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Sample records for age correction values

  1. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age For Preemies Ages & Stages ...

  2. The Brief Repeatable Battery: psychometrics and normative values with age, education and gender corrections in a Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, D; Petrovic, M; Antanasijevic, I; Marinkovic, J; Stojanovic, T; Obradovic, S

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is present in up to 65 % of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The Brief Repeatable Battery of neuropsychological tests (BRB) is one of the most used neuropsychological tools for cognitive assessment in MS. However, relative lack of normative data limits its application in research and clinical practice. In order to obtain normative data for a Serbian population, we administered the BRB version A to 140 healthy subjects and assessed the influence of demographic factors such as gender, age, and education on the tests' scores. We also calculated corrections for these factors. Higher education was associated with better performance on all the tests. Age influenced all the tests, except the word list generation, higher age being associated with worse performance on all other tests. Women performed worse on the paced auditory serial addition test 2, no other gender differences were observed. Our data obtained for the Serbian population could further improve use of the BRB in clinical practice and for the research purposes, establishing cognitive evaluation as a part of standard neurological examination of MS patients.

  3. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers

    PubMed Central

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999–2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Methods Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999–2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20–75 years. Results The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20–75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61–75 years. Conclusions Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by

  4. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    PubMed

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  5. Age and sex corrected normal reference values of T1, T2 T2* and ECV in healthy subjects at 3T CMR.

    PubMed

    Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; de Meester, Christophe; Amzulescu, Mihaela; Pasquet, Agnès; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2017-09-21

    Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects. After careful exclusion of cardiovascular abnormality, 75 healthy subjects aged 20 to 90 years old (mean 56 ± 19 years, 47% women) underwent left-ventricular T1 (3-(3)-3-(3)-5 MOLLI)), T2 (8 echo- spin echo-imaging) and T2 * (8 echo gradient echo imaging) mapping at 3T CMR (Philips Ingenia 3T and computation of extracellular volume after administration of 0.2 mmol/kg Gadovist). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Day to day reproducibility was assessed in 10 other volunteers. Mean myocardial T1 at 3T was 1122 ± 57 ms, T2 52 ± 6 ms, T2* 24 ± 5 ms and ECV 26.6 ± 3.2%. T1 (1139 ± 37 vs 1109 ± 73 ms, p < 0.05) and ECV (28 ± 3 vs 25 ± 2%, p < 0.001), but not T2 (53 ± 8 vs 51 ± 4, p = NS) were significantly greater in age matched women than in men. T1 (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) and ECV (r = 0.37, p = 0.001) increased, while T2 decreased significantly (r = -0.25, p < 0.05) with increasing age. T2* was not influenced by either gender or age. Intra and inter-observer reproducibility was high (ICC ranging between 0.81-0.99), and day to day coefficient of variation was low (6.2% for T1, 7% for T2, 11% for T2* and 11.5% for ECV). We provide normal myocardial T2, T2*,T1 and ECV reference values for 3T CMR which are significantly different from those reported at 1.5 Tesla CMR. Myocardial T1 and ECV values are gender and age dependent. Measurement had high inter and intra-observer reproducibility and good day

  6. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  7. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  8. 76 FR 8294 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U. S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 141 RIN 1515-AD61 (Formerly 1505-AB96) Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value; Correction AGENCY: Customs and...

  9. Teaching in the Age of "Political Correctness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the political correctness and anti-PC viewpoints and presents elements of a critical perspective that challenges and poses alternatives. Considers the distinction between political education and politicized education. (SK)

  10. Filtering and luminance correction for aged photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Ramponi, Giovanni

    2008-02-01

    We virtually restore faded black and white photographic prints by the method of decomposing the image into a smooth component that contains edges and smoothed homogeneous regions, and a rough component that may include grain noise but also fine detail. The decomposition into smooth and rough components is achieved using a rational filter. Two approaches are considered; in one, the smooth component is histogram-stretched and then gamma corrected before being added back to a homomorphically filtered version of the rough component; in the other the image is initially gamma corrected and shifted towards white. Each approach presents improvements with respect to the previously separately explored techniques of gamma correction alone, and the stretching of the smooth component together with the homomorphical filtering of the rough component, alone. After characterizing the image with the help of the scatter plot of a 2D local statistic of the type (local intensity, local contrast), namely (local average, local standard deviation), the effects of gamma correction are studied as the effects on the scatter plot, on the assumption that the quality of the image is related to the distribution of data on the scatter plot. Also, the correlation coefficient between the local average and the local deviation on the one hand, and the global average of the image play important descriptor roles.

  11. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  12. Weight correction of MoM values: which method?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T M; Vranken, G; Van Nueten, J

    2006-07-01

    Adjusting maternal serum markers for maternal weight is considered to be a standard practice when screening for pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome. The choice of model for taking maternal weight into account is, however, rarely explicitly evaluated. The relationship between the maternal serum markers alphafetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and unconjugated oestriol (uE3), determined with the Beckman Coulter access reagents and maternal weight was investigated in a cohort of 752 Belgian women being screened for pregnancy associated with Down's syndrome. Two different models (the log-linear equation and the linear-reciprocal equation) were used to determine the relationship between the serum markers and maternal weight. A significant relationship between log(10) multiples of median (MoM) values and weight (kg) was obtained for all markers, and the log-linear model had higher coefficients of determination (r(2)) when compared with the linear-reciprocal model. Weight correction with either method achieved the optimum effect that the correction factor for a woman with a population median weight of 65.5 kg was not significantly different from 1. Simulated weight-corrected MoM values with the two approaches were compared and variation was estimated. The mean difference between the weight-corrected MoM values calculated by the two methods was 7.8% (SD 4.3%) for AFP, 14.0% (4.4%) for HCG and 5.9% (3.2%) for uE3. This resulted in a difference in risk estimate of 1.66-5.34% for Down's syndrome owing to weight correction algorithm differences in women of median weight. The log-linear weight correction approach was shown to be marginally more effective by a goodness-of-fit analysis. Differences in weight-corrected MoM values estimated with the two approaches are highly significant (p<0.0001, Wilcoxon's paired sample test), but the effect on risk calculation was not significant. It was observed that the changes in risk became significant the more the

  13. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the contribution of aging to the change in hearing level by adjusting the most recent audiogram. If... audiometric test frequency: I. Determine from Tables F-1 or F-2 the age correction values for the employee by... calculated in step (II) represented that portion of the change in hearing that may be due to aging....

  14. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the contribution of aging to the change in hearing level by adjusting the most recent audiogram. If... audiometric test frequency: I. Determine from Tables F-1 or F-2 the age correction values for the employee by... calculated in step (II) represented that portion of the change in hearing that may be due to aging....

  15. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the contribution of aging to the change in hearing level by adjusting the most recent audiogram. If... audiometric test frequency: I. Determine from Tables F-1 or F-2 the age correction values for the employee by... calculated in step (II) represented that portion of the change in hearing that may be due to aging....

  16. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  17. Consequences of Correcting Intelligence Quotient for Prematurity at Age 5 Years.

    PubMed

    van Veen, Sarit; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S H; van Kaam, Anton H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G

    2016-06-01

    To determine the effects of correcting for prematurity on full scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and processing speed quotient (PSQ) scores, and to investigate whether differences between corrected and uncorrected FSIQ are associated with gestational age (GA), FSIQ, and age at assessment. Single-center consecutive cohort study. Data were analyzed from 275 very preterm children (GA <30 weeks), born between January 2006 and December 2009 and assessed at 5 years corrected age as part of the neonatal long-term follow-up program, at the Emma Children's Hospital in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Outcome measures were FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ, and PSQ, calculated for uncorrected and corrected age. Paired sample t tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and ANCOVA were performed to explore differences between corrected and uncorrected IQ. Differences between corrected and uncorrected FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ, and PSQ ranged from 0-15 IQ points. All corrected IQ scores were significantly higher than uncorrected IQ scores (all P values <.001). Differences were larger at lower GAs, for higher IQ scores, and if time of assessment lay near the starting point of a 3-month age band of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition-Dutch Version. Given the great variation observed in differences between corrected and uncorrected IQ scores, an international standard as to what age correction is appropriate should be pursued. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. At what age should tetralogy of Fallot be corrected?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Julien I E

    2017-01-12

    Tetralogy of Fallot can be corrected with very low mortality at any age, even in neonates, but this does not necessarily mean that it should be corrected in the neonatal period. Although there are many advantages to early correction, a high proportion of these neonates have residual stenosis or pulmonary regurgitation that impairs ventricular function and may require further surgery or implantation of a pulmonary valve. Before we had the ability to correct this anomaly with low mortality in small children, a variety of palliative procedures had to be performed. Today, with better understanding of the anatomy of tetralogy of Fallot, we should consider what forms of palliation will increase growth of the right ventricular outflow tract in order to reduce the complications of very early surgery.

  19. The Value of a Focused Approach to Written Corrective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Investigations into the most effective ways to provide ESL learners with written corrective feedback have often been overly comprehensive in the range of error categories examined. As a result, clear conclusions about the efficacy of such feedback have not been possible. On the other hand, oral corrective feedback studies have produced clear,…

  20. Correct fair market value calculation needed to avoid regulatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, M O

    1997-09-01

    In valuing a physician practice for acquisition, it is important for buyers and sellers to distinguish between fair market value and strategic value. Although many buyers would willingly pay for the strategic value of a practice, tax-exempt buyers are required by law to consider only the fair market value in setting a bid price. Valuators must adjust group earnings to exclude items that do not apply to any willing seller and include items that do apply to any willing seller to arrive at the fair market value of the practice. In addition, the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), which becomes the discount rate in the valuation model, is critical to the measure of value of the practice. Small medical practices are assumed to have few hard assets and little long-term debt, and the WACC is calculated on the basis of those assumptions. When a small practice has considerable debt, however, this calculated WACC may be inappropriate for valuing the practice. In every case, evidence that shows that a transaction has been negotiated "at arm's length" should stave off any regulatory challenge.

  1. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction.

  2. Holocene reservoir age corrections for the Norwegian Sea based on cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson Dahl, Carin; Linge, Henriette; Ascough, Philippa; Fietske, Jan; Telford, Richard

    2010-05-01

    There is an offset in 14C age in organisms that lived contemporaneously in the atmosphere relative to those that lived in other carbon reservoirs, such as the ocean. Information about this offset, or reservoir age, R(t), is needed to accurately calibrate marine 14C dates. Although the reservoir age of the ocean is not constant, difficulties in reconstruction the temporal changes in R(t) through time often result in the use of a constant reservoir age correction based on the pre-industrial estimate. This makes detailed comparisons between different archives difficult. Holocene cold-water corals are abundant on the Norwegian shelf and can be dated independently using two different radiometric dating method. The reservoir age correction (?R) of surface ocean waters in the eastern Norwegian Sea was determined for two Holocene periods (9763-9262 and 3097-365 cal. BP) using paired U/Th and AMS 14C dating of nineteen samples of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Assessment of Holocene ?R values show that early Holocene ?R values are higher compared to the late Holocene. In addition, there also appears to be a trend of increasing ?R values for the past 3000 years BP in the eastern Norwegian Sea. Comparisons to ?R values from the British Isles point towards that there is a latitudinal dependence in ?R in the North Atlantic realm.

  3. Human Values in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses technology and its effects on society and humans, particularly library and information technology. Highlights include the evolving history of technology; and values related to technology in libraries, including democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, literacy and learning, rationalism, and equity of access. (LRW)

  4. Human Values in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses technology and its effects on society and humans, particularly library and information technology. Highlights include the evolving history of technology; and values related to technology in libraries, including democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, literacy and learning, rationalism, and equity of access. (LRW)

  5. What is the correct value for the brain: blood partition coefficient for water

    SciTech Connect

    Herscovitch, P.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge of the brain: blood partition coefficient (lambda) for water is usually required for the measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with positron emission tomography (PET) and 0-15 labelled water. The correct calculation of this important parameter from the ratio of brain and blood water contents is reviewed, and the effect of physiological variations in these water contents on lambda is demonstrated. The currently accepted value for whole brain lambda is 0.95-0.96 ml/g, calculated from brain and blood water contents of 77g/100g and 80.5g/100g, respectively. However, this value for lambda is incorrect, because in the calculation the blood water content value was not adjusted for the density of blood. The correct value is 0.91 ml/g. Variations in brain or blood water content affect lambda. Over an hematocrit range of 25% to 55%, lambda varies from 0.86 to 0.93 ml/g, due to a decrease in blood water content. lambda changes with age, and varies regionally in the brain, as brain water content is inversely related to lipid and myelin content. The lambda of the human newborn brain, 1.10 ml/g, is considerably higher than in the adult. Differences in lambda between gray and white matter are well known. However, because of variations in water content, the lambda's of thalamus (0.88 ml/g) and caudate nucleus (0.96 ml/g) are less than that of cerebral cortex (0.99 ml/g), while the lambda of corpus callosum (0.89 ml/g) is greater than that of centrum semiovale (0.83 ml/g). These regional variations in lambda will assume more importance as PET resolution improves. The impact of using an incorrect lambda will depend upon the sensitivity of the particular CBF measurement technique to errors in lambda.

  6. Free-field correction values for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Torben

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports free-field correction values for the Interacoustics DD 45 audiometric earphone. The free-field correction values for earphones provide the loudness based equivalence to loudspeaker presentation. Correction values are especially used for the calibration of audiometric equipment for speech audiometry performed with headphones. Calibration values may be found in, e.g. the ISO 389 series of standards. The free-field correction values were determined by means of loudness balance measurements of one-third octave noises (centre frequencies 125 Hz to 8000 Hz) presented alternately from a loudspeaker in a free field and from the earphones. The procedure was essentially in accordance with the free-field frequency response procedure described in IEC 60268-7: Headphones and earphones. Four earphones and 14 test subjects. Free field correction values are reported for the acoustic coupler IEC 60318-3 (NBS 9-A) and for the ear simulator IEC 60318-1. The results are in good agreement with the results of another independent investigation. The reported free-field correction values may be used as part of the basis for future standardization of the DD 45 earphone.

  7. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. 76 FR 39006 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...) entitled ``Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program.'' DATES: Effective Date... the new combined section ``II. A Overview of the January 7, 2011 Hospital Inpatient VBP Program...

  9. Correction factor to improve agreement between point-of-care and laboratory International Normalized Ratio values.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stacy A; Vazquez, Sara R; Fleming, Ryan; Lanspa, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Results of a research project to quantify and improve the accuracy of point-of-care (POC) International Normalized Ratio (INR) values are reported. The accuracy of POC INR values relative to laboratory-measured INR values was retrospectively assessed in a cohort of patients with same-day INR determinations by both methods. Univariate linear regression was performed to derive a correction factor for POC INR values of >3; this correction factor was validated in a second cohort. In the derivation cohort (259 patients and 344 paired INR results), agreement of POC values with corresponding laboratory INR values at two specified thresholds (±15% and ±25%) was 51.2% and 66.6%, respectively; for POC INR values of >3 (n = 205), agreement was lower (24.9% and 44.9%, respectively). Univariate linear regression yielded a coefficient of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79; p < 0.001). Applying a correction factor of 0.8 to POC INR values in a validation cohort (169 patients and 209 paired INR values) significantly improved the accuracy of POC INR values of >3 relative to laboratory values (from 7% to 71.1% at the lower threshold and from 23.5% to 88.8% at the higher threshold, p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Agreement between POC and laboratory INR results in one institution was poor, especially when POC INR values exceeded 3. Application of an institution-specific correction factor to POC INR values of >3 improved agreement with laboratory INR results but would not have significantly reduced differences in protocol-based warfarin dosage adjustments. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correctional Education: Methods and Practices in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Ralph

    It is suggested that correctional educational programs for adults must be designed in such a manner as to rehabilitate the many who are presently incarcerated and prevent many potential perpetrators from ever engaging in crime. The continually increasing problem of overcrowding in prisons throughout the country has made the need for relevant and…

  11. Correctional Education: Methods and Practices in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Ralph

    It is suggested that correctional educational programs for adults must be designed in such a manner as to rehabilitate the many who are presently incarcerated and prevent many potential perpetrators from ever engaging in crime. The continually increasing problem of overcrowding in prisons throughout the country has made the need for relevant and…

  12. Effect of gradient expansion corrections on the expectation values

    and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csavinszky, P.

    1984-06-01

    Recently Pathak and Gadre discussed the relationship between the electron density ρ(r) and the expectation values and . In previous work by the author, using the Na atom as an example, the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac energy-density functional has been used to assess the effect of the (modified) Weizsäcker, and the combined effect of the (modified) Weizsäcker and Hodges gradient expansion corrections on ρ(r). In this paper use is made of the respective electron densities, and the effect of the gradient expansion corrections on the expectation values and is assessed. It is found that the effect of the (modified) Weizsäcker correction is significant, while the effect of the Hodges correction is more modest.

  13. Caucasian emmetropic aged subjects have reduced corneal thickness values: emmetropia, CCT and age.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A; Lleó-Pérez, Antonio; Alonso, Luis; Rahhal, M S

    2004-07-01

    We aimed to analyze the possible changes in corneal thickness values according to age in emmetropic subjects. The central corneal thickness values of 100 emmetropic subjects (n = 100) were analyzed with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter (DGH Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by one experienced physician. The mean age of the subjects was 40.6 +/- 12.1 years old (range, 21-64). Analysis of the central corneal thickness (CCT) values by age subgroups indicated that subjects aged between 20 and 30 years had the higher CCT values. Differences in CCT values between the age groups were significant (p < 0.001; 1-way ANOVA test). A significant correlation between CCT values and age was found (r = -0.974; p < 0.001). In sum, it seems that there is a decrease in CCT values with age in emmetropic subjects.

  14. All inequality is not equal: children correct inequalities using resource value

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Fairness concerns guide children's judgments about how to share resources with others. However, it is unclear from past research if children take extant inequalities or the value of resources involved in an inequality into account when sharing with others; these questions are the focus of the current studies. In all experiments, children saw an inequality between two recipients—one had two more resources than another. What varied between conditions was the value of the resources that the child could subsequently distribute. When the resources were equal in value to those involved in the original inequality, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two resources to the child with fewer resources (Experiment 1). However, as the value of the resources increased relative to those initially shared by the experimenter, children were more likely to distribute the two high value resources equally between the two recipients, presumably to minimize the overall inequality in value (Experiments 1 and 2). We found that children specifically use value, not just size, when trying to equalize outcomes (Experiment 3) and further found that children focus on the relative rather than absolute value of the resources they share—when the experimenter had unequally distributed the same high value resource that the child would later share, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two high value resources to the person who had received fewer high value resources. These results illustrate that children attempt to correct past inequalities and try to maintain equality not just in the count of resources but also by using the value of resources. PMID:23882227

  15. A new approach to cosmogenic corrections in 40Ar/39Ar chronometry: Implications for the ages of Martian meteorites

    DOE PAGES

    Cassata, W. S.; Borg, L. E.

    2016-05-04

    Anomalously old 40Ar/39Ar ages are commonly obtained from Shergottites and are generally attributed to uncertainties regarding the isotopic composition of the trapped component and/or the presence of excess 40Ar. Old ages can also be obtained if inaccurate corrections for cosmogenic 36Ar are applied. Current methods for making the cosmogenic correction require simplifying assumptions regarding the spatial homogeneity of target elements for cosmogenic production and the distribution of cosmogenic nuclides relative to trapped and reactor-derived Ar isotopes. To mitigate uncertainties arising from these assumptions, a new cosmogenic correction approach utilizing the exposure age determined on an un-irradiated aliquot and step-wise productionmore » rate estimates that account for spatial variations in Ca and K is described. Data obtained from NWA 4468 and an unofficial pairing of NWA 2975, which yield anomalously old ages when corrected for cosmogenic 36Ar using conventional techniques, are used to illustrate the efficacy of this new approach. For these samples, anomalous age determinations are rectified solely by the improved cosmogenic correction technique described herein. Ages of 188 ± 17 and 184 ± 17 Ma are obtained for NWA 4468 and NWA 2975, respectively, both of which are indistinguishable from ages obtained by other radioisotopic systems. For other Shergottites that have multiple trapped components, have experienced diffusive loss of Ar, or contain excess Ar, more accurate cosmogenic corrections may aid in the interpretation of anomalous ages. In conclusion, the trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratios inferred from inverse isochron diagrams obtained from NWA 4468 and NWA 2975 are significantly lower than the Martian atmospheric value, and may represent upper mantle or crustal components.« less

  16. A new approach to cosmogenic corrections in 40Ar/39Ar chronometry: Implications for the ages of Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassata, W. S.; Borg, L. E.

    2016-08-01

    Anomalously old 40Ar/39Ar ages are commonly obtained from Shergottites and are generally attributed to uncertainties regarding the isotopic composition of the trapped component and/or the presence of excess 40Ar. Old ages can also be obtained if inaccurate corrections for cosmogenic 36Ar are applied. Current methods for making the cosmogenic correction require simplifying assumptions regarding the spatial homogeneity of target elements for cosmogenic production and the distribution of cosmogenic nuclides relative to trapped and reactor-derived Ar isotopes. To mitigate uncertainties arising from these assumptions, a new cosmogenic correction approach utilizing the exposure age determined on an un-irradiated aliquot and step-wise production rate estimates that account for spatial variations in Ca and K is described. Data obtained from NWA 4468 and an unofficial pairing of NWA 2975, which yield anomalously old ages when corrected for cosmogenic 36Ar using conventional techniques, are used to illustrate the efficacy of this new approach. For these samples, anomalous age determinations are rectified solely by the improved cosmogenic correction technique described herein. Ages of 188 ± 17 and 184 ± 17 Ma are obtained for NWA 4468 and NWA 2975, respectively, both of which are indistinguishable from ages obtained by other radioisotopic systems. For other Shergottites that have multiple trapped components, have experienced diffusive loss of Ar, or contain excess Ar, more accurate cosmogenic corrections may aid in the interpretation of anomalous ages. The trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratios inferred from inverse isochron diagrams obtained from NWA 4468 and NWA 2975 are significantly lower than the Martian atmospheric value, and may represent upper mantle or crustal components.

  17. Accurate Template-Based Correction of Brain MRI Intensity Distortion With Application to Dementia and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, C.; Cardenas, V.; Song, E.; Ezekiel, F.; Maudsley, A.; Weiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines an alternative approach to separating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity inhomogeneity from underlying tissue-intensity structure using a direct template-based paradigm. This permits the explicit spatial modeling of subtle intensity variations present in normal anatomy which may confound common retrospective correction techniques using criteria derived from a global intensity model. A fine-scale entropy driven spatial normalisation procedure is employed to map intensity distorted MR images to a tissue reference template. This allows a direct estimation of the relative bias field between template and subject MR images, from the ratio of their low-pass filtered intensity values. A tissue template for an aging individual is constructed and used to correct distortion in a set of data acquired as part of a study on dementia. A careful validation based on manual segmentation and correction of nine datasets with a range of anatomies and distortion levels is carried out. This reveals a consistent improvement in the removal of global intensity variation in terms of the agreement with a global manual bias estimate, and in the reduction in the coefficient of intensity variation in manually delineated regions of white matter. PMID:14719691

  18. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Alexander Z

    2016-01-01

    The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. PMID:27621659

  19. The Value of Attenuation Correction in Hybrid Cardiac SPECT/CT on Inferior Wall According to Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Tamam, Muge; Mulazimoglu, Mehmet; Edis, Nurcan; Ozpacaci, Tevfik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of attenuation-corrected single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on the inferior wall compared to uncorrected (NC) SPECT MPI between obese and nonobese patients. A total of 157 consecutive patients (122 males and 35 females, with median age: 57.4 ± 11 years) who underwent AC technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (AC Tc99m-sestamibi) SPECT MPI were included to the study. A hybrid SPECT and transmission computed tomography (CT) system was used for the diagnosis with 1-day protocol, and stress imaging was performed first. During attenuation correction (AC) processing on a Xeleris Workstation using Myovation cardiac software with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), iterative reconstruction with attenuation correction (IRAC) and NC images filtered back projection (FBP) were used. For statistical purposes, P < 0.05 was considered significant. This study included 73 patients with body mass index (BMI) <30 and 84 patients with BMI ≥ 30. In patients with higher BMI, increased amount of both visual and semiquantitative attenuation of the inferior wall was detected. IRAC reconstruction corrects the diaphragm attenuation of the inferior wall better than FBP. AC with OSEM iterative reconstruction significantly improves the diagnostic value of stress-only SPECT MPI in patients with normal weight and those who are obese, but the improvements are significantly greater in obese patients. Stress-only SPECT imaging with AC provides shorter and lower radiation exposure. PMID:26912974

  20. The Value of Attenuation Correction in Hybrid Cardiac SPECT/CT on Inferior Wall According to Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Muge; Mulazimoglu, Mehmet; Edis, Nurcan; Ozpacaci, Tevfik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of attenuation-corrected single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on the inferior wall compared to uncorrected (NC) SPECT MPI between obese and nonobese patients. A total of 157 consecutive patients (122 males and 35 females, with median age: 57.4 ± 11 years) who underwent AC technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (AC Tc99m-sestamibi) SPECT MPI were included to the study. A hybrid SPECT and transmission computed tomography (CT) system was used for the diagnosis with 1-day protocol, and stress imaging was performed first. During attenuation correction (AC) processing on a Xeleris Workstation using Myovation cardiac software with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), iterative reconstruction with attenuation correction (IRAC) and NC images filtered back projection (FBP) were used. For statistical purposes, P < 0.05 was considered significant. This study included 73 patients with body mass index (BMI) <30 and 84 patients with BMI ≥ 30. In patients with higher BMI, increased amount of both visual and semiquantitative attenuation of the inferior wall was detected. IRAC reconstruction corrects the diaphragm attenuation of the inferior wall better than FBP. AC with OSEM iterative reconstruction significantly improves the diagnostic value of stress-only SPECT MPI in patients with normal weight and those who are obese, but the improvements are significantly greater in obese patients. Stress-only SPECT imaging with AC provides shorter and lower radiation exposure.

  1. Corrective Reading, Corrective Mathematics and Bilingual Instruction of Pregnant School Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strum, Irene

    This is an evaluation of a program designed to provide continuity of instruction in reading and mathematics for pregnant school age girls in New York City. The program was designed to provide instruction for monolingual and bilingual (English-Spanish) students. Selected students were two or more years retarded in reading and/or mathematics.…

  2. Value reorientation and intergenerational conflicts in ageing societies.

    PubMed

    Van Den Heuvel, Wim J A

    2015-04-01

    The Ageing of societies is a unique historical development of mankind. Today, such ageing is recognized as a threat for developed societies. There is fear of increasing inequality in health and in access to health care. Apart from the costs of ageing and care, such fear creates intergenerational conflicts. This paper explores what values are at stake when a society ages. At issue here is the social position of the old citizens and the way in which they are regarded by their fellow citizens. Findings indicate the need to contemplate the consequences of ageing for societies and to discuss the impact these have for the values dominating contemporary post-welfare states. European welfare states were based on a balanced combination of three values: freedom, equality, and solidarity. Because these values are misbalanced now, equal accessibility of care and conditions for social participation are disappearing. Therefore, we shall have to think about new ways in which our societies can reaffirm basic human values. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Correction of scan time dependence of standard uptake values in oncological PET

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Standard uptake values (SUV) as well as tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratios (SUR) measured with [ 18F-]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET are time dependent. This poses a serious problem for reliable quantification since variability of scan start time relative to the time of injection is a persistent issue in clinical oncological Positron emission tomography (PET). In this work, we present a method for scan time correction of, both, SUR and SUV. Methods Assuming irreversible FDG kinetics, SUR is linearly correlated to Km (the metabolic rate of FDG), where the slope only depends on the shape of the arterial input function (AIF) and on scan time. Considering the approximately invariant shape of the AIF, this slope (the ‘Patlak time’) is an investigation independent function of scan time. This fact can be used to map SUR and SUV values from different investigations to a common time point for quantitative comparison. Additionally, it turns out that modelling the invariant AIF shape by an inverse power law is possible which further simplifies the correction procedure. The procedure was evaluated in 15 fully dynamic investigations of liver metastases from colorectal cancer and 10 dual time point (DTP) measurements. From each dynamic study, three ‘static scans’ at T=20,35,and 55 min post injection (p.i.) were created, where the last scan defined the reference time point to which the uptake values measured in the other two were corrected. The corrected uptake values were then compared to those actually measured at the reference time. For the DTP studies, the first scan (acquired at (78.1 ± 15.9) min p.i.) served as the reference, and the uptake values from the second scan (acquired (39.2 ± 9.9) min later) were corrected accordingly and compared to the reference. Results For the dynamic data, the observed difference between uncorrected values and values at reference time was (-52±4.5)% at T=20 min and (-31±3.7)% at T=35 min for SUR and (-30±6.6)% at T=20

  4. Correction and transformation of normative neurophysiological data: is there added value in the diagnosis of distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Mchugh, John C; Connolly, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Despite theoretical advantages, the practical impact of mathematical correction of normative electrodiagnostic data is poorly quantified. One hundred five healthy volunteers had clinical and neurophysiological assessment. The effects of age, height, gender, weight, and body mass index were explored using stepwise regression modeling. Reference values were derived from raw and adjusted data, which were transformed to allow appropriate use of parametric statistics. The diagnostic accuracy of derived limits was tested in patients at risk of distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) from chemotherapy. The variability of our normative data was reduced by up to 69% through the use of regression modeling, but the overall benefits of mathematical correction were marginal. The most accurate reference limits were established using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the raw data. Stepwise statistical regression and mathematical transformation improve the distribution of normative data, but their practical impact for diagnosis of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is small. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Value of information analysis for corrective action unit No. 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    A value of information analysis has been completed as part of the corrective action process for Frenchman Flat, the first Nevada Test Site underground test area to be scheduled for the corrective action process. A value of information analysis is a cost-benefit analysis applied to the acquisition of new information which is needed to reduce the uncertainty in the prediction of a contaminant boundary surrounding underground nuclear tests in Frenchman Flat. The boundary location will be established to protect human health and the environment from the consequences of using contaminated groundwater on the Nevada Test Site. Uncertainties in the boundary predictions are assumed to be the result of data gaps. The value of information analysis in this document compares the cost of acquiring new information with the benefit of acquiring that information during the corrective action investigation at Frenchman Flat. Methodologies incorporated into the value of information analysis include previous geological modeling, groundwater flow modeling, contaminant transport modeling, statistics, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis, and decision analysis.

  6. Extrapolation-Based References Improve Motion and Eddy-Current Correction of High B-Value DWI Data: Application in Parkinson's Disease Dementia.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Markus; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Hansson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Conventional motion and eddy-current correction, where each diffusion-weighted volume is registered to a non diffusion-weighted reference, suffers from poor accuracy for high b-value data. An alternative approach is to extrapolate reference volumes from low b-value data. We aim to compare the performance of conventional and extrapolation-based correction of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data, and to demonstrate the impact of the correction approach on group comparison studies. DKI was performed in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and healthy age-matched controls, using b-values of up to 2750 s/mm2. The accuracy of conventional and extrapolation-based correction methods was investigated. Parameters from DTI and DKI were compared between patients and controls in the cingulum and the anterior thalamic projection tract. Conventional correction resulted in systematic registration errors for high b-value data. The extrapolation-based methods did not exhibit such errors, yielding more accurate tractography and up to 50% lower standard deviation in DKI metrics. Statistically significant differences were found between patients and controls when using the extrapolation-based motion correction that were not detected when using the conventional method. We recommend that conventional motion and eddy-current correction should be abandoned for high b-value data in favour of more accurate methods using extrapolation-based references.

  7. Extrapolation-Based References Improve Motion and Eddy-Current Correction of High B-Value DWI Data: Application in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Markus; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Hansson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conventional motion and eddy-current correction, where each diffusion-weighted volume is registered to a non diffusion-weighted reference, suffers from poor accuracy for high b-value data. An alternative approach is to extrapolate reference volumes from low b-value data. We aim to compare the performance of conventional and extrapolation-based correction of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data, and to demonstrate the impact of the correction approach on group comparison studies. Methods DKI was performed in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), and healthy age-matched controls, using b-values of up to 2750 s/mm2. The accuracy of conventional and extrapolation-based correction methods was investigated. Parameters from DTI and DKI were compared between patients and controls in the cingulum and the anterior thalamic projection tract. Results Conventional correction resulted in systematic registration errors for high b-value data. The extrapolation-based methods did not exhibit such errors, yielding more accurate tractography and up to 50% lower standard deviation in DKI metrics. Statistically significant differences were found between patients and controls when using the extrapolation-based motion correction that were not detected when using the conventional method. Conclusion We recommend that conventional motion and eddy-current correction should be abandoned for high b-value data in favour of more accurate methods using extrapolation-based references. PMID:26528541

  8. Correcting incompatible DN values and geometric errors in nighttime lights time series images

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Zhou, Yuyu; Samson, Eric L.

    2014-09-19

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime lights imagery has proven to be a powerful remote sensing tool to monitor urbanization and assess socioeconomic activities at large scales. However, the existence of incompatible digital number (DN) values and geometric errors severely limit application of nighttime light image data on multi-year quantitative research. In this study we extend and improve previous studies on inter-calibrating nighttime lights image data to obtain more compatible and reliable nighttime lights time series (NLT) image data for China and the United States (US) through four steps: inter-calibration, geometric correction, steady increase adjustment, and population data correction. We then use gross domestic product (GDP) data to test the processed NLT image data indirectly and find that sum light (summed DN value of pixels in a nighttime light image) maintains apparent increase trends with relatively large GDP growth rates but does not increase or decrease with relatively small GDP growth rates. As nighttime light is a sensitive indicator for economic activity, the temporally consistent trends between sum light and GDP growth rate imply that brightness of nighttime lights on the ground is correctly represented by the processed NLT image data. Finally, through analyzing the corrected NLT image data from 1992 to 2008, we find that China experienced apparent nighttime lights development in 1992-1997 and 2001-2008 respectively and the US suffered from nighttime lights decay in large areas after 2001.

  9. Correcting cross-cultural stereotypes: aging in Shanghai and Canada.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Neena L

    2003-06-01

    This paper challenges common belief that the aging experience is primarily different for seniors in Asia and those in western cultures. The examination reveals that there are many differences in the life situation of seniors living in mainland China and those living in Canada, with Shanghais seniors living in much greater poverty, with much less education and typically not alone when compared to Canadian seniors whether they be of Chinese origin or not. The Shanghais are also in worse health and perceive themselves to be in worse health. However, when examining the predictors of subjective quality of life, life satisfaction, in both cultures it is social support and health that predict life satisfaction. The form that social support takes (the importance of sons is clearly evident in Shanghai, whereas spouses are more important in Canada) and the particular physical health problems that one might suffer from differ across cultures but it is social support and health that appear to be universal in their affects on our subjective quality of life. Similarly when examining caregivers there are many differences evident across the cultures but when examining subjective burden in both cultures it is the deteriorated health of the care receiver that is the major predictor of burden. The data suggest that there are cross-cultural universals, with particularistic forms.

