment programs seek alignments with optimal scores. Central to defining such scores is selecting a set of substitution scores for aligned amino acids or nucleotides. For local pairwise alignment, substitution scores are implicitly of log-odds form. We now extend the log-odds formalism to multiple alignments, using Bayesian methods to construct “BILD” (“Bayesian Integral Log-odds”) substitution scores from prior distributions describing columns of related letters. This approach has been used previously only to define scores for aligning individual sequences to sequence profiles, but it has much broader applicability. We describe how to calculate BILD scores efficiently, and illustrate their uses in Gibbs sampling optimization procedures, gapped alignment, and the construction of hidden Markov model profiles. BILD scores enable automated selection of optimal motif and domain model widths, and can inform the decision of whether to include a sequence in a multiple alignment, and the selection of insertion and deletion locations. Other applications include the classification of related sequences into subfamilies, and the definition of profile-profile alignment scores. Although a fully realized multiple alignment program must rely upon more than substitution scores, many existing multiple alignment programs can be modified to employ BILD scores. We illustrate how simple BILD score based strategies can enhance the recognition of DNA binding domains, including the Api-AP2 domain in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:20657661

  19. [Trauma scores: reproducibility and reliability].

    PubMed

    Waydhas, C; Nast-Kolb, D; Trupka, A; Kerim-Sade, C; Kanz, G; Zoller, J; Schweiberer, L

    1992-02-01

    The inter-rater reliability of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Polytraumaschlüssel (PTS) [multiple trauma code] was studied using diagnosis sheets filled in for 107 multiple injured patients. The scoring was performed by eight physicians with different levels of qualification. The scores for individual patients varied widely depending on the scorer, with extremes differing from the mean by about 80% and 70% for the ISS and PTS, respectively. The mean ISS and PTS for the whole study population also varied significantly between the scorers (P less than 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). Raters with experience in trauma scoring calculated significantly higher scores (P less than 0.01, t-test) Neither the ISS nor the PTS seem reliable enough to describe injury severity in an individual patient. Treatment decisions must not be based on such grounds. Even for larger groups, caution must be exercised in comparison of different populations of multiple traumatized patients. PMID:1570531

  20. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  1. An optimal decisional space for the classification of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Goryawala, Mohammed; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Wang, Jin; Barker, Warren; Loewenstein, David A; Duara, Ranjan; Adjouadi, Malek

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes to combine MRI data with a neuropsychological test, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), as input to a multi-dimensional space for the classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it's prodromal stages-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) including amnestic MCI (aMCI) and nonamnestic MCI (naMCI). The decisional space is constructed using those features deemed statistically significant through an elaborate feature selection and ranking mechanism. FreeSurfer was used to calculate 55 volumetric variables, which were then adjusted for intracranial volume, age and education. The classification results obtained using support vector machines are based on twofold cross validation of 50 independent and randomized runs. The study included 59 AD, 67 aMCI, 56 naMCI, and 127 cognitively normal (CN) subjects. The study shows that MMSE scores contain the most discriminative power of AD, aMCI, and naMCI. For AD versus CN, the two most discriminative volumetric variables (right hippocampus and left inferior lateral ventricle), when combined with MMSE scores, provided an average accuracy of 92.4% (sensitivity: 84.0%; specificity: 96.1%). MMSE scores are found to improve all classifications with accuracy increments of 8.2% and 12% for aMCI versus CN and naMCI versus CN, respectively. Results also show that brain atrophy is almost evenly seen on both sides of the brain for AD subjects, which is different from right-side dominance for aMCI and left-side dominance for naMCI. Furthermore, hippocampal atrophy is seen to be the most significant for aMCI, while Accumbens area and ventricle are most significant for naMCI. PMID:25051543

  2. Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards

    PubMed Central

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years) were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the

  3. Development and evaluation of a self-administered on-line test of memory and attention for middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Angela K.; Rowe, Gillian; Murphy, Kelly J.; Levine, Brian; Leach, Larry; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable Internet-based screening tools for cognitive assessment in middle-aged and older adults. We report the psychometric properties of an on-line tool designed to screen for cognitive deficits that require further investigation. The tool is composed of measures of memory and executive attention processes known to be sensitive to brain changes associated with aging and with cognitive disorders that become more prevalent with age. Measures included a Spatial Working Memory task, Stroop Interference task, Face-Name Association task, and Number-Letter Alternation task. Normative data were collected from 361 healthy adults age 50–79 who scored in the normal range on a standardized measure of general cognitive ability. Participants took the 20-minute on-line test on their home computers, and a subset of 288 participants repeated the test 1 week later. Analyses of the individual tasks indicated adequate internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and alternate version reliability. As expected, scores were correlated with age. The four tasks loaded on the same principle component. Demographically-corrected z-scores from the individual tasks were combined to create an overall score, which showed good reliability and classification consistency. These results indicate the tool may be useful for identifying middle-aged and older adults with lower than expected scores who may benefit from clinical evaluation of their cognition by a health care professional. PMID:25540620

  4. Pain Scores Are Not Predictive of Pain Medication Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Suzanne; Chimhanda, Maryann; Sloan, Jayme; Anderson, Charles; Sinacore, James; Brubaker, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores with overall postoperative pain medication requirements including cumulative dose and patterns of medication utilization and to determine whether VAS scores predict pain medication utilization. Methods. VAS scores and pain medication data were collected from participants in a randomized trial of the utility of phenazopyridine for improved pain control following gynecologic surgery. Results. The mean age of the 219 participants was 54 (range19 to 94). We did not detect any association between VAS and pain medication utilization for patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) or RN administered (intravenous or oral) medications. We also did not detect any association between the number of VAS scores recorded and mean pain scores. Conclusion. Postoperative VAS scores do not predict pain medication use in catheterized women inpatients following gynecologic surgery. Increased pain severity, as reflected by higher VAS scores, is not associated with an increase in pain assessment. Our findings suggest that VAS scores are of limited utility for optimal pain control. Alternative or complimentary methods may improve pain management. PMID:22110938

  5. Pain scores are not predictive of pain medication utilization.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Suzanne; Chimhanda, Maryann; Sloan, Jayme; Anderson, Charles; Sinacore, James; Brubaker, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores with overall postoperative pain medication requirements including cumulative dose and patterns of medication utilization and to determine whether VAS scores predict pain medication utilization. Methods. VAS scores and pain medication data were collected from participants in a randomized trial of the utility of phenazopyridine for improved pain control following gynecologic surgery. Results. The mean age of the 219 participants was 54 (range19 to 94). We did not detect any association between VAS and pain medication utilization for patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) or RN administered (intravenous or oral) medications. We also did not detect any association between the number of VAS scores recorded and mean pain scores. Conclusion. Postoperative VAS scores do not predict pain medication use in catheterized women inpatients following gynecologic surgery. Increased pain severity, as reflected by higher VAS scores, is not associated with an increase in pain assessment. Our findings suggest that VAS scores are of limited utility for optimal pain control. Alternative or complimentary methods may improve pain management. PMID:22110938

  6. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  7. New Classification of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Gawel, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    The Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society has developed a new classification system for headache, cranial neuralgia, and facial pain. The value of the classification for the practising clinician is that it forces him or her to take a more careful history in order to determine the nature of the headache. This article reviews the classification system and gives examples of case histories and subsequent diagnoses. PMID:21221276

  8. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  9. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  10. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  11. Automated detection and classification of dice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Bento A. B.; Silva, Jeronimo A.; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Guilherme, Rui; Rodrigues, Fernando C.; de Silva Ferreira, Antonio M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a typical machine vision system in an unusual application, the automated visual inspection of a Casino's playing tables. The SORTE computer vision system was developed at INETI under a contract with the Portuguese Gaming Inspection Authorities IGJ. It aims to automate the tasks of detection and classification of the dice's scores on the playing tables of the game `Banca Francesa' (which means French Banking) in Casinos. The system is based on the on-line analysis of the images captured by a monochrome CCD camera placed over the playing tables, in order to extract relevant information concerning the score indicated by the dice. Image processing algorithms for real time automatic throwing detection and dice classification were developed and implemented.

  12. Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test…

  13. Classification of articulators.

    PubMed

    Rihani, A

    1980-03-01

    A simple classification in familiar terms with definite, clear characteristics can be adopted. This classification system is based on the number of records used and the adjustments necessary for the articulator to accept these records. The classification divides the articulators into nonadjustable, semiadjustable, and fully adjustable articulators (Table I). PMID:6928204

  14. Government Classification: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Classification of government documents (confidential, secret, top secret) is a system used by the executive branch to, in part, protect national security and foreign policy interests. The systematic use of classification markings with precise definitions was established during World War I, and since 1936 major changes in classification have…

  15. Classification: Something to Think About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Joan P.; Jacobs, Judith E.

    1981-01-01

    Advocates the use of classification activities in the elementary school curriculum as a means of developing thinking skills in children. Critical preclassification skills, classification activities (including simple and multiple classification), and classification tasks and materials are discussed. (Author/RH)

  16. Effects of two classification strategies on a Benthic Community Index for streams in the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butcher, Jason T.; Stewart, Paul M.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-four sites were used to analyze the effects of two different classification strategies on the Benthic Community Index (BCI). The first, a priori classification, reflected the wetland status of the streams; the second, a posteriori classification, used a bio-environmental analysis to select classification variables. Both classifications were examined by measuring classification strength and testing differences in metric values with respect to group membership. The a priori (wetland) classification strength (83.3%) was greater than the a posteriori (bio-environmental) classification strength (76.8%). Both classifications found one metric that had significant differences between groups. The original index was modified to reflect the wetland classification by re-calibrating the scoring criteria for percent Crustacea and Mollusca. A proposed refinement to the original Benthic Community Index is suggested. This study shows the importance of using hypothesis-driven classifications, as well as exploratory statistical analysis, to evaluate alternative ways to reveal environmental variability in biological assessment tools.

  17. Assessment of optimized Markov models in protein fold classification.

    PubMed

    Lampros, Christos; Simos, Thomas; Exarchos, Themis P; Exarchos, Konstantinos P; Papaloukas, Costas; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2014-08-01

    Protein fold classification is a challenging task strongly associated with the determination of proteins' structure. In this work, we tested an optimization strategy on a Markov chain and a recently introduced Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with reduced state-space topology. The proteins with unknown structure were scored against both these models. Then the derived scores were optimized following a local optimization method. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the annotation of the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database were used for the evaluation of the proposed methodology. The results demonstrated that the fold classification accuracy of the optimized HMM was substantially higher compared to that of the Markov chain or the reduced state-space HMM approaches. The proposed methodology achieved an accuracy of 41.4% on fold classification, while Sequence Alignment and Modeling (SAM), which was used for comparison, reached an accuracy of 38%. PMID:25152041

  18. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  19. Impact of structure space continuity on protein fold classification

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinrui; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Protein structure classification hierarchically clusters domain structures based on structure and/or sequence similarities and plays important roles in the study of protein structure-function relationship and protein evolution. Among many classifications, SCOP and CATH are widely viewed as the gold standards. Fold classification is of special interest because this is the lowest level of classification that does not depend on protein sequence similarity. The current fold classifications such as those in SCOP and CATH are controversial because they implicitly assume that folds are discrete islands in the structure space, whereas increasing evidence suggests significant similarities among folds and supports a continuous fold space. Although this problem is widely recognized, its impact on fold classification has not been quantitatively evaluated. Here we develop a likelihood method to classify a domain into the existing folds of CATH or SCOP using both query-fold structure similarities and within-fold structure heterogeneities. The new classification differs from the original classification for 3.4–12% of domains, depending on factors such as the structure similarity score and original classification scheme used. Because these factors differ for different biological purposes, our results indicate that the importance of considering structure space continuity in fold classification depends on the specific question asked. PMID:27006112

  20. Genetic Parameter Estimates Among Scale Activity Score and Farrowing Disposition with Reproductive Traits in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale activity score (SA) at 5 months of age ranged from 1 to 5. Farrowing disposition score (FD) ranged from 1 to 3. Reproductive traits included age at puberty (AP), number born alive (NBA), number born dead (NBD), litter birth weight (LBW), average birth weight (ABW), number weaned adjusted for c...

  1. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  2. Nanodispersion, nonlinear image filtering, and materials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Lee, Jun S.

    2011-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate-alumina nano-composites from two production processes gave rise to materials H and T, further divided into four and, respectively, three classes of belonging. Electron microscope images of the materials had been visually scored by an expert in terms of an index, β, aimed at assessing filler dispersion and distribution. These properties characterize the nano-composite. Herewith a classification algorithm which includes image spatial differentiation and non-linear filtering interlaced with multivariate statistics is applied to the same images of materials Hand T. The classification algorithm depends on a few parameters, which are automatically determined by maximizing a figure of merit in the supervised training stage. The classifier output is a display on the plane of the first two principal components. By regressing the 1st principal component affinely against β a remarkable agreement is found between automated classification and visual scoring of material H. The regression result for materialT is not significant, because the assigned classes reduce from 3 to 2, both by visual and automated scoring. The output from the non-linear image filter can be related to filler dispersion and distribution.

  3. Manual classification strategies in the ECOD database

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hua; Liao, Yuxing; Schaeffer, R. Dustin; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-01-01

    ECOD (Evolutionary Classification Of protein Domains) is a comprehensive and up-to-date protein structure classification database. The majority of new structures released from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) every week already have close homologs in the ECOD hierarchy and thus can be reliably partitioned into domains and classified by software without manual intervention. However, those proteins that lack confidently detectable homologs require careful analysis by experts. Although many bioinformatics resources rely on expert curation to some degree, specific examples of how this curation occurs and in what cases it is necessary are not always described. Here, we illustrate the manual classification strategy in ECOD by example, focusing on two major issues in protein classification: domain partitioning and the relationship between homology and similarity scores. Most examples show recently released and manually classified PDB structures. We discuss multi-domain proteins, discordance between sequence and structural similarities, difficulties with assessing homology with scores, and integral membrane proteins homologous to soluble proteins. By timely assimilation of newly available structures into its hierarchy, ECOD strives to provide a most accurate and updated view of the protein structure world as a result of combined computational and expert-driven analysis. PMID:25917548

  4. Improvement in Intelligence Test Scores from 6 to 10 years in Children of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; De Genna, Natacha M.; Richardson, Gale A.; Leech, Sharon L.; Day, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigates change in IQ scores among 290 children born to teenage mothers and identifies social, economic, and environmental variables that may be associated with change in intelligence test performance. Methods The children of 290 teenage mothers (72% African American and 28% European American) were assessed with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (SBIS) at ages 6 and 10. Results The mean composite score at age 6 was 84.8 and was 91.2 at age 10, an improvement of 6.4 points. Significant cross-sectional predictors at both ages 6 and 10 of higher SBIS scores were maternal cognitive ability, school grade, Caucasian ethnicity, and caregiver education. Having more children in the household significantly predicted lower SBIS scores at age 6. Higher satisfaction with maternal social support predicted higher SBIS scores at age 10. Change in IQ scores was not related to maternal socioeconomic status, social support, home environment, ethnicity, or family interactions. Custodial stability was associated with an improvement in IQ scores, while increase in caregiver depression was related to decline in IQ scores. Conclusions Our findings suggest that improvement in IQ scores of offspring of teenage mothers may be related to stability of maternal custody. More research is needed to determine the impact of the maturation of adolescent mothers' parenting and the role of early education on improvement in cognitive abilities. PMID:20495472

  5. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit Kurz, Kathinka D.; Solbakken, Tore; Larsen, Jan Petter Kurz, Martin W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  6. Webbed penis: A new classification

    PubMed Central

    El-Koutby, Montasser; Mohamed Amin, El Gohary

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To introduce a new classification for the congenital anomaly of webbed penis and suggest an operative technique that can be planned according to the severity of webbing. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in two pediatric surgical units in Egypt and UAE on babies who were referred for circumcision. A preplanned written protocol was designed before commencing the study. Results: A total of 5,881 babies aged from 1 day to 6 months were seen in two pediatric surgical units. The webbed penis is broadly classified into primary and secondary types. The primary is further subdivided into simple and compound. Conclusions: We believe that the new classification will serve as a baseline for the anatomical variants and help to streamline the operative procedure accordingly. PMID:20975781

  7. An exploratory analysis of American Indian children's cultural engagement, fluid cognitive skills, and standardized verbal IQ scores.