  10. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    Seismic images of the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, reveal crustal-scale duplexing: Correction Geology, v. 23, p. 65 68 (January 1995) The correct Figure 4A, for the loose insert, is given here. See Figure 4A below. Corrected inserts will be available to those requesting copies of the article from the senior author, Gary S. Fuis, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Figure 4A. P-wave velocity model of Brooks Range region (thin gray contours) with migrated wide-angle reflections (heavy red lines) and migreated vertical-incidence reflections (short black lines) superimposed. Velocity contour interval is 0.25 km/s; 4,5, and 6 km/s contours are labeled. Estimated error in velocities is one contour interval. Symbols on faults shown at top are as in Figure 2 caption.

  11. "Mind the Gap": Bridging Cultural, Age, and Value Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigrigg, Carin

    Students in a University of New Mexico English extension class at Kirtland Air Force Base differ in age, culture, values, and skills, all of which must be taken into account by the instructor. Most of these students are returning students with past experiences and education which most traditional students do not have, and at least half the class…

  12. Corrections to the apparent value of the cosmological constant due to local inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Chen, Pisin E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2011-10-01

    Supernovae observations strongly support the presence of a cosmological constant, but its value, which we will call apparent, is normally determined assuming that the Universe can be accurately described by a homogeneous model. Even in the presence of a cosmological constant we cannot exclude nevertheless the presence of a small local inhomogeneity which could affect the apparent value of the cosmological constant. Neglecting the presence of the inhomogeneity can in fact introduce a systematic misinterpretation of cosmological data, leading to the distinction between an apparent and true value of the cosmological constant. We establish the theoretical framework to calculate the corrections to the apparent value of the cosmological constant by modeling the local inhomogeneity with a ΛLTB solution. Our assumption to be at the center of a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous matter distribution correspond to effectively calculate the monopole contribution of the large scale inhomogeneities surrounding us, which we expect to be the dominant one, because of other observations supporting a high level of isotropy of the Universe around us. By performing a local Taylor expansion we analyze the number of independent degrees of freedom which determine the local shape of the inhomogeneity, and consider the issue of central smoothness, showing how the same correction can correspond to different inhomogeneity profiles. Contrary to previous attempts to fit data using large void models our approach is quite general. The correction to the apparent value of the cosmological constant is in fact present for local inhomogeneities of any size, and should always be taken appropriately into account both theoretically and observationally.

  13. Corrections.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Lai Y-S, Biedermann P, Ekpo UF, et al. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and treatment needs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; published online May 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00066-3—Figure 1 of this Article should have contained a box stating ‘100 references added’ with an arrow pointing inwards, rather than a box stating ‘199 records excluded’, and an asterisk should have been added after ‘1473 records extracted into GNTD’. Additionally, the positioning of the ‘§ and ‘†’ footnotes has been corrected in table 1. These corrections have been made to the online version as of June 4, 2015.

  14. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    In the article by Guessous et al (Guessous I, Pruijm M, Ponte B, Ackermann D, Ehret G, Ansermot N, Vuistiner P, Staessen J, Gu Y, Paccaud F, Mohaupt M, Vogt B, Pechère-Bertschi A, Martin PY, Burnier M, Eap CB, Bochud M. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions. Hypertension. 2015;65:691–696. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04512), which published online ahead of print December 8, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed.One of the author surnames was misspelled. Antoinette Pechère-Berstchi has been corrected to read Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi.The authors apologize for this error.

  15. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  16. Potential misinterpretation of the nutritional value of dietary fiber: correcting fiber digestibility values for nondietary gut-interfering material.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied. To date, little attention has been given to this nondietary interfering material, which appears to be influenced by the type and concentration of fiber in the diet. Interestingly, estimates of dietary fiber digestibility increase substantially when corrected for the nondietary interfering material, which suggests that currently reported values underestimate the digestibility of dietary fiber and may misrepresent where, in the digestive tract, fermentation of fiber occurs. A new perspective of dietary fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract is developing, leading to a better understanding of the contribution of dietary fiber to health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [THE VALUE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN AGING].

    PubMed

    Arrabal León, Nazaret; Postigo Mota, Salvador; Casado Verdejo, Inés; Muñoz Bermejo, Laura; Rayego Sánchez, Carmen; Pinto Montealegre, Jose Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, acquiring, managing, disseminating and understanding information through new technologies is an important aspect of our daily life. We can search for and store information, but we can also spread it. The proper handling of information and communications technology (TICs) is beneficial, but does not reach all alike. The difficulties posed by the elderly when adapting to TICs are increased by the fact that they are unknown and unfamiliar to them, resulting in rejection from the elderly and thus an increased risk of inequality and social exclusion. TICs value in aging lies in the improvement of self-learning and personal development as well as in promoting participation, social integration and healthy aging.

  18. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  19. Nursing values and a changing nurse workforce: values, age, and job stages.

    PubMed

    McNeese-Smith, Donna K; Crook, Mary

    2003-05-01

    To identify the extent values are associated with age group and job stage; job satisfaction, productivity, and organizational commitment; as well as education, generation, ethnicity, gender, and role. Values direct the priorities we live by and are related to employee loyalty and commitment. Lack of congruency between a nurse's personal values and those of the organization decrease satisfaction and effectiveness and may lead to burnout and turnover. Little research has been done on whether values differ by age, generations, or job stages. Nurses in all roles (N = 412) in three hospitals in Los Angeles County were randomly surveyed, using valid and reliable instruments to measure the variables of interest. Nurses in the top third for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and productivity showed higher scores for many values including their associates, creativity, esthetics, and management, while those in the bottom third scored higher in economic returns only. Nurses in different generations differed little; younger generations placed higher values on economic returns and variety. Management strategies to meet nurses' values and increase their satisfaction and retention are presented.

  20. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    Alleged mosasaur bite marks on Late Cretaceous ammonites are limpet (patellogastropod) home scars Geology, v. 26, p. 947 950 (October 1998) This article had the following printing errors: p. 947, Abstract, line 11, “sepia” should be “septa” p. 947, 1st paragraph under Introduction, line 2, “creep” should be “deep” p. 948, column 1, 2nd paragraph, line 7, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 1, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 5, “19774” should be “1977)” p. 949, column 1, 4th paragraph, line 7, “in particular” should be “In particular” CORRECTION Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Geology, v. 26, p. 1011 1014 (November 1998) An error appeared in the References Cited. The correct reference appears below: Fricke, H. C., Clyde, W. C., O'Neil, J. R., and Gingerich, P. D., 1998, Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming): Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 160, p. 193 208.

  1. The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.

    PubMed

    Boonekamp, Jelle J; Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Molecular studies of aging aim to unravel the cause(s) of aging bottom-up, but linking these mechanisms to organismal level processes remains a challenge. We propose that complementary top-down data-directed modelling of organismal level empirical findings may contribute to developing these links. To this end, we explore the heuristic value of redundancy models of aging to develop a deeper insight into the mechanisms causing variation in senescence and lifespan. We start by showing (i) how different redundancy model parameters affect projected aging and mortality, and (ii) how variation in redundancy model parameters relates to variation in parameters of the Gompertz equation. Lifestyle changes or medical interventions during life can modify mortality rate, and we investigate (iii) how interventions that change specific redundancy parameters within the model affect subsequent mortality and actuarial senescence. Lastly, as an example of data-directed modelling and the insights that can be gained from this, (iv) we fit a redundancy model to mortality patterns observed by Mair et al. (2003; Science 301: 1731-1733) in Drosophila that were subjected to dietary restriction and temperature manipulations. Mair et al. found that dietary restriction instantaneously reduced mortality rate without affecting aging, while temperature manipulations had more transient effects on mortality rate and did affect aging. We show that after adjusting model parameters the redundancy model describes both effects well, and a comparison of the parameter values yields a deeper insight in the mechanisms causing these contrasting effects. We see replacement of the redundancy model parameters by more detailed sub-models of these parameters as a next step in linking demographic patterns to underlying molecular mechanisms.

  2. Correction of deposit ages for inherited ages of charcoal: implications for sediment dynamics inferred from random sampling of deposits on headwater valley floors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, W. Terry; Lancaster, Stephen T.

    2014-03-01

    ˜103 m long and within ˜102 m of 2 tributary confluences. Mean inherited ages from the observed distributions are 666, 688, and 1506 yr for debris-flow deposits, fluvial fines, and fluvial gravels, respectively. On average, correction reduced estimates of individual deposit age means by a factor of 0.71 (0.56-0.94) and increased standard deviations by a factor of 6.1 (0.97-43). Across sites, mean residence times decreased by 24.0% and standard deviations by 12.5% on average. Corrected residence time distributions have thicker tails, as indicated by gamma-distribution fits with smaller shape factors, and these changes are significant relative to the bootstrapped 95% confidence limits representing potential error in the sampling for inherited ages. The ratio of the means of sediment age and residence time ranged from 1.03 to 1.80 across sites before correction and 1.21 to 2.18 after correction, where a value of one implies that probability of evacuation from the “reservoir” comprising valley-floor deposits is independent of time since deposition. Corrected values of this ratio therefore indicate that evacuation favors younger deposits at all sites, whereas uncorrected results implied age-independent evacuation from the more downstream valley reach.

  3. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference.

  4. Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured Behind Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air–quartz and sample–quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40–60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Finally, empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300–2300 nm range.

  5. Intensity-value corrections for integrating sphere measurements of solid samples measured behind glass.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Bernacki, Bruce E; Redding, Rebecca L; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S; Myers, Tanya L; Stephan, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40-60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300-2300 nm range.

  6. Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet-aged and dry-aged beef steaks.

    PubMed

    Sitz, B M; Calkins, C R; Feuz, D M; Umberger, W J; Eskridge, K M

    2006-05-01

    To determine sensory preference and value of fresh beef steak differing in aging technique, strip steaks were evaluated by consumers in Denver (n = 132 consumers) and Chicago (n = 141 consumers). Wet-aged Choice strip loins were matched with dry-aged Choice strip loins, whereas wet-aged Prime strip loins were matched with dry-aged Prime strip loins. Dry-aged strip loins were commercially aged in air in a controlled environment for 30 d and vacuum-aged for 7 d during shipping and storage. Wet-aged strip loins were vacuum-packaged and aged for 37 d in a 1 degrees C cooler. Pairs of strip loins were matched to similar Warner-Bratzler shear force values and marbling scores. Twelve sensory evaluation panels (of 12 scheduled panelists each) were conducted over a 3-d period in each city. Individual samples from a pair of steaks were evaluated by the panelists for sensory traits. Bids were placed on the samples after sensory traits were obtained utilizing a variation of the Vickery auction with silent, sealed bids. No significant differences for sensory traits of flavor, juiciness, tenderness, or overall acceptability were detected between wet-aged Choice samples and dry-aged Choice samples. Although wet-aged Choice samples were numerically superior for all sensory traits, consumers placed similar bid values (P = 0.12) on wet- and dry-aged Choice samples ($3.82 per 0.45 kg and $3.57 per 0.45 kg, respectively). Wet-aged Prime samples were rated more desirable (P < 0.001) for flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptability than dry-aged Prime samples. Wet-aged Prime samples were valued at $4.02 per 0.45 kg, whereas dry-aged Prime samples brought $3.58 per 0.45 kg (P = 0.008). Consumers (29.3%) who preferred the dry-aged Choice samples over the wet-aged Choice samples were willing to pay $1.99/0.45 kg more (P < 0.001) for dry-aged samples. The consumers who preferred the wet-aged Choice over the dry-aged Choice samples (39.2%) were willing to pay $1.77/0.45 kg more (P < 0

  7. Significance of the cosmogenic argon correction in deciphering the 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Nakhlite (Martian) meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. E.; Cassata, W.; Mark, D. F.; Tomkinson, T.; Lee, M. R.; Smith, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    All meteorites contain variable amounts of cosmogenic 38Ar and 36Ar produced during extraterrestrial exposure, and in order to calculate reliable 40Ar/39Ar ages this cosmogenic Ar must be removed from the total Ar budget. The amount of cosmogenic Ar has usually been calculated from the step-wise 38Ar/36Ar, minimum 36Ar/37Ar, or average 38Arcosmogenic/37Ar from the irradiated meteorite fragment. However, if Cl is present in the meteorite, then these values will be disturbed by Ar produced during laboratory neutron irradiation of Cl. Chlorine is likely to be a particular issue for the Nakhlite group of Martian meteorites, which can contain over 1000 ppm Cl [1]. An alternative method for the cosmogenic Ar correction uses the meteorite's exposure age as calculated from an un-irradiated fragment and step-wise production rates based on the measured Ca/K [2]. This calculation is independent of the Cl concentration. We applied this correction method to seven Nakhlites, analyzed in duplicate or triplicate. Selected samples were analyzed at both Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SUERC to ensure inter-laboratory reproducibility. We find that the cosmogenic argon correction of [2] has a significant influence on the ages calculated for individual steps, particularly for those at lower temperatures (i.e., differences of several tens of million years for some steps). The lower-temperature steps are more influenced by the alternate cosmogenic correction method of [2], as these analyses yielded higher concentrations of Cl-derived 38Ar. As a result, the Nakhlite data corrected using [2] yields step-heating spectra that are flat or nearly so across >70% of the release spectra (in contrast to downward-stepping spectra often reported for Nakhlite samples), allowing for the calculation of precise emplacement ages for these meteorites. [1] Cartwright J. A. et al. (2013) GCA, 105, 255-293. [2] Cassata W. S., and Borg L. E. (2015) 46th LPSC, Abstract #2742.

  8. Effects of correcting missing daily feed intake values on the genetic parameters and estimated breeding values for feeding traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuya; Fukawa, Kazuo; Kamikawa, Mai; Nikaidou, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Arakawa, Aisaku; Tanaka, Genki; Mikawa, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tsutomu; Hirose, Kensuke

    2017-08-30

    Daily feed intake (DFI) is an important consideration for improving feed efficiency, but measurements using electronic feeder systems contain many missing and incorrect values. Therefore, we evaluated three methods for correcting missing DFI data (quadratic, orthogonal polynomial, and locally weighted (Loess) regression equations) and assessed the effects of these missing values on the genetic parameters and the estimated breeding values (EBV) for feeding traits. DFI records were obtained from 1622 Duroc pigs, comprising 902 individuals without missing DFI and 720 individuals with missing DFI. The Loess equation was the most suitable method for correcting the missing DFI values in 5-50% randomly deleted datasets among the three equations. Both variance components and heritability for the average DFI (ADFI) did not change because of the missing DFI proportion and Loess correction. In terms of rank correlation and information criteria, Loess correction improved the accuracy of EBV for ADFI compared to randomly deleted cases. These findings indicate that the Loess equation is useful for correcting missing DFI values for individual pigs and that the correction of missing DFI values could be effective for the estimation of breeding values and genetic improvement using EBV for feeding traits. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Preparing Corrections Staff for the Future: Results of a 2-Day Training About Aging Inmates.

    PubMed

    Masters, Julie L; Magnuson, Thomas M; Bayer, Barbara L; Potter, Jane F; Falkowski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    The aging of the prison population presents corrections staff with unique challenges in knowing how to support inmates while maintaining security. This article describes a 2-day training program to introduce the aging process to select staff at all levels. While the results of a pre-posttest measure, using a modified version of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, did not produce a statistically significant difference at the conclusion of the training, attendees did express satisfaction with the training and their newfound insight into the challenges faced by aging inmates. They also offered recommendations for future training to include more practical suggestions for the work environment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The evidential value of developmental age imaging for assessing age of majority

    PubMed Central

    Cole, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To consider the evidential value of developmental age images for identifying age of majority. Methods: The published literature on hand–wrist X-rays, MRI scans of the distal radius and orthopantomograms of the lower left third molar is considered in terms of the mean age of attainment of the adult appearance and the diagnostic test performance of the adult appearance to predict adult status, either administratively (under-17 football) or forensically. Results: The mean age of attainment of a mature hand-wrist X-ray is under 18 years and most individuals are mature before age 18. For the MRI wrist scan and the third molar the age of attainment is over 19 years and the adult appearance is an indicator of adulthood, while the immature appearance is uninformative about likely age. So MRI and third molars have high specificity, but low sensitivity. Conclusions: Bone age assessed by hand–wrist X-ray is uninformative and should not be used. The adult appearance of MRI wrist scans and third molars provide evidence of being over-age, although there remains a small risk of minors being misclassified as adult. The immature appearance is uninformative about likely age and, overall, more than one third of assessments are wrong. PMID:26133364

  11. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Audiograms F Appendix F to Part 227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. F Appendix F to Part 227—Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms This appendix is...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 227 - Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Audiograms F Appendix F to Part 227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. F Appendix F to Part 227—Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms This appendix is...

  13. Leadership in elephants: the adaptive value of age

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Durant, Sarah M.; Sayialel, Katito; Slotow, Rob; Poole, Joyce; Moss, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The value of age is well recognized in human societies, where older individuals often emerge as leaders in tasks requiring specialized knowledge, but what part do such individuals play in other social species? Despite growing interest in how effective leadership might be achieved in animal social systems, the specific role that older leaders may play in decision-making has rarely been experimentally investigated. Here, we use a novel playback paradigm to demonstrate that in African elephants (Loxodonta africana), age affects the ability of matriarchs to make ecologically relevant decisions in a domain critical to survival—the assessment of predatory threat. While groups consistently adjust their defensive behaviour to the greater threat of three roaring lions versus one, families with younger matriarchs typically under-react to roars from male lions despite the severe danger they represent. Sensitivity to this key threat increases with matriarch age and is greatest for the oldest matriarchs, who are likely to have accumulated the most experience. Our study provides the first empirical evidence that individuals within a social group may derive significant benefits from the influence of an older leader because of their enhanced ability to make crucial decisions about predatory threat, generating important insights into selection for longevity in cognitively advanced social mammals. PMID:21411454

  14. Introduction of a new critical p value correction method for statistical significance analysis of metabonomics data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Shi, Zhanquan; Weber, Georg F.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabonomics is of growing importance for discovery of human disease biomarkers. Identification and validation of disease biomarkers using statistical significance analysis (SSA) is critical for translation to clinical practice. SSA is performed by assessing a null hypothesis test using a derivative of the Student’s t test, e.g., a Welch’s t test. Choosing how to correct the significance level for rejecting null hypotheses in the case of multiple testing to maintain a constant family-wise type I error rate is a common problem in such tests. The multiple testing problem arises because the likelihood of falsely rejecting the null hypothesis, i.e., a false positive, grows as the number of tests applied to the same data set increases. Several methods have been introduced to address this problem. Bonferroni correction (BC) assumes all variables are independent and therefore sacrifices sensitivity for detecting true positives in partially dependent data sets. False discovery rate (FDR) methods are more sensitive than BC but uniformly ascribe highest stringency to lowest p value variables. Here, we introduce standard deviation step down (SDSD), which is more sensitive and appropriate than BC for partially dependent data sets. Sensitivity and type I error rate of SDSD can be adjusted based on the degree of variable dependency. SDSD generates fundamentally different profiles of critical p values compared with FDR methods potentially leading to reduced type II error rates. SDSD is increasingly sensitive for more concentrated metabolites. SDSD is demonstrated using NMR-based metabonomics data collected on three different breast cancer cell line extracts. PMID:24026514

  15. Introduction of a new critical p value correction method for statistical significance analysis of metabonomics data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Shi, Zhanquan; Weber, Georg F; Kennedy, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabonomics is of growing importance for discovery of human disease biomarkers. Identification and validation of disease biomarkers using statistical significance analysis (SSA) is critical for translation to clinical practice. SSA is performed by assessing a null hypothesis test using a derivative of the Student's t test, e.g., a Welch's t test. Choosing how to correct the significance level for rejecting null hypotheses in the case of multiple testing to maintain a constant family-wise type I error rate is a common problem in such tests. The multiple testing problem arises because the likelihood of falsely rejecting the null hypothesis, i.e., a false positive, grows as the number of tests applied to the same data set increases. Several methods have been introduced to address this problem. Bonferroni correction (BC) assumes all variables are independent and therefore sacrifices sensitivity for detecting true positives in partially dependent data sets. False discovery rate (FDR) methods are more sensitive than BC but uniformly ascribe highest stringency to lowest p value variables. Here, we introduce standard deviation step down (SDSD), which is more sensitive and appropriate than BC for partially dependent data sets. Sensitivity and type I error rate of SDSD can be adjusted based on the degree of variable dependency. SDSD generates fundamentally different profiles of critical p values compared with FDR methods potentially leading to reduced type II error rates. SDSD is increasingly sensitive for more concentrated metabolites. SDSD is demonstrated using NMR-based metabonomics data collected on three different breast cancer cell line extracts.

  16. Age-related changes in the signal value of tears.

    PubMed

    Zeifman, Debra M; Brown, Sarah A

    2011-08-12

    Emotional tears may be uniquely human and are an effective signal of distress in adults. The present study explored whether tears signal distress in younger criers and whether the effect of tears on observers is similar in magnitude across the life span. Participants rated photographs of crying infants, young children, and adults, with tears digitally removed or added. The effectiveness of tears in conveying sadness and eliciting sympathy was greatest for images of adults, intermediate for images of children, and least potent for images of infants. These findings suggest that the signal value of tears varies with the age of the crier. The results may shed light on the functional significance of crying at different stages of human development.

  17. Developing a training program on issues in aging for correctional workers.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, Patricia K; Zupan, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    Older adults who are incarcerated and living in prisons represent an increasing, yet invisible, group among the aging population. Two factors in particular have contributed to this growth: the aging of the general population and the escalating number of prisoners serving long sentences. Working effectively with older inmates poses a challenge for correctional workers who are accustomed to dealing with a much younger clientele. In many states, correctional employees are required to obtain annual training, and educational institutions can play a major role in providing the expertise necessary in the development of quality training materials on issues related to aging. While continuing education programs to address the needs of workers in community-based and long-term care settings have grown rapidly, they have made negligible progress in more obscure settings such as prisons. This paper discusses the development of a 6-hour training program entitled "Issues in Aging for Correctional Workers." The training was developed through the interdisciplinary collaborative efforts of two faculty members who teach in the criminal justice and sociology/social work departments at a medium-sized liberal arts university in the upper Midwest.

  18. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Norms for letter and category fluency: demographic corrections for age, education, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Gladsjo, J A; Schuman, C C; Evans, J D; Peavy, G M; Miller, S W; Heaton, R K

    1999-06-01

    Letter and category fluency tasks are used to assess semantic knowledge, retrieval ability, and executive functioning. They appear to be useful in detecting different types of dementia, but accurate detection of neuropsychological impairment relies on appropriate normative data. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop demographically corrected norms for letter and category fluency in 768 normal adults. T-score equations were developed on a base subsample of 403, and crossvalidated on a separate subsample (n = 365). Participants ranged in age from 20 years to 101 years; in educational level from 0 to 20 years; 55% were Caucasian and 45% were African American. Together, age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors of letter and category fluency performance, accounting for 15% and 25% of variance, respectively. Formulas and tables for converting raw fluency scores to demographically corrected T scores are presented.

  20. [Correctly evaluate the role of visual acuity in age-related macular degeneration treatment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss in aged population. As the aging of population, the prevalence of AMD increases gradually. Anti-VEGF medication intravitreal injection, which can obtain good therapeutic efficiency and is relatively safe, becomes the main therapy for neovascular AMD. However, high-frequency repeated treatment increases the intravitreal injections risk, as well as the costs. In clinical practice, to pursue the best-corrected visual acuity, high-frequency repeated injections are implemented and inflict psychological pressure and economic burden on patients. The author believes that to pursue the best corrected visual acuity is the ultimate aim but not the only one for every ophthalmologist and patient. The activity of lesions should be overall evaluated with fundus imaging technologies. Being people-oriented is the principle in clinical medicine. A treatment plan is made according to the patients' sickness and economy and to coordinate the relation between the best corrected visual acuity and the numbers of treatment. Based on the stabilized lesion, patient should be benefited at the lowest risk and cost with the best effect.

  1. Value of the correct diagnostic pathway through conventional imaging (mammography and ultrasound) in evaluating breast disease.

    PubMed

    Pistolese, C A; Perretta, T; Cossu, E; Della Gatta, F; Giura, S; Simonetti, G

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the role of the correct diagnostic pathway through conventional imaging in evaluating breast disease. Six hundred patients aged between 35 and 75 years were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent detailed history and clinical examination, ultrasound (US) and mammography. US scans were repeated after mammography. All suspicious lesions were studied by cytological and histological characterisation and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The first US scan showed 147 solid lesions, 67 lesions characterised by posterior acoustic shadowing and 193 areas of heterogeneous echostructure. The second US scan, performed after mammography, confirmed 123/147 solid nodular lesions, 53/67 lesions characterised by posterior acoustic shadowing and 183/193 areas of heterogeneous echostructure; it also showed 13 nodular lesions not seen on the first scan and two cases of nodular lesions with irregular calcifications. Our experience suggests that US not performed in conjunction with mammography gives rise to incorrect diagnostic interpretations (either false positive or false negative results). The detection rate of the US scan performed after mammography increases from 4.16% to 5.5%.

  2. [Age-associated reproductive cycle hypothalamic regulation impairment and its correction].

    PubMed

    Arutiunian, A V; Korenevskiĭ, A V

    2014-01-01

    This review covers present-day ideas of the female organism reproductive system neuroendocrine regulation in aging. The literature data on the key role of the hypothalamus in formation, organization and age-related decline of the reproductive function in both mammals and humans are considered in detail. Special focus is on catecholamines, peptides and other biologically active compounds acting in these processes. The authors discuss data showing interaction between the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus and the pineal gland synchronizing circadian and diurnal rhythms of gonadotropine-releasing hormone being normally synthesised and secreted during the reproductive period, but failing in aging or under the influence of neurotoxic compounds. Molecular mechanisms of ovarian cycle hypothalamic regulation impairment and possible ways of its correction by means of melatonin and peptide preparations from the pineal gland are described. The data presented may be of utility to prevent premature aging of reproductive function.

  3. Value of attenuation correction in stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging using CZT-SPECT.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, J D; Mouden, M; Ottervanger, J P; van Dalen, J A; Knollema, S; Slump, C H; Jager, P L

    2017-04-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) improves the diagnostic outcome of stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using conventional SPECT. Our aim was to determine the value of AC using a cadmium zinc telluride-based (CZT)-SPECT camera. We retrospectively included 107 consecutive patients who underwent stress-optional rest MPI CZT-SPECT/CT. Next, we created three types of images for each patient; (1) only displaying reconstructed data without the CT-based AC (NC), (2) only displaying AC, and (3) with both NC and AC (NC + AC). Next, two experienced physicians visually interpreted these 321 randomized images as normal, equivocal, or abnormal. Image outcome was compared with all hard events over a mean follow-up time of 47.7 ± 9.8 months. The percentage of images interpreted as normal increased from 45% using the NC images to 72% using AC and to 67% using NC + AC images (P < .001). Hard event hazard ratios for images interpreted as normal were not different between using NC and AC (1.01, P = .99), or NC and NC + AC images (0.97, P = .97). AC lowers the need for additional rest imaging in stress-first MPI using CZT-SPECT, while long-term patient outcome remained identical. Use of AC reduces the need for additional rest imaging, decreasing the mean effective dose by up to 1.2 mSv.

  4. Automatic and improved radiometric correction of Landsat imagery using reference values from MODIS surface reflectance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, X.; Pesquer, L.; Cristóbal, J.; González-Guerrero, O.

    2014-12-01

    Radiometric correction is a prerequisite for generating high-quality scientific data, making it possible to discriminate between product artefacts and real changes in Earth processes as well as accurately produce land cover maps and detect changes. This work contributes to the automatic generation of surface reflectance products for Landsat satellite series. Surface reflectances are generated by a new approach developed from a previous simplified radiometric (atmospheric + topographic) correction model. The proposed model keeps the core of the old model (incidence angles and cast-shadows through a digital elevation model [DEM], Earth-Sun distance, etc.) and adds new characteristics to enhance and automatize ground reflectance retrieval. The new model includes the following new features: (1) A fitting model based on reference values from pseudoinvariant areas that have been automatically extracted from existing reflectance products (Terra MODIS MOD09GA) that were selected also automatically by applying quality criteria that include a geostatistical pattern model. This guarantees the consistency of the internal and external series, making it unnecessary to provide extra atmospheric data for the acquisition date and time, dark objects or dense vegetation. (2) A spatial model for atmospheric optical depth that uses detailed DEM and MODTRAN simulations. (3) It is designed so that large time-series of images can be processed automatically to produce consistent Landsat surface reflectance time-series. (4) The approach can handle most images, acquired now or in the past, regardless of the processing system, with the exception of those with extremely high cloud coverage. The new methodology has been successfully applied to a series of near 300 images of the same area including MSS, TM and ETM+ imagery as well as to different formats and processing systems (LPGS and NLAPS from the USGS; CEOS from ESA) for different degrees of cloud coverage (up to 60%) and SLC

  5. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF HYPERREFLECTIVE FOCI IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION TREATED WITH BEVACIZUMAB.

    PubMed

    Segal, Ori; Barayev, Edward; Nemet, Arie Y; Geffen, Noa; Vainer, Igor; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-11-01

    To study the prognostic value of optical coherence tomography hyperreflective foci (HF) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Charts of naive neovascular age-related macular degeneration eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab between January 2011 and January 2014 were reviewed, and optical coherence tomography was collected at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. The presence, location (inner vs. outer retinal layers), and number (few = [0-10], moderate [11-20], many [>20]) of HF were graded. Overall, charts of 111 eyes were reviewed and 76 eyes of 73 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was lower in eyes with HF > 20 (P = 0.001), inner layer HF (P = 0.009), increased central retinal thickness (P < 0.001), and intraretinal fluid (P < 0.001). Baseline HF > 20 (P = 0.002), inner layer HF (P = 0.01), increased central retinal thickness (P < 0.001), and intraretinal fluid (P = 0.001) had worst best-corrected visual acuity at 12 months. Eyes with intraretinal fluid, HF > 20, and HF adjacent to intraretinal fluid demonstrated a greater reduction in central retinal thickness; only baseline HF > 20 remained significant in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). Eyes with a reduction in HF (P = 0.02) and resolution of inner layer HF (P = 0.01) had a greater central retinal thickness reduction. Quantity and location of HF are of prognostic value in intravitreal bevacizumab-treated naive neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Increased awareness of specialists interpreting optical coherence tomography scans toward the number and location of HF is prudent.

  6. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p < 0.0001; β = -104.1, 95% CI = -151.4; -56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  7. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed Central

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants. PMID:27782098

  8. Frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dianju; Li, Gehong; Fang, Lin; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls) with an average age of 6 years (range, 3-10 years) with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%); the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%); blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results.

  9. Frontalis Muscle Flap Suspension for the Correction of Congenital Blepharoptosis in Early Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dianju; Li, Gehong; Fang, Lin; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. Methods This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls) with an average age of 6 years (range, 3–10 years) with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. Results The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%); the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%); blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. Conclusion Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results. PMID:23308158

  10. Fold-change correction values for testicular somatic transcripts in gene expression studies of human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Feig, Caroline; Schulze, Wolfgang; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2013-03-01

    for all spermatogenic levels and were compiled in a reference crosstable. Validation on an independent test set showed ratios within 0.5 units of our reference crosstable. Analysis of the resulting transcripts with respect to functional enrichment for Sertoli- and Leydig-cell-specific functions and protein expression, as obtained from an immunohistochemical database, indicated filtering of data sets highly enriched for Sertoli and Leydig cell function. The dilution/enrichment ratios differed significantly when transcripts were interrogated in samples with Y-chromosomal microdeletions, pointing to an overall decreased expression of somatic markers in a genetically altered background. The defined reference ratios might apply with some restrictions in samples that display very heterogeneous histology (e.g. Sertoli cell only with a significant proportion of spermatogenic foci) or when spermatogenic impairment is a consequence of an altered genetic background. The reference dilution/enrichment values for somatic testicular transcripts as defined in this study are to be seen as cut-off values for discriminating between simple transcript dilution/enrichment as a consequence of an altered germ cell composition and actual transcriptional regulation. Future studies dealing with transcriptional changes in testicular somatic cells in a background of altered germ cell quantities should consider these correction factors in order to avoid the description of transcriptional changes that are based simply on shifts in somatic cellular quantities. Financial support was from grant Sp721/1-3 of the German Research Foundation. There are no competing interests to be declared.

  11. Absolute and estimated values of macular pigment optical density in young and aged Asian participants with or without age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Yoko; Shigeno, Yuta; Nagai, Norihiro; Suzuki, Misa; Kurihara, Toshihide; Minami, Sakiko; Hirano, Eri; Shinoda, Hajime; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-08-29

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are suggested micronutrient supplements to prevent the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness worldwide. To monitor the levels of lutein/zeaxanthin in the macula, macular pigment optical density (MPOD) is measured. A commercially available device (MPSII®, Elektron Technology, Switzerland), using technology based on heterochromatic flicker photometry, can measure both absolute and estimated values of MPOD. However, whether the estimated value is applicable to Asian individuals and/or AMD patients remains to be determined. The absolute and estimated values of MPOD were measured using the MPSII® device in 77 participants with a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) > 0.099 (logMAR score). The studied eyes included 17 young (20-29 years) healthy, 26 aged (>50 years) healthy, 18 aged and AMD-fellow, and 16 aged AMD eyes. The mean BCVA among the groups were not significantly different. Both absolute and estimated values were measurable in all eyes of young healthy group. However, absolute values were measurable in only 57.7%, 66.7%, and 43.8%, of the aged healthy, AMD-fellow, and AMD groups, respectively, and 56.7% of the eyes included in the 3 aged groups. In contrast, the estimated value was measurable in 84.6%, 88.9% and 93.8% of the groups, respectively, and 88.3% of eyes in the pooled aged group. The estimated value was correlated with absolute value in individuals from all groups by Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses (young healthy: R(2) = 0.885, P = 0.0001; aged healthy: R(2) = 0.765, P = 0.001; AMD-fellow: R(2) = 0.851, P = 0.0001; and AMD: R(2) = 0.860, P = 0.013). Using the estimated value, significantly lower MPOD values were found in aged AMD-related eyes, which included both AMD-fellow and AMD eyes, compared with aged healthy eyes by Student's t-test (P = 0.02). Absolute, in contrast to estimated, value was measurable in a limited number of aged participants

  12. A new approach to cosmogenic corrections in 40Ar/39Ar chronometry: Implications for the ages of Martian meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, W. S.; Borg, L. E.

    2016-05-04

    Anomalously old 40Ar/39Ar ages are commonly obtained from Shergottites and are generally attributed to uncertainties regarding the isotopic composition of the trapped component and/or the presence of excess 40Ar. Old ages can also be obtained if inaccurate corrections for cosmogenic 36Ar are applied. Current methods for making the cosmogenic correction require simplifying assumptions regarding the spatial homogeneity of target elements for cosmogenic production and the distribution of cosmogenic nuclides relative to trapped and reactor-derived Ar isotopes. To mitigate uncertainties arising from these assumptions, a new cosmogenic correction approach utilizing the exposure age determined on an un-irradiated aliquot and step-wise production rate estimates that account for spatial variations in Ca and K is described. Data obtained from NWA 4468 and an unofficial pairing of NWA 2975, which yield anomalously old ages when corrected for cosmogenic 36Ar using conventional techniques, are used to illustrate the efficacy of this new approach. For these samples, anomalous age determinations are rectified solely by the improved cosmogenic correction technique described herein. Ages of 188 ± 17 and 184 ± 17 Ma are obtained for NWA 4468 and NWA 2975, respectively, both of which are indistinguishable from ages obtained by other radioisotopic systems. For other Shergottites that have multiple trapped components, have experienced diffusive loss of Ar, or contain excess Ar, more accurate cosmogenic corrections may aid in the interpretation of anomalous ages. In conclusion, the trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratios inferred from inverse isochron diagrams obtained from NWA 4468 and NWA 2975 are significantly lower than the Martian atmospheric value, and may represent upper mantle or crustal components.

  13. Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation Las Vegas

    1999-11-19

    The value-of-information analysis evaluated data collection options for characterizing groundwater transport of contamination associated with the Yucca Flat and Climax Mine Corrective Action Units. Experts provided inputs for the evaluation of 48 characterization options, which included 27 component activities, 12 combinations of activities (subgroups), and 9 combinations of subgroups (groups). The options range from an individual study using existing data and intended to address a relatively narrow uncertainty to a 52-million dollar group of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to broadly address multiple uncertainties. A modified version of the contaminant transport component of the regional model was used to simulate contaminant transport and to estimate the maximum extent of the contaminant boundary, defined as that distance beyond which the committed effective dose equivalent from the residual radionuclides in groundwater will not exceed 4 millirem per year within 1,000 years. These simulations identified the model parameters most responsible for uncertainty over the contaminant boundary and determined weights indicating the relative importance of these parameters. Key inputs were identified through sensitivity analysis; the five selected parameters were flux for flow into Yucca Flat from the north, hydrologic source term, effective porosity and diffusion parameter for the Lower Carbonate Aquifer, and path length from the Volcanic Confining Unit to the Lower Carbonate Aquifer. Four measures were used to quantify uncertainty reduction. Using Bayesian analysis, the options were compared and ranked based on their costs and estimates of their effectiveness at reducing the key uncertainties relevant to predicting the maximum contaminant boundary.

  14. Prognostic value of extracardiac incidental findings on attenuation correction cardiac computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Alirhayim, Zaid; Khalid, Fatima; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2016-12-01

    Attenuation corrected computed tomography (CTAC) is often performed to improve the specificity of single-photon emission tomography imaging. Extracardiac incidental findings are frequently observed. It is unclear whether these findings have any prognostic value. Consecutive patients (n = 1139) at a tertiary care center were retrospectively evaluated for incidental findings on CTAC. Clinically significant incidental findings were defined as findings warranting physician follow-up. Information regarding subsequent resource utilization was obtained by chart review. Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographic and clinical variables was used to evaluate association of these incidental findings with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. A total of 135 (12%) patients with incidental findings were identified, 83 of whom (68%) were newly diagnosed. Lung nodules were the most common finding, present in 92 (68%) patients. Over a median follow-up of 468 days, incidental findings were not significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.77-2.33, P = 0.29) but was significantly associated with cancer-specific mortality (HR 3.21; 95% CI 1.26-8.14, P = 0.01). This association remained statistically significant when the analysis was limited to newly diagnosed incidental findings. Among patients with incidental findings, follow-up radiographic studies were conducted in 87%, and invasive procedures performed in 32%. Physician office-based follow-up of these findings occurred in 42% of patients and incidental finding-related hospitalization occurred in 14%. This study shows that incidental findings are common and were associated with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality but only the later remained statistically significant after multivariable adjustment.

  15. Clinical value of stress-only Tc-99m SPECT imaging: importance of attenuation correction.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shishir; Heller, Gary V; Bateman, Timothy M; Ruffin, Richard; Yekta, Arshad; Katten, Deborah; Alluri, Nitya; Ahlberg, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    In selected patients, stress-only SPECT imaging has been proposed as an alternative to rest-stress SPECT imaging to improve laboratory efficiency and reduce radiation exposure. The impact of attenuation correction (AC) upon interpretation, post-test patient management and cardiac risk stratification in relation to stress-only imaging is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical value for laboratory throughput and predicting outcomes of normal and abnormal stress-only SPECT imaging with AC in a consecutive series of clinically referred patients. A retrospective analysis of 1,383 consecutive patients who were scheduled for stress-only SPECT imaging for symptom assessment of suspected myocardial ischemia was performed. All images had been interpreted and categorized using the standard 17-segment model without AC followed by AC. Follow-up data for 2.1 ± 1.3 years after SPECT imaging for the occurrence of cardiac events (non-fatal MI, cardiac death, and cardiac revascularization) previously collected by routine methods were reviewed. Non-AC SPECT image interpretation revealed that 58% (802/1383) of patients had abnormal stress images. AC image interpretation of the abnormal non-AC images re-classified 83% (666/802) of these as normal. Among patients with abnormal stress images after AC (136/1383), 63% (86/136) returned for additional rest scans, while the remaining 37% (50/136) were clinically managed without further rest images. The incidence of cardiac death or non-fatal MI was very low in patients with normal stress-only scans (0.7%). A strategy of stress-only imaging with AC in symptomatic patients is an efficient method which appropriately identifies at risk and low-risk patients yielding a low percentage requiring rest imaging. Clinical decisions can be made based on abnormal stress-only imaging without further rest imaging if clinically appropriate.

  16. A closer look at 40Ar/39Ar systematics of illite, recoil, retention ages, total gas ages, and a new correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz-Diaz, E.; Hall, C. M.; van der Pluijm, B.

    2013-12-01

    One of the fundamentals of 40Ar-39Ar systematics of illite considers the effects of 39Ar recoil (ejection of 39Ar from tiny illite crystallites during the nuclear reaction 39K(n,p)39Ar), for which sample vacuum encapsulation prior to irradiation has been used since the 1990's. This technique separately measures the fraction of recoiled 39Ar and the Ar (39Ar and 40Ar) retained within illite crystals as they degas during step heating in vacuum. Total-gas ages (TGA) are calculated by using both recoiled and retained argon, while retention ages (RA) only involve retained Ar. Observations in numerous natural examples have shown that TGA fit stratigraphic constraints of geological processes when the average illite crystallite thickness (ICT) is smaller than 10nm, and that RA better matches these constrains for larger ICTs. Illite crystals with ICT >50nm show total gas and retention ages within a few My and they are identical, within analytical error, when ICT exceeds 150nm. We propose a new age correction that takes into account the average ICT and corresponding recoil for a sample , with such corrected ages (XCA) lying between the TGA and RA end-member ages. We apply this correction to samples containing one generation of illite and it particularly affects illite populations formed in the anchizone, with typical ICT values between 10-40nm. We analyzed bentonitic samples (S1, S2 and S3) from sites in Cretaceous carbonates in the front of the Monterrey salient in northern Mexico. Four size fractions (<0.05, 0.05-0.2, 0.2-1 & 1-2 μm) were separated, analyzed with XRD and dated by Ar-Ar. XRD analysis provides mineralogic characterization, illite polytype quantification, and illite crystallite thickness (ICT) determination using half-height peak width (illite crystallinity) and the Scherrer equation. All samples contain illite as the main mineral phase, ICT values between 8-27nm, from fine to coarser grain size fractions. Ages show a range in TGA among the different size

  17. A Fixed-Pattern Noise Correction Method Based on Gray Value Compensation for TDI CMOS Image Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenwang; Xu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xinlei; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in the output image of time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS), a FPN correction method based on gray value compensation is proposed. One hundred images are first captured under uniform illumination. Then, row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated based on the row-mean vector and column-mean vector of all collected images, respectively. Finally, RFPN are corrected by adding the estimated RFPN gray value to the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding row, and CFPN are corrected by subtracting the estimated CFPN gray value from the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding column. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination with the proposed method, the standard-deviation of row-mean vector decreases from 5.6798 to 0.4214 LSB, and the standard-deviation of column-mean vector decreases from 15.2080 to 13.4623 LSB. Both kinds of FPN in the real images captured by TDI-CIS are eliminated effectively with the proposed method. PMID:26389917

  18. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  19. Bias correction of nutritional status estimates when reported age is used for calculating WHO indicators in children under five years of age.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Amado D; García-Guerra, Armando; Escobar, Leticia

    2016-06-01

    To assess the performance of a simple correction method for nutritional status estimates in children under five years of age when exact age is not available from the data. The proposed method was based on the assumption of symmetry of age distributions within a given month of age and validated in a large population-based survey sample of Mexican preschool children. The main distributional assumption was consistent with the data. All prevalence estimates derived from the correction method showed no statistically significant bias. In contrast, failing to correct attained age resulted in an underestimation of stunting in general and an overestimation of overweight or obesity among the youngest. The proposed method performed remarkably well in terms of bias correction of estimates and could be easily applied in situations in which either birth or interview dates are not available from the data.

  20. Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapel Hill City Schools, NC.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Values. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is intended to define the development of the valuing process and contains ideas for classroom teachers. It is not a conventional curriculum guide but is recommended for use with the guide on drug education (SP 007 318). It contains the following…

  1. The Value of Written Corrective Feedback for Migrant and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research that has investigated the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (WCF) on ESL student writing. In doing so, it highlights a number of shortcomings in the design of some studies and explains what needs to be done in future research so that answers to the issues that have been raised can be…

  2. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-03-11

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars).

  3. Democracy, Neutrality, and Value Demonstration in the Age of Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Bertot, John Carlo; Sarin, Lindsay C.

    2013-01-01

    This Libraries and Policy essay explores the interrelationships between the public library goals of supporting democracy and remaining an apolitical institution and the expectations for demonstration of value and economic contribution at a time in which public discourse emphasizes austerity from public institutions. Libraries' positions on…

  4. Democracy, Neutrality, and Value Demonstration in the Age of Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Bertot, John Carlo; Sarin, Lindsay C.

    2013-01-01

    This Libraries and Policy essay explores the interrelationships between the public library goals of supporting democracy and remaining an apolitical institution and the expectations for demonstration of value and economic contribution at a time in which public discourse emphasizes austerity from public institutions. Libraries' positions on…

  5. Elastic hysteresis in human eyes is age dependent value.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kotaro; Saito, Kei; Kameda, Toshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-06-19

    Background:  The elastic hysteresis phenomenon is observed when cyclic loading is applied to a viscoelastic system. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate elastic hysteresis in living human eyes against an external force. Design:  Prospective case series. Participants:  Twenty-four eyes of 24 normal human subjects (mean age: 41.5 ± 10.6 years) were recruited. Methods:  A non-contact tonometry process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal thickness at 4 mm from the center, corneal curvature, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was also measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT). Main Outcome Measures:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was calculated and graphed. Results:  The mean CCT was 552.5 ± 36.1 µm, corneal curvature was 7.84 ± 0.26 mm, and ACD was 2.83 ± 0.29 mm. The mean GAT-IOP was 14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg and DCT-IOP was 16.3 ± 3.5 mmHg. The mean energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was 3.90 × 10(-6) ± 2.49 × 10(-6) Nm. Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis correlated significantly with age (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.596, p = 0.0016). There were no significant correlations between energy loss due to elastic hysteresis and other measurements. Conclusion:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis in the eyes of subjects was found to positively correlate with age, independent of anterior eye structure or IOP. Therefore, it is believed that the viscosity of the eye increases with age. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. The energy value of biodiesel glycerine products fed to broilers at different ages.

    PubMed

    Lima, E M C; Rodrigues, P B; Alvarenga, R R; Bernardino, V M P; Makiyama, L; Lima, R R; Cantarelli, V S; Zangeronimo, M G

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the apparent metabolisable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) of some products containing glycerine from soybean oil (GOIL), a mixture of frying oil and lard (GMIX) and a semi-purified process (GSP) in broilers of different ages (10, 20, 30 and 40 days post-hatching), using two methodologies. In trial 1, the basal diets were replaced with 100 g/kg of each studied glycerine product and the diets were supplied ad libitum. Three hundred broilers were used in five replicates, with five, four, three and three animals per cage in each age group, respectively. The AMEn was calculated for each experimental unit. In trial 2, dietary treatments included the addition of glycerine at 0, 40, 80 or 120 g/kg for each crude glycerine product, with 900 broilers in six replicates, using the same number of animals per cage as described in trial 1. Depending on the experimental unit, the feeding was restricted in 88%, 92%, 96% and 100% of estimated intake according to the Cobb guide. The AMEn was determined using linear regression between the feed intake and the AMEn of each diet. In both trials, the total excreta collection method was used. Because of the chemical composition, GMIX was not considered crude glycerine. The mean AMEn values of the products were 20.55 MJ/kg, 15.80 MJ/kg and 15.05 MJ/kg for GMIX, GSP and GOIL, respectively. There was a linear decrease (p < 0.01) in the AMEn values with the increasing age of the broilers. Numerically, it was observed that the AMEn values decreased until 28-30 day post-hatching and then remained constant until the finishing phase. It is concluded that products containing glycerine can be used as an energy source for broilers, but that AMEn values can vary according to age. Younger broilers have a higher capacity of energy utilisation from these feedstuffs.

  7. The corrected donor age for hepatitis C virus-infected liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Dirchwolf, Melisa; Dodge, Jennifer L; Gralla, Jane; Bambha, Kiran M; Nydam, Trevor; Hung, Kenneth W; Rosen, Hugo R; Feng, Sandy; Terrault, Norah A; Biggins, Scott W

    2015-08-01

    Donor age has become the dominant donor factor used to predict graft failure (GF) after liver transplantation (LT) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) recipients. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a model of corrected donor age (CDA) for HCV LT recipients that transforms the risk of other donor factors into the scale of donor age. We analyzed all first LT recipients with HCV in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry from January 1998 to December 2007 (development cohort, n = 14,538) and January 2008 to December 2011 (validation cohort, n = 7502) using Cox regression, excluding early GF (<90 days from LT). Accuracy in predicting 1 year GF (death or repeat LT) was assessed with the net reclassification index (NRI). In the development cohort, after controlling for pre-LT recipient factors and geotemporal trends (UNOS region, LT year), the following donor factors were independent predictors of GF, all P < 0.05: donor age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02/year), donation after cardiac death (DCD; HR, 1.31), diabetes (HR, 1.23), height < 160 cm (HR, 1.13), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ≥ 120 U/L (HR, 1.10), female (HR, 0.94), cold ischemia time (CIT; HR, 1.02/hour), and non-African American (non-AA) donor-African American (AA) recipient (HR, 1.65). Transforming these risk factors into the donor age scale yielded the following: DCD = +16 years; diabetes = +12 years; height < 160 cm = +7 years; AST ≥ 120 U/L = +5 years; female = -4 years; and CIT = +1 year/hour > 8 hours and -1 year/hour < 8 hours. There was a large effect of donor-recipient race combinations: +29 years for non-AA donor and an AA recipient but only +5 years for an AA donor and an AA recipient, and -2 years for an AA donor and a non-AA recipient. In a validation cohort, CDA better classified risk of 1-year GF versus actual age (NRI, 4.9%; P = 0.009) and versus the donor risk index (9.0%, P < 0.001). The CDA, compared

  8. The Corrected Donor Age for Hepatitis C virus Infected Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Dirchwolf, Melisa; Dodge, Jennifer L.; Gralla, Jane; Bambha, Kiran M.; Nydam, Trevor; Hung, Kenneth W.; Rosen, Hugo R.; Feng, Sandy; Terrault, Norah A.; Biggins, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Donor age has become the dominant donor factor used to predict graft failure (GF) after liver transplantation (LT) in HCV recipients. AIM To develop and validate a model of Corrected Donor Age (CDA) for HCV LT recipients that transforms the risk of other donor factors into the scale of donor age. METHODS We analyzed all first LT recipients with HCV in the UNOS registry from 1/1998–12/2007 (development cohort, n=14,538) and 1/2008–12/2011 (validation cohort, n=7,502) using Cox regression, excluding early GF (<90 days from LT). Accuracy in predicting 1yr GF (death or Re-LT) was assessed with the net reclassification index (NRI). RESULTS In the development cohort, controlling for pre-LT recipient factors and geo-temporal trends (UNOS region, LT year), the following donor factors were independent predictors of GF (Hazard Ratio); all p<0.05; donor age (1.02/yr), circulatory death (DCD) (1.31), diabetes (1.23), height<160cm (1.13), AST>120 U/L (1.10), female (0.94), cold ischemia time (CIT) (1.02/hr), donor non-AA : recipient AA (1.65). Transforming these risk factors into the donor age scale yielded the following: DCD=+16yrs, diabetes=+12yrs, height<160cm=+7yrs, AST >120 U/L=+5yrs, female=−4yrs, CIT=+1yr/hr>8hrs and −1yr/hr<8 hrs. There was a large effect of donor-recipient race combinations; +29yrs for donor non-AA : recipient AA but only +5yrs for donor AA : recipient AA, and −2yrs for donor AA : recipient non-AA. In a validation cohort, CDA better classified risk of 1yr GF versus actual age (NRI 4.9%, p=0.009) and versus the donor risk index (9.0%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The CDA, compared to actual donor age, provides an intuitive and superior estimation of graft quality for HCV-positive LT recipients since it incorporates additional factors that impact LT GF rates. PMID:26074140

  9. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kiy, Alice M; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Luca, Ana K C De; Corrente, José E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the growth pattern of low birth weight preterm infants born to hypertensive mothers, the occurrence of growth disorders, and risk factors for inadequate growth at 24 months of corrected age (CA). Cohort study of preterm low birth weight infants followed until 24 months CA, in a university hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight of 1,500-2,499 g. multiple pregnancies, major congenital anomalies, and loss to follow up in the 2nd year of life. The following were evaluated: weight, length, and BMI. growth failure and risk of overweight at 0, 12, and 24 months CA. Student's t-test, Repeated measures ANOVA (RM-ANOVA), and multiple logistic regression were used. A total of 80 preterm low birth weight infants born to hypertensive mothers and 101 born to normotensive mothers were studied. There was a higher risk of overweight in children of hypertensive mothers at 24 months; however, maternal hypertension was not a risk factor for inadequate growth. Logistic regression showed that being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the first 12 months of life were associated with poorer growth at 24 months. Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Do otolith increments allow correct inferences about age and growth of coral reef fishes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Otolith increment structure is widely used to estimate age and growth of marine fishes. Here, I test the accuracy of the long-term otolith increment analysis of the lemon damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to describe age and growth characteristics. I compare the number of putative annual otolith increments (as a proxy for actual age) and widths of these increments (as proxies for somatic growth) with actual tagged fish-length data, based on a 6-year dataset, the longest time course for a coral reef fish. Estimated age from otoliths corresponded closely with actual age in all cases, confirming annual increment formation. However, otolith increment widths were poor proxies for actual growth in length [linear regression r 2 = 0.44-0.90, n = 6 fish] and were clearly of limited value in estimating annual growth. Up to 60 % of the annual growth variation was missed using otolith increments, suggesting the long-term back calculations of otolith growth characteristics of reef fish populations should be interpreted with caution.

  11. Parallelized sequential value correction procedure for the one-dimensional cutting stock problem with multiple stock lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi-Ping; Tang, Tian-Bing

    2014-10-01

    A heuristic approach with parallel computation is presented for the one-dimensional cutting stock problem with multiple stock lengths. The algorithm is based on the sequential heuristic procedure that generates each pattern to produce some items and repeats until all the required items are fulfilled. A recursion is used to solve the bounded knapsack problem heuristically in the pattern generation process to reduce running time. The item values are adjusted after the generation of each pattern using a value correction formula. The computational results show that the algorithm is more effective than a recently published evolutionary heuristic in improving solution quality, and can reduce computational time because of the efficient parallel implementation.

  12. Correlations Between the Porteus Maze Test Qualitative Score and Age and Recidivism Rates of Female Correctional Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Virginia L.

    This study investigated correlations between the Qualitative score of the Porteus Maze Test and age and rates of recidivism of correctional institution inmates. In addition, the study was structured to provide answers to the following questions: (1) Is there a relationship between age and rates of recidivism and the Conformity-Variability score of…

  13. Percentile Values of Physical Fitness Levels among Polish Children Aged 7 to 19 Years--a Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Janusz; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to report gender and age-specific percentile values for fourteen commonly used field-based physical fitness tests among a national representative sample of Polish children aged 7 to 19 years. A descriptive cross-sectional and population-based study examines the physical fitness among a random and large national representative sample of schoolchildren aged 7 to 19 years in Poland. A sample of 49,281 children and adolescents (25,687 boys and 23,594 girls) was assessed by the EUROFIT fitness test battery, the International Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests and Cooper Test of physical fitness. The LMS statistical method was used. Smoothed gender and age-specific percentiles for the physical fitness tests in boys and girls aged 7 to 19 years are reported and expressed as both tabulated and curves values (2.3rd, 9th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 91st, and 97.7th). Figures showed greater physical fitness levels in boys, except for the flamingo balance, sit-and-reach, and stand-and-reach tests, in which girls performed slightly better. There was also a trend towards increased physical fitness levels as the age increased in both boys and girls. The percentile values provided will enable the correct interpretation and monitoring of fitness status of Polish children. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  14. Parenting stress and development of late preterm infants at 4 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Muhammad K; Ginn, Carla S; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Benzies, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    Parenting stress has been linked to child development issues in early preterm infants, but less is known about its effects on development in infants born late preterm. We examined relationships between parenting stress of 108 mothers and 108 fathers and development of late preterm infants born at 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation. At 4 months corrected age, mothers and fathers completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI-3); mothers were primary caregivers in almost all families and completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-2) on child development. Mothers reported significantly more stress than fathers on the PSI-3 Parent Domain. PSI-3 subscale scores from the Child Domain were significant predictors of mother-reported infant development as measured by the ASQ-2 in regression models: Reinforces Parent predicted Gross Motor, Mood predicted Communication, and Acceptability predicted Communication, Fine Motor, Problem Solving, and Personal -Social development scale scores. Experiences of parenting stress differed for mothers and fathers. Further research is required on specific dimensions of parenting stress related to development of late preterm infants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Correcting for initial Th in speleothems to obtain the age of calcite nucleation after a growth hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, D. A.; Nita, D. C.; Moseley, G. E.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Standish, C. D.; Smart, P. L.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    contiguous layers sub-sampled from the first 2-3 mm of flowstone growth after the MIS 5 hiatus, using a sub-sample milling strategy that matches spatial resolution with maximum achievable precision (ThermoFinnigan Neptune MC-ICPMS methodology; 20-30 mg calcite, U = ~ 300 ng.g-1, 2σ age uncertainty is × 600 a at ~80 ka). Isochron methods are used to estimate the range of initial 230Th/232Th ratio and are compared with elevated values obtained from stalagmites from the same cave (Beck et al, 2001; Hoffmann et al, 2010). A similar strategy is presented for a stalagmite with much faster axial growth data, and the data are combined with additional sea level information from the same region to estimate the rate and uncertainty of sea level regression at the MIS stage 5/4 boundary. Elevated initial 230Th/232Th values have also been observed in a stalagmite from 6 m below present sea level in a cenote from the Yucatan, Mexico, where 5 phases of calcite between 10 and 5.5 ka are separated by serpulid worm tubes formed during periods of submergence. The transition between each phase provides constraints on age and elevation of relative sea level, but the former is hampered by the uncertainty of the high initial 230Th/232Th correction. We consider the possible sources of elevated Th ratios: hydrogenous, colloidal and carbonate or other detrital components.

  16. Long-term outcome of surgical Class III correction as a function of age at surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, L'Tanya J.; Phillips, Ceib; Proffit, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we assessed whether the likelihood of a positive overjet 5 to 10 years after Class III surgery was affected by age at the surgery or the type of surgery and evaluated the amount and pattern of postsurgical growth. Methods Cephalometric measurements including overjet were evaluated from immediately postsurgery and long-term recall cephalograms of 104 patients who had had surgical Class III correction and at least 5-year recalls. The patients were classified as younger (<age 18 years for females at the surgery or 20 years for males) or older and by type of surgery (maxilla only vs mandibular only or 2 jaw). For the younger patients, the timing of treatment was based largely on serial cephalometric radiographs that eventually showed minimal or no mandibular growth. Results Long-term changes in overjet and other cephalometric characteristics in the younger and the older patients were similar. No patients in the sample had negative overjet in the long term, but zero overjet (<1 mm) was observed in some patients in all groups. Patients who had mandibular setback at any age were 2.6 times more likely to have zero overjet in the long term (P = .003) than those with maxillary surgery alone. For the younger patients, the likelihood of zero overjet in the long term was not significantly different from patients who were treated later (P = .87), with or without mandibular surgery. Conclusions The data support the use of serial cephalometric radiographs, with surgery deferred until little or no mandibular growth is observed, to determine the timing of Class III surgery in younger patients. PMID:18331934

  17. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  18. Age-dependent prognostic value of exercise capacity and derivation of fitness-associated biologic age.

    PubMed

    Blaha, Michael J; Hung, Rupert K; Dardari, Zeina; Feldman, David I; Whelton, Seamus P; Nasir, Khurram; Blumenthal, Roger S; Brawner, Clinton A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2016-03-01

    Given the aging population and prevalence of sedentary behaviour in the USA, we investigated the impact of differences in exercise capacity associated with age on long-term outcomes. We derived fitness-associated 'biologic age' as a tool to encourage positive lifestyle changes. This retrospective cohort study included 57085 patients without established coronary artery disease or heart failure (median age 53 years, 49% women, 29% black) who underwent clinically-referred treadmill stress testing at the Henry Ford Health System from 1991 to 2009. Patients were followed for 10.4±5 and 5.4±4 years for all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction (MI), respectively. We calculated hazard ratios associated with exercise capacity by age deciles using Cox regression models, adjusting for demographic and haemodynamic data, medical history, and medication use. Fitness-associated 'biologic age' was derived as the chronologic age with equivalent mortality or MI risk. There were 6356 deaths and 1646 MIs during follow-up. Exercise capacity declined with increasing age. Higher exercise capacity was strongly associated with greater survival, with per-MET HR ranging from 0.82 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.86) in patients under 40 years of age, to 0.88 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.90) in those over 70 years of age. Biologic age varied markedly-up to three decades-within each age decile, and was a stronger predictor of mortality (C-statistic 0.81 vs 0.77) and MI (C-statistic 0.72 vs 0.68) than chronologic age. Higher exercise capacity remained a powerful predictor of survival despite lower average exercise capacity at older ages, reinforcing its importance in patients of all ages. Fitness-associated biologic age was a stronger predictor of survival than chronologic age, and may be a useful clinical tool for facilitating patient discussions regarding the impact of exercise capacity on long-term risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. The value of REM sleep parameters in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from old-age depression and normal aging.

    PubMed

    Dykierek, P; Stadtmüller, G; Schramm, P; Bahro, M; van Calker, D; Braus, D F; Steigleider, P; Löw, H; Hohagen, F; Gattaz, W F; Berger, M; Riemann, D

    1998-01-01

    Pseudodementia as a common trait in elderly depressives presents a major problem in gerontopsychiatry, especially for the differential diagnosis between Old-Age Depression (OAD) and Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT). The present polysomnographic study examined parameters of sleep continuity, sleep architecture, and REM sleep to differentiate DAT from OAD. The investigation was based on the theoretical framework of the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance model of depression, the cholinergic deficit hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease and the reciprocal interaction model of Non-REM/REM sleep regulation, according to which REM sleep parameters should have high discriminative value to differentiate OAD and DAT. We investigated 35 DAT patients, 39 OAD patients and 42 healthy controls for two consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. The DAT patients were in relatively early/mild stages of the disease, the severity of depression in the OAD group was moderate to severe. Depressed patients showed characteristic 'depression-like' EEG sleep alterations, i.e. a lower sleep efficiency, a higher amount of nocturnal awakenings and decreased sleep stage 2. Sleep continuity and architecture in DAT was less disturbed. Nearly all REM sleep measures differentiated significantly between the diagnostic groups. OAD patients showed a shortened REM latency, increased REM density and a high rate of Sleep Onset REM periods (SOREM), whereas in DAT REM density was decreased in comparison to control subjects. REM latency in DAT was not prolonged as expected. To assess the discriminative power of REM sleep variables a series of discriminant analyses were conducted. Overall, 86% of patients were correctly classified, using REM density and REM latency measures. Our findings suggest that REM density as an indicator of phasic activity appears to be more sensitive as a biological marker for the differential diagnosis of OAD and DAT than REM latency. The results support the role of central cholinergic

  20. Nonoperatively Corrected Clubfoot at Age 2 Years: Radiographs Are Not Helpful in Predicting Future Relapse.

    PubMed

    Richards, B Stephens; Faulks, Shawne; Razi, Ozan; Moualeu, Amanda; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2017-01-18

    Nonoperative treatment of idiopathic clubfoot is standard. The purpose of this study was to determine if measurements made on standing lateral radiographs of successfully treated clubfeet made at 18 to 24 months of age were predictive of late recurrence. Inclusion criteria were idiopathic clubfoot with an age at presentation of ≤3 months, nonoperative treatment resulting in a clinically plantigrade foot at 2 years of age, standing lateral radiograph of the involved foot made at 18 to 24 months of age, and a minimum age of 4 years at the time of follow-up. The radiographs were assessed for the talocalcaneal angle and the tibiocalcaneal angle, with measurements made by 2 trained practitioners. The average values of the 2 raters were used. The interobserver reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). A total of 211 patients with 312 clubfeet were evaluated. The average age at the time of follow-up was 8.0 years (range, 4.0 to 13.3 years). Results at the time of follow-up were rated as good (maintained plantigrade foot), fair (required limited surgery to maintain, or return to, a plantigrade position), or poor (required posteromedial release). Over time, 75% of the feet had a good result, 19% had a fair result, and 6% had a poor result. With regard to radiographic assessment, the ICCs were 0.97 (talocalcaneal angle) and 0.98 (tibiocalcaneal angle), demonstrating excellent agreement between the raters. The mean talocalcaneal angle differed significantly between the feet with a good clinical outcome and those with a fair outcome (28° versus 24°; p < 0.02), but did not differ significantly between those with a good versus poor outcome (28° versus 26°), or a fair versus poor outcome (24° versus 26°). There were no significant differences in the mean tibiocalcaneal angle among the groups (86°, 90°, and 84°, respectively) (p = 0.17). Most clubfeet that were clinically plantigrade at 2 years of age remained so, while one

  1. [Congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels in adulthood. The value of noninvasive study methods].

    PubMed

    Weidmann, B; Hänseler, T; Jansen, W; Geppert, R; Mathas, B; Tauchert, M

    1994-08-26

    A 57-year-old man with a cough and increasing exertional dyspnoea for the past 6 weeks was found on examination to have a loud systolic murmur and cardiomegaly with pulmonary congestion. Echocardiography revealed congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (cTGA: atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance): a morphologically right ventricle with a tricuspid valve on the left, a morphologically left ventricle with bicuspid a-v valve on the right, the aorta arising ventrally from the left-sided (morphologically right) ventricle. The tricuspid valve showed an Ebstein-like anomaly with obvious regurgitation. Transoesophageal and contrast echocardiography defined valvar anatomy, attachment of the great arteries and cardiac chambers to the venous and arterial circulations, as well as absence of a left to right shunt. Angiography revealed a coronary anatomy typical for cTGA. The exertional dyspnoea responded to diuretics and low doses of ACE inhibitor. Follow-up monitoring of the valvar regurgitation and appropriate endocarditis prophylaxis were recommended. As the haemodynamics in cTGA is normal, in the absence of additional anomalies, it is a congenital cardiac defect which can, though rarely, present first in adulthood. Life expectancy depends on the nature of any additional defects and the degree of commonly associated tricuspid valve regurgitation. As this case demonstrates, echocardiography can largely define the anomalies.

  2. Increasing the Value of Age: Guidance in Employers' Age Management Strategies. Research Paper No 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The European active population is ageing. In the face of growing skills shortages, both national States and employers need to prolong the working lives of their most experienced workers. While enterprises strive to respond to this challenge, most still have not fully explored the potential of guidance activities in addressing age-related issues in…

  3. Human milk intake in preterm infants and neurodevelopment at 18 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Jacobi-Polishook, Talia; Collins, Carmel T; Sullivan, Thomas R; Simmer, Karen; Gillman, Matthew W; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-10-01

    The effect of human milk intake on neurodevelopment in preterm infants is uncertain. We analyzed data from 611 participants in the DHA for Improvement of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes study, enrolled at ≤33 wk gestation from five Australian perinatal centers. The main exposures were (i) average daily human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization and (ii) total duration of human milk intake before and after discharge. Outcomes were Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Edition Mental (MDI), and Psychomotor (PDI) Development Indexes. Adjusting for confounders in linear regression, human milk intake was not associated with higher MDI (0.2 points per 25 ml/kg/d; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.6, 1.0) or PDI (-0.3 points; 95% CI: -1.1, 0.4). Longer duration of human milk intake was also not associated with MDI (0.1 points per month; 95% CI: -0.2, 0.3) or PDI (-0.2 points per month; 95% CI: -0.5, 0.01) scores, except in infants born 29-33 wk gestation (n = 364, MDI 0.3 points higher per additional month, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6). We found no associations of human milk intake during the neonatal hospitalization with neurodevelopment at 18 mo corrected age.

  4. Digital Elevation Model Correction for the thalweg values of Obion River system, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, T. T.; Bhuyian, M. N. M.; Hawkins, S. A.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Obion River system is located in North-West Tennessee and discharges into the Mississippi River. To facilitate US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to estimate water availability for agricultural consumption a one-dimensional HEC-RAS model has been proposed. The model incorporates the major tributaries (north and south), main stem of Obion River along with a segment of the Mississippi River. A one-meter spatial resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used as the primary source of topographic data. LiDAR provides fine-resolution terrain data over given extent. However, it lacks in accurate representation of river bathymetry due to limited penetration beyond a certain water depth. This reduces the conveyance along river channel as represented by the DEM and affects the hydrodynamic modeling performance. This research focused on proposing a method to overcome this issue and test the qualitative improvement by the proposed method over an existing technique. Therefore, objective of this research is to compare effectiveness of a HEC-RAS based bathymetry optimization method with an existing hydraulic based DEM correction technique (Bhuyian et al., 2014) for Obion River system in Tennessee. Accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations (upon employing bathymetry from respective sources) would be regarded as the indicator of performance. The aforementioned river system includes nine major reaches with a total river length of 310 km. The bathymetry of the river was represented via 315 cross sections equally spaced at about one km. This study targeted to selecting best practice for treating LiDAR based terrain data over complex river system at a sub-watershed scale.