    PubMed

    Tsethlikai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined fluid cognitive skills and standardized verbal IQ scores in relation to cultural engagement amongst Tohono O'odham children (N = 99; ages 7 to 12 years). Guardians with higher socioeconomic status engaged their children in more cultural activities, and participation in more cultural activities contributed to higher standardized verbal IQ scores. Mean cognitive skill scores varied as a function of age and Tohono O'odham language knowledge. Children who understood and/or spoke Tohono O'odham started out with lower average scores than did children with no language knowledge, but mean scores generally increased in the older age groups such that they were equal to or higher than those of nonspeakers by age 9. Children with higher fluid cognitive skill scores had higher standardized verbal IQ scores than did children with lower scores. PMID:21244158

  8. Classification of breast tissue density by optical transillumination spectroscopy: optical and physiological effects governing predictive value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle K.; Jong, Roberta A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-12-01

    Preventive oncology is in need of a risk assessment technique that can identify individuals at high risk for breast cancer and that has the ability to monitor the efficacy of a risk reducing intervention. Optical transillumination spectroscopy (OTS) was shown to give information about breast tissue composition and tissue density. OTS is non-invasive, and in contrast to mammography, uses non-ionizing radiation. It is safe and can be used frequently on younger women, potentially permitting early risk detection and thus increasing the time available for risk reduction interventions to assert their influence. Before OTS can be used as a risk assessment and/or monitoring technique, its predictive ability needs to be demonstrated and maximized through the construction of mathematical models relating OTS and risk. To establish a correlation between OTS and mammographic density, Principle Components Analysis (PCA), using risk classification, is employed. PCA scores are presented in 3D cluster plots and a plane of differentiation that separates high and low tissue density is used to calculate the predictive value. Stratificaiton of PCA for measurement position on the breast in cranial-caudal projection is introduced. Analysis of PCA scores as a function of the volunteer's age and body mass index (BMI) is examined. A small but significant correlation between the component scores and age or BMI is noted but the correlation is dependnet on the tissue density category examined. Correction of the component scores for age and BMI is not recommended, since a priori knowledge of a women's tissue density is required. Stratification for the center and distal measurement positions provides a predictive value for OTS above 96%.

  9. Making the Oxford Hip and Knee Scores meaningful at the patient level through normative scoring and registry data

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. F.; Giesinger, J. M.; Patton, J. T.; MacDonald, D. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.; Howie, C. R.; Giesinger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) have been demonstrated to vary according to age and gender, making it difficult to compare results in cohorts with different demographics. The aim of this paper was to calculate reference values for different patient groups and highlight the concept of normative reference data to contextualise an individual’s outcome. Methods We accessed prospectively collected OHS and OKS data for patients undergoing lower limb joint arthroplasty at a single orthopaedic teaching hospital during a five-year period. T-scores were calculated based on the OHS and OKS distributions. Results Data were obtained from 3203 total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients and 2742 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The mean age of the patient was 68.0 years (sd 11.3, 58.4% women) in the THA group and in 70.2 (sd 9.4; 57.5% women) in the TKA group. T-scores were calculated for age and gender subgroups by operation. Different T-score thresholds are seen at different time points pre and post surgery. Values are further stratified by operation (THA/TKA) age and gender. Conclusions Normative data interpretation requires a fundamental shift in the thinking as to the use of the Oxford Scores. Instead of reporting actual score points, the patient is rated by their relative position within the group of all patients undergoing the same procedure. It is proposed that this form of transformation is beneficial (a) for more appropriately comparing different patient cohorts and (b) informing an individual patient how they are progressing compared with others of their age and gender. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:137–144 PMID:26311163

  10. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  11. Recursive heuristic classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  12. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  13. Classification Models for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV Infection Based on Demographic and Clinical Variables

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Pérez-Álvarez, Núria; Muñoz-Murillo, Amalia; Prats, Anna; Garolera, Maite; Jurado, M. Àngels; Fumaz, Carmina R.; Negredo, Eugènia; Ferrer, Maria J.; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used demographic and clinical data to design practical classification models for prediction of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people with HIV infection. Methods The study population comprised 331 HIV-infected patients with available demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive data collected using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Classification and regression trees (CART) were developed to obtain detailed and reliable models to predict NCI. Following a practical clinical approach, NCI was considered the main variable for study outcomes, and analyses were performed separately in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Results The study sample comprised 52 treatment-naïve and 279 experienced patients. In the first group, the variables identified as better predictors of NCI were CD4 cell count and age (correct classification [CC]: 79.6%, 3 final nodes). In treatment-experienced patients, the variables most closely related to NCI were years of education, nadir CD4 cell count, central nervous system penetration-effectiveness score, age, employment status, and confounding comorbidities (CC: 82.1%, 7 final nodes). In patients with an undetectable viral load and no comorbidities, we obtained a fairly accurate model in which the main variables were nadir CD4 cell count, current CD4 cell count, time on current treatment, and past highest viral load (CC: 88%, 6 final nodes). Conclusion Practical classification models to predict NCI in HIV infection can be obtained using demographic and clinical variables. An approach based on CART analyses may facilitate screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and complement clinical information about risk and protective factors for NCI in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25237895

  14. Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Bishop, Somer; Gotham, Katherine; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a parent-completed screening questionnaire often used to measure ASD severity. Although child characteristics are known to influence scores from other ASD-symptom measures, as well as parent-questionnaires more broadly, there has been limited consideration of how non-ASD-specific factors may affect interpretation of SRS scores. Previous studies have explored effects of behavior problems on SRS specificity, but have not addressed influences on the use of the SRS as a quantitative measure of ASD-symptoms. Method Raw scores (SRS-Raw) from parent-completed SRS were analyzed for 2,368 probands with ASD and 1,913 unaffected siblings. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between SRS scores and demographic, language, cognitive, and behavior measures. Results For probands, higher SRS-Raw were associated with greater non-ASD behavior problems, higher age, and more impaired language and cognitive skills, as well as scores from other parent report measures of social development and ASD-symptoms. For unaffected siblings, having more behavior problems predicted higher SRS-Raw; male gender, younger age and poorer adaptive social and expressive communication skills also showed small, but significant effects. Conclusions When using the SRS as a quantitative phenotype measure, the influence of behavior problems, age, and expressive language or cognitive level on scores must be considered. If effects of non-ASD-specific factors are not addressed, SRS scores are more appropriately interpreted as indicating general levels of impairment, than as severity of ASD-specific symptoms or social impairment. Further research is needed to consider how these factors influence the SRS’ sensitivity and specificity in large, clinical samples including individuals with disorders other than ASD. PMID:22823182

  15. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1–4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12 to 30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages. PMID:25832801

  16. A Standardized Classification for Subdural Hematomas- I.

    PubMed

    Alves, José Luís; Santiago, João Gonçalo; Costa, Guerreiro; Mota Pinto, Anabela

    2016-09-01

    Subdural hematomas are a frequent and highly heterogeneous traumatic disorder, with significant clinical and socioeconomic consequences. In clinical and medicolegal practice, subdural hematomas are classified according to its apparent age, which significantly influences its intrinsic pathogenic behavior, forensic implications, clinical management, and outcome. Although practical, this empirical classification is somewhat arbitrary and scarcely informative, considering the remarkable heterogeneity of this entity. The current research project aims at implementing a comprehensive multifactorial classification of subdural hematomas, allowing a more standardized and coherent assessment and management of this condition. This new method of classification of subdural hematomas takes into account its intrinsic and extrinsic features, using imaging data and histopathological elements, to provide an easily apprehensible and intuitive nomenclature. The proposed classification unifies and organizes all relevant details concerning subdural hematomas, hopefully improving surgical care and forensic systematization. PMID:27428027

  17. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  18. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  19. High Agatston Calcium Score of Intracranial Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effect of intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) calcification on cognitive impairment is uncertain. Our objective was to investigate whether intracranial ICA calcification is a significant cognitive predictor for cognitive impairment. Global cognition and degrees of intracranial ICA calcification of 579 subjects were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Agatston calcium scoring method, respectively. Other risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index, were documented and analyzed for their associations with cognitive function. In univariate analyses, older age, lower education level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and higher intracranial ICA Agatston scores were significantly associated with cognitive impairment. In ordinal logistic regression, only age and total intracranial ICA Agatston score were significant risk factors for cognitive impairment. After adjustment for the other documented risk factors, subjects were 7% (95% CI: 5–10; P < 0.001) and 6% (95% CI: 0–13; P = 0.04) more likely to have lower cognitive category with every year increment of age and every 100-point increment of the total intracranial ICA Agatston score respectively. These results suggest an important role of the intracranial ICA calcification on cognitive impairment. PMID:26426620

  20. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-06-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292) , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively). These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  1. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  2. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  3. Classification images: A review.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Classification images have recently become a widely used tool in visual psychophysics. Here, I review the development of classification image methods over the past fifteen years. I provide some historical background, describing how classification images and related methods grew out of established statistical and mathematical frameworks and became common tools for studying biological systems. I describe key developments in classification image methods: use of optimal weighted sums based on the linear observer model, formulation of classification images in terms of the generalized linear model, development of statistical tests, use of priors to reduce dimensionality, methods for experiments with more than two response alternatives, a variant using multiplicative noise, and related methods for examining nonlinearities in visual processing, including second-order Volterra kernels and principal component analysis. I conclude with a selective review of how classification image methods have led to substantive findings in three representative areas of vision research, namely, spatial vision, perceptual organization, and visual search. PMID:21536726

  4. Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oudiz, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an attempt to define subtypes of PH based on clinical presentation, underlying physiology, and treatment implications. Five groups of PH have been defined, and the classification scheme has been refined over the years to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and management of PH. Understanding the classification of PH is paramount before embarking on a work-up of patients with PH or suspected PH because treatment and outcome can vary greatly. PMID:27443133

  5. Classiology and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  6. Classification of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    How does a scientist approach the problem of trying to understand countless billions of objects? One of the first steps is to organize the data and set up a classification scheme which can provide the best insights into the nature of the objects. Perception and insight are the main purposes of classification. In astronomy, where there are `billions and billions' of stars, classification is an ong...

  7. ECG scores for a triage of patients with acute myocardial infarction transported by the emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, R J; Grzybowski, M; Ross, M A; Blaustein, N; Bock, B

    2000-01-01

    Prehospital triage of cardiac patients for bypass from community hospitals to cardiac centers may improve survival. This article determines if electrocardiogram (ECG)-based scoring triage methods (Aldrich MI scoring, QRS distortion, and the TIMI classification) and location of infarct (via 12 lead ECG) are associated with mortality before and after adjusting for age, sex, and race. It is a retrospective study of 291 AMI adult patients transported by ambulance to community hospitals or cardiac centers. Patients with an ED chief complaint of chest pain or dyspnea, presence of MI as defined by ECG findings of 0.1 mV of ST segment elevation in two leads or positive CPK-MB were eligible for the study. The primary outcome variable was 2-year mortality as determined with a metropolitan Detroit tri-county death index. Logistic regression was used to calculate the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (with 95% CIs) of the predictor variables with mortality. Of the initial population selected for the study (n = 291), 229 patients were eligible for the analysis. The mean age was 66 years (SD of 14.4) with 63.8% being male and 54% being white. The overall mortality point estimate was 21.3% (95% CI of 15.2 to 27.3%). Aldrich scores and QRS distortion (yes/no) were not associated with mortality. Patients classified as a "high risk" for AMI per TIMI status were almost 3 times more likely to die than those at "low risk" and reached borderline statistical significance (P = .06) after adjusting for the covariates. Having an anterior infarct, as opposed to an inferior infarct, was significantly associated with death before and after adjusting for the covariates (Unadjusted OR = 2.6, Adjusted OR = 2.8). Properly training emergency medical system professionals in this area may prove useful for identifying higher risk AMI patients in the prehospital setting. PMID:11265729

  8. Classification of Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response to itch. Enough damage can be done to the skin by scratching to cause changes in the primary clinical picture, often leading to a clinical picture predominated by the development of chronic scratch lesions (IFSI classification group III). An internationally recognized, standardized classification system was created by the IFSI to not only aid in clarifying terms and definitions, but also to harmonize the global nomenclature for itch. PMID:27578063

  9. Comparison of original EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk models in a Turkish cardiac surgical cohort†

    PubMed Central

    Kunt, Ayse Gul; Kurtcephe, Murat; Hidiroglu, Mete; Cetin, Levent; Kucuker, Aslihan; Bakuy, Vedat; Ruchan Akar, Ahmet; Sener, Erol

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to compare additive and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE), EuroSCORE II and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) models in calculating mortality risk in a Turkish cardiac surgical population. METHODS The current patient population consisted of 428 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2004 and 2012, extracted from the TurkoSCORE database. Observed and predicted mortalities were compared for the additive/logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk calculator. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) values were calculated for these models to compare predictive power. RESULTS The mean patient age was 74.5 ± 3.9 years at the time of surgery, and 35.0% were female. For the entire cohort, actual hospital mortality was 7.9% (n = 34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.4–10.5). However, the additive EuroSCORE-predicted mortality was 6.4% (P = 0.23 vs observed; 95% CI 6.2–6.6), logistic EuroSCORE-predicted mortality was 7.9% (P = 0.98 vs observed; 95% CI 7.3–8.6), EuroSCORE II- predicted mortality was 1.7% (P = 0.00 vs observed; 95% CI 1.6–1.8) and STS predicted mortality was 5.8% (P = 0.10 vs observed; 95% CI 5.4–6.2). The mean predictive performance of the analysed models for the entire cohort was fair, with 0.7 (95% CI 0.60–0.79). AUC values for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS risk calculator were 0.70 (95% CI 0.60–0.79), 0.70 (95% CI 0.59–0.80), 0.72 (95% CI 0.62–0.81) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.51–0.73), respectively. CONCLUSIONS EuroSCORE II significantly underestimated mortality risk for Turkish cardiac patients, whereas additive and logistic EuroSCORE and STS risk calculators were well calibrated. PMID:23403767

  10. Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Complex Assessments under the Compound Multinomial Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Won-Chan; Brennan, Robert L.; Wan, Lei

    2009-01-01

    For a test that consists of dichotomously scored items, several approaches have been reported in the literature for estimating classification consistency and accuracy indices based on a single administration of a test. Classification consistency and accuracy have not been studied much, however, for "complex" assessments--for example, those that…

  11. Library Classification 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  12. Linear Classification Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Jerry D.