  5. A method to obtain correct standard uptake values in Pinnacle treatment planning system for target volume delineation.

    PubMed

    Salehzahi, Farshid; Tse, Jason; Lee, Jonathan; Selvaraj, Jothybasu

    2016-01-01

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) is an advanced tool for quantitative tumor identification and metabolic target volume delineation (TVD) in diagnostic and therapeutic settings. It is thus important to establish a quality assured process to maintain the traceability of data correctly by positron emission tomography (PET) systems. Patient administration of (18)fluoro-deoxy-glucose is increasingly delivered by automated infusion systems (AISs). Whenever AIS is used, its accuracy and traceability measurement need verification. In addition, it was observed that the unreproducible SUV displayed in PET and the treatment planning system (TPS) may cause grave concerns for radiation oncologists for TVD. This concern may complicate the correlation of TVD on PET and TPS and their clinical reporting. The SUV traceability was established from the PET system to AIS. Its accuracy was verified by cross-referencing to the reference dose calibrator traceable to a primary standard. The SUV values were converted in TPS using the in-house "clinical tool" to be identical as in PET, to allow radiation oncologists to use SUV confidently. The outcome of this study enables the clinical groups to rely on the correct SUV values displayed on the TPS and to improve the quality of care for patients in clinical procedures.

  6. A method to obtain correct standard uptake values in Pinnacle treatment planning system for target volume delineation

    PubMed Central

    Salehzahi, Farshid; Tse, Jason; Lee, Jonathan; Selvaraj, Jothybasu

    2016-01-01

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) is an advanced tool for quantitative tumor identification and metabolic target volume delineation (TVD) in diagnostic and therapeutic settings. It is thus important to establish a quality assured process to maintain the traceability of data correctly by positron emission tomography (PET) systems. Patient administration of 18fluoro-deoxy-glucose is increasingly delivered by automated infusion systems (AISs). Whenever AIS is used, its accuracy and traceability measurement need verification. In addition, it was observed that the unreproducible SUV displayed in PET and the treatment planning system (TPS) may cause grave concerns for radiation oncologists for TVD. This concern may complicate the correlation of TVD on PET and TPS and their clinical reporting. The SUV traceability was established from the PET system to AIS. Its accuracy was verified by cross-referencing to the reference dose calibrator traceable to a primary standard. The SUV values were converted in TPS using the in-house “clinical tool” to be identical as in PET, to allow radiation oncologists to use SUV confidently. The outcome of this study enables the clinical groups to rely on the correct SUV values displayed on the TPS and to improve the quality of care for patients in clinical procedures. PMID:28144116

  7. Reflectance spectra recovery from tristimulus values by adaptive estimation with metameric shape correction.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Simone

    2010-08-01

    In this work a local optimization-based method that is able to recover the reflectance spectra with the desired tristimulus values, choosing the metamer with the most similar shape to the reflectances available in the training set, is proposed. Four different datasets of reflectance spectra and three different error metrics have been used in this study. According to all the error metrics considered, the proposed algorithm was able to recover the spectral reflectances with a higher accuracy than all the state of the art methods considered.

  8. Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely low birth weight infants at 24 months corrected age: a comparison between Griffiths and Bayley Scales.

    PubMed

    Picciolini, Odoardo; Squarza, Chiara; Fontana, Camilla; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Cortinovis, Ivan; Gangi, Silvana; Gardon, Laura; Presezzi, Gisella; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio

    2015-09-30

    The availability of accurate assessment tools for the early detection of infants at risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes is a major issue. The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of the Bayley Scales (Bayley-II vs Bayley-III) in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants at 24 months corrected age, to define which edition shows the highest agreement with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales Revised. We performed a single-centre cohort study. We prospectively enrolled infants with a birth weight of 401-1000 g and/or gestational age < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were the presence of neurosensory disabilities and/or genetic abnormalities. Infants underwent neurodevelopmental evaluation at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths and either the Bayley-II (birth years 2003-2006) or the Bayley-III (birth years 2007-2010). A total of 194 infants were enrolled. Concordance was excellent between the Griffiths and the Bayley-III composite scores for both cognitive language and motor abilities (weighted K = 0.80 and 0.81, respectively) but poorer for the Bayley-II (weighted K = 0.63 and 0.50, respectively). The Youden's Index revealed higher values for the Bayley-III than for the Bayley-II (75.9 vs 69.6%). Compared with the Griffiths, the Bayley-III found 3% fewer infants as being severely impaired in cognitive-language abilities and 7.8% fewer infants as being mildly impaired in motor skills while the Bayley-II showed, compared with the Griffiths, higher rates of severely impaired children both for cognitive-language and motor abilities (14.1 and 15.3% more infants respectively). Our study suggests that the Bayley-III, although having a higher agreement with the Griffiths compared to the Bayley-II, slightly tends to underestimate neurodevelopmental impairment compared with the Griffiths, whereas the Bayley-II tends to overestimate it. On the basis of these findings, we recommend the use of multiple measures to assess neurodevelopmental

  9. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano‐titanium dioxide (nano‐TiO2) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano‐TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano‐TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano‐TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non‐Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano‐TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1070–1077. © 2015 The Author. Published by SETAC. PMID:25640001

  10. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Boris

    2015-05-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2 ) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano-TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano-TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano-TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non-Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano-TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight.

  11. Correcting power and p-value calculations for bias in diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Lauzon, Carolyn B; Landman, Bennett A

    2013-07-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides quantitative parametric maps sensitive to tissue microarchitecture (e.g., fractional anisotropy, FA). These maps are estimated through computational processes and subject to random distortions including variance and bias. Traditional statistical procedures commonly used for study planning (including power analyses and p-value/alpha-rate thresholds) specifically model variability, but neglect potential impacts of bias. Herein, we quantitatively investigate the impacts of bias in DTI on hypothesis test properties (power and alpha-rate) using a two-sided hypothesis testing framework. We present theoretical evaluation of bias on hypothesis test properties, evaluate the bias estimation technique SIMEX for DTI hypothesis testing using simulated data, and evaluate the impacts of bias on spatially varying power and alpha rates in an empirical study of 21 subjects. Bias is shown to inflame alpha rates, distort the power curve, and cause significant power loss even in empirical settings where the expected difference in bias between groups is zero. These adverse effects can be attenuated by properly accounting for bias in the calculation of power and p-values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  13. Age and Education Corrected Older Adult Normative Data for a Short Form Version of the Financial Capacity Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C.; Marson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Due to its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument – Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within four empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: 1) compare an individual’s performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, 2) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and 3) make comparisons between these aspects. PMID:26168311

  14. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. [Surgical correction of symptomatic ventricular septal defects in patients less than 6 months of age].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Duro, A; Martínez Corrales, P; Llorente Urcullo, A; Aramburu Arriaga, N; Rodrigo Carbonero, D; Alcíbar Villa, J; Pastor Menchaca, E; Navarro Quintana, C

    1999-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the efficiency of a single surgical intervention in patients with symptomatic interventricular septal defects during the first six months of life. Between 1989 and 1997, 42 patients, 20 males and 22 females with an average age of 3.9 +/- 0.3 months and an average weight of 4 +/- 0.4 kg, were operated. Seven suffered from Down's syndrome. All of the patients became symptomatic during the first two months of life. The defect was localized by using Echo-Doppler in all of the cases. Thirty-six had perimembranous ventricular septal defects, 2 were muscular, 3 multiple and 1 was infundibular. The average defect size was 8 +/- 1.2 mm. A catheter was placed in 34 patient with the following results: Left to right shunt with 2.2 +/- 1.2, right ventricle systolic pressure of 57 +/- 20 mmHg (16 with systemic pulmonary pressure) and an average pulmonary pressure of 38 +/- 1.8 mmHg. The average pulmonary vascular resistance was 28 +/- 1.8 U/m2. Deep hypothermia (18 degrees C was applied during the surgery and the average cardiac arrest time was 31 +/- 4 minutes. None of the patients died during or after the surgical procedure. Patients required minimum ionotropic support during the first hours. The average time in the intensive care unit was 3.5 +/- 0.6 days, with an average hospitalization time of 11.2 +/- 2.1 days. Immediate complications included one hypertensive crisis, four junctional ectopic tachycardias, two atrio-ventricular blocks, 1 transient arrhythmia, two atelectasia-pneumonias, two patients with stridor and two sternal infections. During the follow-up period, two patients required a second intervention to repair the patch. We believe that one-time surgery is adequate to correct symptomatic ventricular septal defects.

  16. Interpreting observational studies: why empirical calibration is needed to correct p-values

    PubMed Central

    Schuemie, Martijn J; Ryan, Patrick B; DuMouchel, William; Suchard, Marc A; Madigan, David

    2014-01-01

    Often the literature makes assertions of medical product effects on the basis of ‘ p < 0.05’. The underlying premise is that at this threshold, there is only a 5% probability that the observed effect would be seen by chance when in reality there is no effect. In observational studies, much more than in randomized trials, bias and confounding may undermine this premise. To test this premise, we selected three exemplar drug safety studies from literature, representing a case–control, a cohort, and a self-controlled case series design. We attempted to replicate these studies as best we could for the drugs studied in the original articles. Next, we applied the same three designs to sets of negative controls: drugs that are not believed to cause the outcome of interest. We observed how often p < 0.05 when the null hypothesis is true, and we fitted distributions to the effect estimates. Using these distributions, we compute calibrated p-values that reflect the probability of observing the effect estimate under the null hypothesis, taking both random and systematic error into account. An automated analysis of scientific literature was performed to evaluate the potential impact of such a calibration. Our experiment provides evidence that the majority of observational studies would declare statistical significance when no effect is present. Empirical calibration was found to reduce spurious results to the desired 5% level. Applying these adjustments to literature suggests that at least 54% of findings with p < 0.05 are not actually statistically significant and should be reevaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:23900808

  17. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  18. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-01

    To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm(2) for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm(2) for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm(2) for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm(2) for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm(2) /kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were

  19. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-01

    To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm2 for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm2 for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm2 for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm2 for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm2/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were obtained at the

  20. Early blood pressure, anti-hypotensive therapy and outcomes at 18 to 22 month corrected age in extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Batton, Beau; Li, Lei; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Faix, Roger G.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigate relationships between early blood pressure (BP) changes, receipt of anti-hypotensive therapy, and 18 – 22 month corrected age (CA) outcomes for extremely preterm infants. Design Prospective observational study of infants 230/7 – 266/7 weeks gestational age (GA). Hourly BP values and anti-hypotensive therapy exposure in the first 24 hours were recorded. Four groups were defined: infants who did or did not receive anti-hypotensive therapy in whom BP did or did not rise at the expected rate (defined as an increase in the mean arterial BP of ≥5 mmHg/day). Random-intercept logistic modeling controlling for center clustering, GA, and illness severity was used to investigate the relationship between BP, anti-hypotensive therapies, and infant outcomes. Setting Sixteen academic centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Main Outcome Measures Death or neurodevelopmental impairment / developmental delay (NIDD) at 18 – 22 months CA. Results Of 367 infants, 203 (55%) received an anti-hypotensive therapy, 272 (74%) survived to discharge, and 331 (90%) had a known outcome at 18 – 22 months CA. With logistic regression, there was an increased risk of death/NIDD with anti-hypotensive therapy versus no treatment (odds ratio: 1.836, 95% confidence interval: 1.092 – 3.086), but not NIDD alone (odds ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.708 – 3.307). Conclusion Independent of early BP changes, anti-hypotensive therapy exposure was associated with an increased risk of death/NIDD at 18 to 22 months CA when controlling for risk factors known to affect survival and neurodevelopment. PMID:26567120

  1. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  2. The Influence of Radiosonde 'Age' on TRMM Field Campaign Soundings Humidity Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Biswadev; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Jun-Hong

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of Vaisala sondes with a RS80-H Humicap thin-film capacitor humidity sensor were launched during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) field campaigns in Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere held in Brazil (LBA) and in Kwajalein experiment (KWAJEX) held in the Republic of Marshall Islands. Using Six humidity error correction algorithms by Wang et al., these sondes were corrected for significant dry bias in the RS80-H data. It is further shown that sonde surface temperature error must be corrected for a better representation of the relative humidity. This error becomes prominent due to sensor arm-heating in the first 50-s data.

  3. The need for T₂ correction on MRS-based vertebral bone marrow fat quantification: implications for bone marrow fat fraction age dependence.

    PubMed

    Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Cordes, Christian; Yap, Samuel P; Kooijman, Hendrik; Hauner, Hans; Rummeny, Ernst J; Bauer, Jan S; Baum, Thomas; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2015-04-01

    Vertebral bone marrow fat quantification using single-voxel MRS is confounded by overlapping water-fat peaks and the difference in T2 relaxation time between water and fat components. The purposes of the present study were: (i) to determine the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) of vertebral bone marrow using single-voxel multi-TE MRS, addressing these confounding effects; and (ii) to investigate the implications of these corrections with respect to the age dependence of the PDFF. Single-voxel MRS was performed in the L5 vertebral body of 86 subjects (54 women and 32 men). To reliably extract the water peak from the overlying fat peaks, the mean bone marrow fat spectrum was characterized based on the area of measurable fat peaks and an a priori knowledge of the chemical triglyceride structure. MRS measurements were performed at multiple TEs. The T2 -weighted fat fraction was calculated at each TE. In addition, a T2 correction was performed to obtain the PDFF and the T2 value of water (T2w ) was calculated. The implications of the T2 correction were investigated by studying the age dependence of the T2 -weighted fat fractions and the PDFF. Compared with the PDFF, all T2 -weighted fat fractions significantly overestimated the fat fraction. Compared with the age dependence of the PDFF, the age dependence of the T2 -weighted fat fraction showed an increased slope and intercept as TE increased for women and a strongly increased intercept as TE increased for men. For women, a negative association between the T2 value of bone marrow water and PDFF was found. Single-voxel MRS-based vertebral bone marrow fat quantification should be based on a multi-TE MRS measurement to minimize confounding effects on PDFF determination, and also to allow the simultaneous calculation of T2w , which might be considered as an additional parameter sensitive to the composition of the water compartment.

  4. Oromotor Feeding in Children Born Before 30 Weeks' Gestation and Term-Born Peers at 12 Months' Corrected Age.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Katherine; Spittle, Alicia J; Slattery, Justine M; Morgan, Angela T

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate oromotor feeding at 12 months' corrected age in children born before 30 weeks' gestational age compared with term-born peers by the use of observational assessment and to examine predictors of oromotor feeding difficulties in children born before 30 weeks. Oromotor feeding was assessed at 12 months' corrected age with the Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment in 90 children born before 30 weeks and 137 term-born children. Feeding outcomes were compared between groups. Sex, gestational age at birth, birth weight, social risk, history of tube feeding, surgery, and respiratory support were analyzed as potential risk factors. At 12 months' corrected age, 38% of children born before 30 weeks had oromotor feeding difficulties-with greater odds of difficulties than term-born participants (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.55-3.16). Difficulties were observed with specific food textures (purees, solids, crackers) and areas of oromotor skill (lip and jaw movement, food loss, swallowing). Neonatal surgery (n = 4/89) appeared to be the only predictor of oromotor feeding issues (OR 11.66; 95% CI 1.56-87.23; P = .02). Children born before 30 weeks presented with greater odds of oromotor feeding problems at 12 months' corrected age than their term-born peers. Neonatal surgery was associated with increased odds of feeding difficulties in children born before 30 weeks. Surveillance and support of oromotor feeding skills for very preterm children is indicated, particularly during their transition to solid foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Common-Lead Corrected U-Pb Age Dating of Perovskite by LA-SF-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, D.

    2014-12-01

    Perovskite is a very useful mineral for dating the age of emplacement of kimberlites and associated rocks. Conventionally, U-Pb dating of perovskite is achieved using isotope dilution (ID-TIMS) or ion-probe (SHRIMP) techniques, which are time- and cost-intensive. The potential of the rapid and inexpensive laser ablation ICP-MS technique for U-Pb dating of perovskite has been demonstrated recently. We investigated the benefits of single collector magnetic sectorfield ICP-MS (SF-ICP-MS) instruments for U-Pb dating of perovskite by laser ablation. To this end perovskites from two kimberlites from Garnet Lake, W Greenland, and Pyramidefjeld, SW Greenland, have been separated. Multigrain aliquots of both perovskite separates were U-Pb dated by ID-TIMS, yielding emplacement ages of 568 ±11 Ma for the Garnet Lake kimberlite and 151 ±2 Ma for the Pyramidefjeld kimberlite. Subsequently both samples have been dated in-situ by laser ablation employing a ThermoFinnigan Element2 SF-ICP-MS coupled to a NewWave UP 213 laser system. A common lead correction was applied based on the measured 204Pb intensity (after correction for the measured 204(Pb+Hg) gas blank). Perovskite from the Ice River Complex, British Columbia, was used as a secondary standard for quality control purposes. Multiple in-situ measurements of the Ice River perovskite in two different analytical sessions yielded concordia ages of 359 ±3 Ma and 357 ±3 Ma, in excellent agreement with the age of 356 Ma determined by ID-TIMS (Heaman, pers. comm.). Nineteen in-situ analyses of perovskite grains extracted from the Garnet Lake kimberlite yielded a concordia age of 566 ±5 Ma, also in excellent agreement with the age obtained by ID-TIMS. Because of the very low Pb contents in perovskites from the Pyramidefjeld (around 1 ppm) and the associated large uncertainties of the common lead correction, no concordia age could be obtained. However, the in-situ laser ablation analysis yielded a common lead corrected weighted

  6. Neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcome of very low birth weight babies at corrected age of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Mahajan, Rama; Narang, Anil

    2010-09-01

    Neurodevelopmental and behavioral assessment of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) at corrected age (CA) of 2 years. 127, 110, 99 and 101 babies ≤34 weeks and ≤1500 g were followed at CA of 3, 6, 9, 12 months respectively for developmental and neurological assessment. DASII (Developmental assessment scale for Indian infants) was used at CA of 18 months and preschool behavioural checklist (PBCL) at CA 2 years. Of 101 VLBW babies available for follow up at CA 1 year, 3 (3%) babies had Cerebral Palsy (CP) and 3% (n = 3) had suspect abnormality (mild hypotonia), 11% (n = 11) had gross motor and 8% (n = 8) had language abnormality. Their mean mental (MeDQ) and motor (MoDQ) quotients were 80.4 ± 10.7 and 77.2 ± 13.3 and a score of < 70 was found in 17% (MeDQ) and 25.7% (MoDQ) VLBW babies. High PBCL score (mean 16.8 ± 5.4) was seen in 84%VLBW babies. On subgroup analysis, 2 babies (5%) in subgroup1 ( n = 54, ≤1200 g,) and 1 (1.6%) in subgroup 2 (n = 78, 1201-1500 g) had CP. Twelve (29%) in subgroup 1 had significant language delay (p = 0.004) as compared to 4 (15%) in subgroup 2 at 1 year. BSID and PBCL scores were comparable. Amongst ELBW babies (<1000 g), 6.6% (n = 1) had CP, 25% (n = 3) and 42% (n = 5) had low MeDQ and MoDQ respectively and all of them had high PBCL score. AGA and SGA had similar outcome. VLBW babies need close and longer follow up due to high risk of neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormality.

  7. Fitkids Treadmill Test: Age- and Sex-Related Normative Values in Dutch Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kotte, Elles M W; de Groot, Janke F; Bongers, Bart C; Winkler, Alexander M F; Takken, Tim

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the Fitkids Treadmill Test (FTT) is a valid and reproducible exercise test for the assessment of aerobic exercise capacity in children and adolescents who are healthy. The study objective was to provide sex- and age-related normative values for FTT performance in children and adolescents who were healthy, developing typically, and 6 to 18 years of age. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Three hundred fifty-six children and adolescents who were healthy (174 boys and 182 girls; mean age=12.9 years, SD=3.7) performed the FTT to their maximal effort to assess time to exhaustion (TTE). The least-mean-square method was used to generate sex- and age-related centile charts (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P97) for TTE on the FTT. In boys, the reference curve (P50) showed an almost linear increase in TTE with age, from 8.8 minutes at 6 years of age to 16.1 minutes at 18 years of age. In girls, the P50 values for TTE increased from 8.8 minutes at 6 years of age to 12.5 minutes at 18 years of age, with a plateau in TTE starting at approximately 10 years of age. Youth who were not white were underrepresented in this study. This study describes sex- and age-related normative values for FTT performance in children and adolescents who were healthy, developing typically, and 6 to 18 years of age. These age- and sex-related normative values will increase the usefulness of the FTT in clinical practice. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Testing mutual independence between two discrete-valued spatial processes: a correction to pearson chi-squared.

    PubMed

    Cerioli, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    A common feature of data collected in environmental and earth sciences is that they typically exhibit spatial autocorrelation. Violating the assumption of independent observations can have dramatic effects on inferences derived from standard statistical methods. In this article, we examine the consequences of spatial autocorrelation on Pearson's chi-squared test of mutual independence between two categorical responses with a general number of classes. Correspondingly, we suggest a simple modification to the standard test statistic that allows for spatial autocorrelation. Our modified statistic is based on a first-order correction factor and thus provides only an approximate test. However, we show by Monte Carlo simulation that this approximation results in satisfactory inferences in several situations of practical interest. The usefulness of the method is displayed through an application to categorical data arising in the study of the relationship between the distribution pattern of plant species and woodland age in a forest in northern Belgium.

  10. Effect of Complex-Valued Optimal Orbitals on Atomization Energies with the Perdew-Zunger Self-Interaction Correction to Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Susi; Jónsson, Elvar Ö; Jónsson, Hannes

    2016-09-13

    The spurious interaction of an electron with itself-self-interaction error-is one of the biggest problems in modern density-functional theory. Some of its most glaring effects, such as qualitatively incorrect charge separation upon dissociation, can be removed by an approximate self-interaction correction due to Perdew and Zunger (PZ) (Perdew, J.; Zunger, A. Phys. Rev. B 1981, 23, 5048). However, the correction introduces an explicit dependence on the occupied orbital densities, which makes proper minimization of the functional difficult. Previous work (Vydrov et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 094108) has suggested that the application of the PZ correction results in worse atomization energies than those obtained with the uncorrected parent functional. But, it has only recently been found that the correct minimization of the PZ energy functional requires complex-valued orbitals, which have not been used in previous work on atomization energies. Here, we study the effect of the proper use of complex-valued orbitals on the atomization energies of molecules in the W4-11 data set (Karton, A.; Daon, S.; Martin, J. M. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2001, 510, 165). We find that the correction has a tendency to weaken the binding of molecules. The correction using complex-valued orbitals is invariably found to yield better atomization energies than the correction with real-valued orbitals. The correction applied to the PBEsol exchange-correlation functional results in a functional that is more accurate than the (uncorrected) PBE functional.

  11. Age and social composition factors as explanations for cleavages in socio-political values.

    PubMed

    Tedin, K L

    While age group differences on social and political values have been frequently documented in survey data, it is often claimed that these differences are due to social composition factors rather than to age itself. In this analysis we test for the effects of age vs. social composition in explaining variation in four attitudinal dependent variables. Using a sample especially drawn to study generational differences, and employing a multivariate statistical model, it was found that age differences were only modestly reduced by social composition variables. It is concluded that nonartifactual age group differences do exist on the dependent variables.

  12. Bias correction applied to regional models of climate change: An approach based on the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A. M. H. D.; Blain, G. C.; Pereira, V. R.; Pinto, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) play an important role in projecting future climate conditions at regional scale. The grid sizes of the RCM are about a few tens of kilometers and, as described in previous studies, their simulations are a compromise between long-term integration and spatial resolution. The RCM also presents some of the bias of the Global Circulation Models. Therefore, for studies such as those addressing drought indices, crop models and regional extreme temperature (frost events) there is a need to correct those bias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Eta RMC, forced by the GCM MIROC5, in assessing the probability of occurrence of extreme minimum air temperature (Tmin) in the State of São Paulo, correcting same of its bias. Daily Tmin ground data, from eight locations, were obtained from the Agronomic Institute of Campinas. The Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV) were fitted to each of those series and to their corresponding EtaMIROC5 series (1961-1990). The parameter of the GEV derived from the ground data were compared to their corresponding GEV parameters derived from the Model simulations. It was verified that the EtaMIROC5 underestimates the Tmin data. However, a simple linear regression applied to the location parameters of both GEV-ground and GEV-model improved the capability this regional climate model in assessing the probability of occurrence of extreme minimum air temperature in the State of São Paulo.

  13. XRD-based 40Ar/39Ar age correction for fine-grained illite, with application to folded carbonates in the Monterrey Salient (northern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz-Díaz, Elisa; Hall, Chris M.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    2016-05-01

    Due to their minute size, 40Ar/39Ar analysis of illite faces significant analytical challenges, including mineral characterization and, especially, effects of grain size and crystallography on 39Ar recoil. Quantifying the effects of 39Ar recoil requires the use of sample vacuum encapsulation during irradiation, which permits the measurement of the fraction of recoiled 39Ar as well as the 39Ar and 40Ar∗ retained within illite crystals that are released during step heating. Total-Gas Ages (TGA) are calculated by using both recoiled and retained argon, which is functionally equivalent to K-Ar ages, while Retention Ages (RA) only involve retained Ar in the crystal. Natural applications have shown that TGA fits stratigraphic constraints of geological processes when the average illite crystallite thickness (ICT) is smaller than 10 nm, and that RA matches these constraints for ICTs larger than 50 nm. We propose a new age correction method that takes into account the average ICT and corresponding recoiled 39Ar for a sample, with X-ray Corrected Ages (XCA) lying between Total-Gas and Retention Ages depending on ICT. This correction is particularly useful in samples containing authigenic illite formed in the anchizone, with typical ICT values between 10 and 50 nm. In three samples containing authigenic illite from Cretaceous carbonates in the Monterrey Salient in northern Mexico, there is a range in TGAs among the different size-fractions of 46-49, 36-43 and 40-52 Ma, while RAs range from 54-64, 47-52 and 53-54 Ma, respectively. XCA calculations produce tighter age ranges for these samples of 52.5-56, 45.5-48.5 and 49-52.5 Ma, respectively. In an apparent age vs ICT or %2M 1illite plot, authigenic illite grains show a slope that is in general slightly positive for TGA, slightly negative for RA, but close to zero for XCA, with thinner crystallites showing more dispersion than thicker ones. In order to test if dispersion is due to a different formation history or the result

  14. Correction of Age-Related Midface Volume Loss With Low-Volume Hyaluronic Acid Filler.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Monique Vanaman; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Greene, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    The pivotal approval trial for a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid filler demonstrated sustained aesthetic improvement, with a mean injection volume of 6.65 mL. In daily practice, however, it is not often practical or necessary to use large injection volumes to achieve the desired cosmetic outcome. To assess the efficacy, longevity, and patient satisfaction associated with correction of age-related midface volume loss using the low volumes of hyaluronic acid filler more commonly used in day-to-day practice. A 2-center, retrospective cohort study examined medical records of 61 healthy patients who underwent treatment for facial volume loss with hyaluronic acid filler from November 1, 2013, through April 31, 2014. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Data were pooled from a private facial plastic surgery practice in Weston, Florida, and a private cosmetic dermatology practice in San Diego, California. Patients were treated with hyaluronic acid filler according to the investigator's usual practices. The main outcome measure was patient-graded Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Scores range from 1 to 5; 1 indicates very much improved and 5, worse. A total of 61 consecutive, healthy adult patients (mean [SD] age, 57.4 [12.8] years) with mild to severe facial volume loss were enrolled in the study. A total of 46 patients (75%) were white, 3 (5%) were black/African American, 9 (15%) were Hispanic/Latino, 1 (2%) was Asian/Pacific Islander, and 2 (3%) were other. Three patients (5%) were male, and 58 (95%) were female. Mean initial treatment volume was 1.6 mL. At follow-up, 29 patients (48%) elected to have a touch-up treatment; mean total touch-up volume was 1.4 mL. The patient-graded Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment demonstrated that 73% (41 of 56) to 89% (24 of 27) of the study patients reported being very

  15. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  16. Prognostic factors in young Japanese women with breast cancer: prognostic value of age at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Miwa; Shimizu, Chikako; Fukutomi, Takashi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Ando, Masashi; Hojo, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2011-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to verify whether breast cancer patients aged <35 at diagnosis have poorer prognoses than those aged 35-39, in other words, to identify the prognostic value of age in younger premenopausal patients under 40 years old. The secondary objective was to assess prognostic factors specific for younger premenopausal patients. We identified 242 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer before the age of 40 and underwent surgery between 1990 and 2004. We compared disease-free survival and overall survival in patients aged <35 years and those aged 35-39 years, and evaluated clinicopathological factors associated with disease-free survival or overall survival in each age group and in all patients under the age of 40. Ninety-nine (41%) patients were younger than 35 years and 143 (59%) were between 35 and 39 years. No significant difference in disease-free survival or overall survival was found between the two groups. In our cohort of patients under the age of 40, the independent factors associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival included positive axillary lymph nodes and triple-negative status, but not age at diagnosis. Adverse prognostic factors also did not differ considerably between the two age groups. Age at diagnosis was not an independent prognostic factor in our study. Our findings suggest that other clinicopathological features rather than age should be used to determine individualized treatment courses for breast cancer patients younger than 40 years.

  17. Predictive value of weight-for-age to identify overweight children.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Nicolas; Zomorrodi, Arezoo; Posner, Jill C

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to assess the predictive value of weight-for-age to identify overweight children and adolescents in the unusual research or public health situations where height is not available to calculate BMI. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004 were used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of selected weight-for-age cut-off points to identify overweight children and adolescents (as defined by BMI >or=95th percentile). Positive and negative predictive values are dependent on prevalence and are reported here for this study population only. The 50th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles had good sensitivity (100% and 99.6%, respectively), but poor positive predictive value (23.7% and 37.0%, respectively), while the 95th and 97th percentiles had reasonable positive predictive value (80.3% and 91.5%, respectively), but limited sensitivity (82.0% and 66.7%, respectively) to identify overweight subjects. The properties of weight-for-age percentiles to identify overweight subjects differed between sex, age, and race/ethnicity but remain within a relatively narrow range. No single weight-for-age cut-off point was found to identify overweight children and adolescents with acceptable values for all properties and, therefore, cannot be used in the clinical setting. Furthermore, the positive predictive values reported here may be lower in populations with a lower prevalence of obesity. However, in unusual research or public health situations where height is not available, such as existing databases, weight-for-age percentiles may be useful to target limited resources to groups more likely to include overweight children and adolescents than the general population.

  18. [GLIATILIN CORRECTION OF WORKING AND REFERENCE SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN AGED RATS].

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the influence of gliatilin administration on the spatial memory in aged rats. Cognitive function and spatial memory in animals was evaluated using radial (8-beam) maze test. Errors of working spatial memory and reference memory were used as indicators of impaired cognitive function. It was found that aged (24-month) rats compared with younger (6-months) age group exhibited cognitive impairment, as manifested by deterioration of short- and long-term memory processes. Course administration of gliatilin in rats of the older age group at a dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement of the working and reference spatial memory in aged rats.

  19. Repeatability of frequency of corrective foot pressure during balance control in children aged between 2 and 7.

    PubMed

    Sobera, Małgorzata; Siedlecka, Bożena

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of corrective signal (the centre of corrective (COC) signal), which is the decomposition of COP (centre of pressure) and estimated COM (centre of mass) time series, is one of the indicators reflecting the quality of postural control during stance. Young children, in the period of intensive development, gradually improve the quality of postural control in a daily life. The purpose of this paper was to describe the time series of corrective centre of foot pressure repeatability in young children aged between 2 and 7 during body stability in natural stance position. 272 healthy children aged between 2 and 7 were divided into 6 age groups. Two AccuSway force platforms were used (one foot of the subject was on one platform, the second foot, on the other). The COP trajectories were the basis for the calculation of the frequency stability indices in frontal and sagittal planes for the left leg and right leg separately. The COC signals were collected by the method based on the Kuczyński viscoelastic model. In order to assess the repeatability, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was used between the 1st and the 2nd trials, the 2nd and the 3rd trials, and the 1st and the 3rd trials. The maturation of postural control system goes rather slowly in two youngest groups which showed the poor repeatability in COC frequency between the 2nd and the 3rd years of life. From the 4th to the 7th year of life the inter-session repeatability rapidly increases in three consecutive trials. Poor difference of frequency concordance was found between the left and right lower limbs. It is concluded that the frequency of corrective foot pressure is the reliable indicator of postural control for children aged between 4 and 7, but not for younger ones.

  20. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochimsen, Thies H.; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement.

  1. Correction of age-associated deficiency in germinal center response by immunization with immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Biao; Switzer, Kirsten; Marinova, Ekaterina; Wansley, Daniel; Han, Shuhua

    2007-08-01

    In aging, both primary and secondary antibody responses are impaired. One of the most notable changes in age-associated immune deficiency is the diminished germinal center (GC) reaction. This impaired GC response reduces antibody affinity maturation, decreases memory B cell development, and prevents the establishment of long-term antibody-forming cells in the bone marrow. It is of great importance to explore novel strategy in improving GC response in the elderly. In this study, the efficacy of immunization with immune complexes in overcoming age-associated deficiency in GC response was investigated. We show that the depressed GC response in aged mice can be significantly elevated by immunization with immune complexes. Importantly, there is a significant improvement of B cell memory response and long-lived plasma cells. Our results demonstrate that immune complex immunization may represent a novel strategy to elicit functional GC response in aging, and possibly, to overcome age-related immune deficiency in general.

  2. A new formula for correction of total calcium level into ionized serum calcium values in very elderly hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Pfitzenmeyer, Pierre; Martin, Isabelle; d'Athis, Philippe; Grumbach, Yolande; Delmestre, Marie-Claude; Blondé-Cynober, Françoise; Derycke, Béatrice; Brondel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) seems to be the best measure of active serum calcium but, in France, numerous laboratories do not have Ca(2+) analyzers so that numerous clinicians use Payne's formula to obtain adjusted calcium (Ca(Ad)) values. In frail very elderly patients with protein/energetic malnutrition and very low concentrations of albumin, "correction" with Payne's formula usually gives false hypercalcemic results, so that hypocalcemia may be seriously underdiagnosed. Two hundred and ninety-four patients of 80 years and older with serum albumin level < 35 g/l were included in four French hospitals for elderly people. Biological measurements were standardized in order to determine Ca(2+) and total calcium (Ca(T)) in accordance with approved guidelines. Ca(Ad) was calculated with Payne's formula whereas the dependence of Ca(2+) with serum protein, albumin and Ca(Ad) was investigated by linear regression, the goodness-of-fit of each equation with the measure of Ca(2+) being studied. Taking into account serum protein and albumin levels, multiple linear regression gave the equation: Ca(2+) (mmol/l)=0.188-0.00469 protein (g/l)+0.0110 albumin (g/l)+0.401 Ca(Ad) with r(2)=0.442. The relative difference between the measure and the value given by the equation did not depend upon the center, and the correlation between measured and computed values of Ca(2+) was better, for any group, with our formula than with Payne's formula. When Ca(2+) was expressed with Ca(T) instead of Ca(Ad), albumin term was no longer significant and the new equation was: Ca(2+) (mmol/l)=0.592-0.00449 protein (g/l)+0.410 total calcium (mmol/l) with r(2)=0.438. We propose an alternative to direct measurement of Ca(2+) with a simple formula usable in geriatric units, which are often deprived of high-performance equipment.

  3. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function.

  4. Aging in Correctional Custody: Setting a Policy Agenda for Older Prisoner Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Marc F.; Mellow, Jeff; Safer, Meredith; Greifinger, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    An exponential rise in the number of older prisoners is creating new and costly challenges for the criminal justice system, state economies, and communities to which older former prisoners return. We convened a meeting of 29 national experts in correctional health care, academic medicine, nursing, and civil rights to identify knowledge gaps and to propose a policy agenda to improve the care of older prisoners. The group identified 9 priority areas to be addressed: definition of the older prisoner, correctional staff training, definition of functional impairment in prison, recognition and assessment of dementia, recognition of the special needs of older women prisoners, geriatric housing units, issues for older adults upon release, medical early release, and prison-based palliative medicine programs. PMID:22698042

  5. Baseline values of candidate urine acute kidney injury biomarkers vary by gestational age in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Askenazi, David J; Koralkar, Rajesh; Levitan, Emily B; Goldstein, Stuart L; Devarajan, Prasad; Khandrika, Srikrishna; Mehta, Ravindra L; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2011-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in premature infants and is associated with poor outcomes. Novel biomarkers can detect AKI promptly. Because premature infants are born with underdeveloped kidneys, baseline biomarker values may differ. We describe baseline values of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), osteopontin (OPN), beta-2 microglobulin (B2mG), and Cystatin-C (Cys-C). Next, we test the hypothesis that these biomarkers are inversely related to GA. Candidate markers were compared according to GA categories in 123 infants. Mixed linear regression models were performed to determine the independent association between demographics/interventions and baseline biomarker values. We found that urine NGAL, KIM-1, Cys-C, and B2mG decreased with increasing GA. With correction for urine creatinine (cr), these markers and OPN/cr decreased with increasing GA. IL-18 (with or without correction for urine creatinine) did not differ across GA categories. Controlling for other potential clinical and demographic confounders with regression analysis shows that NGAL/cr, OPN/cr, and B2mG/cr are independently associated with GA. We conclude that urine values of candidate AKI biomarkers are higher in the most premature infants. These findings should be considered when designing and analyzing biomarker studies in newborn with AKI.

  6. Effects of aging on value-directed modulation of semantic network activity during verbal learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A.; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278

  7. Corrected Mental Age Scores for the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, David N.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discrepancies between the mental age (MA) scores and the mean performance of chronological age (CA) groups in the latest revision of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale are noted. A table is presented for converting published Stanford-Binet MA scores into MA scores that are congruent with the above definition. (Author)

  8. Attenuation of dopamine-modulated prefrontal value signals underlies probabilistic reward learning deficits in old age.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Lieke; Axelsson, Jan; Riklund, Katrine; Nyberg, Lars; Dayan, Peter; Bäckman, Lars; Guitart-Masip, Marc

    2017-09-05

    Probabilistic reward learning is characterised by individual differences that become acute in aging. This may be due to age-related dopamine (DA) decline affecting neural processing in striatum, prefrontal cortex, or both. We examined this by administering a probabilistic reward learning task to younger and older adults, and combining computational modelling of behaviour, fMRI and PET measurements of DA D1 availability. We found that anticipatory value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) were attenuated in older adults. The strength of this signal predicted performance beyond age and was modulated by D1 availability in nucleus accumbens. These results uncover that a value-anticipation mechanism in vmPFC declines in aging, and that this mechanism is associated with DA D1 receptor availability.

  9. Age-related changes in laboratory values used in the diagnosis of anemia and iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yip, R; Johnson, C; Dallman, P R

    1984-03-01

    Laboratory results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) were used to define age-related changes in laboratory values that are related to the diagnosis of anemia and iron deficiency. Analyses included Hb, hematocrit, red blood cell count, red cell indices, iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin. Computation of median values and 95% ranges by age and sex for each laboratory test were performed on 15,093 subjects between 1 and 74 yr of age who had complete laboratory data on venous blood, after excluding those subjects with an abnormality in one or more of three other laboratory tests. Age-related changes in laboratory measurements, such as those described herein, must be taken into consideration in order to optimize the identification of individuals with anemia and iron deficiency.

  10. Predictors of pulmonary function test values for Pakistani children, aged 5-14 years.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Aslam, Muhammad; Altaf, Saima

    2017-09-01

    To predict pulmonary function test values in children. This cross-sectional study was carried out at Nishtar Medical College, Multan, Pakistan, from August 2014 to March 2015, and comprised school-going children aged 5-14 years. After noting their gender, age, height and weight, the pulmonary function test measures, force vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow rate were taken. Simple and multiple regression models were used for the prediction of pulmonary function test values. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 3,275 participants, 1,809(55.2%) were boys and 1,466 (44.8%) were girls. The overall mean age was 10.27±2.41 years. The means height, weight, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, force vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate were 137.37±13.41cm, 30.44±8.56kg, 1.56±0.58, 1.72±0.50 and 3.66±1.10, respectively. Generally, no significant difference between the mean pulmonary function test values was noted for boys and girls (p>0.05), except that the boys of age 13 and 14 had higher mean values (p<0.05). All the three variables - age, height and weight - had significant linear relationship with the pulmonary function test values (p<0.05). The pulmonary function test values tended to increase with increase in age, height and weight.

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of normal testis and variations with age

    PubMed Central

    Tsili, Athina C; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Sylakos, Anastasios; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Astrakas, Loukas G; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the evaluation of scrotal pathology has recently been reported. A standard reference of normal testicular apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and their variations with age is necessary when interpreting normal testicular anatomy and pathology. We evaluated 147 normal testes using DWI, including 71 testes from 53 men aged 20–39 years (group 1), 67 testes from 42 men aged 40–69 years (group 2) and nine testes from six men older than 70 years (group 3). DWI was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multislice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm−2. The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal testicular parenchyma were calculated for each age group separately. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. The ADC values (× 10−3 mm2 s−1) of normal testicular tissue were different among age groups (group 1: 1.08 ± 0.13; group 2: 1.15 ± 0.15 and group 3: 1.31 ± 0.22). ANOVA revealed differences in mean ADC among age groups (F = 11.391, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.008) and between groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.043), but not between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.197). Our findings suggest that ADC values of normal testicular tissue increase with advancing age. PMID:24556745

  12. The association between aging inmate housing management models and non-geriatric health services in state correctional institutions.

    PubMed

    Thivierge-Rikard, R V; Thompson, Maxine S

    2007-01-01

    One of the current debates in the literature on aging inmates asks, what is the most efficient housing/health care model for this "special needs" population? State and federal correctional systems place elderly inmates either in specialized segregated housing units away from the general inmate population, consolidate elderly inmates in housing units within the prison, or provide a combination of both models. In general, proponents of the segregated housing model argue that aging inmates will receive specialized medical services in geriatric units. However, proponents of consolidated housing model argue that aging inmates will have the benefit of both geriatric and non-geriatric health services. This paper examines the association between the type of housing management model for aging inmates and the availability of non-geriatric physical and mental health services. Data for the analysis come from the 2000 Bureau of Justice Statistics Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities. The results suggest that institutions offering consolidated geriatric care provide more mental health services and that these effects are independent of the characteristics of prison facility.

  13. Health State Utility Values for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Advice.

    PubMed

    Butt, Thomas; Tufail, Adnan; Rubin, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Health state utility values are a major source of uncertainty in economic evaluations of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This review identifies and critiques published utility values and methods for eliciting de novo utility values in AMD. We describe how utility values have been used in healthcare decision making and provide guidance on the choice of utility values for future economic evaluations for AMD. Literature was searched using PubMed, and health technology assessments (HTA) were searched using HTA agency websites to identify articles reporting utility values or approaches to derive utility values in AMD and articles applying utilities for use in healthcare decision making relating to treatments for AMD. A total of 70 studies qualified for data extraction, 22 of which were classified as containing utility values and/or elicitation methods, and 48 were classified as using utility values in decision making. A large number of studies have elicited utility values for AMD, although those applied to decision making have focused on a few of these. There is an appreciation of the challenges in the measurement and valuation of health states, with recent studies addressing challenges such as the insensitivity of generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires and utility in the worse-seeing eye. We would encourage careful consideration when choosing utility values in decision making and an explicit critique of their applicability to the decision problem.

  14. Innovative Troxler-free measurement of macular pigment and lens density with correction of the former for the aging lens.

    PubMed

    Bone, Richard A; Mukherjee, Anirbaan

    2013-10-01

    Simplified measurement of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) is important because of the ocular health benefits that are attributed to these retinal carotenoids. Here, we describe a novel instrument designed for this purpose, based on heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP), which removes a number of difficulties that subjects often experience with traditional HFP. The instrument generates 1.5- and 15-deg diameter, centrally viewed stimuli that alternate between blue and green colors generated by light emitting diodes (LED). The 15 deg stimulus replaces the small, eccentrically viewed stimulus used in traditional HFP. Subjects adjust the blue LED intensity until flicker is eliminated in the case of the 1.5 deg stimulus and eliminated around the periphery in the case of the 15 deg stimulus. A microprocessor computes the subject's MPOD, in addition to the lens OD, and uses the latter to correct the MPOD. Good repeatability was confirmed through test-retest measurements on 52 subjects. The overwhelming majority of them stated that they found the test easy. The importance of the lens correction on MPOD measurements was confirmed in a simulation study. The study showed that, without the correction, MPOD would show an apparent age-related decline in a population for whom there was no real age dependence.

  15. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  16. An application of the SF-6D to create heath values in Portuguese working age adults.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Pereira, Luís Nobre; Brazier, John

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the Portuguese working age population and investigates sociodemographic differences. Subjects randomly selected from the working age population (n=2,459) were assessed using the SF-36v2 and converted into the preference-based SF-6D. The mean SF-6D utility value was 0.70 (range 0.63-0.73). The mean utility value was lower for the lower educational level than for the highest. Women, people living in rural areas and older adults reported lower levels of utility values. Non-parametric tests showed that health utility values were significantly related to employment; unskilled manual workers reported utility values lower than non-manual workers. For different diseases, mean utility values ranged from 0.58 (sexual diseases) to 0.66 (hepatic conditions). Cluster analysis was adopted to classify individuals into three groups according to their answers to the SF-6D dimensions. Multinomial logit regression was used to detect sociodemographic characteristics affecting the probability of following each cluster pattern. This study yielded normative data by age and gender for the SF-6D. The authors conclude that SF-6D is an effective tool for measuring HRQOL in the community so that different population groups can be compared. The preference-based measure used seems to discriminate adequately across sociodemographic differences. These results allow a better understanding of the impact of sociodemographic variables on the burden of illness perception.

  17. Influence of age and sagittal balance of the spine on the value of the pelvic incidence.

    PubMed

    Jean, Legaye

    2014-07-01

    The pelvic incidence (PI) was recognized as the key factor of the sagittal balance of the spine. Its value was described own for each individual and unchanged during adulthood. To bring out the effect of the age and of a sagittal imbalance in the variability of the value of PI. 200 subjects with chronic low back pain due to sagittal imbalance were compared to 89 normal subjects. For each groups, the cases were divided according to the age (19-40, 6-40 years, over 60 years). The PI and the sagittal positional parameters were measured on large radiographs in standardized standing position. The correlation between age and PI was observed significant only for the >60 years cases. The mean values of PI were significantly greater for these cases. An increase of the value of PI was attributable to a twisting mobilization within the sacroiliac joint. It results from a forward projection of the gravity due to a sagittal disturbance and a pelvic compensatory backward rotation. This twisting into the sacroiliac joint was incriminated in the origin of chronic low back pain. The sagittal pelvi-spinal imbalance may be incriminated in the increasing of the value of PI by a painful destabilization sacro-iliac, with leads to an increasing of the value of PI.

  18. Determination of efficiency of an aged HPGe detector for gaseous sources by self absorption correction and point source methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangapani, R.; Jose, M. T.; Srinivasan, T. K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2017-07-01

    Methods for the determination of efficiency of an aged high purity germanium (HPGe) detector for gaseous sources have been presented in the paper. X-ray radiography of the detector has been performed to get detector dimensions for computational purposes. The dead layer thickness of HPGe detector has been ascertained from experiments and Monte Carlo computations. Experimental work with standard point and liquid sources in several cylindrical geometries has been undertaken for obtaining energy dependant efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for computing efficiencies for point, liquid and gaseous sources. Self absorption correction factors have been obtained using mathematical equations for volume sources and MCNP simulations. Self-absorption correction and point source methods have been used to estimate the efficiency for gaseous sources. The efficiencies determined from the present work have been used to estimate activity of cover gas sample of a fast reactor.

  19. Validated age-specific reference values for CSF total protein levels in children.

    PubMed

    Kahlmann, V; Roodbol, J; van Leeuwen, N; Ramakers, C R B; van Pelt, D; Neuteboom, R F; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E; de Wit, M C Y; Jacobs, B C

    2017-07-01

    To define age-specific reference values for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein levels for children and validate these values in children with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Reference values for CSF total protein levels were determined in an extensive cohort of diagnostic samples from children (<18 year) evaluated at Erasmus Medical Center/Sophia Children's Hospital. These reference values were confirmed in children diagnosed with disorders unrelated to raised CSF total protein level and validated in children with GBS, ADEM and MS. The test results of 6145 diagnostic CSF samples from 3623 children were used to define reference values. The reference values based on the upper limit of the 95% CI (i.e. upper limit of normal) were for 6 months-2 years 0.25 g/L, 2-6 years 0.25 g/L, 6-12 years 0.28 g/L, 12-18 years 0.34 g/L. These reference values were confirmed in a subgroup of 378 children diagnosed with disorders that are not typically associated with increased CSF total protein. In addition, the CSF total protein levels in these children in the first 6 months after birth were highly variable (median 0.47 g/L, IQR 0.26-0.65). According to these new reference values, CSF total protein level was elevated in 85% of children with GBS, 66% with ADEM and 23% with MS. More accurate age-specific reference values for CSF total protein levels in children were determined. These new reference values are more sensitive than currently used values for diagnosing GBS and ADEM in children. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the value of volunteer-assisted community-based aging services: a case example.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a social return on investment (SROI) approach in estimating the financial and social value created by volunteer-assisted community-based aging services. An expanded value added statement (EVAS) analysis found that the total value of outputs produced by the Concierge Club of San Diego substantially exceeded the cost of the program, after considering likely secondary and tertiary benefits for a range of affected stakeholders-including elderly service recipients, family members, volunteers, and societal institutions. Additional research is needed regarding the direct and indirect costs and benefits of volunteer support services for vulnerable older adults and their families.

  1. Uranium isotopic compositions of the crust and ocean: Age corrections, U budget and global extent of modern anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    the variability of the 238U/235U ratio on Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages and provide analytical formulas to calculate age corrections as a function of the age and isotopic composition of the sample. The crustal ratio may be used in calculation of Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages of continental crust rocks and minerals when the U isotopic composition is unknown. In cosmochemistry, the search for 247Cm (t1/2 = 15.6 Myr), an extinct short-lived radionuclide that decays into 235U, is important for understanding how r-process nuclides were synthesized in stars and learning about the astrophysical context of solar system formation (Chen and Wasserburg, 1981; Wasserburg et al., 1996; Nittler and Dauphas, 2006; Brennecka et al., 2010b; Tissot et al., 2015). In both terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples, variations in the 238U/235U ratio affect Pb-Pb ages (and depending on the analytical protocols, U-Pb ages). Therefore, samples dated by these techniques need to have their U isotopic compositions measured (Stirling et al., 2005, 2006; Weyer et al., 2008; Amelin et al., 2010; Brennecka et al., 2010b; Brennecka and Wadhwa, 2012; Connelly et al., 2012; Goldmann et al., 2015) or uncertainties on the U isotopic composition should be propagated into age calculations. In low temperature aqueous geochemistry, U isotopic fractionation between U4+ and U6+ (driven in part by nuclear field shift effects; Bigeleisen, 1996; Schauble, 2007; Abe et al., 2008), makes U isotopes potential tracers of paleoredox conditions (Montoya-Pino et al., 2010; Brennecka et al., 2011a; Kendall et al., 2013, 2015; Asael et al., 2013; Andersen et al., 2014; Dahl et al., 2014; Goto et al., 2014; Noordmann et al., 2015). The present paper aims at constraining some aspects of the global budget of uranium in the modern oceans using 238U/235U isotope variations, which involves characterizing the U isotopic composition of seawater and several reservoirs involved in the uranium oceanic budget

  2. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes.

  3. Coming of Age, Media and the Mature Audience. Media & Values 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the influence of mass media on the perceptions about aging in our society. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the society. Articles in the "Awareness/Analysis" section include: (1) "Granny Bashing: New Myth Recasts Elders as Villains" (Ronald F. Pollack);…

  4. Coming of Age, Media and the Mature Audience. Media & Values 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the influence of mass media on the perceptions about aging in our society. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the society. Articles in the "Awareness/Analysis" section include: (1) "Granny Bashing: New Myth Recasts Elders as Villains" (Ronald F. Pollack);…

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: population reference values for phase angle by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Silva, Maria Cristina G; Barros, Aluísio J D; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pierson, Richard N

    2005-07-01

    Phase angle is an indicator based on reactance and resistance obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Although its biological meaning is still not clear, phase angle appears to have an important prognostic role. The aim of this study was to estimate population averages and SDs of phase angle that can be used as reference values. BIA and other methods used to evaluate body composition, including hydrodensitometry and total body water, were completed in 1967 healthy adults aged 18-94 y. Phase angle was calculated directly from body resistance and reactance, and fat mass (FM) was estimated from the combination of weight, hydrodensitometry, and total body water by using the 3-compartment Siri equation. Phase angle values were compared across categories of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and percentage FM. Phase angle was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller in women than in men and was lower with greater age (P < 0.001). Phase angle increased with an increase in BMI and was significantly inversely associated with percentage fat in men. Phase angle was significantly predicted from sex, age, BMI, and percentage FM in multiple regression models. Phase angle differs across categories of sex, age, BMI, and percentage fat. These reference values can serve as a basis for phase angle evaluations in the clinical setting.

  6. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

    1988-01-01

    Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research. PMID:3349406

  7. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  8. Age differences in medial prefrontal activity for subsequent memory of truth value

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Hedden, Trey; Yoon, Carolyn; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated that aging is marked by decreased source memory relative to young adults, yet a smaller body of work has demonstrated that increasing the socioemotional content of source information may be one way to reduce age-related performance differences. Although dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) activity may support source memory among young and older adults, the extent to which one activates dorsal vs. ventral mPFC may reflect one's personal connection with incoming information. Because truth value may be one salient marker that impacts one's connection with information and allocation of attention toward incoming material, we investigated whether the perceived truth value of information differently impacts differences in mPFC activity associated with encoding source information, particularly with age. Twelve young (18–23 years) and 12 older adults (63–80 years) encoded true and false statements. Behavioral results showed similar memory performance between the age groups. With respect to neural activity associated with subsequent memory, young adults, relative to older adults, exhibited greater activity in dmPFC while older adults displayed enhanced ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insula engagement relative to young. These results may potentially indicate that young adults focus on a general knowledge acquisition goal, while older adults focus on emotionally relevant aspects of the material. The findings demonstrate that age-related differences in recruitment of mPFC associated with encoding source information may in some circumstances underlie age-equivalent behavioral performance. PMID:24570672

  9. Predictive value of the augmentation index derived vascular age in patients with newly diagnosed atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Betge, Stefan; Kretzschmar, Daniel; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Lichtenauer, Michael; Jung, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Early detection of atherosclerosis, i.e., in occupational health screening programs could reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in the working population. Changes of the augmentation index (AIX) correlate with changes of the arterial stiffness induced by aging, atherosclerosis, or arterial hypertension and have a prognostic value for cardiovascular events. Their diagnostic yield should be increased by normalizing the AIX to age, in terms of a calculating the vascular age (VA). In this pilot study, 30 patients (mean age 65.3 ± 8.8 years, 21 male) with suspected coronary heart disease underwent a duplex ultrasound of the carotid arteries and a measurement of the ankle brachial index in addition to the coronary angiography. The AIX was recorded with a portable device (Vascular Explorer), and the VA was calculated. Atherosclerosis was found in 24 patients. They were older than the patients without atherosclerosis, but there was no age dependency found for the distribution pattern or severity of atherosclerosis. In patients with findings of atherosclerosis, the calculated VA was higher than the chronological age, and these differences were significant in patients below 65 years of age. Comparing patients in higher blood pressure classes with patients in lower classes, significantly higher AIX, VA, and differences to the chronological age were found. The VA, deduced from the noninvasively obtained AIX, is a promising candidate for screening programs for atherosclerosis, i.e., in occupational health screening programs.

  10. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual's overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

  11. Reference values of hip abductor torque among youth athletes: Influence of age, sex and sports.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Natália Franco Netto; Santos, Thiago Ribeiro Teles; Gonçalves, Gabriela Gomes Pavan; Coelho, Amanda Priscila; Gomes, Bárbara Gonçalves Braz de Magalhães; Mendonça, Luciana De Michelis; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2016-09-01

    (1) To determine the reference values of hip abductor torque in youth athletes; (2) To investigate the influence of sex, age and sports on hip abductors torque. Cross-sectional. Sports clubs. 301 volleyball, basketball and futsal athletes between 10 and 19 years of age. Mean value of three maximal isometric hip abductor torques, evaluated using a hand-held dynamometer. The mean values of maximal isometric hip abductor torque ranged from 1.03 to 1.50 Nm/kg. The dominant hip abductor torque values were greater in 15-19 years old (1.41 ± 0.27 Nm/kg) than in 10-14 years old (1.12 ± 0.31 Nm/kg). In addition, the hip abductor torque values were smaller in basketball players (1.15 ± 0.31 Nm/kg) than futsal (1.34 ± 0.37 Nm/kg) and volleyball players (1.28 ± 0.25 Nm/kg). The comparison of hip abductor torque between futsal and volleyball players revealed no difference. The hip abductor torque values were greater in male volleyball athletes (1.28 ± 0.25 Nm/kg) than female volleyball athletes (1.13 ± 0.22 Nm/kg). This study established reference values for maximal isometric hip abductor torque in youth volleyball, basketball and futsal athletes. In addition, the results demonstrated that sex, age and sports influenced hip abductor torque. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Autonomic disbalance in patients of different age with stomach ulcer and ways of its correction].

    PubMed

    Butov, M A; Maslova, O A; Kuznetsov, P S

    2006-01-01

    The study of peculiarity a tone of vegetative nervous system at patients of different age with ulcer defeats of a stomach, types of temperament, a level of neurotics, expressiveness introversion and extraversion. WE USED: Modified Eysenk Personality Questionnaire, EGG, standard vegetative test CITO (SVT CITO). Rise of neurotic level in patients with stomach ulcer, indications of vegetative distones with characteristic apportionment of activity of VNS. Reflexotherapy, carry on counting variation of tone VNS expedite scaring of ulcer defeat.

  13. The impact of age at death on the lag time of radiocarbon values in human bone.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H; Thomas, Christian; Olson, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of modern bomb-pulse radiocarbon in human bone offers data needed to interpret the post-mortem interval in skeletonized human remains recovered from forensic contexts. Radiocarbon analysis of different tissues with distinct rates of remodeling allows proper placement of the values on the modern bomb-curve. However, the lag time between the date of intercept on the curve and the actual death date is largely affected by the age at death. Published data on radiocarbon analysis of individuals of known age at death and death dates indicate that this lag time increases with age until about 60 years. The lag time documented for each decade of life can be used to compensate for this age-related factor and increase the accuracy of interpretation of the death date. While this method could be greatly improved by original research with a larger sample size, this study provides an adequate point from which to launch further investigations into the subject.

  14. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Y.; Minami, M.; Onbe, S.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakamura, T.; Imamura, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric 14C and the Lake Biwa freshwater 14C is larger for this period because the atmospheric 14C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the 14C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric 14C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330-450 14C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 14C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3-6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  15. [Impaired immunological status due to the urogenital chlamydiosis in women of reproductive age and its correction].

    PubMed

    Tabukashvili, N G

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our research was to assess clinical-immunological properties of disease course and efficiency of complex etiotropic, enzyme-immunomodification therapy in women with urogenital chlamydiosis. Out of examined 818 women chlamydia was found in 276. The diagnoses of chlamydiosis in all women was assessed using the following methods: immuno-enzymatic, immunofluorescent and DNA-hybridization. Immune responses were studied in regard of forms and severity of the disease and its dynamics, as well as the regimens of treatments and their results. Vilkoxon-Mann-Witney non-parametric criterion U was used for statistical evaluation of the results. For measuring of identity of the various forms of treatment Spirman's coefficient r was used. Urogenital chlamydiosis is characterised by expressed misbalance of immune response of depressive character, the intensity of which depends upon the severity of genital pathology and obstetric anamnesis as well. Oral form of plaferon--LB enhances the immune-competent ability of the organism. The most expressive clinical effect was received using the combination of the antibiotic, enzymes and immuno-correction (95%).

  16. Extremely Preterm-Born Infants Demonstrate Different Facial Recognition Processes at 6-10 Months of Corrected Age.

    PubMed

    Frie, Jakob; Padilla, Nelly; Ådén, Ulrika; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Bartocci, Marco

    2016-05-01

    To compare cortical hemodynamic responses to known and unknown facial stimuli between infants born extremely preterm and term-born infants, and to correlate the responses of the extremely preterm-born infants to regional cortical volumes at term-equivalent age. We compared 27 infants born extremely preterm (<28 gestational weeks) with 26 term-born infants. Corrected age and chronological age at testing were between 6 and 10 months, respectively. Both groups were exposed to a gray background, their mother's face, and an unknown face. Cerebral regional concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy. In the preterm group, we also performed structural brain magnetic resonance imaging and correlated regional cortical volumes to hemodynamic responses. The preterm-born infants demonstrated different cortical face recognition processes than the term-born infants. They had a significantly smaller hemodynamic response in the right frontotemporal areas while watching their mother's face (0.13 μmol/L vs 0.63 μmol/L; P < .001). We also found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the oxygenated hemoglobin increase in the right frontotemporal cortex and regional gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and amygdala (voxels, 25; r = 0.86; P < .005). At 6-10 months corrected age, the preterm-born infants demonstrated a different pattern in the maturation of their cortical face recognition process compared with term-born infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  18. Reference values of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy Asian children aged 5 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Lee, W-I; Ou, L-S; Chen, L-C; Yeh, K-W; Huang, J-L

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to establish reference values of exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)) and its determinants in healthy Asian children. 693 healthy Asian children aged 5-18 yrs were assessed using a single-breath online F(eNO) measurement (exhaled flow 50 mL·s(-1)), questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, spirometry and total and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E. Geometric mean F(eNO) and the upper 95% CI were 13.7 ppb and 49.7 ppb, respectively, for healthy children, and 11.2 ppb and 30.2 ppb, respectively, for those without allergic sensitisation. F(eNO) was positively associated with age, allergic sensitisation, total IgE, ambient nitric oxide, measurement in the afternoon, and drinking water within 1 h before testing, and was negatively associated with weight. In healthy children without allergic sensitisation, age was the single best explanatory variable. The F(eNO) predicted values were 1-2 ppb higher in Asian than in Caucasian children in earlier studies, while the upper 95% CI were 9-10 ppb higher. In conclusion, the upper limits of normal F(eNO) in Asian children depend on age, from 21 ppb in young children to 39 ppb in adolescents. Ethnicity, age, allergic sensitisation, total IgE, ambient nitric oxide, time of testing, drinking water and weight are important determinants.

  19. [Normal values of serum IgD in children depending on their age].

    PubMed

    Siwińska-Gołebiowska, H; Borysewicz, G

    1981-01-01

    In the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw there were determined normal values of IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE for different ages of children and youth. The determination of normal IgD levels is the last stage in this kind of studies concerning immunoglobulins. IgD levels were estimated in 372 cases in 19 age groups: in the cord sera, infant sera and older healthy children as well as in healthy adults sera. The IgD concentration was determined by Mancini method and given in I.U/ml. The results were statistically analysed. In all samples of cord sera no IgD traces were found. In infant sera (up to one year) IgD level is very low and was detected in 27% of cases. The percentage of detectability as well as the mean IgD concentration in serum grows systematically to the age of 15 years. There is high statistically significant correlation between serum IgD concentration and the age both for the arithmetical means (r = 0,33) and for geometrical values (r = 0,39). The correlation coefficients between detectability of serum IgD and age are higher (linear dependence-r = 0,67, square dependence - r = 0,75).

  20. High prevalence of abnormal motor repertoire at 3 months corrected age in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Toril; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Øberg, Gunn Kristin; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Labori, Cathrine; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Vågen, Randi; Støen, Ragnhild; Adde, Lars

    2016-03-01

    To compare early motor repertoire between extremely preterm and term-born infants. An association between the motor repertoire and gestational age and birth weight was explored in extremely preterm infants without severe ultrasound abnormalities. In a multicentre study, the early motor repertoire of 82 infants born extremely preterm (ELGAN:<28 weeks) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW:<1000 g) and 87 term-born infants were assessed by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2 to 5 Months" (AMR) which is part of Prechtl's "General Movement Assessment", at 12 weeks post-term age. Fidgety movements were classified as normal if present and abnormal if absent, sporadic or exaggerated. Concurrent motor repertoire was classified as normal if smooth and fluent and abnormal if monotonous, stiff, jerky and/or predominantly fast or slow. Eight-teen ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal fidgety movements (8 absent, 7 sporadic and 3 exaggerated fidgety movements) compared with 2 control infants (OR:12.0; 95%CI:2.7-53.4) and 46 ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal concurrent motor repertoire compared with 17 control infants (OR:5.3; 95%CI:2.6-10.5). Almost all detailed aspects of the AMR differed between the groups. Results were the same when three infants with severe ultrasound abnormalities were excluded. In the remaining ELBW/ELGAN infants, there was no association between motor repertoire and gestational age or birth weight. ELBW/ELGAN infants had poorer quality of early motor repertoire than term-born infants.The findings were not explained by severe abnormalities on neonatal ultrasound scans and were not correlated to the degree of prematurity. The consequences of these abnormal movement patterns remain to be seen in future follow-up studies. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. Copyright

  2. Reference Values of Impulse Oscillometric Lung Function Indices in Adults of Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Holger; Flexeder, Claudia; Behr, Jürgen; Heier, Margit; Holle, Rolf; Huber, Rudolf M.; Jörres, Rudolf A.; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim; Karrasch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a non-demanding lung function test. Its diagnostic use may be particularly useful in patients of advanced age with physical or mental limitations unable to perform spirometry. Only few reference equations are available for Caucasians, none of them covering the old age. Here, we provide reference equations up to advanced age and compare them with currently available equations. Methods IOS was performed in a population-based sample of 1990 subjects, aged 45–91 years, from KORA cohorts (Augsburg, Germany). From those, 397 never-smoking, lung healthy subjects with normal spirometry were identified and sex-specific quantile regression models with age, height and body weight as predictors for respiratory system impedance, resistance, reactance, and other parameters of IOS applied. Results Women (n = 243) showed higher resistance values than men (n = 154), while reactance at low frequencies (up to 20 Hz) was lower (p<0.05). A significant age dependency was observed for the difference between resistance values at 5 Hz and 20 Hz (R5–R20), the integrated area of low-frequency reactance (AX), and resonant frequency (Fres) in both sexes whereas reactance at 5 Hz (X5) was age dependent only in females. In the healthy subjects (n = 397), mean differences between observed values and predictions for resistance (5 Hz and 20 Hz) and reactance (5 Hz) ranged between −1% and 5% when using the present model. In contrast, differences based on the currently applied equations (Vogel & Smidt 1994) ranged between −34% and 76%. Regarding our equations the indices were beyond the limits of normal in 8.1% to 18.6% of the entire KORA cohort (n = 1990), and in 0.7% to 9.4% with the currently applied equations. Conclusions Our study provides up-to-date reference equations for IOS in Caucasians aged 45 to 85 years. We suggest the use of the present equations particularly in advanced age in order to detect airway dysfunction. PMID

  3. Correcting anthropogenic ocean heat uptake estimates for the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of anthropogenic ocean heat uptake typically assume that the ocean was in equilibrium during the pre-industrial era. Recent reconstructions of the Common Era, however, show a multi-century surface cooling trend before the Industrial Revolution. Using a time-evolving state estimation method, we find that the 1750 C.E. ocean must have been out of equilibrium in order to fit the H.M.S. Challenger, WOCE, and Argo hydrographic data. When the disequilibrated ocean conditions are taken into account, the inferred ocean heat uptake from 1750-2014 C.E. is revised due to the deep ocean memory of Little Ice Age surface forcing. These effects of ocean disequilibrium should also be considered when interpreting climate sensitivity estimates.