    Linear classification functions (LCFs) arise in a predictive discriminant analysis for the purpose of classifying experimental units into criterion groups. The relative contribution of the response variables to classification accuracy may be based on LCF-variable correlations for each group. It is proved that, if the raw response measures are…

  13. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  14. Quasi-Supervised Scoring of Human Sleep in Polysomnograms Using Augmented Input Variables

    PubMed Central

    Yaghouby, Farid; Sunderam, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of manual sleep scoring make computerized methods highly desirable. Scoring errors can arise from human rater uncertainty or inter-rater variability. Sleep scoring algorithms either come as supervised classifiers that need scored samples of each state to be trained, or as unsupervised classifiers that use heuristics or structural clues in unscored data to define states. We propose a quasi-supervised classifier that models observations in an unsupervised manner but mimics a human rater wherever training scores are available. EEG, EMG, and EOG features were extracted in 30s epochs from human-scored polysomnograms recorded from 42 healthy human subjects (18 to 79 years) and archived in an anonymized, publicly accessible database. Hypnograms were modified so that: 1. Some states are scored but not others; 2. Samples of all states are scored but not for transitional epochs; and 3. Two raters with 67% agreement are simulated. A framework for quasi-supervised classification was devised in which unsupervised statistical models—specifically Gaussian mixtures and hidden Markov models—are estimated from unlabeled training data, but the training samples are augmented with variables whose values depend on available scores. Classifiers were fitted to signal features incorporating partial scores, and used to predict scores for complete recordings. Performance was assessed using Cohen's K statistic. The quasi-supervised classifier performed significantly better than an unsupervised model and sometimes as well as a completely supervised model despite receiving only partial scores. The quasi-supervised algorithm addresses the need for classifiers that mimic scoring patterns of human raters while compensating for their limitations. PMID:25679475

  15. Improving classification of psychoses.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Stephen M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Saks, Elyn; Burns, Tom; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Psychosis has been recognised as an abnormal state in need of care throughout history and by diverse cultures. Present classifications of psychotic disorder remain based on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms, relative to affective and other symptoms, and their sequence and duration. Although extant diagnostic classifications have restricted validity, they have proven reliability and most clinicians and some patients find them useful. Moreover, these classifications have yet to be replaced by anything better. We propose that an expansion of the subgrouping approach inherent to classification will provide incremental improvement to present diagnostic constructs-as has worked in the rest of medicine. We also propose that subgroups could be created both within and across present diagnostic classifications, taking into consideration the potential value of continuous measures (eg, duration of psychotic symptoms and intelligence quotient). Health-care workers also need to work with service users and carers to develop and adapt approaches to diagnosis that are seen as helpful. PMID:27063387

  16. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore » most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  17. Development and validation of the Essen Intracerebral Haemorrhage Score

    PubMed Central

    Weimar, C; Benemann, J; Diener, H‐C

    2006-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for the highest in‐hospital mortality of all stroke types. Nevertheless, outcome is favourable in about 30% of patients. Only one model for the prediction of favourable outcome has been validated so far. Objective To describe the development and validation of the Essen ICH score. Methods Inception cohorts were assessed on the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIH‐SS) on admission and after follow up of 100 days. On the basis of previously validated clinical variables, a simple clinical score was developed to predict mortality and complete recovery (Barthel index after 100 days ⩾95) in 340 patients with acute ICH. Subscores for age (<60 = 0; 60–69 = 1; 70–79 = 2; ⩾80 = 3), NIH‐SS level of consciousness (alert = 0; drowsy = 1; stuporose = 2; comatose = 3), and NIH‐SS total score (0–5 = 0; 6–10 = 1; 11–15 = 2; 16–20 = 3; >20 or coma = 4) were combined into a prognostic scale with <3 predicting complete recovery and >7 predicting death. The score was subsequently validated in an external cohort of 371 patients. Results The Essen ICH score showed a high prognostic accuracy for complete recovery and death in both the development and validation cohort. For prediction of complete recovery on the Barthel index after 100 days, the Essen ICH score was superior to the physicians' prognosis and to two previous prognostic scores developed for a slightly modified outcome. Conclusions The Essen ICH score provides an easy to use scale for outcome prediction following ICH. Its high positive predictive values for adverse outcomes and easy applicability render it useful for individual prognostic indications or the design of clinical studies. In contrast, physicians tended to predict outcome too pessimistically. PMID:16354736

  18. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

    PubMed Central

    Soundarya, Mahalingam; Basavaprabhu, Achappa; Raghuveera, Kamila; Baliga, BS; Shivanagaraja, BSV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fetal malnutrition (FM) implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score) and anthropometry. No previous studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed by CAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI), Body mass index (BMI) and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC) calculated and compared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC) were found well nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC) with statistical significance(0.0001). BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition. Conclusion FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns. PMID:23056862

  19. European conformation and fat scores have no relationship with eating quality.

    PubMed

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    European conformation and fat grades are a major factor determining carcass value throughout Europe. The relationships between these scores and sensory scores were investigated. A total of 3786 French, Polish and Irish consumers evaluated steaks, grilled to a medium doneness, according to protocols of the ���Meat Standards Australia��� system, from 18 muscles representing 455 local, commercial cattle from commercial abattoirs. A mixed linear effects model was used for the analysis. There was a negative relationship between juiciness and European conformation score. For the other sensory scores, a maximum of three muscles out of a possible 18 demonstrated negative effects of conformation score on sensory scores. There was a positive effect of European fat score on three individual muscles. However, this was accounted for by marbling score. Thus, while the European carcass classification system may indicate yield, it has no consistent relationship with sensory scores at a carcass level that is suitable for use in a commercial system. The industry should consider using an additional system related to eating quality to aid in the determination of the monetary value of carcasses, rewarding eating quality in addition to yield. PMID:26755183

  20. Visualizing Document Classification: A Search Aid for the Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieu, Yew-Huey; Dantzig, Paul; Sachs, Martin; Corey, James T.; Hinnebusch, Mark T.; Damashek, Marc; Cohen, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses access to digital libraries on the World Wide Web via Web browsers and describes the design of a language-independent document classification system to help users of the Florida Center for Library Automation analyze search query results. Highlights include similarity scores, clustering, graphical representation of document similarity,…

  1. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of…

  2. Correlation of the score for subjective pain with physical disability, clinical and radiographic scores in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Fiorini, Tania; Panni, Benedetta; Turiel, Maurizio; Cazzola, Marco; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2002-01-01

    Background To analyse the relationship between subjective pain score and other measures of clinical, radiographic and functional status; in particular Larsen radiographic scores and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ); in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a disease duration of less than 3 years. Methods In this cross sectional study of 105 patients with RA (76 women, 29 men: mean age 50.93; mean disease duration 15.86 months; 71% rheumatoid factor positive) subjective pain was assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Correlation coefficients between pain score and disease activity measures (patients' global assessment of disease by VAS, number of tender and swollen joints, morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP] and titre of rheumatoid factor, radiographic evaluations (Larsen-Dale scores for radiographic damage of the small joints of the hands, wrist and feet), disability measures (health assessment questionnaire [HAQ]), and demographic variables were calculated; hierarchical regression analysis was done with subjective pain score as the dependent variable. Results The Spearman's correlation coefficient comparing subjective pain and HAQ was 0.421 (p < 0.001), between subjective pain and global assessment of disease and morning stiffness was 0.573 (p < 0.001) and 0.427 (p < 0.001) respectively, and between pain and number of tender and swollen joints 0.037 and 0.050 respectively (p > 0.05). In regression analysis, global assessment of disease by patients explained 32.8% of the variation in pain intensity score, morning stiffness 10.7%, CRP 4.0%, HAQ 3.8% and Larsen-Dale scores explained 2.1%; other variables were not significant in the model. Conclusions Pain scores of patients with early severe rheumatoid arthritis are correlated at higher levels with patients' global assessment of disease and with morning stiffness rather than with radiographic or other clinical variables such as number of

  3. Conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas; Sadowski, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to recommend a rapid conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) used to control runoff in a temperate climate. An SFRB is an aesthetically pleasing retention basin predominantly used for flood protection adhering to sustainable drainage and best management practices. The classification model was developed on the basis of a database of 141 SFRB using the River Rhine catchment in Baden (part of Baden-Württemberg, Germany) as a case study. It is based on an agglomerative cluster analysis and is intended to be used by engineers and scientists to adequately classify the following different types of SFRB: Hydraulic Flood Retention Basin, Traditional Flood Retention Basin, Sustainable Flood Retention Wetland, Aesthetic Flood Retention Wetland, Integrated Flood Retention Wetland and Natural Flood Retention Wetland. The selection of classification variables was supported by a principal component analysis. The identification of SFRB in the data set was based on a Ward cluster analysis of 34 weighted classification variables. Scoring tables were defined to enable the assignment of the six SFRB definitions to retention basins in the data set. The efficiency of these tables was based on a scoring system which gave the conceptual model for the example case study sites an overall efficiency of approximately 60% (as opposed to 17% by chance). This conceptual classification model should be utilized to improve communication by providing definitions for SFRB types. The classification definitions are likely to be applicable for other regions with both temperate oceanic and temperate continental climates. PMID:18280029

  4. [Classification of hypoxia, hypo-, and hypercapnia].

    PubMed

    Agadzhanian, N A; Chizhov, A Ia

    2003-01-01

    The new classifications of hypoxical, hypo- and hypercapnical conditions are elaborated. They take into account the ecological factors in the development of various kinds of exogenic hypoxia, hypercapnia. For the first time the positive sides of physiological hypoxia and hypercapnia are brought in. In all classification til the last days hypoxia was considered as pathological process only. However hypoxia can be met in different physiologic conditions of organism: internal period of fetus development, hard physical work, increased sportsmen activity, hypoxia after hearty meal, hypoxia of aged organism. The same it is possible to say about the hypo- and hypercapnical conditions. PMID:12918246

  5. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  6. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  7. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  8. 7 CFR 4280.316 - Application scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application scoring. 4280.316 Section 4280.316... Program § 4280.316 Application scoring. Applications will be scored based on the criteria specified in this section using only the information submitted in the application. The total available points...

  9. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  10. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  11. A coronary heart disease risk score based on patient-reported information.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Koopman, Richelle J; Diaz, Vanessa A; Everett, Charles J; Wilson, Peter W F; Tilley, Barbara C

    2007-05-01

    To develop a simple, patient self-report-based coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score for adults without previously diagnosed CHD (Personal Heart Early Assessment Risk Tool [HEART] score), the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective cohort of subjects aged 45 to 64 years at baseline, was used to develop a measure for 10-year risk of CHD (n = 14,343). Variables evaluated for inclusion were age, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypercholesterolemia, history of hypertension, family history of CHD, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index. The 10-year risk of CHD events was defined as myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, or cardiac procedure. The new measure was compared with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The Personal HEART score for men included age, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and family history. In men, the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for predicting 10-year CHD for the Personal HEART score (0.65) was significantly different from that for the FRS (0.69, p = 0.03), but not for the European SCORE (0.62, p = 0.12). The Personal HEART score for women included age, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and body mass index. The area under the curve for the Personal HEART score (0.79) for women was not significantly different from that for the FRS (0.81, p = 0.42) and performed better than the European SCORE (0.69, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the Personal HEART score identifies 10-year risk for CHD based on self-report data, is similar in predictive ability to the FRS and European SCORE, and has the potential for easy self-assessment. PMID:17478150

  12. Determining Cutoff Scores on a Developmental Screening Measure: Use of Receiver Operating Characteristics and Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yovanoff, P.; Squires, J.

    2006-01-01

    Two different theoretical approaches were compared to determine the optimal cutoff scores for the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE), a social-emotional screening test. Cutoff scores based on statistical decision theory modeling, Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC), were compared with cutoff scores obtained using Item…

  13. Stratification of the severity of critically ill patients with classification trees

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of three classification trees (CT) based on the CART (Classification and Regression Trees), CHAID (Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection) and C4.5 methodologies for the calculation of probability of hospital mortality; the comparison of the results with the APACHE II, SAPS II and MPM II-24 scores, and with a model based on multiple logistic regression (LR). Methods Retrospective study of 2864 patients. Random partition (70:30) into a Development Set (DS) n = 1808 and Validation Set (VS) n = 808. Their properties of discrimination are compared with the ROC curve (AUC CI 95%), Percent of correct classification (PCC CI 95%); and the calibration with the Calibration Curve and the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR CI 95%). Results CTs are produced with a different selection of variables and decision rules: CART (5 variables and 8 decision rules), CHAID (7 variables and 15 rules) and C4.5 (6 variables and 10 rules). The common variables were: inotropic therapy, Glasgow, age, (A-a)O2 gradient and antecedent of chronic illness. In VS: all the models achieved acceptable discrimination with AUC above 0.7. CT: CART (0.75(0.71-0.81)), CHAID (0.76(0.72-0.79)) and C4.5 (0.76(0.73-0.80)). PCC: CART (72(69-75)), CHAID (72(69-75)) and C4.5 (76(73-79)). Calibration (SMR) better in the CT: CART (1.04(0.95-1.31)), CHAID (1.06(0.97-1.15) and C4.5 (1.08(0.98-1.16)). Conclusion With different methodologies of CTs, trees are generated with different selection of variables and decision rules. The CTs are easy to interpret, and they stratify the risk of hospital mortality. The CTs should be taken into account for the classification of the prognosis of critically ill patients. PMID:20003229

  14. Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the main causes of death in developed countries, and diet and lifestyle can influence CAD incidence. Objective To evaluate the association of coronary artery disease risk score with dietary, anthropometric and biochemical components in adults clinically selected for a lifestyle modification program. Methods 362 adults (96 men, 266 women, 53.9 ± 9.4 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria by presenting all the required data. The Framingham score was calculated and the IV Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and Prevention of Atherosclerosis was adopted for classification of the CAD risks. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated through 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of CAD risks according to the altered components of MS, dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical components. Results For a sample with a BMI 28.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2 the association with lower risk (<10% CAD) were lower age (<60 years old), and plasma values of uric acid. The presence of MS within low, intermediary, and high CAD risk categories was 30.8%, 55.5%, and 69.8%, respectively. The independent risk factors associated with CAD risk score was MS and uric acid, and the protective factors were recommended intake of saturated fat and fiber and muscle mass index. Conclusion Recommended intake of saturated fat and dietary fiber, together with proper muscle mass, are inversely associated with CAD risk score. On the other hand, the presence of MS and high plasma uric acid are associated with CAD risk score. PMID:21554698

  15. TEST OF ADULT COLLEGE APTITUDE (TACA). MANUAL FOR ADMINISTRATION, SCORING AND INTERPRETATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUBOIS, PHILIP H.; WIENTGE, KING M.