  4. Age-matched reference values for B-lymphocyte subpopulations and CVID classifications in children.

    PubMed

    Schatorjé, E J H; Gemen, E F A; Driessen, G J A; Leuvenink, J; van Hout, R W N M; van der Burg, M; de Vries, E

    2011-11-01

    Age-matched reference values are generally presented with 5th and 95th percentiles as 'normal' reference range. However, they are mostly determined in relatively small groups, which renders this presentation inaccurate. We determined reference values for B-lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy children with the statistical method of tolerance intervals that deals far better with the relatively small numbers tested, and compared these to the cut-off values used in the currently used EUROclass classification for common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) in children. CVID is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency diseases characterized by low serum immunoglobulin levels and inadequate response to vaccination. Disease-modifying heterozygous amino acid substitutions in TACI are found in around ±10% of CVID patients. Interestingly, we found that age is the primary determinant of TACI-expression on B-lymphocytes, independent of switched memory B-lymphocyte numbers. Immunophenotyping of B-lymphocyte subpopulations is increasingly used to classify patients with CVID into subgroups with different clinical prognosis according to the composition of their B-lymphocyte compartment. These classifications were mainly developed with data obtained in adults. Because of the maturing paediatric immune system, they may not be equally applicable in children: our and other age-matched reference values show great changes in the composition of the B-lymphocyte compartment during development. Although the greatest changes in B-lymphocyte subpopulations occur below the age of 2 years, when the diagnosis of CVID cannot yet be made, it is likely that a classification developed in adults cannot be used to classify the prognosis of children. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Mineral metabolism in growing cats: changes in the values of blood parameters with age.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Carmen; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Guerrero, Fatima; Raya, Ana I; Rodriguez, Mariano; Lopez, Ignacio

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and calcidiol in cats from 3 to 15 months of age. Fourteen European shorthair healthy cats of both sexes (seven males, seven females) belonging to a research colony were studied from 3 to 15 months of age. Plasma concentrations of total calcium, ionised calcium, albumin, phosphorus, magnesium, intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH), whole parathyroid hormone (W-PTH), calcidiol and calcitriol were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months of age. From 3 months of age to adulthood cats showed a decrease in calcium (both total and ionised), phosphorus and magnesium. No major changes in PTH were evident, although the ratio of W-PTH:I-PTH decreased significantly with age. A reciprocal change in vitamin D metabolites (decrease in calcitriol and increase in calcidiol) was identified during the growing process. Our results, showing changes in most parameters of mineral metabolism during growth, reinforce the need to use adequate age-related reference values for diagnostic purposes.

  6. A simple McGowan specific volume correction for branching in hydrocarbons and its consequences for some other solvation parameter values.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R

    2011-08-01

    Differences in molecular properties between linear and branched alkanes as well as between compounds with branched alkyl groups is of relevance due to the large number of branched isomers of environmentally relevant compounds (e.g. fuels, fuel additives, surfactants). For branched alkane vapor pressures, the McGowan specific volume is a poor predictor. Therefore, in this study a correction on the McGowan specific volume is derived in terms of the number of branches and the number of pairs of vicinal branches to improve the prediction of branched alkane vapor pressures. This branching correction also brought branched/alkane solvent accessible volumes, octanol/water partition coefficients, air/hexadecane partition coefficients, and aqueous solubilities as well as alkyl-branched substituted aliphatic hydrocarbon air/hexadecane partition coefficients more in line with corresponding linear hydrocarbon properties when compared on a McGowan specific volume basis. Even for air-hexadecane partition coefficients of substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons with substituents at non-terminal carbons, application of the branching correction to the carbon bearing the substituent caused these partition coefficients to be more in line with those for linear compounds. Values for the Abraham A and B solvation parameters for nonlinear aliphatic ethers, amines, and alcohols, recalculated using branching corrected McGowan specific volumes, turned out to be closer to chemical expectations based on linear aliphatic ether, amine and alcohol values compared to previously reported experimental values obtained using uncorrected McGowan specific volumes. A comparison of alkylbenzene and alkene partition coefficient estimates from two different linear solvation energy relations, one containing a McGowan specific volume term and one without such a term, suggests that no branching correction is needed for alkyl groups at sp2 carbons. The main advantage of using branching corrected McGowan specific

  7. Correction: Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge Ignacio; Grand, André; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    Correction for 'Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges' by Jorge Ignacio Martínez-Araya et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp03822g.

  8. A variable age of onset segregation model for linkage analysis, with correction for ascertainment, applied to glioma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiangqing; Vengoechea, Jaime; Elston, Robert; Chen, Yanwen; Amos, Christopher I.; Armstrong, Georgina; Bernstein, Jonine L; Claus, Elizabeth; Davis, Faith; Houlston, Richard S; Il'yasova, Dora; Jenkins, Robert B; Johansen, Christoffer; Lai, Rose; Lau, Ching C; Liu, Yanhong; McCarthy, Bridget J; Olson, Sara H; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schildkraut, Joellen; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert; Vick, Nicholas A; Merrell, Ryan; Wrensch, Margaret; Yang, Ping; Melin, Beatrice; Bondy, Melissa L.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Background We propose a two-step model-based approach, with correction for ascertainment, to linkage analysis of a binary trait with variable age of onset and apply it to a set of multiplex pedigrees segregating for adult glioma. Methods First, we fit segregation models by formulating the likelihood for a person to have a bivariate phenotype, affection status and age of onset, along with other covariates, and from these we estimate population trait allele frequencies and penetrance parameters as a function of age (N=281 multiplex glioma pedigrees). Second, the best fitting models are used as trait models in multipoint linkage analysis (N=74 informative multiplex glioma pedigrees). To correct for ascertainment, a prevalence constraint is used in the likelihood of the segregation models for all 281 pedigrees. Then the trait allele frequencies are re-estimated for the pedigree founders of the subset of 74 pedigrees chosen for linkage analysis. Results Using the best fitting segregation models in model-based multipoint linkage analysis, we identified two separate peaks on chromosome 17; the first agreed with a region identified by Shete et al. who used model-free affected-only linkage analysis, but with a narrowed peak: and the second agreed with a second region they found but had a larger maximum log of the odds (LOD). Conclusions/Impact Our approach has the advantage of not requiring markers to be in linkage equilibrium unless the minor allele frequency is small (markers which tend to be uninformative for linkage), and of using more of the available information for LOD-based linkage analysis. PMID:22962404

  9. Increased age and race-specific incidence of cervical cancer after correction for hysterectomy prevalence in the United States from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Rositch, Anne F; Nowak, Rebecca G; Gravitt, Patti E

    2014-07-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35-39 (APC(CORRECTED) = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20-34 years (APC(CORRECTED) = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  10. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prospecting for dinosaurs on the mining frontier: The value of information in America's Gilded Age.

    PubMed

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    How much is a dinosaur worth? This essay offers an account of the way vertebrate fossils were priced in late 19th-century America to explore the process by which monetary values are established in science. Examining a long and drawn-out negotiation over the sale of an unusually rich dinosaur quarry in Wyoming, I argue that, on their own, abstract market principles did not suffice to mediate between supply and demand. Rather, people haggling over the price of dinosaur bones looked to social norms from the mineral industry for cues on how to value these rare and unusual objects, adopting a set of negotiation tactics that exploited asymmetries in the distribution of scarce information to secure the better end of the deal. On the mining frontier in America's Gilded Age, dinosaurs were thus valued in much the same way as any other scarce natural resource one could dig out of the ground, including gold, silver, and coal.

  12. Avoidable deaths until 48 [corrected] months of age among children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Gorgot, Luis Ramon Marques da Rocha; Santos, Iná; Valle, Neiva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matisajevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D; Albernaz, Elaine

    2011-04-01

    To describe avoidable deaths of children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The death of 92 children between 2004/2008 from Pelotas Birth Cohort were identified and classified according to the Brazilian List of Avoidable Causes of Mortality of Brazilian Unified Healthcare System. The Mortality Information System (SIM) for the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) and the city of Pelotas were screened to search for deaths that occurred outside the city, as well as causes of deaths after the 1st year. Causes of infant deaths (<1 year of age) were compared between information from a sub-study and SIM. Mortality coefficients per 1,000 LB and proportional mortality for avoidable causes, including by type of health facility (traditional or Family Health Strategy) were calculated. The mortality coefficient was 22.2/ 1,000 LB, 82 the deaths occurred in the first year of life (19.4/1,000LB), and these included 37 (45%) in the first week. More than ¾ of the deaths (70/92) were avoidable. In infancy, according to the sub-study, the majority (42/82) could be prevented through adequate care of the woman during pregnancy; according to SIM, the majority could have been prevented through adequate newborn care (32/82). There was no difference in the proportion of avoidable deaths by type of health facility. The proportion of avoidable deaths is high. The quality of death certificate registries needs improvement so that avoidable deaths can be employed as an indicator to monitor maternal and child health care.

  13. A Comparison of Values Found in Preschool and Primary-Aged Children's Books and Values Held by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Terry Lee

    Fifteen children's picture books from each of three time periods--1960, 1964, and 1968--were rated using the Rokeach Value Survey in order to identify the value systems expressed in their contents and to compare these systems with those held by adults. Results indicated that the instrumental values ranked highest were loving, imagination,…

  14. Partial volume correction and image segmentation for accurate measurement of standardized uptake value of grey matter in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bural, Gonca; Torigian, Drew; Basu, Sandip; Houseni, Mohamed; Zhuge, Ying; Rubello, Domenico; Udupa, Jayaram; Alavi, Abass

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to explore a novel quantitative method [based upon an MRI-based image segmentation that allows actual calculation of grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes] for overcoming the difficulties associated with conventional techniques for measuring actual metabolic activity of the grey matter. We included four patients with normal brain MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET scans (two women and two men; mean age 46±14 years) in this analysis. The time interval between the two scans was 0-180 days. We calculated the volumes of grey matter, white matter and CSF by using a novel segmentation technique applied to the MRI images. We measured the mean standardized uptake value (SUV) representing the whole metabolic activity of the brain from the F-FDG-PET images. We also calculated the white matter SUV from the upper transaxial slices (centrum semiovale) of the F-FDG-PET images. The whole brain volume was calculated by summing up the volumes of the white matter, grey matter and CSF. The global cerebral metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV with total brain volume. The whole brain white matter metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV for the white matter by the white matter volume. The global cerebral metabolic activity only reflects those of the grey matter and the white matter, whereas that of the CSF is zero. We subtracted the global white matter metabolic activity from that of the whole brain, resulting in the global grey matter metabolism alone. We then divided the grey matter global metabolic activity by grey matter volume to accurately calculate the SUV for the grey matter alone. The brain volumes ranged between 1546 and 1924 ml. The mean SUV for total brain was 4.8-7. Total metabolic burden of the brain ranged from 5565 to 9617. The mean SUV for white matter was 2.8-4.1. On the basis of these measurements we generated the grey matter SUV, which ranged from 8.1 to 11.3. The

  15. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    PubMed

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A revised set of values of single-bond radii derived from the observed interatomic distances in metals by correction for bond number and resonance energy

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus; Kamb, Barclay

    1986-01-01

    An earlier discussion [Pauling, L. (1947) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 542] of observed bond lengths in elemental metals with correction for bond number and resonance energy led to a set of single-bond metallic radii with values usually somewhat less than the corresponding values obtained from molecules and complex ions. A theory of resonating covalent bonds has now been developed that permits calculation of the number of resonance structures per atom and of the effective resonance energy per bond. With this refined method of correcting the observed bond lengths for the effect of resonance energy, a new set of single-bond covalent radii, in better agreement with values from molecules and complex ions, has been constructed. PMID:16593698

  17. Physiologic noise regression, motion regression, and TOAST dynamic field correction in complex-valued fMRI time series.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andrew D; Rowe, Daniel B

    2012-02-01

    As more evidence is presented suggesting that the phase, as well as the magnitude, of functional MRI (fMRI) time series may contain important information and that there are theoretical drawbacks to modeling functional response in the magnitude alone, removing noise in the phase is becoming more important. Previous studies have shown that retrospective correction of noise from physiologic sources can remove significant phase variance and that dynamic main magnetic field correction and regression of estimated motion parameters also remove significant phase fluctuations. In this work, we investigate the performance of physiologic noise regression in a framework along with correction for dynamic main field fluctuations and motion regression. Our findings suggest that including physiologic regressors provides some benefit in terms of reduction in phase noise power, but it is small compared to the benefit of dynamic field corrections and use of estimated motion parameters as nuisance regressors. Additionally, we show that the use of all three techniques reduces phase variance substantially, removes undesirable spatial phase correlations and improves detection of the functional response in magnitude and phase.

  18. Value of bias-corrected satellite rainfall products in SWAT simulations and comparison with other models in the Mara basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Abitew, T. A.; Roy, T.; van Griensven, A.; Valdes, J. B.; Bauwens, W.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrometeorological monitoring networks are often limited for basins located in the developing world such as the transboundary Mara Basin. The advent of earth observing systems have brought satellite rainfall and evapotranspiration products, which can be used to force hydrological models in data scarce basins. The objective of this study is to develop improved hydrologic simulations using distributed satellite rainfall products (CMORPH and TMPA) with a bias-correction, and compare the performance with different input data and models. The bias correction approach for the satellite-products (CMORPH and TMPA) involves the use of a distributed reference dataset (CHIRPS) and historical ground gauge records. We have applied the bias-corrected satellite products to force the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for the Mara Basin. Firstly, we calibrate the SWAT parameters related to ET simulation using ET from remote sensing. Then, the SWAT parameters that control surface processes are calibrated using the available limited flow. From the analysis, we noted that not only the bias-corrected satellite rainfall but also augmenting limited flow data with monthly remote sensing ET improves the model simulation skill and reduces the parameter uncertainty to some extent. We have planned to compare these results from a lumped model forced by the same input satellite rainfall. This will shed light on the potential of satellite rainfall and remote sensing ET along with in situ data for hydrological processes modeling and the inherent uncertainty in a data scarce basin.

  19. Dissatisfaction with performance of valued activities predicts depression in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Hauck, Walter W; Tasman, William S

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether dissatisfaction with performance of valued activities predicts depression in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Two hundred and six patients with newly diagnosed neovascular AMD in one eye and pre-existing AMD in the fellow eye who were participating in a clinical trial of a psychosocial intervention to prevent depression. Structured clinical evaluations of vision function, depression, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and medical morbidity. Subjects were classified as dissatisfied if they indicated that they were dissatisfied with their performance of a valued activity. Subjects who were dissatisfied with performance of valued activities (n = 71) had similar demographic characteristics to satisfied subjects (n = 135) but had worse visual acuity (p < 0.054), greater medical comorbidity (p < 0.006), and lower vision function (p < 0.001). Dissatisfied subjects were almost 2.5 times more likely (OR = 2.41; [95% CI 1.02, 5.65]; p = 0.044) to become depressed within 2 months than satisfied subjects independent of baseline visual acuity, vision function, and medical comorbidity. Dissatisfaction with performance of valued activities in older persons with AMD predicts depression over a 2-month period. Assessing the ability to pursue valued activities may identify patients at risk for depression and prompt clinicians to initiate rehabilitative interventions and careful surveillance for depression.

  20. Superficial Enhanced Fluid Fat Injection (SEFFI) to Correct Volume Defects and Skin Aging of the Face and Periocular Region.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Francesco P; Gennai, Alessandro; Izzo, Luigi; Zambelli, Alessandra; Repaci, Erica; Baldelli, Ilaria; Fraternali-Orcioni, G; Hartstein, Morris E; Santi, Pier Luigi; Quarto, Rodolfo

    2015-07-01

    Although recent research on micro fat has shown the potential advantages of superficial implantation and high stem cell content, clinical applications thus far have been limited. The authors report their experience with superficial enhanced fluid fat injection (SEFFI) for the correction of volume loss and skin aging of the face in general and in the periocular region. The finer SEFFI preparation (0.5 mL) was injected into the orbicularis in the periorbital and perioral areas, and the 0.8-mL preparation was injected subdermally elsewhere in the face. The records of 98 consecutive patients were reviewed. Average follow-up time was 6 months, and average volume of implanted fat was 20 mL and 51.4 mL for the 0.5-mL and 0.8-mL preparations, respectively. Good or excellent results were achieved for volume restoration and skin improvement in all patients. Complications were minor and included an oil cyst in 3 patients. The smaller SEFFI quantity (0.5 mL) was well suited to correct volume loss in the eyelids, especially the deep upper sulcus and tear trough, whereas the larger SEFFI content was effective for larger volume deficits in other areas of the face, including the brow, temporal fossa, zygomatic-malar region, nasolabial folds, marionette lines, chin, and lips. The fat administered by SEFFI is easily harvested via small side-port cannulae, yielding micro fat that is rich in viable adipocytes and stem cells. Both volumes of fat (0.5 mL and 0.8 mL) were effective for treating age-related lipoatrophy, reducing facial rhytids, and improving skin quality. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Maximal respiratory pressure reference values for Navajo children ages 6-14.

    PubMed

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Owens, Beatrice; Cebrià i Iranzo, Maria dels Àngels; Sokell, Geri Ann; Kanuho, Verdell; Interpreter, Christina; Coast, J Richard

    2013-08-01

    Since anthropometric variables are critical to the creation of pulmonary nomograms for FVC, FEV1, and other volumes and capacities, it is logical that anthropometric variables also influence the values of the maximal respiratory pressures (MRPs). Since nomograms are race-specific, it is important that tribe-specific tables of normal maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) be developed. To date normal tables for MRPs do not exist for Navajo children. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive MRP normative reference values for Navajo children in the age range of 6-14 years. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a representative sample of 534 healthy children, ages 6-14 years, attending Navajo Nation elementary schools in Arizona. MIP and MEP were measured. Test results from 275 girls and 259 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards and showed that MRPs all increased with height. Mean MIP in cm H2 O was 77 for boys and 67 for girls with lower limits of 44 and 40, respectively. Mean MEP in cm H2 O was 75 for boys and 66 for girls with the lower limits of 42 and 38, respectively. Since the data were collected from the population of interest, the resulting MIP and MEP reference equations should be used when testing Navajo children ages 6-14 years. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Maximal aerobic capacity in ageing subjects: actual measurements versus predicted values.

    PubMed

    Pistea, Cristina; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Oswald, Monique; Enache, Irina; Charloux, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of selection of reference values on the categorisation of measured maximal oxygen consumption (V'O2peak) as "normal" or "abnormal" in an ageing population. We compared measured V'O2peak with predicted values and the lower limit of normal (LLN) calculated with five equations. 99 (58 males and 41 females) disease-free subjects aged ≥70 years completed an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Mean V'O2peak was 1.88 L·min(-1) in men and 1.26 L·min(-1) in women. V'O2peak ranged from 89% to 108% of predicted in men, and from 88% to 164% of predicted in women, depending on the reference equation used. The proportion of subjects below the LLN ranged from 5% to 14% in men and 0-22% in women, depending on the reference equation. The LLN was lacking in one study, and was unsuitable for women in another. Most LLNs ranged between 53% and 73% of predicted. Therefore, choosing an 80% cut-off leads to overestimation of the proportion of "abnormal" subjects. To conclude, the proportion of subjects aged ≥70 years with a "low" V'O2peak differs markedly according to the chosen reference equations. In clinical practice, it is still relevant to test a sample of healthy volunteers and select the reference equations that better characterise this sample.

  3. "No Country for Old Men": Huxley's Brave New World and the Value of Old Age.

    PubMed

    Linett, Maren

    2017-08-17

    This article inserts Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) into a bioethical conversation about the value of old age and old people. Exploring literary treatments of bioethical questions can supplement conversations within bioethics proper, helping to reveal our existing assumptions and clear the way for more considered views; indeed, as Peter Swirski has argued, literary texts can serve as thought experiments that illuminate the ramifications of philosophical ideas. This essay examines the novel's representation of a society without old people in conjunction with ideas about aging and life narratives put forward by philosophers and bioethicists such as Ezekiel Emanuel, Gilbert Meilaender, and Alasdair MacIntyre. While critics, and Huxley himself, view the Brave New World as dystopian primarily because of its depiction of a totalitarian society where art, truth, and meaning are sacrificed to pleasure and distraction and where the ruled are programmed not to question the values of their rulers, the novel also makes clear that the excision of old age has significant political, moral, and emotional costs.

  4. Identification of neonatal hearing impairment: hearing status at 8 to 12 months corrected age using a visual reinforcement audiometry protocol.

    PubMed

    Widen, J E; Folsom, R C; Cone-Wesson, B; Carty, L; Dunnell, J J; Koebsell, K; Levi, A; Mancl, L; Ohlrich, B; Trouba, S; Gorga, M P; Sininger, Y S; Vohr, B R; Norton, S J

    2000-10-01

    1) To describe the hearing status of the at-risk infants in the National Institutes of Health-Identification of Neonatal Hearing Impairment study sample at 8 to 12 mo corrected age (chronologic age adjusted for prematurity). 2) To describe the visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) protocol that was used to obtain monaural behavioral data for the sample. All neonatal intensive care unit infants and well babies with risk factors (including well babies who failed neonatal tests) were targeted for follow-up behavioral evaluation once they had reached 8 mo corrected age. Three thousand one hundred and thirty-four (64.4%) of the 4868 surviving infants returned for at least one behavioral hearing evaluation, which employed a well-defined VRA protocol. VRA thresholds or minimum response levels (MRLs) were determined for speech and pure tones of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz for each ear using insert earphones. More than 95% of the infants were reliably tested with the VRA protocol; 90% provided complete tests (four MRLs for both ears). Ninety-four percent of the at-risk infants were found to have normal hearing sensitivity (MRLs of 20 dB HL) at 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz in both ears. Of the infants, 2.2% had bilateral hearing impairment, and 3.4% had impairment in one ear only. More than 80% of the impaired ears had losses of mild-to-moderate degree. This may be the largest study to attempt to follow all at-risk infants with behavioral audiometric testing, regardless of screening outcome, in an effort to validate the results of auditory brain stem response, distortion product otoacoustic emission, and transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing in the newborn period. It is one of only a few studies to report hearing status of infants at 1 yr of age, using VRA on a clinical population. Successful testing of more than 95% of the infants who returned for the VRA follow-up documents the feasibility of obtaining monaural behavioral data in this population.

  5. Effects of age on intestinal phosphate transport and biochemical values of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. Methods A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. Results The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks). NaPi-IIb gene expression in the small intestine in the early growth stage was higher than that in the later growth stage. Expression of calbindin and the vitamin D receptor protein in the intestinal mucosa increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum. Serum AKP activity first increased and subsequently decreased after peaking at 1 week of age, but there was no significant difference after 3 weeks of age. Conclusion These results show that compared with the early growth stage, the weight-gain rate of broiler chickens in the late growth stage gradually decreased with gradual tibia maturation, along with weaker positive transport of phosphorus in the intestine and reinforced re-absorption of phosphorus in the kidney, which might be the reason that phosphorus requirement in the late growth stage was decreased. PMID:27703131

  6. Predictive value of BI-RADS classification for breast imaging in women under age 50.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gannon; Markert, Matthew; Alexander, Joseph Richard; Avisar, Eli

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we assessed the positive-predictive value (PPV) of mammography and/or ultrasonography in women age 50 based on recommendations for biopsies and final pathology results. We performed a retrospective analysis of all mammography and ultrasonography reports issued from 9/2005 to 1/2007 resulting in biopsy among women aged 18-50 at a large county hospital. Data included demographics, imaging modality, breast density, type of finding, BI-RADS, and final pathology. Results were compared to women aged >50 at the same institution. Four hundred and seventy-five biopsies in 395 patients were reviewed. The PPV of BI-RADS 3 (n = 11) was 9.1%, BI-RADS 4 (n = 440) 5.9%, and BI-RADS 5 (n = 24) 66.7%. Forty three (9%) were malignant, of which 31 (6.5%) were invasive carcinomas and 12 (2.5%) were noninvasive. None of the biopsies on patients aged <30 were malignant. Recommended biopsies based on mammography alone were malignant in 20.2% (20/99) compared to 3.4% (7/205) for ultrasonography alone, and 8.9% (15/168) for both mammography and ultrasonography. Suspicious calcifications were malignant in 25% compared to 6.8% for masses/nodules and 3.6% for cysts. Lesions larger than 2 cm are more likely to be malignant (11.8%) than lesions between 1 and 2 cm (3.6%) or below 1 cm (4.3%). The PPV of the current screening modalities diminishes markedly in women under the age of 50 and even more below the age of 40. Calcifications and masses larger than 2 cm should be biopsied, but the current BI-RADS criteria may benefit from revision for other findings in young patients.

  7. Correction Factors Applied to Finger Dosimetry: A Theoretical Assessment of Appropriate Values for Use in Handling Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Sherbini, Sami; Ilas, Dan; Eckerman, Keith F; DeCicco, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations limit the dose to the skin to 500 mSv per year. This is also the dose limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The operational quantity recommended by ICRP for quantifying dose to the skin is the personal dose equivalent, Hp(0.07) and is identical to NRC s shallow dose equivalent, Hs, also measured at a skin depth of 7 mg cm 2. However, whereas ICRP recommends averaging the dose to the skin over an area of 1 cm2 regardless of the size of the exposed area of skin, USNRC requires the shallow dose equivalent to be averaged over 10 cm2. To monitor dose to the skin of the hands of workers handling radioactive materials and particularly in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, which is the focus of this work, workers are frequently required to wear finger ring dosimeters. The dosimeters monitor the dose at the location of the sensitive element, but this is not the dose required to show compliance (i.e., the dose averaged over the highest exposed contiguous 10 cm2 of skin). Therefore, it may be necessary to apply a correction factor that enables estimation of the required skin dose from the dosimeter reading. This work explored the effects of finger ring placement and of the geometry of the radioactive materials being handled by the worker on the relationship between the dosimeter reading and the desired average dose. A mathematical model of the hand was developed for this purpose that is capable of positioning the fingers in any desired grasping configuration, thereby realistically modeling manipulation of any object. The model was then used with the radiation transport code MCNP to calculate the dose distribution on the skin of the hand when handling a variety of radioactive vials and syringes, as well as the dose to the dosimeter element. Correction factors were calculated using the results of these calculations and examined for any patterns that may be

  8. Early and intensive nutritional strategy combining parenteral and enteral feeding promotes neurodevelopment and growth at 18months of corrected age and 3years of age in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Satoshi; Ichiba, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yuko; Harada, Sayaka; Matsumura, Hisako; Kan, Ayako; Asada, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate whether aggressive nutrition can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). This single-center cohort study included 137 ELBW AGA infants born in two epochs. The first group received standard nutrition (SN; n=79) consisting of amino acids started at 0.5g/kg/day on Day 4 of life and increased to 1.0g/kg/day. The second aggressive nutrition (AN) group received amino acids started at 1.5-2.0g/kg/day within 24h of life and increased to 3.5g/kg/day. Parenteral and enteral feedings were combined in both groups. Neurodevelopmental outcomes by the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development and growth were followed up to 18months of corrected age or 3years of age and compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. At 3years of age, AN children had a significantly greater mean value of head circumference, but not length or weight, than SN children (49.1 vs 48.0cm, p=0.014). The cognitive-adaptive (C-A) score in the AN group was also significantly higher than that in the SN group (98.3 vs 91.9 at 18months, p=0.039 and 89.5 vs 83.1 at 3years, p=0.047). AN infants born ≥26weeks of gestation were less likely to develop borderline disability in C-A, language-social and overall developmental scores compared to gestational age-matched SN infants. Parenteral and enteral AN after birth improved the long-term cognitive neurodevelopment in ELBW AGA infants, especially in those born ≥26weeks of gestational age, however results need to be confirmed in a larger, multi-site randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correction of moderate myopia is associated with improvement in self-reported visual functioning among Mexican school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Esteso, Paul; Castanon, Aaron; Toledo, Silvia; Rito, Marco A Pereyra; Ervin, Anne; Wojciechowski, Robert; Congdon, Nathan G

    2007-11-01

    To quantify the impact on self-reported visual functioning of spectacle provision for school-aged children in Oaxaca, Mexico. The Refractive Status Vision Profile (RSVP), a previously validated tool to measure the impact of refractive correction on visual functioning, was adapted for use in rural children and administered at baseline and 4 weeks (27.3 +/- 4.4 days) after the provision of free spectacles. Visual acuity with and without correction, age, sex, and spherical equivalent refraction were recorded at the time of follow-up. Among 88 children (mean age, 12 years; 55.7% girls), the median presenting acuity (uncorrected or with original spectacles), tested 4 weeks after the provision of free spectacles, was 6/9 (range, 6/6-6/120). Significant improvements in the following subscales of the RSVP were seen for the group as a whole after the provision of free spectacles: function, 11.2 points (P = 0.0001); symptoms, 14.3 points (P < 0.0001); total score, 10.3 points (P = 0.0001). After stratification by presenting vision in the better-seeing eye, children with 6/6 acuity (n = 22) did not have significant improvement in any subscale; those with acuity of 6/7.5 to 6/9 (n = 34) improved only on function (P = 0.02), symptoms (P = 0.005), and total score (P = 0.003); and those with acuity of 6/12 or worse improved on total score (P < 0.0001) and all subscales. Subjects (n = 31) with uncorrected myopia of -1.25 D or more had a mean improvement in total score of 15.9 points (P < 0.0001), whereas those with uncorrected myopia between -0.50 and -1.00 D inclusive (n = 53) had a mean improvement of 8 points (P = 0.01). Provision of spectacles to children in this setting had a significant impact on self-reported function, even at modest levels of baseline visual disability. The correlation between presenting vision/refraction and improvement and the failure of children 6/6 at baseline to improve offer evidence for a real effect.

  10. Microstructural brain development between 30 and 40 weeks corrected age in a longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Leemans, Alexander; Groenendaal, Floris; van der Aa, Niek E; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Benders, Manon J N L

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is frequently used to assess brain development in preterm infants. This study investigates maturational changes in diffusivity measures in 122 regions of the brain between 30 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the neonatal atlas of Oishi and colleagues (Oishi et al., 2011). Forty infants without cerebral injury and with normal neurodevelopmental outcome were selected from a cohort of preterm infants (gestational age<28 weeks), scanned longitudinally at 30 and 40 weeks PMA. Fractional anisotropy (FA) changed significantly in 84 brain regions, with the largest increase in the central brain regions; by contrast, the cortical brain regions showed a decrease in FA. Mean, radial and axial diffusivity all showed a clear decrease in the majority of brain regions. This study provides longitudinal reference diffusivity values in a cohort of extremely preterm infants, showing a central to peripheral and posterior to anterior directed gradient, in line with our current understanding of brain maturation, and adding to this knowledge. This study further elucidates brain maturation in preterm infants during the last 10 weeks prior to term equivalent age. The presented values can be used as a reference for assessing brain development in other cohorts, when investigating the effects of brain injury in this vulnerable period, and to evaluate the effect of future neuroprotective strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bonding values of two contemporary ceramic inlay materials to dentin following simulated aging

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Ashraf Abdelfattah

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the push-out bond strength of feldspar and zirconia-based ceramic inlays bonded to dentin with different resin cements following simulated aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Occlusal cavities in 80 extracted molars were restored in 2 groups (n=40) with CAD/CAM feldspar (Vitablocs Trilux forte) (FP) and zirconia-based (Ceramill Zi) (ZR) ceramic inlays. The fabricated inlays were luted in 2 subgroups (n=20) with either etch-and-bond (RelyX Ultimate Clicker) (EB) or self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem Aplicap) (SA) resin cement. Ten inlays in each subgroup were subjected to 3,500 thermal cycles and 24,000 loading cycles, while the other 10 served as control. Horizontal 3 mm thick specimens were cut out of the restored teeth for push out bond strength testing. Bond strength data were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's comparisons at α=.05. The mode of ceramic-cement-dentin bond failure for each specimen was also assessed. RESULTS No statistically significant differences were noticed between FP and ZR bond strength to dentin in all subgroups (ANOVA, P=.05113). No differences were noticed between EB and SA (Tukey's, P>.05) bonded to either type of ceramics. Both adhesive and mixed modes of bond failure were dominant for non-aged inlays. Simulated aging had no significant effect on bond strength values (Tukey's, P>.05) of all ceramic-cement combinations although the adhesive mode of bond failure became more common (60-80%) in aged inlays. CONCLUSION The suggested cement-ceramic combinations offer comparable bonding performance to dentin substrate either before or after simulated aging that seems to have no adverse effect on the achieved bond. PMID:26816574

  12. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  13. The temporal and age-dependent patterns of hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence rates in Denmark: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Kahlert, Johnny; Rositch, Anne; Pedersen, Lars; Gravitt, Patti; Blaakaer, Jan; Soegaard, Mette

    2017-02-01

    Hysterectomy is a common gynecological procedure; however, the incidence of total and subtotal hysterectomy varies across countries, by age, and over time. As only women with an intact cervix are at risk of cervical cancer, failing to remove hysterectomized women from the denominator may underestimate the cervical cancer incidence. We aimed to describe the temporal and age-dependent patterns of cervical cancer incidence in Denmark before and after correction for hysterectomy. Using data from national registries we calculated uncorrected and hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence rates among women ≥20 years during 2000-11. Hysterectomy-corrected rates were calculated by subtracting post-hysterectomy person-years from the denominator. The overall uncorrected cervical cancer incidence rate was 17.8/100 000 person-years (95% CI 17.3-18.3). After correction for hysterectomy, the rate increased by 8.4% to 19.3/100 000 person-years (95% CI 18.8-19.9). The highest uncorrected incidence was seen in women aged 35-39 years, peaking at 24.4/100 000 person-years, whereas the highest hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence rate was observed in women aged 75-79 years (29.4/100 000 person-years). Over time, women ≥60 years had the highest hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence. Correcting for hysterectomy incidence resulted in a higher cervical cancer incidence and a shift in the peak incidence from age 35-39 years to age 75-79 years. Over time, women ≥60 years were at the highest risk of cervical cancer. Given the high incidence in women >60-65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, a revision of the screening guidelines may be warranted. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Impact of age on both BIS values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane in children

    PubMed Central

    Wodey, Eric; Tirel, Olivier; Bansard, Jean-Yves; Terrier, Anne; Chanavaz, Charles; Harris, Rupert; Ecoffey, Claude; Senhadji, Lotfi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between age, BIS (Aspect™) and the EEG bispectrum during anesthesia with sevoflurane. BIS and raw EEG sampled at 400 Hz were recorded at a steady state of 1 MAC sevoflurane in 100 children, and during a decrease from 2 MAC to 0.5 MAC in a sub-group of 29 children. The bispectrum of the EEG was estimated on successive epochs of 20 seconds using MATLAB© software, independently of the Aspect™ device. For analysis, the bispectrum was divided into 36 frequencies of coupling (Pi) - the MatBis. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to establish an underlying structure of the pattern of each individual’s MatBis at the steady state of 1 MAC. Clustering of children into homogeneous groups was conducted by a hierarchical ascending classification (HAC). The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. At the steady state of 1 MAC sevoflurane, the BIS values for all 100 children ranged from 20 to 74 (median 40). Projection of both age and BIS value recorded at 1 MAC (T10) onto the structured model of the MCA showed them to be distributed along axis F1 of this model. In contrast, projection of children’s position during the decrease in sevoflurane concentration was linked to axis F2. At 1 MAC sevoflurane, six homogeneous groups of children were obtained through the HAC. Groups 5 (30 months; range 23–49) and 6 (18 months; range 6–180) were the younger children and group 1 (97 months; range 46–162) the older. Groups 5 and 6 had the highest median values of BIS (54; range 50–59)(55; range 26–74) and the group 1 the lowest values (29; range 22–37). The EEG bispectrum, as well as the BIS (Aspect XP™) measured at 1 MAC sevoflurane appeared to be strongly related to the age of children. PMID:15833781

  15. Curcumin Suppresses Soluble Tau Dimers and Corrects Molecular Chaperone, Synaptic, and Behavioral Deficits in Aged Human Tau Transgenic Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Zuo, Xiaohong; Yang, Fusheng; Ubeda, Oliver J.; Gant, Dana J.; Alaverdyan, Mher; Teng, Edmond; Hu, Shuxin; Chen, Ping-Ping; Maiti, Panchanan; Teter, Bruce; Cole, Greg M.; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying Tau-related synaptic and cognitive deficits and the interrelationships between Tau species, their clearance pathways, and synaptic impairments remain poorly understood. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we examined these interrelationships in aged non-mutant genomic human Tau mice, with established Tau pathology and neuron loss. We also examined how these interrelationships changed with an intervention by feeding mice either a control diet or one containing the brain permeable beta-amyloid and Tau aggregate binding molecule curcumin. Transgene-dependent elevations in soluble and insoluble phospho-Tau monomer and soluble Tau dimers accompanied deficits in behavior, hippocampal excitatory synaptic markers, and molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins (HSPs)) involved in Tau degradation and microtubule stability. In human Tau mice but not control mice, HSP70, HSP70/HSP72, and HSP90 were reduced in membrane-enriched fractions but not in cytosolic fractions. The synaptic proteins PSD95 and NR2B were reduced in dendritic fields and redistributed into perikarya, corresponding to changes observed by immunoblot. Curcumin selectively suppressed levels of soluble Tau dimers, but not of insoluble and monomeric phospho-Tau, while correcting behavioral, synaptic, and HSP deficits. Treatment increased PSD95 co-immunoprecipitating with NR2B and, independent of transgene, increased HSPs implicated in Tau clearance. It elevated HSP90 and HSC70 without increasing HSP mRNAs; that is, without induction of the heat shock response. Instead curcumin differentially impacted HSP90 client kinases, reducing Fyn without reducing Akt. In summary, curcumin reduced soluble Tau and elevated HSPs involved in Tau clearance, showing that even after tangles have formed, Tau-dependent behavioral and synaptic deficits can be corrected. PMID:23264626

  16. The repeatability of best corrected acuity in normal and amblyopic children 4 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sean I; Chandna, Arvind; Norcia, Anthony M; Pettet, Mark; Stone, Deborah

    2006-02-01

    The main purpose of this work was to measure repeatability of line-by-line logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) acuity in normal and amblyopic children, while adequately controlling for optical defocus. The Lea Symbols Chart is a constant-crowding, equal-logMAR increment chart similar in design to the Early Treatment Diabetes Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] chart. LogMAR visual acuity was tested twice in each eye of 32 amblyopic and 11 normal children. Each test commenced with screening in which one of the three central symbols was chosen for identification starting with the 1.0- or 0.9-logMAR line, progressing to every second line until incorrect identification occurred. Symbol-by-symbol presentation then commenced at the logMAR line containing the last correctly identified symbol. The threshold was recorded as the last logMAR line where four of four or four of five correct responses occurred (i.e., line-by-line scoring). Retesting by the same examiner was identical and occurred within the same session. There was no significant difference in repeatability among normal, fellow, or amblyopic eyes. The difference between test and retest thresholds lay between +/-0.10 logMAR in 93% of eyes. The 95% limits of agreement for the difference was +/-0.18 logMAR. Repeatability in eyes tested first did not differ from that in those tested second in either the normal or amblyopic groups. In the age-group tested, the line-by-line method of threshold scoring compares favorably with previous reports of both line-by-line and interpolated threshold scoring. There was no clinically meaningful difference in repeatability between the normal and amblyopic children tested.

  17. Maximal aerobic capacity in ageing subjects: actual measurements versus predicted values

    PubMed Central

    Pistea, Cristina; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Oswald, Monique; Enache, Irina

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of selection of reference values on the categorisation of measured maximal oxygen consumption (V′O2peak) as “normal” or “abnormal” in an ageing population. We compared measured V′O2peak with predicted values and the lower limit of normal (LLN) calculated with five equations. 99 (58 males and 41 females) disease-free subjects aged ≥70 years completed an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Mean V′O2peak was 1.88 L·min−1 in men and 1.26 L·min−1 in women. V′O2peak ranged from 89% to 108% of predicted in men, and from 88% to 164% of predicted in women, depending on the reference equation used. The proportion of subjects below the LLN ranged from 5% to 14% in men and 0–22% in women, depending on the reference equation. The LLN was lacking in one study, and was unsuitable for women in another. Most LLNs ranged between 53% and 73% of predicted. Therefore, choosing an 80% cut-off leads to overestimation of the proportion of “abnormal” subjects. To conclude, the proportion of subjects aged ≥70 years with a “low” V′O2peak differs markedly according to the chosen reference equations. In clinical practice, it is still relevant to test a sample of healthy volunteers and select the reference equations that better characterise this sample. PMID:27730176

  18. Continuous improvement of medical test reliability using reference methods and matrix-corrected target values in proficiency testing schemes: application to glucose assay.

    PubMed

    Delatour, Vincent; Lalere, Beatrice; Saint-Albin, Karène; Peignaux, Maryline; Hattchouel, Jean-Marc; Dumont, Gilles; De Graeve, Jacques; Vaslin-Reimann, Sophie; Gillery, Philippe

    2012-11-20

    The reliability of biological tests is a major issue for patient care in terms of public health that involves high economic stakes. Reference methods, as well as regular external quality assessment schemes (EQAS), are needed to monitor the analytical performance of field methods. However, control material commutability is a major concern to assess method accuracy. To overcome material non-commutability, we investigated the possibility of using lyophilized serum samples together with a limited number of frozen serum samples to assign matrix-corrected target values, taking the example of glucose assays. Trueness of the current glucose assays was first measured against a primary reference method by using human frozen sera. Methods using hexokinase and glucose oxidase with spectroreflectometric detection proved very accurate, with bias ranging between -2.2% and +2.3%. Bias of methods using glucose oxidase with spectrophotometric detection was +4.5%. Matrix-related bias of the lyophilized materials was then determined and ranged from +2.5% to -14.4%. Matrix-corrected target values were assigned and used to assess trueness of 22 sub-peer groups. We demonstrated that matrix-corrected target values can be a valuable tool to assess field method accuracy in large scale surveys where commutable materials are not available in sufficient amount with acceptable costs.

  19. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2017-02-01

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation. 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. Conclusion ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country.

  20. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipschitz-Killing curvature based expected Euler characteristics for p-value correction in fNIRS.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Tak, Sungho; Ye, Jong Chul

    2012-02-15

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive imaging approach for measuring brain activities based on changes in the cerebral concentrations of hemoglobin. Recently, statistical analysis based on a general linear model (GLM) has become popular. Here, to impose statistical significance on the activation detected by fNIRS, family-wise error (FWE) rate control is important. However, unlike fMRI, in which measurements are densely sampled on a regular lattice and Gaussian smoothing makes the resulting random field homogeneous, the random fields from fNIRS are inhomogeneous due to the interpolation from sparsely and irregularly distributed optode locations. Thus, tube formula based correction has been proposed to address this issue. However, Sun's tube formula cannot be used for general random fields such as F-statistics. To overcome these difficulties, we employ the expected Euler characteristic approach based on Lipschitz-Killing curvature (LKC) to control the family-wise error rate. We compared this correction method with Sun's tube formula for t-statistics to confirm the existing method. Based on this comparison, we show that covariance estimation should be modified to consider channel-wise least-square residual correlation. These new results supplement the existing tool of statistical parameter mapping for fNIRS.

  2. Do Model-Based Studies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Measure Correct Values of Utility? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Foruhar; Hsueh, Ya-Seng Arthur; Clarke, Philip; Dunt, David

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic disease that has considerable impact on utility-based health-related quality of life. Utility is a key input of many decision analytic models used for economic evaluations. To systematically review COPD-related utilities and to compare these with alternative values used in decision models. The literature review comprised studies that generated utilities for COPD-related stages based on EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire surveys of patients and of decision models of COPD progression that have been used for economic evaluations. The utility values used in modeling studies and those from the meta-analysis of actual patient-level studies were compared and differences quantified. Twenty decision modeling studies that used utility value as an input parameter were found. Within the same span of publication period, 13 studies involving patient-level utility data were identified and included in the meta-analysis. The estimated mean utility values ranged from 0.806 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.747-0.866) for stage I to 0.616 (95% CI 0.556-0.676) for stage IV. The utility scores for comparable stages in modeling studies were different (significant difference 0.045 [95% CI 0.041-0.052] for stage III). Modeling studies consistently used higher utility values than the average reported patient-level data. COPD decision analytic models are based on a limited range of utility values that are systematically different from average values estimated using a meta-analysis. A more systematic approach in the application of utility measures in economic evaluation is required to appropriately reflect current literature. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The prognostic value of pre-operative predicted forced vital capacity in corrective spinal surgery for Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Harper, C M; Ambler, G; Edge, G

    2004-12-01

    The majority of patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy require corrective spinal surgery for scoliosis to maintain seated balance and to slow the progression of respiratory compromise, thereby facilitating nursing and enhancing their quality of life. Traditionally patients with a pre-operative forced vital capacity (PFVC) of 30% or below predicted have been denied this surgery as it was thought that the incidence of postoperative complications was unacceptably high. We present data collected prospectively from 45 consecutive operations undertaken in our unit. These cases indicate that there is no clinically significant difference in operative and postoperative outcomes between patients with PFVC > 30% and < or =30%. However, the routine postoperative use of mask ventilation to facilitate early tracheal extubation is vital.

  4. Correction of distortion in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool-aged children's Internalizing and Externalizing scale score.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2014-01-30

    Increased maternal psychopathology may bias mothers' ratings about child psychopathology. In this study we examined whether internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in young children were biased through maternal psychopathology. The clinical sample comprised 247 preschool-age patients who attended the Family Day Hospital in Münster, Germany. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed by the CBCL/1.5-5, and maternal psychopathology was assessed by the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI). Three theoretical perspectives were tested by comparing the model fit of three structural equation models, namely the accuracy, distortion, and combinatory model. All of the models aimed to integrate multi-informant ratings from mother, therapists, and kindergarten teachers, but differed in the question which paths had to be significant. The distortion model fit the data best and supported the notion that there was a psychopathology-related bias in mothers' ratings. On the basis of this finding, we developed correction formulas comparable to Müller and Furniss (2013), in order to statistically control for this distortion. We discussed post-hoc explanations about why mothers with increased psychopathology gave higher ratings on the CBCL/1.5-5, including a better recall of internalizing symptoms, less flexible and effective parenting, and more perceived distress by child externalizing behavior. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Estimation of the pKa values of water ligands in transition metal complexes using density functional theory with polarized continuum model solvent corrections.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Ronan; Durrant, Marcus C

    2009-12-14

    The deprotonation energies of the water ligands in a set of 40 d-block metal complexes have been calculated using density functional theory with polarized continuum model solvent corrections. The complexes include 13 aqua ions [M(OH(2))(n)](2+/3+) and a variety of aqua complexes with organic co-ligands, whose experimental pK(a) values have been reported in the literature. For comparison, the deprotonation energies of a set of 60 organic and inorganic molecules with experimental pK(a) values ranging from -25 (HSbF(6)) to +52 (C(2)H(6)) have also been calculated. Three different classes of acids are identified as giving different slopes in plots of pK(a) versus deprotonation energies; namely non-hydroxy acids, hydroxy acids, and the metal complexes. The correlation coefficients for the straight lines obtained for these three classes are 0.96, 0.97 and 0.92 respectively. Better correlations are found for sub-sets of the complexes, such as the 31 first row complexes (correlation coefficient 0.95).For several of the complexes, comparison of the calculated and observed pK(a) values, together with changes in the geometry upon optimization, offer new insights into the possible solution structures. It is concluded that DFT calculations incorporating solvent corrections can be used to give reasonable estimates of pK(a) values for the aqua ligands in a range of complex types.

  6. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle-run test in a population-based sample of school-aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto-Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa-Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio-metabolic risk. A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak ). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health-related FITNESSGRAM cut-points for low CRF. Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio-metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X(2) P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X(2) P = .001). Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle-run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population-based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin-American city at high altitude. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Improving the validity of peripheral venous blood gas analysis as an estimate of arterial blood gas by correcting the venous values with SvO₂.

    PubMed

    Lemoël, Fabien; Govciyan, Sandra; El Omri, Mouna; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Levraut, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral venous blood gas (pVBG) analysis in replacement of arterial blood gas (ABG) is limited by the unpredictable differences between arterial and venous values, especially for PCO2 and pH (ΔPCO2 and ΔpH). We hypothesized that, using the theoretical relationship linking SvO2 and blood flow, we could diminish the effect of local circulatory conditions on ΔPCO2 and ΔpH and thereby increase pVBG validity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study performed in emergency patients requiring a blood gas analysis in which ABG and pVBG were performed simultaneously. The data of 50 randomly selected patients (model group) were used for developing two equations to correct PvCO2 and pHv according to the peripheral SvO2 (SpvO2) level. The formulas derived were PvCO2cor = PvCO2 - 0.30 × (75 - SpvO2), and pHvcor = pHv + 0.001 × (75 - SpvO2). The validity of the corrected values was then tested on the remaining population (validation group). There were 281 patients included in the study, mainly for dyspnea. ΔPCO2 and ΔpH were strongly correlated with SpvO2 (r(2) = 0.62 and r(2) = 0.53, respectively, p < 0.001). Using the data of the model group, we developed equations that we applied on the validation group. We found that the corrected values were more valid than the raw values for detecting a PaCO2 > 45 mm Hg (AUC ROC = 0.96 ± 0.01 vs. 0.89 ± 0.02, p < 0.001), a PaCO2 < 35 mm Hg (AUC = 0.95 ± 0.02 vs. 0.84 ± 0.03, p < 0.001), a pHa < 7.35 (AUC = 0.97 ± 0.01 vs. 0.95 ± 0.02, p < 0.05), or a pHa > 7.45 (AUC = 0.91 ± 0.02 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, p < 0.001). The variability of ΔPCO2 and ΔpH is significantly lowered when the venous values are corrected according to the SpvO2 value, and pVBG is therefore more accurate and valid for detecting an arterial abnormality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new model for the estimation of time of death from vitreous potassium levels corrected for age and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Bernard, S; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of potassium concentration in the vitreous fluid of the eye is frequently used by forensic pathologists to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), particularly when other methods commonly used in the early phase of an investigation can no longer be applied. The postmortem rise in vitreous potassium has been recognized for several decades and is readily explained by a diffusion of potassium from surrounding cells into the vitreous fluid. However, there is no consensus regarding the mathematical equation that best describes this increase. The existing models assume a linear increase, but different slopes and starting points have been proposed. In this study, vitreous potassium levels, and a number of factors that may influence these levels, were examined in 462 cases with known postmortem intervals that ranged from 2h to 17 days. We found that the postmortem rise in potassium followed a non-linear curve and that decedent age and ambient temperature influenced the variability by 16% and 5%, respectively. A long duration of agony and a high alcohol level at the time of death contributed less than 1% variability, and evaluation of additional possible factors revealed no detectable impact on the rise of vitreous potassium. Two equations were subsequently generated, one that represents the best fit of the potassium concentrations alone, and a second that represents potassium concentrations with correction for decedent age and/or ambient temperature. The former was associated with narrow confidence intervals in the early postmortem phase, but the intervals gradually increased with longer PMIs. For the latter equation, the confidence intervals were reduced at all PMIs. Therefore, the model that best describes the observed postmortem rise in vitreous potassium levels includes potassium concentration, decedent age, and ambient temperature. Furthermore, the precision of these equations, particularly for long PMIs, is expected to gradually improve by adjusting the

  9. Relative equilibrium plot improves graphical analysis and allows bias correction of standardized uptake value ratio in quantitative 11C-PiB PET studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Sojkova, Jitka; Resnick, Susan M; Wong, Dean F

    2012-04-01

    Both the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and the Logan plot result in biased distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in ligand-receptor dynamic PET studies. The objective of this study was to use a recently developed relative equilibrium-based graphical (RE) plot method to improve and simplify the 2 commonly used methods for quantification of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET. The overestimation of DVR in SUVR was analyzed theoretically using the Logan and the RE plots. A bias-corrected SUVR (bcSUVR) was derived from the RE plot. Seventy-eight (11)C-PiB dynamic PET scans (66 from controls and 12 from participants with mild cognitive impaired [MCI] from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) were acquired over 90 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on coregistered MR images. Both the ROI and the pixelwise time-activity curves were used to evaluate the estimates of DVR. DVRs obtained using the Logan plot applied to ROI time-activity curves were used as a reference for comparison of DVR estimates. Results from the theoretic analysis were confirmed by human studies. ROI estimates from the RE plot and the bcSUVR were nearly identical to those from the Logan plot with ROI time-activity curves. In contrast, ROI estimates from DVR images in frontal, temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions and the striatum were underestimated by the Logan plot (controls, 4%-12%; MCI, 9%-16%) and overestimated by the SUVR (controls, 8%-16%; MCI, 16%-24%). This bias was higher in the MCI group than in controls (P < 0.01) but was not present when data were analyzed using either the RE plot or the bcSUVR. The RE plot improves pixelwise quantification of (11)C-PiB dynamic PET, compared with the conventional Logan plot. The bcSUVR results in lower bias and higher consistency of DVR estimates than of SUVR. The RE plot and the bcSUVR are practical quantitative approaches that improve the analysis of (11)C-PiB studies.

  10. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  11. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS).

    PubMed

    Mathai, John K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (P<0·05) than for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat. With the exception of arginine and tryptophan, the SID of all indispensable AA in SPI was greater (P<0·05) than in soya flour, and with the exception of threonine, the SID of all indispensable AA in wheat was less (P<0·05) than in all other ingredients. If the same scoring pattern for children between 6 and 36 months was used to calculate PDCAAS-like values and DIAAS, PDCAAS-like values were greater (P<0·05) than DIAAS values for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat indicating that PDCAAS-like values estimated in pigs may overestimate the quality of these proteins.

  12. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle‐run test in a population‐based sample of school‐aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study

    PubMed Central

    Palacios‐López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto‐Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso‐Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk. Methods A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health‐related FITNESSGRAM cut‐points for low CRF. Results Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Conclusions Our results provide sex‐ and age‐specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle‐run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population‐based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin‐American city at high altitude. PMID:27500986

  13. Teachers' perceptions of value and effects of outdoor education during an age of accountability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thomas R.

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of teachers' perceptions of the value and effects of a residential Outdoor Education experience during an age of accountability, which was defined as the era which commenced with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Focus group interviews were conducted with four groups of teachers who participated in a residential Outdoor Education experience with their students during the 2004-2005 school year. The major findings of this study were: (1) Teachers perceive value in the OE experience because of the multi-faceted effects upon their students and classes; (2) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' learning through providing hands-on and authentic experiences, development of thinking skills, and enhancing the school's curriculum; (3) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' social and emotional development as evidenced by an increase in self esteem, independence, maturity, personal responsibility, and an expanded worldview; (4) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' sense of community as evidenced by an increase in team building and cohesiveness, more productive staff-student relationships, the emergence of different "star" students, and greater inclusion of special needs students; (5) Teachers perceived students' appreciation of the environment increased; and (6) Teachers did not perceive any imminent changes to their school's Outdoor Education programming due to the accountability provisions of No Child Left behind (2001). This study's findings suggested implications for school administrators, which were that they should: articulate desired effects to stakeholders; communicate connections to learning standards; and expand the OE experience to foster greater environmental issue focus.

  14. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months corrected age in a randomized trial of early dexamethasone to prevent death or chronic lung disease in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Stark, Ann R; Carlo, Waldemar A; Vohr, Betty R; Papile, Lu Ann; Saha, Shampa; Bauer, Charles R; Oh, William; Shankaran, Seetha; Tyson, Jon E; Wright, Linda L; Poole, W Kenneth; Das, Abhik; Stoll, Barbara J; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Korones, Sheldon B; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Stevenson, David K; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E; Bada, Henrietta S; Heyne, Roy J; Johnson, Yvette R; Lee, Kimberly Gronsman; Steichen, Jean J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-22 months corrected age in subjects enrolled in a trial of early dexamethasone treatment to prevent death or chronic lung disease in extremely low birth weight infants. Evaluation of infants at 18-22 months corrected age included anthropomorphic measurements, a standard neurological examination, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, including the Mental Developmental Index and the Psychomotor Developmental Index. NDI was defined as moderate or severe cerebral palsy, Mental Developmental Index or Psychomotor Developmental Index <70, blindness, or hearing impairment. Death or NDI at 18-22 months corrected age was similar in the dexamethasone and placebo groups (65% vs 66%, P = .99 among those with known outcome). The proportion of survivors with NDI was also similar, as were mean values for weight, length, and head circumference and the proportion of infants with poor growth (50% vs 41%, P = .42 for weight less than 10th percentile); 49% of infants in the placebo group received treatment with corticosteroid compared with 32% in the dexamethasone group (P = .02). The risk of death or NDI and rate of poor growth were high but similar in the dexamethasone and placebo groups. The lack of a discernible effect of early dexamethasone on neurodevelopmental outcome may be due to frequent clinical corticosteroid use in the placebo group. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of stand and site variables on the lumber value of uneven-aged loblolly pine stands

    Treesearch

    David W. Patterson; Paul A. Murphy; Michael G. Shelton

    2000-01-01

    Uneven-aged silviculture using single-tree selection provides the landowner with periodic income from a continuous forest which has a varied canopy. Data were collected from 24 plots of a larger study to determine if site index, basal area, and maximum dbh affected volume and value of lumber from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in uneven-aged...

  16. The effects of age, physical activity level, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound value in men.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ibrahim, Suraya; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2012-01-01

    The influences of age, physical activity, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound are different among young adults, middle-aged, and elderly men. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of bone health status is much needed for developing countries in the screening of osteoporosis, but further studies on the factors that influence the quantitative ultrasound indices are required. The present study examined the influence of age, lifestyle factors, and body anthropometry on calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in a group of Malaysian men of diverse age range. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data from 687 eligible males were used for analysis. They answered a detailed questionnaire on their physical activity status, and their anthropometric measurements were taken. Their calcaneal SOS values were evaluated using the CM-200 sonometer (Furuno, Nishinomiya City, Japan). Subjects with higher body mass index (BMI) had higher calcaneal SOS values albeit significant difference was only found in the elderly subjects (p < 0.05). Sedentary subjects had lower calcaneal SOS values than physically active subjects, but significant difference was only found in the middle-aged subjects (p < 0.05). Calcaneal SOS was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with age in young men; height, BMI, and physical activity score in middle-aged men; height and physical activity score in elderly men; and age and physical activity score for overall subjects. In a multivariate regression model, significant (p < 0.05) predictors for calcaneal SOS included age for young men; physical activity, BMI, body fat percentage, and height for middle-aged men; height for elderly men; and age, height, physical activity, weight, and body fat percentage for overall subjects. Age, body anthropometry, and physical activity level have significant effects on the calcaneal SOS value in men.

  17. Effects of Market Prices and Silvicultural Practices on Lumber Value of Standing Trees In Uneven-Ages Plots

    Treesearch

    David W. Patterson

    1998-01-01

    Uneven-aged management plots were established using three variables (site index, basal area, and maximum diameter). This study looked at the significance of the variables on the lumber volume per acre, lumber value per thousand board feet (Mbf), and stand value per acre as well as the influence on these analysis by market prices (May 1997, May 1998, and October 1998)....

  18. Ultrahigh b-values MRI in normal human prostate: Initial research on reproducibility and age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changzheng; Zhang, Dong; Xiao, Zeyu; Wang, Li; Ma, Rong; Chen, Hanwei; Luo, Liangping

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the reproducibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with ultrahigh b-values, and analyze the age-related differences in normal prostates. In all, 67 healthy participants were divided into three age groups (group A, 15-30 years; group B, 31-50 years; group C, ≥51 years), and underwent DWI scanning twice with 15 b-factors from 0 to 3000 at 3.0T. Triexponential fits were applied to calculate the molecular diffusion coefficient (D), the pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), the ultrahigh apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCuh ), and perfusion fraction (f). The interobserver and short-term interscan reproducibility were evaluated, and the change in these parameters with age were assessed. The D, ADCuh , and f values presented good to excellent reproducibility. With increasing age, a trend of increasing D values was observed, with significant difference in both peripheral zone (PZ, P = 0.01) and central gland (CG, P = 0.01) of normal prostate tissue. The f value increased in the CG beginning at 50 years of age while the ADCuh value decreased in the PZ after 50 years of age; all of them showed significant differences between groups A and C and groups B and C (P = 0.01/0.01). The D, ADCuh , and f values have good to excellent reproducibility in the normal prostate, and these values change with age. The ultrahigh b-values magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide additional information (ADCuh ), which is different from the IVIM (intravoxel incoherent motion)-derived parameters. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:801-812. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. The value of shear wave elastography in the quantification of corpus cavernosum penis rigidity and its alteration with age.

    PubMed

    Inci, Ercan; Turkay, Rustu; Nalbant, Mustafa Orhan; Yenice, Mustafa Gurkan; Tugcu, Volkan

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to measure corpus cavernosum (CC) penis rigidity with shear wave elastography (SWE) in healthy volunteers and to evaluate the change of rigidity with age. SWE was performed in 60 healthy volunteers (age range 20-71, mean 47±12,83 years). Volunteers were divided into 2 groups by age (Group 1 age <50, group 2 age ≥50). We assessed SWE in 3 parts of penis (proximal, middle and glans penis) on both sides of CC. All values of SWE (in kilo Pascal) were noted along with volunteers' ages. The measurements were done both with transverse (T) and longitudinal (L) sections. We compared all SW values of penis parts and their alterations with age. The shear wave elastography values of CC penis increased with increasing age (p<0,01). There was no significant difference between both sides of CC penis (p<0,05). We calculated no significant difference between T and L sections of all parts of penis (p<0,05). SWE can provide noninvasive quantitative data of CC penis rigidity and its alteration with age. These data may create a new approach in the evaluation process and treatment options for penile pathologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

  1. 38 CFR 6.14 - Cash value; other than special endowment at age 96 plan policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... American Experience Table of Mortality, with interest at the rate of 31/2 percent per annum. The cash value... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cash value; other than... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.14 Cash value;...

  2. Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

  3. Daily precipitation statistics in a EURO-CORDEX RCM ensemble: added value of raw and bias-corrected high-resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, A.; Kotlarski, S.; Herrera, S.; Fernández, J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Boberg, F.; Colette, A.; Christensen, O. B.; Goergen, K.; Jacob, D.; Keuler, K.; Nikulin, G.; Teichmann, C.; Vautard, R.

    2016-08-01

    Daily precipitation statistics as simulated by the ERA-Interim-driven EURO-CORDEX regional climate model (RCM) ensemble are evaluated over two distinct regions of the European continent, namely the European Alps and Spain. The potential added value of the high-resolution 12 km experiments with respect to their 50 km resolution counterparts is investigated. The statistics considered consist of wet-day intensity and precipitation frequency as a measure of mean precipitation, and three precipitation-derived indicators (90th percentile on wet days—90pWET, contribution of the very wet days to total precipitation—R95pTOT and number of consecutive dry days—CDD). As reference for model evaluation high resolution gridded observational data over continental Spain (Spain011/044) and the Alpine region (EURO4M-APGD) are used. The assessment and comparison of the two resolutions is accomplished not only on their original horizontal grids (approximately 12 and 50 km), but the high-resolution RCMs are additionally regridded onto the coarse 50 km grid by grid cell aggregation for the direct comparison with the low resolution simulations. The direct application of RCMs e.g. in many impact modelling studies is hampered by model biases. Therefore bias correction (BC) techniques are needed at both resolutions to ensure a better agreement between models and observations. In this work, the added value of the high resolution (before and after the bias correction) is assessed and the suitability of these BC methods is also discussed. Three basic BC methods are applied to isolate the effect of biases in mean precipitation, wet-day intensity and wet-day frequency on the derived indicators. Daily precipitation percentiles are strongly affected by biases in the wet-day intensity, whereas the dry spells are better represented when the simulated precipitation frequency is adjusted to the observed one. This confirms that there is no single optimal way to correct for RCM biases, since

  4. Grip strength reference values for Canadians aged 6 to 79: Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suzy L

    2016-10-19

    Grip strength is a measure of overall muscular strength and has been associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Normative data are used to interpret an individual's grip strength measurements, but Canadian reference values are not available for a wide age range. The data pertain to 11,108 respondents aged 6 to 79 to the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, whose right-hand and left-hand grip strength were measured with a handgrip dynamometer. Quantile regression was used to develop reference equations for males and females for maximum, right-hand and left-hand grip strength for selected percentiles as a function of age, height and weight. Reference values for grip strength increased through childhood and adolescence, peaked around age 40, and then declined. Reference values were higher for males than for females; differences between the sexes were smaller during childhood than in adolescence and adulthood. Differences between reference values for maximum, right-hand and left-hand grip strength varied by age and sex. Based on a large, healthy, nationally representative sample, reference equations were developed for grip strength of Canadians from childhood to older adulthood. These equations can be used to determine the reference values that correspond to an individual of a given age, sex, height and weight.

  5. Trends, Issues, Perspectives, and Values for the Aging of the Baby Boom Cohorts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornman, John M.; Kingson, Eric R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contours of population aging, especially the baby boom generation, and the political and economic changes in regard to the rapidly aging U.S. population. Focuses on entitlements such as social security and Medicare. Seeks to broaden national discourse on the aging of the baby boom cohorts through basic questions and clarification of…

  6. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (P<0.05) age difference in blood values of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (P<0.05) sex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  7. A proposal for PET/MRI attenuation correction with μ-values measured using a fixed-position radiation source and MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kershaw, Jeff; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Suga, Mikio; Ikoma, Yoko; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-01-01

    Several MRI-based attenuation correction methods have been reported for PET/MRI; these methods are expected to make efficient use of high-quality anatomical MRIs and reduce the radiation dose for PET/MRI scanning. The accuracy of the attenuation map (μ-map) from an MRI depends on the accuracy of tissue segmentation and the attenuation coefficients to be assigned (μ-values). In this study, we proposed an MRI-based μ-value estimation method with a non-rotational radiation source to construct a suitable μ-map for PET/MRI. The proposed method uses an accurately segmented tissue map, the partial path length of each tissue, and detected intensities of attenuated radiation from a fixed-position (rather than a rotating) radiation source to obtain the μ-map. We estimated the partial path length from a virtual blank scan of fixed-point radiation with the same scanner geometry using the known tissue map from MRI. The μ-values of every tissue were estimated by inverting a linear relationship involving the partial path lengths and measured radioactivity intensity. Validation of the proposed method was performed by calculating a fixed- point data set based upon real a real transmission scan. The root-mean-square error between the μ-values derived from a conventional transmission scan and those obtained with our proposed method were 2.4±1.4%, 17.4±9.1% and 6.6±4.3% for brain, bone and soft tissue other than brain, respectively. Although the error estimates for bone and soft tissue are not insignificant, the method we propose is able to estimate the brain μ-value accurately and it is this factor that most strongly affects the quantitative value of PET images because of the large volumetric ratio of the brain.

  8. The impact of aging on the spatial accuracy of quick corrective arm movements in response to sudden target displacement during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Daisuke; Kadota, Koji; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Age-related declines in visuomotor processing speed can have a large impact on motor performance in elderly individuals. Contrary to previous findings, however, recent studies revealed that elderly individuals are able to quickly react to displacement of a visual target during reaching. Here, we investigated the influence of aging on quick, corrective responses to perturbations during reaching in the terms of their functional contribution to accuracy. Elderly and young adults performed reaching movements to a visual target that could be displaced during reaching, and they were requested to move their hand to reach the final target location as quickly as possible. Results showed that, for the younger group, the variance in the directional error of the corrective response correlated with the variance in the reaching trajectory at the halfway point of the reach, but the correlation decreased at the end of the reaching. On the other hand, such correlations were not significant in elderly participants, although the variance of the directional error did not show a significant difference between age groups. Thus, the quick, corrective response seems to play an important role in decreasing variability, especially before the end of reaching, and aging can impair this process. PMID:26441641

  9. Evaluating the physiological reserves of older patients with cancer: the value of potential biomarkers of aging?

    PubMed

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Hatse, Sigrid; Brouwers, Barbara; Pawelec, Graham; Falandry, Claire; Wedding, Ulrich; Lago, Lissandra Dal; Repetto, Lazzaro; Ring, Alistair; Wildiers, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Aging of an individual entails a progressive decline of functional reserves and loss of homeostasis that eventually lead to mortality. This process is highly individualized and is influenced by multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. This individualization and the diversity of factors influencing aging result in a significant heterogeneity among people with the same chronological age, representing a major challenge in daily oncology practice. Thus, many factors other than mere chronological age will contribute to treatment tolerance and outcome in the older patients with cancer. Clinical/comprehensive geriatric assessment can provide information on the general health status of individuals, but is far from perfect as a prognostic/predictive tool for individual patients. On the other hand, aging can also be assessed in terms of biological changes in certain tissues like the blood compartment which result from adaptive alterations due to past history of exposures, as well as intrinsic aging processes. There are major signs of 'aging' in lymphocytes (e.g. lymphocyte subset distribution, telomere length, p16INK4A expression), and also in (inflammatory) cytokine expression and gene expression patterns. These result from a combination of the above two processes, overlaying genetic predispositions which contribute significantly to the aging phenotype. These potential "aging biomarkers" might provide additional prognostic/predictive information supplementing clinical evaluation. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the most relevant potential "aging biomarkers" (markers that indicate the biological functional age of patients) which focus on the biological background, the (limited) available clinical data, and technical challenges. Despite their great potential interest, there is a need for much more (validated) clinical data before these biomarkers could be used in a routine clinical setting. This manuscript tries to provide a guideline on how

  10. Reliability and reproducibility of spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography images before and after correction for patients with age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Mohammad A.; Rashid, Aymen; Channa, Roomasa; Hatef, Elham; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sepah, Yasir J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of optical coherence tomography scans obtained using the time domain (TD-OCT) Stratus TM OCT, and the Spectral Domain (SD-OCT) Spectralis TM and Cirrus TM OCT devices before and after manual correction in eyes with either Neovascular (NV-AMD) or Non-Neovascular (NNV-AMD) age-related macular degeneration. Design: Prospective observational study. Methods: Setting: University-based retina practice. Patients: Thirty-six patients (50 eyes) with NV-AMD or NNV-AMD. Procedure: OCT scans were taken simultaneously using one TD-OCT and two SD-OCT devices. Main Outcome Measures: Macular thickness measurements were assessed before and after correction of the algorithm by constructing Bland-Altman plots for agreement and calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of repeatability (COR) to evaluate intraclass repeatability. Results: Spectralis had the highest number of images needing manual correction.  All machines had high ICCs, with Spectralis having the highest.  Also, Bland-Altman plots indicated that there was low agreement between Cirrus™ and Stratus™, Spectralis™ and Stratus™, while there was good agreement between the Cirrus™ and Spectralis™.  The CORs were lowest for Spectralis TM and similar and higher for Cirrus TM and Stratus TM.  Agreement, CORs, and ICCs generally improved after manual correction, but only minimally.  Conclusion: Agreement is low between devices, except between both SD-OCT machines.  Manual correction tends to improve results. PMID:26097682

  11. 'Timed Up and Go' test: Age, gender and cognitive impairment stratified normative values of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Azianah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG) normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups. A total of 2084 community dwelling older adults from wave I and II were recruited through a multistage random sampling method. TUG was performed using the standard protocol and scores were then stratified based on with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gender and in a 5-year age groups ranging from ages of 60's to 80's. 529(16%) participants were identified to have MCI. Past history of falls and medical history of hypertension, heart disease, joint pain, hearing and vision problem, and urinary incontinence were found to have influenced TUG performance. Cognitive status as a mediator, predicted TUG performance even when both gender and age were controlled for (B 0.24, 95% CI (0.02-0.47), β 0.03, t 2.10, p = 0.36). Further descriptive analysis showed, participants with MCI, women and older in age took a longer time to complete TUG, as compared to men with MCI across all age groups with exceptions for some age groups. These results suggested that MCI needs to be taken into consideration when testing older adults using TUG, besides age and gender factors. Data using fast speed TUG may be required among older adults with and without MCI for further understanding.