    THIS PRELIMINARY MANUAL OUTLINES CONTENT, ADMINISTRATIVE AND SCORING PROCEDURES, ANTECEDENT RESEARCH, AND AVAILABLE NORM DATA FOR THE TEST OF ADULT COLLEGE APTITUDE (TACA). THE TACA, A COMBINED TEST AND ANSWER SHEET ADAPTED FOR VISUAL SCORING BY AN OPTICAL SCANNER, CONSISTS OF 22 ITEMS ON BIOGRAPHICAL DATA (AGE, SEX, OCCUPATION, FAMILY AND MARITAL…

  16. IQ and Perceptual Motor Scores as Predictors of Achievement Among Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thompson, J., Sr.; Amble, Bruce R.

    1970-01-01

    The Koppitz scoring of the Bender Gestalt Test for young children was used to predict educational attainment for 74 EMH students on reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Only on the arithmetic criterion did Bender scores increase prediction, beyond the factors of chronological age and IQ.

  17. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt: Is It Developmental?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the developmental aspects of the Koppitz scoring system with 652 children who took the Bender Motor Gestalt Test. Scores were fitted to various developmental curves by computer. Results indicated only 35 percent of the Bender test performance variance was accounted for by age. (JAC)

  18. Robotics as Means to Increase Achievement Scores in an Informal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley S.; Ansorge, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that examined the use of a science and technology curriculum based on robotics to increase the achievement scores of youth ages 9-11 in an after school program. The study examined and compared the pretest and posttest scores of youth in the robotics intervention with youth in a control group. The results…

  19. Factor Analysis of Temperament Category Scores in a Sample of Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, John F.; Simonds, M. Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Mothers of children attending nursery schools completed the Behavior Style Questionnaire (BSQ) from which scores for nine temperament categories were derived. Found membership in groups based on factor scores independent of sex, socioeconomic class, age but not ordinal birth position. (Author)

  20. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  1. Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Scores of Boys with Severe Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank H.; Johnson, Ardes

    1972-01-01

    Scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory of 44 behaviorally disturbed boys ranging in age from 8 to 12 years were compared with the test's norms, with later retest scores, with teacher assigned self esteem ranks, and with peer group status as measured by sociometric procedures. (DB)

  2. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  3. Construct Validity Evidence for Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition, Spanish Form Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Arlene; Clinton, Amanda; Schaefer, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent and discriminant validity evidence was examined for scores on the Spanish Record Form of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition (BSRA-3). Participants included a sample of 68 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children ages 4 to 5 years enrolled in preschool programs in Puerto Rico. Scores obtained from the BSRA-3 Spanish Record…

  4. An Examination of the Reliability of Scores from Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scales, Form V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deditius-Island, Heide K.; Caruso, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study on Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (M. Zuckerman and others, 1964) using 113 reliability coefficients from 21 published studies. The reliability of scores was marginal for four of the five scales, and low for the other. Mean age of subjects has a significant relationship with score reliability. (SLD)

  5. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Elderly Version Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Elderly Version (AMAS-E) scores were evaluated in two studies. In Study 1, the temporal stability and construct validity of the AMAS-E test scores were examined in a group of 226 older adults, aged 60 years and older. Results indicated adequate to excellent temporal stability (2-week…

  6. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  7. Delaware Alternative Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the species designation and taxonomies of Delaware and Algonkian and presents eight classifications of taxa by form, habitat, color, movement, sound, use, relationship, and appearance. Relevant research is also reviewed. (CLK)

  8. Osteoporosis diagnosis in men: the T-score controversy revisited.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Neil; Adler, Robert; Bilezikian, John P

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis becomes common with aging in both sexes, but is often ignored in men. The 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry consensus conference endorsed a Caucasian female referent database for T-score calculation in men. This recommendation has generated controversy and concern. Accumulating data indicate that at the same DXA-measured body mineral density (BMD) (g/cm(2)), men and women are at approximately the same fracture risk. With this point in mind, using the same database to derive the T-score in men and women is reasonable. As a result, a greater proportion of men who sustain a fragility fracture will have T-scores that are higher than they would if a male database were used; in fact, many men will fracture at T-scores that are "normal." This highlights the importance of diagnosing osteoporosis not just by T-score, but also by the presence of fragility fracture and/or by estimations of fracture risk as generated by tools such as the FRAX calculator. The practical consequences of this change in densitometric definition of osteoporosis in men should be monitored, including the proportion of men at risk identified and treated as well as defining the response to treatment in those assessed by this more comprehensive approach. PMID:25255867

  9. ADOPTION OF MELD SCORE INCREASES THE NUMBER OF LIVER TRANSPLANT

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; ANDRAUS, Wellington; MARTINO, Rodrigo Bronze; SANTOS, Vinicius Rocha; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; HADDAD, Luciana BP; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is performed at large transplant centers worldwide as a therapeutic intervention for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Aim To analyze the outcomes and incidence of liver transplantation performed at the University of São Paulo and to compare those with the State of São Paulo before and after adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Method Evaluation of the number of liver transplantations before and after adoption of the MELD score. Mean values and standard deviations were used to analyze normally distributed variables. The incidence results were compared with those of the State of São Paulo. Results There was a high prevalence of male patients, with a predominance of middle-aged. The main indication for liver transplantation was hepatitis C cirrhosis. The mean and median survival rates and overall survival over ten and five years were similar between the groups (p>0.05). The MELD score increased over the course of the study period for patients who underwent liver transplantation (p>0.05). There were an increased number of liver transplants after adoption of the MELD score at this institution and in the State of São Paulo (p<0.001). Conclusion The adoption of the MELD score led to increase the number of liver transplants performed in São Paulo. PMID:25184772

  10. A scoring system for predicting recurrence of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Ng, H.T.; Shyu, S.K.; Chen, Y.K.; Yuan, C.C.; Chao, K.C.; Kan, Y.Y.

    1992-03-01

    An evaluation was made of factors that affect the recurrence of cervical cancer after primary surgery, these including age, clinical stage, histology, grade, involvement of uterine body, parametrium or vagina and lymph node metastases. During a period of at least 3 years, 702 of 1508 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection were studied by using a scoring system. A comparison between the group of women scored at or greater than 13 that scored less than 13 revealed that the risk of recurrence was higher in the former group. One hundred and twenty five of 702 patients found to have positive pelvic node involvement scored greater than 13, which rendered them eligible for further mangement as follows: the recurrence rate in 99 patients receiving multi-agent chemotherapy was 34.4%, compared with 65.4% in 26 patients receiving no treatment (P < 0.01). Applying this score to other patients in planning adjuvant therapy, the recurrence rate may be reduced further. The number of patients needlessly exposed to the toxic effects of multi-agent chemotherapy may be reduced also. PMID:11576239

  11. Automatic sleep classification according to Rechtschaffen and Kales.

    PubMed

    Anderer, Peter; Gruber, Georg; Parapatics, Silvia; Dorffner, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally, polysomnographic recordings are classified according to the rules published in 1968 by Rechtschaffen and Kales (R&K). The present paper describes an automatic classification system embedded in an e-health solution that has been developed and validated in a large database of healthy controls and sleep disturbed patients. The Somnolyzer 24x7 adheres to the decision rules for visual scoring as closely as possible and includes a structured quality control procedure by a human expert. The final system consists of a raw data quality check, a feature extraction algorithm (density and intensity of sleep/wake-related patterns such as sleep spindles, delta waves, slow and rapid eye movements), a feature matrix plausibility check, a classifier designed as an expert system and a rule-based smoothing procedure for the start and the end of stages REM and 2. The validation based on 286 recordings in both normal healthy subjects aged 20 to 95 years and patients suffering from organic or nonorganic sleep disorders demonstrated an overall epoch-by-epoch agreement of 80% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.72) between the Somnolyzer 24x7 and the human expert scoring, as compared with an inter-rater reliability of 77% (Cohen's Kappa: 0.68) between two human experts. Two Somnolyzer 24x7 analyses (including a structured quality control by two human experts) revealed an inter-rater reliability close to 1 (Cohen's Kappa: 0.991). Moreover, correlation analysis in R&K derived target variables revealed similar -- in 36 out of 38 variables even higher -- relationships between Somnolyzer 24x7 and expert evaluations as compared to the concordance between two human experts. Thus, the validation study proved the high reliability and validity of the Somnolyzer 24x7 both, on the epoch-by-epoch and on the target variable level. These results demonstrate the applicability of the Somnolyzer 24x7 evaluation in clinical routine and sleep studies. PMID:18002875

  12. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R; Bennett, David A; Blennow, Kaj; Carrillo, Maria C; Feldman, Howard H; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Hampel, Harald; Jagust, William J; Johnson, Keith A; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Scheltens, Philip; Sperling, Reisa A; Dubois, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the "A/T/N" system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. "A" refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); "T," the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); and "N," biomarkers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury ([(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, structural MRI, or CSF total tau). Each biomarker category is rated as positive or negative. An individual score might appear as A+/T+/N-, or A+/T-/N-, etc. The A/T/N system includes the new modality tau PET. It is agnostic to the temporal ordering of mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. It includes all individuals in any population regardless of the mix of biomarker findings and therefore is suited to population studies of cognitive aging. It does not specify disease labels and thus is not a diagnostic classification system. It is a descriptive system for categorizing multidomain biomarker findings at the individual person level in a format that is easy to understand and use. Given the present lack of consensus among AD specialists on terminology across the clinically normal to dementia spectrum, a biomarker classification scheme will have broadest acceptance if it is independent from any one clinically defined diagnostic scheme. PMID:27371494

  13. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David A.; Blennow, Kaj; Carrillo, Maria C.; Feldman, Howard H.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Hampel, Harald; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Scheltens, Philip; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dubois, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the “A/T/N” system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. “A” refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); “T,” the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); and “N,” biomarkers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury ([18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET, structural MRI, or CSF total tau). Each biomarker category is rated as positive or negative. An individual score might appear as A+/T+/N−, or A+/T−/N−, etc. The A/T/N system includes the new modality tau PET. It is agnostic to the temporal ordering of mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. It includes all individuals in any population regardless of the mix of biomarker findings and therefore is suited to population studies of cognitive aging. It does not specify disease labels and thus is not a diagnostic classification system. It is a descriptive system for categorizing multidomain biomarker findings at the individual person level in a format that is easy to understand and use. Given the present lack of consensus among AD specialists on terminology across the clinically normal to dementia spectrum, a biomarker classification scheme will have broadest acceptance if it is independent from any one clinically defined diagnostic scheme. PMID:27371494

  14. Comparative Cross Species Genomic approaches for Identification of Redox Signature Score(s)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Completion of genome sequencing for humaris, rodents and various model organisms provides opportunities for hierarchical classification of genes into families, subfamilies, and their chromosomal localization. This classification is a valuable tool in pinpointing candidate disease...

  15. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  16. Automatic morphological classification of galaxy images

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Lior

    2009-01-01

    We describe an image analysis supervised learning algorithm that can automatically classify galaxy images. The algorithm is first trained using a manually classified images of elliptical, spiral, and edge-on galaxies. A large set of image features is extracted from each image, and the most informative features are selected using Fisher scores. Test images can then be classified using a simple Weighted Nearest Neighbor rule such that the Fisher scores are used as the feature weights. Experimental results show that galaxy images from Galaxy Zoo can be classified automatically to spiral, elliptical and edge-on galaxies with accuracy of ~90% compared to classifications carried out by the author. Full compilable source code of the algorithm is available for free download, and its general-purpose nature makes it suitable for other uses that involve automatic image analysis of celestial objects. PMID:20161594

  17. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  18. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Remyasri; Bhandary, Nithish M.; D’Souza, Ashton D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases). The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001). SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015) percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically significant (P

  19. Are the Best Scores the Best Scores for Predicting College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Mattern, Krista D.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The College Board's SAT[R] Score Choice[TM] policy allows students to choose which set(s) of scores to send to colleges and universities to which they plan to apply. Based on data gathered before the implementation of that policy, the following study evaluated the predictive validity of the various sets of SAT scores. The value of five score sets…

  20. Stability of Scores on Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Test-retest data on Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised for a group of predominantly White ("N" = 995) women (mean age = 23.5 years, SD = 8.07) and men (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.80) showed stability in mean-level scores over a period of 1 year for the sample as a whole. However, low raw score and rank order stability…

  1. Neurological outcome in preterm small for gestational age infants compared to appropriate for gestational age preterm at the age of 18 months: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Karagianni, Paraskevi; Kyriakidou, Maria; Mitsiakos, Georgios; Chatzioanidis, Helias; Koumbaras, Emmanouel; Evangeliou, Athanasios; Nikolaides, Nikolaos

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurological outcome of premature small for gestational age infants at the corrected age of 18 months by the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination. A prospective trial was conducted comparing 41 preterm infants being small for gestational age with 41 appropriate for gestational age infants. Birth weight was significantly lower in small for gestational age infants compared with appropriate for gestational age infants (1724.6 +/- 433 versus 1221 +/- 328 g). There were no significant differences regarding the median gestational age and Apgar scores. Median global scores differ significantly between both groups: 75 (47-78) versus 76 (72-78) for the small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants, respectively. Both groups had optimal scores. In conclusion, although the small for gestational age group scored lower in the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination, median global score in both groups was within optimal range. PMID:19372094

  2. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions.Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments.This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = -1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8∼-0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.1∼-0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and other

  3. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  4. Oral phenotype and scoring of vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael; Gogly, Bruno; Golmard, Lisa; Naveau, Adrien; Chérifi, Hafida; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaultier, Frédérick; Berdal, Ariane; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutations in the COL3A1 gene, responsible of vascular, digestive and uterine accidents. Difficulty of clinical diagnosis has led to the design of diagnostic criteria, summarised in the Villefranche classification. The goal was to assess oral features of vEDS. Gingival recession is the only oral sign recognised as a minor diagnostic criterion. The authors aimed to check this assumption since bibliographical search related to gingival recession in vEDS proved scarce. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Dental surgery department in a French tertiary hospital. Participants 17 consecutive patients with genetically proven vEDS, aged 19–55 years, were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls. Observations Complete oral examination (clinical and radiological) with standardised assessment of periodontal structure, temporomandibular joint function and dental characteristics were performed. COL3A1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of genomic or complementary DNA. Results Prevalence of gingival recession was low among patients with vEDS, as for periodontitis. Conversely, patients showed marked gingival fragility, temporomandibular disorders, dentin formation defects, molar root fusion and increased root length. After logistic regression, three variables remained significantly associated to vEDS. These variables were integrated in a diagnostic oral score with 87.5% and 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions Gingival recession is an inappropriate diagnostic criterion for vEDS. Several new specific oral signs of the disease were identified, whose combination may be of greater value in diagnosing vEDS. PMID:22492385

  5. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  6. Classification of childhood psychopathology: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Garber, J

    1984-02-01

    The absence of a comprehensive, objective, and reliable system for classifying emotional and behavior problems in children has slowed the advancement of knowledge in the field of developmental psychopathology. This paper provides a developmental framework for the classification of psychopathology in children and highlights the potential contributions that such classification may have toward the understanding of normal development. The salient issues derived from this developmental perspective are concerned with the continuity between childhood and adult psychopathology, and the definition of normality and adaptation in the context of development. The implications of the continuity issue for classification are that (a) the validity of adult criteria for use with children should be explored further, (b) the diagnosis of a childhood disorder at 1 point in time is not necessarily dependent upon there being episodes of the disorder at a later time, and (c) the focus of classification should not be limited to isolated behaviors and traits, but rather should emphasize patterns of adaptation. Moreover, it is suggested that judgments about normality and dysfunction should be made relative to what is expected given the child's age, sex, environmental context, developmental task, level of functioning, and phase in the progression through development. This paper provides a conceptual framework that will facilitate the construction of a more developmentally relevant system of classification. PMID:6705631

  7. Oswestry Disability Index Scoring Made Easy

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, A; Baker, D; Disney, S; Pynsent, PB

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Low back pain effects up to 80% of the population at some time during their active life. Questionnaires are available to help measure pain and disability. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for low back pain. The aim of this study was to see if training in completing the ODI forms improved the scoring accuracy. PATIENTS AND METHODS The last 100 ODI forms completed in a hospital's spinal clinic were reviewed retrospectively and errors in the scoring were identified. Staff members involved in scoring the questionnaire were made aware of the errors and the correct method of scoring explained. A chart was created with all possible scores to aid the staff with scoring. A prospective audit on 50 questionnaires was subsequently performed. RESULTS The retrospective study showed that 33 of the 100 forms had been incorrectly scored. All questionnaires where one or more sections were not completed by the patient were incorrectly scored. A scoring chart was developed and staff training was implemented. This reduced the error rate to 14% in the prospective audit. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians applying outcome measures should read the appropriate literature to ensure they understand the scoring system. Staff must then be given adequate training in the application of the questionnaires. PMID:18598595

  8. ASH structure alignment package: Sensitivity and selectivity in domain classification

    PubMed Central

    Standley, Daron M; Toh, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Haruki

    2007-01-01

    Background Structure alignment methods offer the possibility of measuring distant evolutionary relationships between proteins that are not visible by sequence-based analysis. However, the question of how structural differences and similarities ought to be quantified in this regard remains open. In this study we construct a training set of sequence-unique CATH and SCOP domains, from which we develop a scoring function that can reliably identify domains with the same CATH topology and SCOP fold classification. The score is implemented in the ASH structure alignment package, for which the source code and a web service are freely available from the PDBj website . Results The new ASH score shows increased selectivity and sensitivity compared with values reported for several popular programs using the same test set of 4,298,905 structure pairs, yielding an area of .96 under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In addition, weak sequence homologies between similar domains are revealed that could not be detected by BLAST sequence alignment. Also, a subset of domain pairs is identified that exhibit high similarity, even though their CATH and SCOP classification differs. Finally, we show that the ranking of alignment programs based solely on geometric measures depends on the choice of the quality measure. Conclusion ASH shows high selectivity and sensitivity with regard to domain classification, an important step in defining distantly related protein sequence families. Moreover, the CPU cost per alignment is competitive with the fastest programs, making ASH a practical option for large-scale structure classification studies. PMID:17407606

  9. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan). PMID:26502582

  10. Sequence and intramolecular distance scoring analyses of microbial rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Miki; Ide, Shunta; Kamata, Atsushi; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Okada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Recent accumulation of sequence and structural data, in conjunction with systematical classification into a set of families, has significantly advanced our understanding of diverse and specific protein functions. Analysis and interpretation of protein family data requires comprehensive sequence and structural alignments. Here, we present a simple scheme for analyzing a set of experimental structures of a given protein or family of proteins, using microbial rhodopsins as an example. For a data set comprised of around a dozen highly similar structures to each other (overall pairwise root-mean-squared deviation < 2.3 Å), intramolecular distance scoring analysis yielded valuable information with respect to structural properties, such as differences in the relative variability of transmembrane helices. Furthermore, a comparison with recent results for G protein-coupled receptors demonstrates how the results of the present analysis can be interpreted and effectively utilized for structural characterization of diverse protein families in general. PMID:26998236

  11. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  12. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

  13. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Helen E; Smith, Isabel M; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-09-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups (N = 289). At school entry, 24 % of children met criteria for intellectual disability (cognitive and adaptive behaviour scores <70). No children with both scores ≥70 at diagnosis later met criteria for intellectual disability. Outcomes were more variable for children with initial delays in both areas (in 57 %, both scores remained <70). Findings are relevant to clinical decision-making, including specification of intellectual disability in young children with ASD. PMID:25835210

  14. Age versus Schooling Effects on Intelligence Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

    1989-01-01

    A study of effects of age and schooling in grades five and six on raw scores from a variety of general ability tests found that schooling: (1) is the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age; and (2) has a larger effect on verbal than nonverbal tests. (RH)

  15. Stability of the autism diagnostic interview-revised from pre-school to elementary school age in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jo; Magiati, Iliana; Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the stability of scores on the ADI-R from pre-school to elementary school age in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 35 children who, at T1, all had a clinical diagnosis of ASD. On initial assessment (mean age 3.5 years; SD 0.6 years), all met ADI-R algorithm criteria for autism. ADI-R assessments were repeated at follow up (FU; mean age 10.5 years; SD 0.8 years). Changes in ADI-R total, domain and ADI-R algorithm item scores were assessed. Twenty-eight children continued to score above the ADI-R cut-off for autism at FU, although significant decreases in ADI-R domain and item scores were also found. In conclusion while classification of children according to ADI-R criteria generally remained stable between pre-school and elementary school age, many children demonstrated significant improvements in symptom severity. PMID:18058215

  16. [The cardiovascular surgeon and the Syntax score].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Soulé-Egea, Mauricio; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Barragán-García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score. PMID:25595855

  17. Scoring the VIA Survey of Character.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Mark R; O'Brien-Malone, Angela; Woodworth, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    The VIA Survey of Character (VIA) is a self-report inventory designed to measure and assess 24 character strengths that are linked conceptually to six fundamental "virtues"--Wisdom and Knowledge, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence, as developed by Peterson and Seligman in 2004. Despite its popularity, the current presentation of the VIA is not easy to score; researchers must either use a limited online scoring facility or must use outdated scoring keys. This paper presents a full description of the scoring key. PMID:21323141

  18. Learning Predictive Interactions Using Information Gain and Bayesian Network Scoring

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia; Jao, Jeremy; Neapolitan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The problems of correlation and classification are long-standing in the fields of statistics and machine learning, and techniques have been developed to address these problems. We are now in the era of high-dimensional data, which is data that can concern billions of variables. These data present new challenges. In particular, it is difficult to discover predictive variables, when each variable has little marginal effect. An example concerns Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) datasets, which involve millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), where some of the SNPs interact epistatically to affect disease status. Towards determining these interacting SNPs, researchers developed techniques that addressed this specific problem. However, the problem is more general, and so these techniques are applicable to other problems concerning interactions. A difficulty with many of these techniques is that they do not distinguish whether a learned interaction is actually an interaction or whether it involves several variables with strong marginal effects. Methodology/Findings We address this problem using information gain and Bayesian network scoring. First, we identify candidate interactions by determining whether together variables provide more information than they do separately. Then we use Bayesian network scoring to see if a candidate interaction really is a likely model. Our strategy is called MBS-IGain. Using 100 simulated datasets and a real GWAS Alzheimer’s dataset, we investigated the performance of MBS-IGain. Conclusions/Significance When analyzing the simulated datasets, MBS-IGain substantially out-performed nine previous methods at locating interacting predictors, and at identifying interactions exactly. When analyzing the real Alzheimer’s dataset, we obtained new results and results that substantiated previous findings. We conclude that MBS-IGain is highly effective at finding interactions in high-dimensional datasets. This result is

  19. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  20. Psychometric analysis of the Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH).

    PubMed

    Poonnoose, P M; Thomas, R; Keshava, S N; Cherian, R S; Padankatti, S; Pazani, D; Kavitha, M L; Devadarasini, M; Bhattacharji, S; Viswabandya, A; John, J A; Macaden, A S; Mathews, V; Srivastava, A

    2007-09-01

    Joint morbidity in haemophilia has traditionally been measured using clinical and radiological scores. There have been no reliable, validated tools for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia till recently. The Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH) has been developed as a performance based assessment tool to address this need. The FISH is designed to measure the patient's independence in performing activities of daily living (grooming and eating, bathing and dressing), transfers (chair and floor), and mobility (walking, step climbing and running). On assessment of its psychometric properties in 63 patients with haemophilia (mean age 14 years), FISH was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85). It had moderate correlation with the World Federation of Hemophilia clinical score (r = -0.61), and a correlation with the Pettersson score of -0.38. It had good correlation with other self-rated functional scores, such as the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (r = -0.75); the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (r = -0.66) and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL) (r = -0.66). It had good reliability with a pooled intra class correlation of 0.98. On assessing responsiveness following treatment of flexion deformities of the knee in 12 patients, the FISH showed significant changes in the score with a standardized responsiveness mean of -1.93. In conclusion, the FISH was found to be a reliable and valid tool with good internal consistency and responsiveness to therapy, for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia. PMID:17880453

  1. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  2. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  3. Validation of scores of use of inhalation devices: valoration of errors *

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli-Simões, Letícia; Martins, Maria Cleusa; Possari, Juliana Carneiro da Cunha; Carvalho, Greice Borges; Coelho, Ana Carla Carvalho; Cipriano, Sonia Lucena; de Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto; Stelmach, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To validate two scores quantifying the ability of patients to use metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs); to identify the most common errors made during their use; and to identify the patients in need of an educational program for the use of these devices. Methods: This study was conducted in three phases: validation of the reliability of the inhaler technique scores; validation of the contents of the two scores using a convenience sample; and testing for criterion validation and discriminant validation of these instruments in patients who met the inclusion criteria. Results: The convenience sample comprised 16 patients. Interobserver disagreement was found in 19% and 25% of the DPI and MDI scores, respectively. After expert analysis on the subject, the scores were modified and were applied in 72 patients. The most relevant difficulty encountered during the use of both types of devices was the maintenance of total lung capacity after a deep inhalation. The degree of correlation of the scores by observer was 0.97 (p < 0.0001). There was good interobserver agreement in the classification of patients as able/not able to use a DPI (50%/50% and 52%/58%; p < 0.01) and an MDI (49%/51% and 54%/46%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The validated scores allow the identification and correction of inhaler technique errors during consultations and, as a result, improvement in the management of inhalation devices. PMID:26398751

  4. Classification images with uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Tjan, Bosco S.; Nandy, Anirvan S.

    2009-01-01

    Classification image and other similar noise-driven linear methods have found increasingly wider applications in revealing psychophysical receptive field structures or perceptual templates. These techniques are relatively easy to deploy, and the results are simple to interpret. However, being a linear technique, the utility of the classification-image method is believed to be limited. Uncertainty about the target stimuli on the part of an observer will result in a classification image that is the superposition of all possible templates for all the possible signals. In the context of a well-established uncertainty model, which pools the outputs of a large set of linear frontends with a max operator, we show analytically, in simulations, and with human experiments that the effect of intrinsic uncertainty can be limited or even eliminated by presenting a signal at a relatively high contrast in a classification-image experiment. We further argue that the subimages from different stimulus-response categories should not be combined, as is conventionally done. We show that when the signal contrast is high, the subimages from the error trials contain a clear high-contrast image that is negatively correlated with the perceptual template associated with the presented signal, relatively unaffected by uncertainty. The subimages also contain a “haze” that is of a much lower contrast and is positively correlated with the superposition of all the templates associated with the erroneous response. In the case of spatial uncertainty, we show that the spatial extent of the uncertainty can be estimated from the classification subimages. We link intrinsic uncertainty to invariance and suggest that this signal-clamped classification-image method will find general applications in uncovering the underlying representations of high-level neural and psychophysical mechanisms. PMID:16889477

  5. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  6. Trichromatic opponent color classification.

    PubMed

    Chichilnisky, E J; Wandell, B A

    1999-10-01

    Stimuli varying in intensity and chromaticity, presented on numerous backgrounds, were classified into red/green, blue/yellow and white/black opponent color categories. These measurements revealed the shapes of the boundaries that separate opponent colors in three-dimensional color space. Opponent color classification boundaries were generally not planar, but their shapes could be summarized by a piecewise linear model in which increment and decrement color signals are combined with different weights at two stages to produce opponent color sensations. The effect of background light on classification was largely explained by separate gain changes in increment and decrement cone signals. PMID:10615508

  7. Classification of syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Milhorat, T H

    2000-01-01

    Syringomyelia poses special challenges for the clinician because of its complex symptomatology, uncertain pathogenesis, and multiple options of treatment. The purpose of this study was to classify intramedullary cavities according to their most salient pathological and clinical features. Pathological findings obtained in 175 individuals with tubular cavitations of the spinal cord were correlated with clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a database of 927 patients. A classification system was developed in which the morbid anatomy, cause, and pathogenesis of these lesions are emphasized. The use of a disease-based classification of syringomyelia facilitates diagnosis and the interpretation of MR imaging findings and provides a guide to treatment. PMID:16676921

  8. Toward an Etiologic Classification of Pediatric Social Illness: A Descriptive Epidemiology of Child Abuse and Neglect, Failure to Thrive, Accidents and Poisonings in Children Under Four Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; And Others

    This study examined the underlying common origins of pediatric social illnesses (i.e., child abuse and neglect, failure to thrive, accidents, and poisonings) in children under age 4. Subjects were 560 children admitted to the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. Children admitted with pediatric social diagnoses were matched on the basis…

  9. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality. PMID:25928436

  10. High fatigue scores among older Dutch nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Vera; Hoekman, Jaap; van Zundert, André

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, hospital care production pressure recently increased substantially, while the number of nurse anesthetists available did not match this rise. The longtime existing norm of no night shifts for nurses beyond the age of 55 years was increased to age 57 to meet the demand for more nurse anesthetists. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine the level of fatigue and its correlation with demographic items among this category of employees. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all Dutch nurse anesthetists above 50 years of age working in Dutch hospitals, which asked for their level of fatigue. The Checklist Individual Strength Questionnaire was used to measure fatigue. Overall, 105 of 115 potential participants completed the questionnaire (response rate, 91%). The mean scores (+/- standard deviation) were as follows: total fatigue, 81.3 +/- 8.3; subjective fatigue, 31.4 +/- 3.2; physical activity, 13.1 +/- 2.2; motivation, 16.8 +/- 2.6; and concentration, 20.0 +/- 3.8. No correlation could be demonstrated between demographic characteristics and fatigue. Dutch nurse anesthetists above the age of 50 years show a high fatigue score and therefore need special attention to prevent them from harmful physical and psychological effects and to sustain maximal patient safety. PMID:25109162

  11. Clinical Scores for Dyspnoea Severity in Children: A Prospective Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Hendriekje; Brand, Paul; Reimink, Roelien; Bekhof, Jolita

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute dyspnoeic children, assessment of dyspnoea severity and treatment response is frequently based on clinical dyspnoea scores. Our study aim was to validate five commonly used paediatric dyspnoea scores. Methods Fifty children aged 0–8 years with acute dyspnoea were clinically assessed before and after bronchodilator treatment, a subset of 27 children were videotaped and assessed twice by nine observers. The observers scored clinical signs necessary to calculate the Asthma Score (AS), Asthma Severity Score (ASS), Clinical Asthma Evaluation Score 2 (CAES-2), Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) and respiratory rate, accessory muscle use, decreased breath sounds (RAD). Results A total of 1120 observations were used to assess fourteen measurement properties within domains of validity, reliability and utility. All five dyspnoea scores showed overall poor results, scoring insufficiently on more than half of the quality criteria for measurement properties. The AS and PRAM were the most valid with good values on six and moderate values on three properties. Poor results were mainly due to insufficient measurement properties in the validity and reliability domains whereas utility properties were moderate to good in all scores. Conclusion This study shows that commonly used dyspnoea scores show insufficient validity and reliability to allow for clinical use without caution. PMID:27382963

  12. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/. PMID:21645638

  13. Peritoneal adhesion index (PAI): proposal of a score for the "ignored iceberg" of medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; Manfredi, Roberto; Campanati, Luca; Poiasina, Elia; Bertoli, Paolo; Capponi, Michela Giulii; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Cucchi, Michele; Lazzareschi, Daniel; Pisano, Michele; Catena, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions describe a condition in which pathological bonds form between the omentum, the small and large bowels, the abdominal wall, and other intra-abdominal organs. Different classification systems have been proposed, but they do not resolve the underlying problem of ambiguity in the quantification and definition of adhesions. We therefore propose a standardized classification system of adhesions to universalize their definition based on the macroscopic appearance of adhesions and their diffusion to different regions of the abdomen. By scoring with these criteria, the peritoneal adhesion index (PAI) can range from 0 to 30, unambiguously specifying precise adhesion scenarios. The standardized classification and quantification of adhesions would enable different studies to more meaningfully integrate their results, thereby facilitating a more comprehensive approach to the treatment and management of this pathology. PMID:23369320

  14. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  15. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  16. The Scoring of Writing Samples: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce

    Although the design of the writing task itself may present assessment problems, the scoring of the piece of writing raises the greatest difficulties for large-scale testing of writing ability. A study investigated whether teachers and staff members of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) (1) scored the same way, (2) agreed with each other in…

  17. Using Empirical Data to Set Cutoff Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John R.

    Six experimental approaches to the problems of setting cutoff scores and choosing proper test length are briefly mentioned. Most of these methods share the premise that a test is a random sample of items, from a domain associated with a carefully specified objective. Each item is independent and is scored zero or one, with no provision for…

  18. Observed Score Linear Equating with Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branberg, Kenny; Wiberg, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined observed score linear equating in two different data collection designs, the equivalent groups design and the nonequivalent groups design, when information from covariates (i.e., background variables correlated with the test scores) was included. The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect (i.e., bias, variance, and…

  19. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  20. Using Test Score Data to Focus Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan; Gay, Anne; Matthews, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology available to access test data coupled with the challenges of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) are pushing schools to grapple with the complexities of test score data. With the current frenzy to raise test scores, there is little attention being paid to teacher development in learning to use data to improve learning. For the past…

  1. Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin

    Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…

  2. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  3. MMPI T Scores: Linear versus Normalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1984-01-01

    Includes two articles regarding scoring for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales. Comments on the advisability of utilizing normalized T scores (Hsu), and addresses these objections from a theoretical standpoint and in the context of responses from a new reference sample (Colligan, Osborne, and Offord). (LLL)

  4. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  5. Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

  6. Using Educational Test Scores To Evaluate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandiani, John A.; Simon, Monica M.; Banks, Steven M.

    This paper reports on an ongoing effort of the Vermont Mental Health Performance Indicator Project (PIP) to examine the relevance and utility of standardized test scores for evaluating community mental health programs. This analysis is of test scores from Vermont's first four years of statewide testing. The study is examining anonymous…

  7. Evaluating Score Equity Assessment for State NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Baldwin, Su; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sireci, Stephen G.; Karatonis, Ana; Jirka, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Score equity assessment is an important analysis to ensure inferences drawn from test scores are comparable across subgroups of examinees. The purpose of the present evaluation was to assess the extent to which the Grade 8 NAEP Math and Reading assessments for 2005 were equivalent across selected states. More specifically, the present study…

  8. Understanding Scoring Rubrics: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Carol, Ed.

    This compilation provides an introduction to using scoring rubrics in the classroom. When good rubrics are used well, teachers and students receive extensive feedback on the quality and quantity of student learning. When scoring rubrics are used in large-scale assessment, technical questions related to interrater reliability tend to dominate the…

  9. An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). AES systems are mainly used to overcome time, cost, reliability, and generalizability issues in writing assessment (Bereiter, 2003; Burstein,…

  10. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  11. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  12. Do Student Growth Scores Measure Academic Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomplun, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated convergent validity evidence for student growth scores with high school course grades. The Measures of Academic Progress and Educational Planning and Assessment System growth scores for approximately 1,800 ninth-grade students over 2 years were related to language, arts, and mathematics course grades for developmental,…

  13. Linking Teacher Pay to Student Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A suburban Philadelphia district set aside $100,000 for merit-pay (bonuses) for individuals and groups of teachers. Although teachers are resistant, vowing to give to charity any bonuses linked to test scores, morale and scores have improved. Cincinnati and Castle Rock, Colorado, have workable plans. (MLH)

  14. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  15. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  16. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  17. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  18. 7 CFR 1776.9 - Scoring applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scoring applications. 1776.9 Section 1776.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Grants § 1776.9 Scoring...

  19. 24 CFR 902.63 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators. (b) Adjustments to the PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit... changed by HUD in accordance with data included in the independent audit report, or obtained through such... adjustments determined necessary as a result of the independent public accountant (IPA) audit, as provided...

  20. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  1. Model feedback in Bayesian propensity score estimation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Corwin M; Watts, Krista; Yeh, Robert W; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A; Dominici, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Methods based on the propensity score comprise one set of valuable tools for comparative effectiveness research and for estimating causal effects more generally. These methods typically consist of two distinct stages: (1) a propensity score stage where a model is fit to predict the propensity to receive treatment (the propensity score), and (2) an outcome stage where responses are compared in treated and untreated units having similar values of the estimated propensity score. Traditional techniques conduct estimation in these two stages separately; estimates from the first stage are treated as fixed and known for use in the second stage. Bayesian methods have natural appeal in these settings because separate likelihoods for the two stages can be combined into a single joint likelihood, with estimation of the two stages carried out simultaneously. One key feature of joint estimation in this context is "feedback" between the outcome stage and the propensity score stage, meaning that quantities in a model for the outcome contribute information to posterior distributions of quantities in the model for the propensity score. We provide a rigorous assessment of Bayesian propensity score estimation to show that model feedback can produce poor estimates of causal effects absent strategies that augment propensity score adjustment with adjustment for individual covariates. We illustrate this phenomenon with a simulation study and with a comparative effectiveness investigation of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy among 123,286 Medicare beneficiaries hospitlized for stroke in 2006 and 2007. PMID:23379793

  2. Does field reliability for Static-99 scores decrease as scores increase?

    PubMed

    Rice, Amanda K; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Harris, Paige B; Hawes, Samuel W

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the field reliability of Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) scores among 21,983 sex offenders and focused on whether rater agreement decreased as scores increased. As expected, agreement was lowest for high-scoring offenders. Initial and most recent Static-99 scores were identical for only about 40% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 6 during their initial evaluations, but for more than 60% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 2 or lower. In addition, the size of the difference between scores increased as scores increased, with pairs of scores differing by 2 or more points for about 30% of offenders scoring in the high-risk range. Because evaluators and systems use high Static-99 scores to identify sexual offenders who may require intensive supervision or even postrelease civil commitment, it is important to recognize that there may be more measurement error for high scores than low scores and to consider adopting procedures for minimizing or accounting for measurement error. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24932647

  3. Improving the assessment of the outcome of nonsynonymous SNVs with a consensus deleteriousness score, Condel.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Abel; López-Bigas, Nuria

    2011-04-01

    Several large ongoing initiatives that profit from next-generation sequencing technologies have driven--and in coming years will continue to drive--the emergence of long catalogs of missense single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the human genome. As a consequence, researchers have developed various methods and their related computational tools to classify these missense SNVs as probably deleterious or probably neutral polymorphisms. The outputs produced by each of these computational tools are of different natures and thus difficult to compare and integrate. Taking advantage of the possible complementarity between different tools might allow more accurate classifications. Here we propose an effective approach to integrating the output of some of these tools into a unified classification; this approach is based on a weighted average of the normalized scores of the individual methods (WAS). (In this paper, the approach is illustrated for the integration of five tools.) We show that this WAS outperforms each individual method in the task of classifying missense SNVs as deleterious or neutral. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this WAS can be used not only for classification purposes (deleterious versus neutral mutation) but also as an indicator of the impact of the mutation on the functionality of the mutant protein. In other words, it may be used as a deleteriousness score of missense SNVs. Therefore, we recommend the use of this WAS as a consensus deleteriousness score of missense mutations (Condel). PMID:21457909

  4. Pronuclear scoring. Time for international standardization.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Ursula; Zollner, Klaus-Peter; Steck, Thomas; Dietl, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    Zygote scoring is an efficient tool for embryo selection not only in countries where embryo selection is not permitted. Several different scoring systems have been published so far, making comparisons of assessments between investigators and laboratories extremely difficult. Pronuclear evaluation should be standardized in a manner analogous to the standardization of cleavage stage embryo scoring or of semen evaluation by the World Health Organization. The ideal score should be clear and easily applicable. The items that have the greatest influence on embryonic development seem to be alignment and size of pronuclei, alignment and number of nucleoli, halo effect and appearance of vacuoles. These morphologic parameters can be observed in different features and can be summarized as a zygote score. PMID:12815911

  5. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances. PMID:27441407

  6. Utility scores for vesicoureteral reflux and anti-reflux surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Caleb; Routh, Jonathan C.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Rosoklija, Ilina; Kokorowski, Paul; Prosser, Lisa A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) continues to be controversial. In conditions of uncertainty, decision analytic techniques such as cost-utility analysis (CUA) can help to structure the decision-making process. However, CUA analyses require a “utility,” a value between 0 (death) and 1 (perfect health) corresponding to the quality of life associated with a health state. Ideally, utility values are elicited directly from representative community samples, but utilities have not been rigorously measured for pediatric urology conditions. Objectives To elicit utility scores for VUR and open anti-reflux surgery (ARS) from a representative, well-characterized community sample of adults who have been parents. Methods Cross-sectional survey of nationally representative adults who had ever been parents. Each respondent saw one of four descriptions of VUR, with or without continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) and occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). A 6-week postoperative health state following ARS was also assessed. We used the time trade-off (TTO) method to elicit utility scores. Factors associated with utility score were assessed with a multivariate linear regression model. Results The survey was completed by 1200 individuals. Data were weighted to adjust for demographic differences between responders and non-responders. Mean age was 52 ± 15 years, 44% were male, and 68% were White. In terms of education, 29% had a college degree or higher. The mean utility score for VUR overall was 0.82 ± 0.28. VUR utility scores did not differ significantly based on inclusion of CAP or UTI in the health state description (p=0.21). The 6-week postoperative period garnered a utility of 0.71 ± 0.43. Discussion Our results showed that VUR has a mean utility score of 0.82, which indicates that the community perceives this condition to be a substantial burden. For comparison, conditions with similar utility scores include compensated hepatitis

  7. Priority classification of patients according to a modified 'Norwegian model'.

    PubMed

    van Assendelft, A H

    1996-01-01

    A priority classification was evaluated according to a modified 'Norwegian model.' Many diseases do not belong to any specific priority category based only on the diagnosis. The classification also depends on the condition's type, site, and phase as well as the patient's age and overall condition. Savings cannot be achieved by the model used because 89% of the patients belonged to the priority categories I-III, the care of which can be classified as necessary. PMID:8707510

  8. Prediction of 18-month survival in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome. A regression model and scoring system based on the combination of chromosome findings and the Bournemouth score.

    PubMed

    Parlier, V; van Melle, G; Beris, P; Schmidt, P M; Tobler, A; Haller, E; Bellomo, M J

    1995-06-01

    The predictive potential of six selected factors was assessed in 72 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of survival at 18 months. Factors were age (above median of 69 years), dysplastic features in the three myeloid bone marrow cell lineages, presence of chromosome defects, all metaphases abnormal, double or complex chromosome defects (C23), and a Bournemouth score of 2, 3, or 4 (B234). In the multivariate approach, B234 and C23 proved to be significantly associated with a reduction in the survival probability. The similarity of the regression coefficients associated with these two factors means that they have about the same weight. Consequently, the model was simplified by counting the number of factors (0, 1, or 2) present in each patient, thus generating a scoring system called the Lausanne-Bournemouth score (LB score). The LB score combines the well-recognized and easy-to-use Bournemouth score (B score) with the chromosome defect complexity, C23 constituting an additional indicator of patient outcome. The predicted risk of death within 18 months calculated from the model is as follows: 7.1% (confidence interval: 1.7-24.8) for patients with an LB score of 0, 60.1% (44.7-73.8) for an LB score of 1, and 96.8% (84.5-99.4) for an LB score of 2. The scoring system presented here has several interesting features. The LB score may improve the predictive value of the B score, as it is able to recognize two prognostic groups in the intermediate risk category of patients with B scores of 2 or 3. It has also the ability to identify two distinct prognostic subclasses among RAEB and possibly CMML patients. In addition to its above-described usefulness in the prognostic evaluation, the LB score may bring new insights into the understanding of evolution patterns in MDS. We used the combination of the B score and chromosome complexity to define four classes which may be considered four possible states of

  9. A Cross-Validation of easyCBM[R] Mathematics Cut Scores in Oregon: 2009-2010. Technical Report #1104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, we document the results of a cross-validation study designed to identify optimal cut-scores for the use of the easyCBM[R] mathematics test in Oregon. A large sample, randomly split into two groups of roughly equal size, was used for this study. Students' performance classification on the Oregon state test was used as the…

  10. Validation of a Simplified Method for Determining Passing Scores for Criterion-Referenced, Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, John B., Jr.

    The complexity of defining accurate passing scores with a minimum classification error when evaluating criterion-referenced, multiple-choice tests has been a major problem for classroom teachers. Therefore, a practical procedure in which the instructor determines the plausibility of each item option for the minimally acceptable examinee is…

  11. Frailty score on admission predicts outcomes in elderly burn injury.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Kathleen S; Barsun, Alura; Pamlieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G; Sen, Soman

    2015-01-01

    With longer life expectancy, the number of burn injuries in the elderly continues to increase. Prediction of outcomes for the elderly is complicated by preinjury physical fitness and comorbid illness. The authors hypothesize that admission frailty assessment would be predictive of outcomes in the elderly burn population. Our primary aim was to determine if higher frailty scores were associated with higher risk of mortality for elderly burn patients. The secondary aims were to assess if higher frailty scores were associated with increased length of stay, increased needs for mechanical ventilation and poor discharge disposition. A 2-year retrospective chart review was performed of all admitted acute burn patients 65 years or older. Data collected included: age, gender, %TBSA of burn injury, presence of inhalation injury, in hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, ventilator days, ICU length of stay, surgical procedures, insurance status, and discharge disposition. Frailty scores were assessed from admission data and calculated using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging clinical frailty scale. A total of 89 patients met entry criteria. Mean age was 75.3 ± 8.1 years and consisted of 62 men and 27 women. Mean %TBSA was 9.6 ± 9.1% and mean frailty score (FS) was 4.5 ± 1.2. Eighty patients survived to discharge and nine died. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher FS compared to survivors (5.2 ± 1.2 vs 4.4 ± 1.2). FS were also significantly higher in patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNF) (5.34 ± 0.9) compared to those who were discharged home (4.1 ± 1.2) or to physical rehabilitation facilities (4 ± 1.5). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (B = 0.04) and discharge to SNF (B = 1.2) are independently associated with higher FS. However, survivors were independently associated with a significantly lower FS (B = -1.3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed high admission FS independently increased the risk of

  12. Rockall score for risk stratification in adult patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M W; Sumon, S M; Amin, M R; Kahhar, M A

    2013-10-01

    The Rockall risk score is a simple, validated predictive index that may serve as a useful clinical decision for assessing the risk of subsequent adverse outcomes in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). The observational study was carried out over a period of 6 months from 10th July, 2012 to 09th January, 2013 in Department of Medicine, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 60 patients with non-variceal UGIH were taken for the study during study period to see risk stratification by Rockall score and short term hospital outcome in non-variceal upper GI hemorrhage patients. Categorical variables were reported as percentage and Means and proportions were carried out using the Chi-square test of different variables. Among study population age distribution were 42(70%) <60 years, 16(26.7%) from 60-79 years and 02(3.3%) 80 years or above and sex distribution were 39(65%) male and 21(35%) were female patients. Rockall score of patients 11(18.3%) had score 1, 6(10%) had score 2, 13(21.7%) had score 3, 10(16.7%) had score 4, 6(10%) had score 5, 6(10%) had score 6, 4(6.7%) had score 7, 3(5.0%) had score 8 and 1(1.7%) had score 9. Risk stratification showed 30(50%) had low risk (score 3 or <3), 26(43.3%) had moderate risk (score 4-7) and 4(6.7%) had high risk (score 8 or >8). Outcome after initial Rockall scoring and endoscopy were found that 7(11.7%) died, 46(76.6%) survived and 7(11.7%) patients survived with complication. This study showed that Rockall score of ≤3 was predictive of low risk of adverse outcomes, and a score of ≥8 was predictive of high mortality and was useful in identifying patients with non-variceal UGIH who had low-risk scores in order to triage appropriately, without affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24292298

  13. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  14. The Biglan Classification Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoecker, Judith L.

    This study replicated previous research that tested the validity of A. Biglan's classification scheme, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among academic disciplines and classifying them according to three dimensions (hard-soft, pure-applied, life-nonlife). In addition, new data were used to attempt continued…

  15. The Classification Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Argues against the five-kingdom scheme of classification as using inconsistent criteria, ending up with divisions that are forced, not natural. Advocates an approach using cell type/complexity and modification of the metabolic machinery, recommending the five-kingdom scheme as starting point for class discussion on taxonomy and its conceptual…

  16. Homographs: Classification and Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacak, M.; Henisz, Bozena

    1968-01-01

    Homographs are defined in this study as sets of word forms which are spelled alike but which have entirely or partially different meanings and which may have different syntactic functions (that is, they belong to more than one form class or to more than one subclass of a form class). This report deals with the classification and identification of…

  17. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  18. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  19. Revisiting Classification and Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Barbara K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses issues of classification and identification, while evaluating some of the continuing controversies about learning disabilities (LD) related to those topics. The author suggests that many problems have to do with confusion between the two. Despite years of effort and an extraordinary increase in the number of individuals…

  20. Shark Teeth Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  1. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed. PMID:3461626

  2. ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION ISSUES AND RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purposes and need for ecological classification will be discussed. Some brief examples will highlight regional and watershed approaches, general issues of extrapolation and classification helpful to monitoring/assessment design for larger aquatic systems, and some specific concep...

  3. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  4. Age Differences in Mystical Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    Examined age differences in mystical experiences. According to 1988 General Social Survey (n=1,481) mystical experiences were somewhat more common in 1988 than in 1973, and deja vu, clairvoyance, and composite mysticism scores had increased with successively younger age cohorts. Private and subjective religiosity were positively related to overall…

  5. Brain extraction based on locally linear representation-based classification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Wufan; Feng, Qianjin

    2014-05-15

    Brain extraction is an important procedure in brain image analysis. Although numerous brain extraction methods have been presented, enhancing brain extraction methods remains challenging because brain MRI images exhibit complex characteristics, such as anatomical variability and intensity differences across different sequences and scanners. To address this problem, we present a Locally Linear Representation-based Classification (LLRC) method for brain extraction. A novel classification framework is derived by introducing the locally linear representation to the classical classification model. Under this classification framework, a common label fusion approach can be considered as a special case and thoroughly interpreted. Locality is important to calculate fusion weights for LLRC; this factor is also considered to determine that Local Anchor Embedding is more applicable in solving locally linear coefficients compared with other linear representation approaches. Moreover, LLRC supplies a way to learn the optimal classification scores of the training samples in the dictionary to obtain accurate classification. The International Consortium for Brain Mapping and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases were used to build a training dataset containing 70 scans. To evaluate the proposed method, we used four publicly available datasets (IBSR1, IBSR2, LPBA40, and ADNI3T, with a total of 241 scans). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the four common brain extraction methods (BET, BSE, GCUT, and ROBEX), and is comparable to the performance of BEaST, while being more accurate on some datasets compared with BEaST. PMID:24525169

  6. Learning classification models with soft-label information

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang; Valizadegan, Hamed; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Objective Learning of classification models in medicine often relies on data labeled by a human expert. Since labeling of clinical data may be time-consuming, finding ways of alleviating the labeling costs is critical for our ability to automatically learn such models. In this paper we propose a new machine learning approach that is able to learn improved binary classification models more efficiently by refining the binary class information in the training phase with soft labels that reflect how strongly the human expert feels about the original class labels. Materials and methods Two types of methods that can learn improved binary classification models from soft labels are proposed. The first relies on probabilistic/numeric labels, the other on ordinal categorical labels. We study and demonstrate the benefits of these methods for learning an alerting model for heparin induced thrombocytopenia. The experiments are conducted on the data of 377 patient instances labeled by three different human experts. The methods are compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score. Results Our AUC results show that the new approach is capable of learning classification models more efficiently compared to traditional learning methods. The improvement in AUC is most remarkable when the number of examples we learn from is small. Conclusions A new classification learning framework that lets us learn from auxiliary soft-label information provided by a human expert is a promising new direction for learning classification models from expert labels, reducing the time and cost needed to label data. PMID:24259520

  7. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

    PubMed Central

    Subari, Norazian; Saleh, Junita Mohamad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data. PMID:23202033

  8. Teachers' Use of Rubrics to Score Non-traditional Tasks: Factors Related to Discrepancies in Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.; Cady, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    This study considered middle school mathematics teachers use of rubrics to score non-traditional tasks. A group of eighth-grade teachers attended a two-day workshop where they evaluated assessment tasks and discussed the use of an associated scoring rubric. Scored samples of student work submitted by the teachers indicated that they had difficulty…

  9. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  10. Concurrent Validity of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: What Do LibQUAL+[TM] Scores Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…

  11. Methods for Constructing and Assessing Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Melissa M; Kelley, Amy S; Paris, Julia; Roza, Katherine; Meier, Diane E; Morrison, R Sean; Aldridge, Melissa D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To model the steps involved in preparing for and carrying out propensity score analyses by providing step-by-step guidance and Stata code applied to an empirical dataset. Study Design Guidance, Stata code, and empirical examples are given to illustrate (1) the process of choosing variables to include in the propensity score; (2) balance of propensity score across treatment and comparison groups; (3) balance of covariates across treatment and comparison groups within blocks of the propensity score; (4) choice of matching and weighting strategies; (5) balance of covariates after matching or weighting the sample; and (6) interpretation of treatment effect estimates. Empirical Application We use data from the Palliative Care for Cancer Patients (PC4C) study, a multisite observational study of the effect of inpatient palliative care on patient health outcomes and health services use, to illustrate the development and use of a propensity score. Conclusions Propensity scores are one useful tool for accounting for observed differences between treated and comparison groups. Careful testing of propensity scores is required before using them to estimate treatment effects. PMID:24779867

  12. The quantile score and its decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Friederichs, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Forecast verification for probabilistic weather and climate predictions gain more and more importance due to the increasing number of ensemble prediction systems. The predictive performance of probabilistic forecasts is generally assessed using proper score functions, which are applied to a set of forecast-observation pairs. The propriety of a score guarantees honesty and prevents hedging. A variety of proper scores exist for different types of probabilistic forecasts. Moreover, proper scoring functions can be decomposed into the three parts reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, which describe main characteristics of a forecasting scheme. This decomposition is well known for the Brier score and the continuous ranked probability score. This study expands the pool of verification methods for probabilistic forecasts by a decomposition of the quantile score (QS). Quantiles are suitable probabilistic measures especially for extreme forecast events, since they do not depend on an apriori defined threshold. The QS is a weighted absolute error between quantile forecasts and observations. We derive a decomposition of the QS in reliability, resolution, and uncertainty, and give a brief description of potential biases. A quantile reliability plot is presented. The quantile verification within this framework is illustrated on precipitation forecasts derived from the mesoscale ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Meteorological Service.

  13. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test scores and clinical and sociodemographic correlates in Schizophrenia: multiple logistic regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banno, Masahiro; Koide, Takayoshi; Aleksic, Branko; Okada, Takashi; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated what clinical and sociodemographic factors affected Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) factor scores of patients with schizophrenia to evaluate parameters or items of the WCST. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Patients with schizophrenia from three hospitals participated. Participants Participants were recruited from July 2009 to August 2011. 131 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (84 men and 47 women, 43.5±13.8 years (mean±SD)) entered and completed the study. Participants were recruited in the study if they (1) met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia; (2) were physically healthy and (3) had no mood disorders, substance abuse, neurodevelopmental disorders, epilepsy or mental retardation. We examined their basic clinical and sociodemographic factors (sex, age, education years, age of onset, duration of illness, chlorpromazine equivalent doses and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores). Primary and secondary outcome measures All patients carried out the WCST Keio version. Five indicators were calculated, including categories achieved (CA), perseverative errors in Milner (PEM) and Nelson (PEN), total errors (TE) and difficulties of maintaining set (DMS). From the principal component analysis, we identified two factors (1 and 2). We assessed the relationship between these factor scores and clinical and sociodemographic factors, using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Factor 1 was mainly composed of CA, PEM, PEN and TE. Factor 2 was mainly composed of DMS. The factor 1 score was affected by age, education years and the PANSS negative scale score. The factor 2 score was affected by duration of illness. Conclusions Age, education years, PANSS negative scale score and duration of illness affected WCST factor scores in patients with schizophrenia. Using WCST factor scores may reduce the possibility of type I errors due to multiple comparisons. PMID:23135537

  14. Molecular Classification of Endometriosis and Disease Stage Using High-Dimensional Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Tamaresis, John S.; Irwin, Juan C.; Goldfien, Gabriel A.; Rabban, Joseph T.; Burney, Richard O.; Nezhat, Camran; DePaolo, Louis V.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis (E), an estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory disorder, affects 10% of reproductive-age women. It is diagnosed and staged at surgery, resulting in an 11-year latency from symptom onset to diagnosis, underscoring the need for less invasive, less expensive approaches. Because the uterine lining (endometrium) in women with E has altered molecular profiles, we tested whether molecular classification of this tissue can distinguish and stage disease. We developed classifiers using genomic data from n = 148 archived endometrial samples from women with E or without E (normal controls or with other common uterine/pelvic pathologies) across the menstrual cycle and evaluated their performance on independent sample sets. Classifiers were trained separately on samples in specific hormonal milieu, using margin tree classification, and accuracies were scored on independent validation samples. Classification of samples from women with E or no E involved 2 binary decisions, each based on expression of specific genes. These first distinguished presence or absence of uterine/pelvic pathology and then no E from E, with the latter further classified according to severity (minimal/mild or moderate/severe). Best performing classifiers identified E with 90%–100% accuracy, were cycle phase-specific or independent, and used relatively few genes to determine disease and severity. Differential gene expression and pathway analyses revealed immune activation, altered steroid and thyroid hormone signaling/metabolism, and growth factor signaling in endometrium of women with E. Similar findings were observed with other disorders vs controls. Thus, classifier analysis of genomic data from endometrium can detect and stage pelvic E with high accuracy, dependent or independent of hormonal milieu. We propose that limited classifier candidate genes are of high value in developing diagnostics and identifying therapeutic targets. Discovery of endometrial molecular

  15. Evaluation of the complications in transperitoneal laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery with Clavien-Dindo classification

    PubMed Central

    Balcı, Melih; Tuncel, Altuğ; Güzel, Özer; Aslan, Yılmaz; Keten, Tanju; Köseoğlu, Ersin; Erkan, Anıl; Atan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate our complications in renal and adrenal transperitoneal laparoscopic surgeries with Clavien-Dindo classification. Material and methods Two hundred and eight patients to whom renal and adrenal laparoscopic surgeries were performed between January 2008 and June 2015 were included the study. One hundred and twenty one (58.2%) patients were female and 87 (41.8%) of them were male. Laparoscopic procedures were performed as radical nephrectomy (n=49; 23.6%), simple nephrectomy (n=56; 26.9%), and partial nephrectomy (n=7; 3.4%), renal cyst decortication (n=27; 13%), pyelopasty (n=14; 6.7%) and adrenalectomy (n=55; 26.4%). Complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.01±14.9 years. The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.5±1.9 days. According to European Scoring System for Laparoscopic Operations the procedures were graded based on procedural difficulty as simple (n=27; 12.9%), difficult (n=172; 82.8%), and highly difficult (n=9; 4.3%). Complications were observed in 13 (6.3%) interventions. One of these occurred during very hard and 14 during difficult procedures. According to Clavien-Dindo Classification; Grades 1, 2, and 3 A complications developed in 3 (1.4%), 9 (4.3%), and 1(0.5%) patient, respectively. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery is an efficient procedure in well-chosen patients for renal and adrenal diseases with low complication rates. PMID:27274890

  16. CHADS2 score has a better predictive value than CHA2DS2-VASc score in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yunli; Ma, Qing; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Cuiying; Zhang, Dai; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Aim The study aims to compare the ability of CHA2DS2-VASc (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [two scores], type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism [TE] [doubled], vascular disease, age 65–74 years, and sex category) and CHADS2 (defined as congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus, previous stroke [doubled]) scores to predict the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) or TE among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods A total of 413 patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, and not on oral anticoagulants for the previous 6 months, were enrolled in the study. The predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores for IS/TE events was evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Results During a follow-up period of 1.99±1.29 years, 104 (25.2%) patients died and 59 (14.3%) patients developed IS/TE. The CHADS2 score performed better than the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting IS/TE as assessed by c-indexes (0.647 vs 0.615, respectively; P<0.05). Non-CHADS2 risk factors, such as vascular disease and female sex, were not found to be predictive of IS/TE (hazard ratio 1.518, 95% CI: 0.832–2.771; hazard ratio 1.067, 95% CI: 0.599–1.899, respectively). No differences in event rates were found in patients with the CHADS2 scores of 1 and 2 (7.1% vs 7.8%). It was observed that patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were most in need of anticoagulation therapy. Conclusion In patients with NVAF aged ≥65 years, the CHADS2 score was found to be significantly better in predicting IS/TE events when compared to the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Patients with a CHADS2 score of ≥3 were associated with high risk of IS/TE events. PMID:27478371

  17. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments.

    PubMed

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-06-18

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently "universally" recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  18. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments

    PubMed Central

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently “universally” recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  19. Genetic Evaluation of the Nine Component Features of Hip Score in UK Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Woolliams, John A.; Blott, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the genetic relationship between the nine component traits comprising the British Veterinary Association (BVA) total hip score in UK registered Labrador Retrievers. Data consisted of 11,928 single records of trait scores of dogs aged between one and four years (365–1459 days) old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007. Pedigree information was provided by the UK Kennel Club. The distribution of trait scores showed only small numbers of dogs with visible malformation in the six traits that were scored according to the severity of osteoarthritis. Linear mixed models were fitted using ASREML. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.15 to 0.38, and litter effects from 0.04 to 0.10. Genetic correlations between all nine traits were extremely high ranging from 0.71 to 1.0, implying considerable genetic similarity. The decomposition demonstrated that aggregate scores of only the 3 traits indicative of laxity in one year old dogs was predictive of the phenotype of the remaining six scored on osteoarthritic severity in dogs at 4+ years old. The application of selection index methodology in selecting against hip dysplasia using the trait scores was explored and potential improvements in accuracy (directly related to response to selection) of over 10% are reported compared to the current total hip score. This study demonstrates that traits descriptive of joint laxity are valuable early-age predictors of osteoarthritis and shows that there is scope for improvement in the way data from the UK hip score scheme are used for selection against hip dysplasia in Labradors. This was verified via use of selection indices, which identified substantial increases in accuracy, not only via optimum coefficients, but also through an easily applicable aggregate of scores of just two or three traits only compared with the current total hip score. PMID:21042594

  20. Mortality of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Korea: Assessed with the Pneumonia Severity Index and the CURB-65 Score

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye In; Chang, Hyun Ha; Cha, Seung Ick; Lee, Jae Hee; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Cheong, Hae Suk; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kwon, Ki Tae; Lee, Byung Kee; Choo, Eun Ju; Kim, Do Jin; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae Hoon; Suh, Gee Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Hyo Youl; Moon, Chi Sook; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Park, Seong Yeon; Oh, Jin Young; Jung, Sook In; Park, Kyung Hwa; Yun, Na Ra; Yoon, Sung Ho; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Ki Suck

    2013-01-01

    The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients. PMID:24015030

  1. The Effects of Judgment-Based Stratum Classifications on the Efficiency of Stratum Scored CATs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Sara J.; Smith, Russell W.; Wise, Steven L.

    Two operational item pools were used to investigate the performance of stratum computerized adaptive tests (CATs) when items were assigned to strata based on empirical estimates of item difficulty or human judgments of item difficulty. Items from the first data set consisted of 54 5-option multiple choice items from a form of the ACT mathematics…

  2. Estimating Classification Accuracy for Complex Decision Rules Based on Multiple Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Karen M.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Important decisions about students are made by combining multiple measures using complex decision rules. Although methods for characterizing the accuracy of decisions based on a single measure have been suggested by numerous researchers, such methods are not useful for estimating the accuracy of decisions based on multiple measures. This study…

  3. Robust tissue classification for reproducible wound assessment in telemedicine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wannous, Hazem; Treuillet, Sylvie; Lucas, Yves

    2010-04-01

    In telemedicine environments, a standardized and reproducible assessment of wounds, using a simple free-handled digital camera, is an essential requirement. However, to ensure robust tissue classification, particular attention must be paid to the complete design of the color processing chain. We introduce the key steps including color correction, merging of expert labeling, and segmentation-driven classification based on support vector machines. The tool thus developed ensures stability under lighting condition, viewpoint, and camera changes, to achieve accurate and robust classification of skin tissues. Clinical tests demonstrate that such an advanced tool, which forms part of a complete 3-D and color wound assessment system, significantly improves the monitoring of the healing process. It achieves an overlap score of 79.3 against 69.1% for a single expert, after mapping on the medical reference developed from the image labeling by a college of experts.

  4. Validation of Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire in a middle-aged population of French workers.

    PubMed

    Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Chastang, Jean-François; Bioulac, Bernard

    2004-02-01

    As suggested by the authors, the Horne and Ostberg morning/evening questionnaire (MEQ) has never been adapted to evaluate a nonstudent population. The purpose of this study was to validate this MEQ in a sample of middle-aged workers by modifying only the cutoffs. It was administered in 566 non-shift-workers aged 51.2 to 3.2 years who presented no sleep disorders. According to the Home and Ostberg classification, the sample consisted of 62.1% morning type, 36.6% neither type, and 2.2% evening type. Multiple correspondence analysis, which determines the principal components, was performed on all MEQ items. Then an ascending hierarchical classification was applied to determine 3 clusters from these principal components. On the basis of these 3 clusters, new cutoffs were determined: evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening type. As an external validation, eveningness was associated with later bedtime and waking-up time (more pronounced at the weekend), greater need for sleep, larger daily sleep debt, greater morning sleepiness, and ease of returning to sleep in the early morning. A positive correlation between age and morningness was again found. This study confirms that "owls" are not rare in a middle-aged sample. We conclude that this adapted MEQ could be useful when investigating age-related changes in sleep. PMID:14964706

  5. Randomized controlled trial of a scoring aid to improve GCS scoring by EMS providers (Brief Report)

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amanda Lynn; Hart, Kimberly Ward; Lindsell, Christopher John; McMullan, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel frequently use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to assess injured and critically ill patients. This study assessed the accuracy of EMS providers’ GCS scoring as well as the improvement in GCS assessment with the use of a scoring aid. Methods This randomized, controlled study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of an urban, academic trauma center. Emergency medical technicians or paramedics who transported a patient to the ED were randomly assessed one of nine written scenarios, either with or without a GCS scoring aid. Scenarios were created by consensus of expert attending emergency medicine, EMS, and neurocritical care physicians with universal consensus agreement on GCS scores. Chi-square and student’s t-tests were used to compare groups. Results Of 180 participants, 178 completed the study. Overall, 73/178 (41%) participants gave a GCS score that matched the expert consensus score. GCS was correct in 22/88 (25%) of cases without the scoring aid. GCS was correct in 51/90 (57%) of cases with the scoring aid. Most (69%) of total GCS scores fell within one point of the expert consensus GCS score. Differences in accuracy were most pronounced in scenarios with a correct GCS of 12 or below. Sub-component accuracy was: eye 62%, verbal 70%, and motor 51%. Conclusion In this study, 60% of EMS participants provided inaccurate GCS estimates. Use of a GCS scoring aid improved accuracy of EMS GCS assessments. PMID:25199613

  6. Evaluation of Four Risk-Scoring Methods to Predict Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Aorto-Bifemoral Bypass for Aorto-Iliac Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    García, Francisca; Marchena, Joaquín; Cabrera, Vicente; Hermida, María; Sotgiu, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    This study was done to determine the usefulness of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, the comorbidity Charlson index unadjusted (CCIu),the comorbidity Charlson index adjusted by age (CCIa), and the Glasgow aneurysm score (GAS) for postoperative morbimortality and survival in patients treated with aorto-bifemoral bypass (AFB) for aorto-iliac occlusive disease (AIOD). A series of 278 patients who underwent AFB were restrospectively studied. For the CCIu, CCIa, ASA, and GAS, receiver operating characteristics curve analysis for prediction of morbidity showed area under the curves of 0.61 (p = 0.004), 0.59 (p = 0.026), 0.569 (p = 0.087), and 0.63 (p = 0.001), respectively. Additionally, univariate analysis showed that CCIa (p = 0.016) and GAS (p = 0.006) were associated significantly with an increased risk of developing complications. Furthermore, CCIa (p < 0.001) and GAS (p = 0.001) showed a significant association with survival. Finally, the variable age was related to morbidity (p = 0.004), mortality (p = 0.038), and survival (p < 0.001). The comorbididity and the age should be taken in account in clinical treatment decisions for patients with AIOD. The CCIa and GAS may play a role as predictive factors for postoperative morbidity and survival after AFB. PMID:23450270

  7. Use of scores to calculate the nursing workload in a pediatric intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Campagner, Andriza Oliveira Moschetta; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the performance of the Nursing Activities Score in a pediatric intensive care unit, compare its scores expressed as time spent on nursing activities to the corresponding ones calculated using the Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, and correlate the results obtained by both instruments with severity, morbidity and mortality. Methods Prospective, observational, and analytical cohort study conducted at a type III general pediatric intensive care unit. The study participants were all the children aged 29 days to 12 years admitted to the investigated pediatric intensive care unit from August 2008 to February 2009. Results A total of 545 patients were studied, which corresponded to 2,951 assessments. The average score of the Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System was 28.79±10.37 (915±330 minutes), and that of the Nursing Activities Score was 55.6±11.82 (802±161 minutes). The number of minutes that resulted from the conversion of the Simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System score was higher compared to that resulting from the Nursing Activities Score for all the assessments (p<0.001). The correlation between the instruments was significant, direct, positive, and moderate (R=0.564). Conclusions The agreement between the investigated instruments was satisfactory, and both instruments also exhibited satisfactory discrimination of mortality; for that purpose, the best cutoff point was 16 nursing hours/patient day. PMID:24770687

  8. Accelerated age-related olfactory decline among type 1 Usher patients

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Pereira, Paulo; António, Natália; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António; Silva, Eduardo D.

    2016-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (USH) is a rare disease with hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. A phenotype heterogeneity is reported. Recent evidence indicates that USH is likely to belong to an emerging class of sensory ciliopathies. Olfaction has recently been implicated in ciliopathies, but the scarce literature about olfaction in USH show conflicting results. We aim to evaluate olfactory impairment as a possible clinical manifestation of USH. Prospective clinical study that included 65 patients with USH and 65 normal age-gender-smoking-habits pair matched subjects. A cross culturally validated version of the Sniffin’ Sticks olfaction test was used. Young patients with USH have significantly better olfactory scores than healthy controls. We observe that USH type 1 have a faster ageing olfactory decrease than what happens in healthy subjects, leading to significantly lower olfactory scores in older USH1 patients. Moreover, USH type 1 patients showed significantly higher olfactory scores than USH type 2, what can help distinguishing them. Olfaction represents an attractive tool for USH type classification and pre diagnostic screening due to the low cost and non-invasive nature of the testing. Olfactory dysfunction should be considered among the spectrum of clinical manifestations of Usher syndrome. PMID:27329700

  9. Accelerated age-related olfactory decline among type 1 Usher patients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Pereira, Paulo; António, Natália; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António; Silva, Eduardo D

    2016-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (USH) is a rare disease with hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. A phenotype heterogeneity is reported. Recent evidence indicates that USH is likely to belong to an emerging class of sensory ciliopathies. Olfaction has recently been implicated in ciliopathies, but the scarce literature about olfaction in USH show conflicting results. We aim to evaluate olfactory impairment as a possible clinical manifestation of USH. Prospective clinical study that included 65 patients with USH and 65 normal age-gender-smoking-habits pair matched subjects. A cross culturally validated version of the Sniffin' Sticks olfaction test was used. Young patients with USH have significantly better olfactory scores than healthy controls. We observe that USH type 1 have a faster ageing olfactory decrease than what happens in healthy subjects, leading to significantly lower olfactory scores in older USH1 patients. Moreover, USH type 1 patients showed significantly higher olfactory scores than USH type 2, what can help distinguishing them. Olfaction represents an attractive tool for USH type classification and pre diagnostic screening due to the low cost and non-invasive nature of the testing. Olfactory dysfunction should be considered among the spectrum of clinical manifestations of Usher syndrome. PMID:27329700

  10. Estimating Reading Skill from ACT Assessment Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie

    1986-01-01

    A study correlating Nelson-Denny Reading Test scores with American College Testing Program Assessments (ACT) indicates that reading skill can be predicted accurately from the ACT social studies reading and English usage subtests. (MSE)

  11. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  12. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Exercise + Classwork May = Better Math Scores

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157446.html Exercise + Classwork May = Better Math Scores Dutch study also found bringing exercise to ... time learning if exercise is part of their math and spelling lessons, a new study suggests. Dutch ...

  14. 24 CFR 902.9 - PHAS scoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicators: Physical condition, financial condition, management operations, and the Capital Fund program... a single score for the physical condition, financial condition, and management operations indicators...: (1) The physical condition indicator is weighted 40 percent (40 points) of the overall PHAS...

  15. Purposes and methods of scoring earthquake forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, J.

    2010-12-01

    There are two kinds of purposes in the studies on earthquake prediction or forecasts: one is to give a systematic estimation of earthquake risks in some particular region and period in order to give advice to governments and enterprises for the use of reducing disasters, the other one is to search for reliable precursors that can be used to improve earthquake prediction or forecasts. For the first case, a complete score is necessary, while for the latter case, a partial score, which can be used to evaluate whether the forecasts or predictions have some advantages than a well know model, is necessary. This study reviews different scoring methods for evaluating the performance of earthquake prediction and forecasts. Especially, the gambling scoring method, which is developed recently, shows its capacity in finding good points in an earthquake prediction algorithm or model that are not in a reference model, even if its overall performance is no better than the reference model.

  16. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Some Fine Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    1980-01-01

    An essential function of the school guidance worker is the translation of test results into plain language and/or concrete recommendations. To do so requires a thorough understanding of the various test scores publishers provide. (Author)

  17. Multifactor Screener in OPEN: Scoring Procedures & Results

    Cancer.gov

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables.

  18. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  19. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  20. Superiority of Classification Tree versus Cluster, Fuzzy and Discriminant Models in a Heartbeat Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Abächerli, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a 2-stage heartbeat classifier of supraventricular (SVB) and ventricular (VB) beats. Stage 1 makes computationally-efficient classification of SVB-beats, using simple correlation threshold criterion for finding close match with a predominant normal (reference) beat template. The non-matched beats are next subjected to measurement of 20 basic features, tracking the beat and reference template morphology and RR-variability for subsequent refined classification in SVB or VB-class by Stage 2. Four linear classifiers are compared: cluster, fuzzy, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification tree (CT), all subjected to iterative training for selection of the optimal feature space among extended 210-sized set, embodying interactive second-order effects between 20 independent features. The optimization process minimizes at equal weight the false positives in SVB-class and false negatives in VB-class. The training with European ST-T, AHA, MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases found the best performance settings of all classification models: Cluster (30 features), Fuzzy (72 features), LDA (142 coefficients), CT (221 decision nodes) with top-3 best scored features: normalized current RR-interval, higher/lower frequency content ratio, beat-to-template correlation. Unbiased test-validation with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database rates the classifiers in descending order of their specificity for SVB-class: CT (99.9%), LDA (99.6%), Cluster (99.5%), Fuzzy (99.4%); sensitivity for ventricular ectopic beats as part from VB-class (commonly reported in published beat-classification studies): CT (96.7%), Fuzzy (94.4%), LDA (94.2%), Cluster (92.4%); positive predictivity: CT (99.2%), Cluster (93.6%), LDA (93.0%), Fuzzy (92.4%). CT has superior accuracy by 0.3–6.8% points, with the advantage for easy model complexity configuration by pruning the tree consisted of easy interpretable ‘if-then’ rules. PMID:26461492