  12. Age and Social Composition Factors as Explanations for Cleavages in Socio-Political Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedin, Kent L.

    1978-01-01

    This analysis tested for the effects of age vs social composition in explaining variation in four attitudinal dependent variables. Using a sample especially drawn to study generational differences, and employing a multivariate statistical model, it was found that age differences were only modestly reduced by social composition variables. (Author)

  13. Reference values of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity according to age and blood pressure in a central Asia population.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Gulinuer; Zhou, Xianhui; Lv, Wenkui; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Wenhui; Cheng, Xinchun; Li, Yaodong; Xing, Qiang; Zhang, Jianghua; Zhou, Qina; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Yanmei; Wang, Hongli; Tang, Baopeng

    2017-01-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has increasingly become an important assessment for cardiovascular risk. The present study established the reference and normal values of baPWV in a Central Asia population in Xinjiang, China. We recruited participants from a central Asia population in Xinjiang, China. We performed multiple regression analysis to investigate the determinants of baPWV. The median and 10th-90th percentiles were calculated to establish the reference and normal values based on these categories. In total, 5,757 Han participants aged 15-88 years were included in the present study. Spearman correlation analysis showed that age (r = 0.587, p < 0.001) and mean blood pressure (MBP, r = 0.599, p <0.001) were the major factors influencing the values of baPWV in the reference population. Furthermore, in the multiple linear regression analysis, the standardized regression coefficients of age (0.445) and MBP (0.460) were much higher than those of body mass index, triglyceride, and glycemia (-0.054, 0.035, and 0.033, respectively). In the covariance analysis, after adjustment for age and MBP, only diabetes was the significant independent determinant of baPWV (p = 0.009). Thus, participants with diabetes were excluded from the reference value population. The reference values ranged from 14.3 to 25.2 m/s, and the normal values ranged from 13.9 to 21.2 m/s. This is the first study that has established the reference and normal values for baPWV according to age and blood pressure in a Central Asia population.

  14. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  15. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  16. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  17. Correction of systematic bias in ultrasound dating in studies of small-for-gestational-age birth: an example from the Iowa Health in Pregnancy Study.

    PubMed

    Harland, Karisa K; Saftlas, Audrey F; Wallis, Anne B; Yankowitz, Jerome; Triche, Elizabeth W; Zimmerman, M Bridget

    2012-09-01

    The authors examined whether early ultrasound dating (≤20 weeks) of gestational age (GA) in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses may underestimate gestational duration and therefore the incidence of SGA birth. Within a population-based case-control study (May 2002-June 2005) of Iowa SGA births and preterm deliveries identified from birth records (n = 2,709), the authors illustrate a novel methodological approach with which to assess and correct for systematic underestimation of GA by early ultrasound in women with suspected SGA fetuses. After restricting the analysis to subjects with first-trimester prenatal care, a nonmissing date of the last menstrual period (LMP), and early ultrasound (n = 1,135), SGA subjects' ultrasound GA was 5.5 days less than their LMP GA, on average. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine the extent to which ultrasound GA predicted LMP dating and to correct for systematic misclassification that results after applying standard guidelines to adjudicate differences in these measures. In the unadjusted model, SGA subjects required a correction of +1.5 weeks to the ultrasound estimate. With adjustment for maternal age, smoking, and first-trimester vaginal bleeding, standard guidelines for adjudicating differences in ultrasound and LMP dating underestimated SGA birth by 12.9% and overestimated preterm delivery by 8.7%. This methodological approach can be applied by researchers using different study populations in similar research contexts.

  18. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. PMID:27626474

  19. 38 CFR 6.14 - Cash value; other than special endowment at age 96 plan policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.14 Cash value; other... completion of the first policy year on any plan of United States Government Life Insurance other than the... shall be the reserve together with any dividend accumulations. For each month after the first policy...

  20. A randomized clinical trial comparing contact lens with intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: grating acuity and adverse events at age 1 year.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Scott R; Buckley, Edward G; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; DuBois, Lindreth; Hartmann, E Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J; Plager, David A; Wilson, M Edward

    2010-07-01

    To compare the visual outcomes and adverse events of contact lens with primary intraocular lens (IOL) correction of monocular aphakia during infancy. In a randomized, multicenter (12 sites) clinical trial, 114 infants with a unilateral congenital cataract were assigned to undergo cataract surgery between 1 to 6 months of age either with or without primary IOL implantation. Contact lenses were used to correct aphakia in patients who did not receive IOLs. Grating visual acuity was tested at 1 year of age by a masked traveling examiner. Grating visual acuity at 1 year of age. The median logMAR visual acuity was not significantly different between the treated eyes in the 2 groups (contact lens group, 0.80; IOL group, 0.97; P = .19). More patients in the IOL group underwent 1 or more additional intraocular operations than patients in the contact lens group (63% vs 12%; P < .001). Most of these additional operations were performed to clear lens reproliferation and pupillary membranes from the visual axis. There was no statistically significant difference in grating visual acuity at age 1 year between the IOL and contact lens groups; however, additional intraocular operations were performed more frequently in the IOL group. Until longer-term follow-up data are available, caution should be exercised when performing IOL implantation in children aged 6 months or younger given the higher incidence of adverse events and the absence of an improved short-term visual outcome compared with contact lens use.

  1. Regional ADC measurements during normal brain aging in the clinical range of b values: a DWI study.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Aleksandra; Drzazga, Zofia; Kluczewska, Ewa; Hartel, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our work was to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal brain over a wide age range and in different cerebral structures, including the white and grey matter. A population of 89 subjects (39 male, 50 female, age range: 3-69 years) was divided into age groups designated as 1-7 as follows: 3-9; 10-19; 20-29; 30-39; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69 years old. All subjects underwent a head MRI using a 1,5 T GE system with diffusion-weighted imaging using spin echo echo planar imaging (EPI) for b=0, 500, 1000, and 1200 s/mm(2). The ADC values of the following 10 regions of interest were analysed: head of the caudate nucleus (L=left and R=right side), thalamus (L and R side), centrum semiovale (L and R side), pons, respectively, as well as in cerebellum (L and R side) and vermis of the cerebellum. The ADC values of the studied brain structures showed a polynomial dependence on age indicating a logarithmic decline in children, some stabilisation during adulthood and a small trend of increasing diffusivity for subjects over the age of 50 years old. Significant interhemispheric differences in the ADC values were mainly found for thalamus, especially in older age groups. Moreover, the best differentiation of the examined structures was found in the mature brain. The knowledge of age-dependent diffusion changes in the human brain can be helpful in the proper interpretation of diffusion-weighted images in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal references of right ventricular strain values by two-dimensional strain echocardiography according to the age and gender.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyeong; Choi, Jin-Oh; Park, Seung Woo; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Oh, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Seong, In-Whan

    2017-07-27

    Right ventricular (RV) strain values by 2-dimensional strain echocardiography (STE) can be used as objective markers of RV systolic function. However, there is little data about normal reference RV strain values according to age and gender. We measured normal RV strain values by STE. RV strain values were analyzed from the digitally stored echocardiographic images from NORMAL (Normal echOcardiogRaphic diMensions and functions in KoreAn popuLation) study for the measurement of normal echocardiographic values performed in 23 Korean university hospitals. We enrolled total 1003 healthy persons in the NORMAL study. Of them, we analyzed 2-dimensional RV strain values in 493 subjects (261 females, mean 47 ± 15 years old) only with echocardiographic images by GE machines. Their LV systolic and diastolic functions were normal. RV fractional area change was 48 ± 6% and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 23 ± 3 mm. Total RV global longitudinal peak systolic strain (RVGLStotal) was -21.5 ± 3.2%. Females had higher absolute RVGLStotal (-22.3 ± 3.3 vs -20.7 ± 2.9%, p < 0.001) than males. Younger (<50 years old) females had higher absolute RVGLStotal (-22.9 ± 3.2 vs -20.5 ± 2.8%, p < 0.001) than age matched males. RVGLStotal in females gradually increased according to age (p for trend = 0.002) and becomes almost similar in age ≥50 years. However, this trend was not seen in males (p for trend = 0.287), and younger males had similar RVGLStotal value to that of older males (age ≥50 years, -20.5 ± 2.8 vs -20.9 ± 3.1%, p = 0.224). We calculated normal RVGLS values in normal population. Females have higher absolute strain values than males, especially in younger age groups (<50 years old).

  3. [CERAD-NP battery: Age-, gender- and education-specific reference values for selected subtests. Results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)].

    PubMed

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G; Wiese, B; Stein, J; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Kaduszkiewicz, H; Wagner, M; Mösch, E; Zimmermann, T; Maier, W; Bickel, H; van den Bussche, H; Jessen, F; Fuchs, A; Pentzek, M

    2009-10-01

    The CERAD-NP battery represents well-established tests for the neuropsychological diagnosis of characteristic cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's dementia. However, the use of neuropsychological tests requires reliable standard values for the population under consideration, taking sociodemographic characteristics like age, education and gender into account. This report presents age-, education- and gender-specific reference values for the subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, word list recall and word list recognition as well as the word list savings score of the CERAD-NP battery. The study sample consists of 2891 general practitioners' patients from Germany aged 75 years and older. The study participants had a mean age of 80.2 years (SD=3.6); thus, this report provides reliable reference values for the neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia in older age groups.

  4. [Outcome at two years corrected age of a cohort of very low birth weight infants from hospitals within the neonatal SEN1500 network].

    PubMed

    García, P; San Feliciano, L; Benito, F; García, R; Guzmán, J; Salas, S; Fernández, C; Del Prado, N; Ciprián, D; Figueras, J

    2013-11-01

    To describe growth and neurodevelopmental status of 4,944 children who completed a follow-up at two years of corrected age out of the 10,456 newborns with weight ≤1500g born between the years 2002-2007 and discharged from hospitals within the network SEN1500. A total of 522 newborns were excluded as they had some type of malformation. The total number of children assessed represents the 49.76% of children discharged alive and without malformations. A retrospective review was conducted using prospectively collected data in the SEN1500 database. We compared growth data at two years of corrected age according to birth weight and sex. Motor impairment, incidence of cerebral palsy, visual and hearing disabilities, and abnormal neurodevelopment for gestational age were analysed between groups. We studied the associations between cerebral palsy (CP) and perinatal factors. At 2 years of age 44.2% of children had a weight <2 SD for corrected age. Children with birth weight ≤1000g showed worse outcomes in growth. Some type of motor impairment was observed in 6.96% of the infants, and 4.56% of them were diagnosed with CP. The incidence was higher among males with birth weight ≤1000g. There was an incidence of 5.21% of visual disability, with 0.5% of children being blind in one or both eyes. Cerebral palsy was associated with retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular haemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia, in particular cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Morning Salivary Cortisol in Young Children: Reference Values and the Effects of Age, Sex, and Acute Bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Bakkeheim, Egil; Berents, Teresa Løvold; Alm, Johan; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Sjöbeck, Ann-Christine; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2017-05-01

    To identify morning salivary cortisol reference values in infancy and at 2 years of age and to investigate the influence of age, sex and acute bronchiolitis. In this South-East Norwegian cohort study, 308 children hospitalized with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis in infancy in 2010-2011 were compared with 223 healthy controls included in 2012 by measuring morning salivary cortisol levels at inclusion and at 2 years of age. Samples were collected shortly after awakening after 6 am. The influences of age, sex, and acute bronchiolitis were assessed by regression analysis. In infancy, cortisol values were higher in acute bronchiolitis, with an age- and sex-adjusted weighted mean group difference of 13.9 nmol/L (95% CI 8.1-19.7; P < .0001). The median level in reference group was 23.7 nmol/L (95% CI 9.7-119.6). At 2 years of age, sex but not inclusion groups differed, with significantly higher values in girls. The weighted mean of all boys' cortisol levels was 32.4 nmol/L, (95% CI 30.5-34.3), and all girls' levels were 36.9 nmol/L (95% CI 34.7-39.2; P < .003). Salivary cortisol levels were higher at 2 years of age than in infancy in the reference group, were higher in girls than in boys at 2 years of age, and were higher in infants at the time of acute bronchiolitis than in healthy infants. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00817466. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age dependency of oxygen uptake and related parameters in exercise testing: an expert opinion on reference values suitable for adults.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joachim

    2013-10-01

    Spiroergometry has been established to determine physical capacity. Reference values collected mostly in a younger population can be obtained from a number of studies and therefore may differ. Regression equations are complex and cannot be transferred easily to clinical practice. Our aim was to obtain reference values for spiroergometric parameters in cardiopulmonary exercise in healthy adult populations. Eighteen studies of healthy adults (>40 years) that assessed maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), oxygen uptake in relation to body weight (VO2max/kg), and oxygen pulse (VO2max/heart rate) were included. After data processing, spiroergometric parameters were correlated to age. Regression analysis was performed separately for each study and also weighted with the number of participants. For all spiroergometric parameters, age dependency was detectable for both males and females. After performing regression analysis, the following linear regression equations were determined: VO2max: Males = -28 × age (years) + 4,000; females = -20 × age (years) + 2,700 (ml/min); VO2max/kg: Males = -0.42 × age (years) + 58; females = -0.35 × age (years) + 46 (ml/min/kg); VO2max/heart rate: Males = -0.10 × age (years) + 20.50; females = -0.05 × age (years) + 13 (ml/min/heart rate). The present study provides practicable reference values for the spiroergometric parameters of adult men and women.

  7. Relationship between Tree Value, Diameter, and Age in High-Quality Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) on the Menominee Reservation, Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; John Dwyer; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for managing sugar maple-dominated forests by the single-tree selection method are well established and widely adopted. The forests of the Menominee Tribe in Wisconsin provide an opportunity to validate current guidelines by testing tree value and size/age relationships in forests that have substantially older and larger high-quality trees than can be found...

  8. The Transmission of Values to School-Age and Young Adult Offspring: Race and Gender Differences in Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Maria E.; Hirsch, Barton J.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; McAdams, Dan P.

    2003-01-01

    The current study explores parental socialization practices and the values transmitted to school-aged and young adult off-spring, focusing on race and gender issues involved in parental teachings. A community sample of 187 black and white mothers and fathers were interviewed with regards to their parenting practices using both quantitative and…

  9. Instrumental and Terminal Life Values of Faculty by Community College Location, Age, Experience, Highest Degree and Other Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan, John F.; Hales, Loyde W.

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the life values of community college faculty and selected demographic variables (i.e., college location, age, teaching experience, highest degree held, and other employment). A stratified random sample of 984 Oregon community college instructors was asked to identify "guiding…

  10. Hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus).

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; Margalida, A

    2010-04-01

    Normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. No significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. Reference ranges have been established for Bearded Vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living Bearded Vultures, with subadult and adult data combined without affecting clinical interpretation. Some reference values for the parameters reported in this study are similar to those previously described for vultures and other raptor species, although creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were higher than those reported for birds of prey. Significant age-related differences were identified in urea, uric acid, triglycerides, total serum protein, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and lipase activities (P<0.05). Additionally, significant age-related differences were noted in red and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, fibrinogen level, and heterophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils (P<0.005). The results obtained from this study provide reference ranges that will be useful for evaluating the pathologic conditions and general health of Bearded Vulture populations and reveal the existence of important age-related differences in the species.

  11. Third molar cut-off value in assessing the legal age of 18 in Saudi population.

    PubMed

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters.

  12. Compulsive buying--a growing concern? An examination of gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as predictors.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga

    2005-11-01

    Compulsive buying is an understudied, but growing, dysfunctional consumer behaviour with harmful psychological and financial consequences. Clinical perspectives treat it as a psychiatric disorder, whereas recent proposals emphasize the increasing endorsement of materialistic values as a cause of uncontrolled buying (e.g. Dittmar, 2004b; Kasser & Kanner, 2004). The present research aims to improve understanding of compulsive buying through examining gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as key predictors in three UK questionnaire studies, which sampled individuals who had contacted a self-help organization and residentially matched 'controls' (N = 330), consumer panelists from a multinational corporation (N = 250), and 16- to 18-year-old adolescents (N = 195). The results confirmed previously documented gender differences, and showed that younger people are more prone to compulsive buying. The central findings were that materialistic value endorsement emerged as the strongest predictor of individuals' compulsive buying, and that it significantly mediated the observed age differences.

  13. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  14. Enhancing the utility of complex-valued functional magnetic resonance imaging detection of neurobiological processes through postacquisition estimation and correction of dynamic B(0) errors and motion.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andrew D; Nencka, Andrew S; Rowe, Daniel B

    2012-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series analysis is typically performed using only the magnitude portion of the data. The phase information remains unused largely due to its sensitivity to temporal variations in the magnetic field unrelated to the functional response of interest. These phase changes are commonly the result of physiologic processes such as breathing or motion either inside or outside the imaging field of view. As a result, although the functional phase response carries pertinent physiological information concerning the vasculature, one aspect of which is the location of large draining veins, the full hemodynamic phase response is understudied and is poorly understood, especially in comparison with the magnitude response. It is likely that the magnitude and phase contain disjoint information, which could be used in tandem to better characterize functional hemodynamics. In this work, simulated and human fMRI experimental data are used to demonstrate how statistical analysis of complex-valued fMRI time series can be problematic, and how robust analysis using these powerful and flexible complex-valued statistics is possible through postprocessing with correction for dynamic magnetic field fluctuations in conjunction with estimated motion parameters. These techniques require no special pulse sequence modifications and can be applied to any complex-valued echo planar imaging data set. This analysis shows that the phase component appears to contain information complementary to that in the magnitude and that processing and analysis techniques are available to investigate it in a robust and flexible manner. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Depth in an Age of Digital Distraction: The Value of a Catholic College in Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Conor M.

    2015-01-01

    A commitment to holistic student formation in the liberal arts tradition and to the Catholic faith is a hallmark of most Catholic higher education institutions. To be most effective, Catholic institutions must adapt this central mission to changing circumstances in an age of ubiquitous mobile technologies and persistent digital distractions. By…

  16. Determinants of tree quality and lumber value in natural uneven-aged southern pine stands

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiorno

    2000-01-01

    An ordered-probit model was developed to predict tree grade from tree- and stand-level variables, some of which could be changed by management. Applied to uneven-aged mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) - shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) stands, the model showed that the grade of pine trees was highly correlated with tree diameter...

  17. Depth in an Age of Digital Distraction: The Value of a Catholic College in Today's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Conor M.

    2015-01-01

    A commitment to holistic student formation in the liberal arts tradition and to the Catholic faith is a hallmark of most Catholic higher education institutions. To be most effective, Catholic institutions must adapt this central mission to changing circumstances in an age of ubiquitous mobile technologies and persistent digital distractions. By…

  18. Sojourn time, sensitivity and positive predictive value of mammography screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-49.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Chen, H H; Tabar, L; Fagerberg, G; Paci, E

    1996-12-01

    In mammographic screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-49, previous studies have found very low estimates of sensitivity and predictive value. Methods of estimation have, however, used primitive models with relatively strong assumptions and less than full use of the data. Here we estimate the underlying preclinical incidence, mean sojourn time, sensitivity and positive predictive value by a variety of methods in a randomized trial of mammographic screening (The Swedish Two-County Trial) and a service screening programme (The Florence Programme, 1975-1986) in women aged 40-49 years. In the Two-County study, sensitivity estimates ranged from 72-83% and predictive value from 39-89%. In the Florence programme, sensitivity estimates ranged from 69-85% and predictive value was uniformly estimated as 100%. The methods involving more explicit modelling of the disease process and fewer assumptions tended to find higher estimates of predictive value in the Two-County study. The results suggest that previously poor sensitivity and predictive value estimates may have been overpessimistic.

  19. Some haematological reference values for pre-primary and primary school aged children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dapper, D V; Nwauche, C A; Siminialayi, I M

    2009-09-01

    Published reports of haematological reference values for pre-primary and primary school aged residents of Port Harcourt, Nigeria are relatively scanty. To determine the reference ranges of some haematological parameters for pre-primary and primary school aged children resident in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A total of 250 pre-primary school subjects consisting of 124 males and 126 females aged between 1 to 5 years and 536 primary school children consisting of 262 males and 274 females aged between 6 and 13 years resident in Port Harcourt, Nigeria were randomly recruited into the study. 3-5 ml of venous blood was collected with minimum stasis and the values of the following haematological parameters determined by the indicated methods: Haematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. Red blood cells, white blood cells [including a differential count] and platelet cells were counted manually using the improved Neubauer counting chamber. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was determined using the Westergren method. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by the cyanmethaemoglobin method. The reference ranges for haematocrit, total white blood cell, differential neutrophils and lymphocyte counts, platelet cell counts and erythrocyte sedimentation rates; haemoglobin concentration and red cell counts are presented for male and female pre-primary and primary school children in Port Harcourt. There were no significant gender variations in the values of these parameters in both pre-primary and primary school children. However, primary school subjects, irrespective of sex, were found to have significantly higher values of lymphocyte differential counts and erythrocyte sedimentation rates and significantly lower platelet counts and total white cell counts and differential neutrophils counts compared to their pre-primary school counterparts [p<0.05]. There were no significant differences in the values of haematocrit between

  20. [Biological adaptation of children of preschool age with retardation of mental development (RMD) in conditions of pre-school correctional educational institutions].

    PubMed

    Bannikova, L P; Sebirzyanov, M D

    2013-01-01

    The present study was devoted to the investigation of biological adaptation of children aged 6-7 years with retardation of mental development (RMD) in pre-school correctional educational institutions. Under supervision there were 69 children, out of them 34 RMD cases and 35 children in whom mental development corresponds to age-control group--35 persons. The increase in sympatico-adrenergic effects and centralized heart rhythm control was revealed in children of both groups under comparison, but in RMD cases these effects were more pronounced. Adaptation reserves in RMD children appeared to be lower than in children in whom mental development corresponds to the age. Gender differences of adaptive reserves in children have been established

  1. Valued Youth Partnership Program: Dropout Prevention through Cross-Age Tutoring [Summary].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Edgewood and South San Antonio Independent School Districts implemented the Valued Youth Partnership Program (VYP). VYP identifies Hispanic junior high and high school students at high risk of dropping out and gives them an opportunity to serve as tutors of younger children. As they tutor, the older students also learn basic skills,…

  2. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  3. The Impact of Values-Job Fit and Age on Work-Related Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Ouweland, Loth; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that both individual and job-related factors influence a worker's work-related learning. This study combines these factors, examining the impact of fit between one's work values and job characteristics on learning. Although research indicates that fit benefits multiple work-related outcomes, little is known about the impact of fit…

  4. Inclusive Values in the Planning of Mathematical Issues at an Early Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micanovic, Veselin; Novovic, Tatjana; Maslovaric, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the general principles of the present inclusion in advanced education systems, which are based on the support of children with special educational needs and their inclusion in regular teaching process along with their peers, inclusive values are gradually becoming a reality in the Montenegrin educational process. The paper aims…

  5. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  6. Valued Youth Partnership Program: Dropout Prevention through Cross-Age Tutoring [Summary].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Edgewood and South San Antonio Independent School Districts implemented the Valued Youth Partnership Program (VYP). VYP identifies Hispanic junior high and high school students at high risk of dropping out and gives them an opportunity to serve as tutors of younger children. As they tutor, the older students also learn basic skills,…

  7. Impaired non-specific suppressor-inducer T-cell activity in aged murine Peyer's patches, which can be corrected largely by IL-2 in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kawanishi, H; Kiely, J

    1989-01-01

    To shed further light on the mechanism of age-associated T-cell-mediated immunoregulatory alterations in gut non-specific mucosal immune responses, we studied in vitro the function of a variety of concanavalin A (Con A)-activated immunoregulatory T-cell subsets derived from aged murine Peyer's patches (PP) (BALB/c > 24 months old) in the production of class-specific immunoglobulins (Ig) by young (5-8 months old) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated PP B cells. The in vitro induction of Con A-activated PP helper (Th) [L3T4+ Lyt-2- Vicia villosa non-adherent (VV-)], suppressor (Ts) L3T4- Lyt-2+ (VV-), and contrasuppresor (Tcs) (L3T4+ Lyt-2- VV+) T cells were compared for the two age groups. The activities of aged PP-derived Ts and Tcs cells were greatly impaired, in contrast to minor defects in activity of the aged Th cells. The induction of effector Tcs cells, however, depended on the presence of functionally effective Ts cells. Recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) could largely correct this impaired generation of aged Ts and Tcs cells. Next, we determined the activities of Ts inducer (Tsi) (L3T4+ Lyt-2- VV-) T cells in aged PP in vitro. The cell activity was considerably diminished in aged mice. Then, we tested in vitro whether rIL-2 could reconstitute the impaired generation of the aged non-specific Tsi cell. The function of the latter cell was largely restored by rIL-2. Thus, the major functional (intrinsic) defect present in immunocompetent T lymphocytes of murine aged PP was confined to the Tsi cell. PMID:15493264

  8. Correction factor for the analysis of the hip fracture incidence--differences between age, sex, region, and calendar year.

    PubMed

    Icks, Andrea; Haastert, Burkhard; Glaeske, Gerd; Stumpf, Ulla; Windolf, Joachim; Hoffmann, Falk

    2012-06-01

    Several studies evaluated hip fracture incidences and its predictors and trends using hospital discharge registries. However, this source does not provide patient-related data, therefore the hospital changes or re-hospitalisations cannot be identified as "double counting". If double counting differs with age, sex, region, and time, the estimates may be biased. Aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of multiple counting and, in particular, its variation with age, sex, region, and calendar year. We used data of a German-wide health insurance (1.6 million members). Between 1998 and 2009, we assessed all hip fractures (ICD 9: 820, ICD 10: S.72.0-2) in individuals aged 50 years or older and calculated the probability to be a patient's "first" fracture in each calendar year. Using multiple logistic regressions, we estimated the influence of age, sex, region, and calendar year. The probabilities of a "first fracture" per patient and year varied between 86.7 % (95 % confidence interval 83.9-89.2 %, year 2003) and 93.9 % (90.9-96.2 %, year 1998). Age (odds ratio per 5 years 0.89; 95 % CI 0.86-0.92), region (East vs. West Germany: 0.65; 0.52-0.81), and calendar year (per year 0.97; 0.95-0.99) were significantly associated in the multiple regression. The probability to have multiple counting of hip fracture events varied significantly with age, region, and calendar year. It should be discussed that analyses which do not account for this may provide invalid estimates and conclusions when differences between age groups and regions or trends are analyzed.

  9. Normative values of cognitive and physical function in older adults: findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Rose Anne; Coen, Robert F; Frewen, John; Donoghue, Orna A; Cronin, Hilary; Savva, George M

    2013-05-01

    To provide normative values of tests of cognitive and physical function based on a large sample representative of the population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Data were used from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a prospective cohort study that includes a comprehensive health assessment. Health assessment was undertaken at one of two dedicated health assessment centers or in the study participant's home if travel was not practicable. Five thousand eight hundred ninety-seven members of a nationally representative sample of the community-living population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Those with severe cognitive impairment, dementia, or Parkinson's disease were excluded. Measurements included height and weight, normal walking speed, Timed Up-and-Go, handgrip strength, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Color Trails Test, and bone mineral density. Normative values were estimated using generalized additive models for location shape and scale (GAMLSS) and are presented as percentiles, means, and standard deviations. Generalized additive models for location shape and scale fit the observed data well for each measure, leading to reliable estimates of normative values. Performance on all tasks decreased with age. Educational attainment was a strong determinant of performance on all cognitive tests. Tests of walking speed were dependent on height. Distribution of body mass index did not change with age, owing to simultaneous declines in weight and height. Normative values were found for tests of many aspects of cognitive and physical function based on a representative sample of the general older Irish population. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Normal values of posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve conduction study related to age, gender, height, and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Simin; Mansoori, Korosh; Raissi, Gholam R; Emami Razavi, Seyede Z; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have proposed posterior antebrachial cutaneous (PABC) nerve could help in interpretation of some conditions in upper limb electrodiagnostic study. This study aimed to establish these normal values and to assess the effect of sex, age, height, and body mass index on these normal values. Eligible participants were 84 healthy adult people aged between 22 and 75 years who underwent PABC nerve conduction studies. The mean ± SD values of the base-to-peak amplitude, peak latency, and nerve conduction velocity of all participants were 10.95 ± 2.90 μV, 2.08 ± 0.20 milliseconds, and 57.85 ± 7.83 m/second, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the subjects' age and the PABC onset latency, peak latency, and nerve conduction velocity (r = 0.64, P < 0.001; r = 0.6, P < 0.001; and r = 0.44, P < 0.001, respectively). A significant negative correlation was observed between age and base-to-peak amplitude and peak-to-peak amplitude of participants, as well (r = -0.38, r = -0.41, P < 0.001, respectively). The correlation of body mass index with base-to-peak amplitude and peak-to-peak amplitude were r = -0.36, P < 0.001 and r = -0.40, P < 0.001, respectively. This study has established normal values for PABC nerve conduction studies. Furthermore, age and body mass index must be taken into account for making diagnostic conclusion in PABC nerve conduction studies.

  11. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  12. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  13. The role of weight loss and exercise in correcting skeletal muscle mitochondrial abnormalities in obesity, diabetes and aging.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Frederico G S; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2013-10-15

    Mitochondria within skeletal muscle have been implicated in insulin resistance of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as impaired muscle function with normal aging. Evaluating the potential of interventions to improve mitochondria is clearly relevant to the prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases and age-related dysfunction. This review provides an overview and critical evaluation of the effects of weight loss and exercise interventions on skeletal muscle mitochondria, along with implications for insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. The available literature strongly suggests that the lower mitochondrial capacity associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging is not an irreversible lesion. However, weight loss does not appear to affect this response, even when the weight loss is extreme. In contrast, increasing physical activity improves mitochondrial content and perhaps the function of individual mitochondrion. Despite the consistent effect of exercise to improve mitochondrial capacity, studies mechanistically linking mitochondria to insulin resistance, reductions in intramyocellular lipid or improvement in muscle function remain inconclusive. In summary, studies of diet and exercise training have advanced our understanding of the link between mitochondrial oxidative capacity and insulin resistance in obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. Nevertheless, additional inquiry is necessary to establish the significance and clinical relevance of those perturbations, which could lead to targeted therapies for a myriad of conditions and diseases involving mitochondria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood values of the canvasback duck by age, sex and season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Pitts, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from canvasback ducklings from Manitoba and Saskatchewan and from immature and adult canvasbacks on the Mississippi River near LaCrosse, Wisconsin and the Chesapeake Bay. These samples were used to determine baseline data on red cell counts, hematocrit, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, hemoglobin and distribution of plasma proteins. Calculations were also made to determine mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The major differences noted were between ducklings and adults. The former having higher total protein and lower hematocrit, glucose and cholesterol values. These hematologic values were collected in order to provide baseline information on apparently healthy canvasbacks, thereby providing disease investigators with a standard of comparison

  15. Ar-40 intercept values and young apparent /K-40/-/Ar-40/ ages of five Apollo 15 fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. L.; Heymann, D.

    1977-01-01

    Correlations between Ar-40 and Ar-36 from size fractions of three Apollo 15 fines (15071, 15421, 15501) have been obtained. The Ar-40 intercept values of these fines and of 15091 and 15601 are generally lower than what one would expect for fines resulting from the comminution of rocks having ages of about 3.3 billion yr, typical for basalts of the landing site. This is interpreted to be the result of contamination by ray material from the Copernican age (equal or less than about 1 billion yr) craters, Autolycus and Aristillus, north of the landing site.

  16. New age- and sex-specific criteria for QT prolongation based on rate correction formulas that minimize bias at the upper normal limits.

    PubMed

    Rautaharju, Pentti M; Mason, Jay W; Akiyama, Toshio

    2014-07-01

    Existing formulas for rate-corrected QT (QTc) commonly fail to properly adjust the upper normal limits which are more critical than the mean QTc for evaluation of prolonged QT. Age- and sex-related differences in QTc are also often overlooked. Our goal was to establish criteria for prolonged QTc using formulas that minimize QTc bias at the upper normal limits. Strict criteria were used in selecting a study group of 57,595 persons aged 5 to 89 years (54% women) and to exclude electrocardiograms (ECG) with possible disease-associated changes. Two QT rate adjustment formulas were identified which both minimized rate-dependency in the 98 th percentile limits: QTcmod, based on an electrophysiological model (QTcMod = QTx(120 + HR)/180)), and QTcLogLin, a power function of the RR interval with exponents 0.37 for men and 0.38 for women. QTc shortened in men during adolescence and QTcMod became 13 ms shorter than in women at age 20-29 years. The sex difference was maintained through adulthood although decreasing with age. The criteria established for prolonged QTc were: Age < 40 years, men 430 ms, women 440 ms; Age 40 to 69, men 440 ms, women 450 ms; Age ≥ 70 years, men 455 ms, and women 460 ms. Sex difference in QTc originates from shortened QT in adolescent males. Upper normal limits for QTc vary substantially by age and sex, and it is essential to use age- and sex-specific criteria for evaluation of QT prolongation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NORMAL VALUES FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION ANORECTAL MANOMETRY IN HEALTHY WOMEN: EFFECTS OF AGE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RECTOANAL GRADIENT

    PubMed Central

    Noelting, Jessica; Ratuapli, Shiva K.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Harvey, Doris M.; Ravi, Karthik; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims High-resolution manometry (HRM) is used to measure anal pressures in clinical practice but normal values have not been available. While rectal evacuation is assessed by the rectoanal gradient during simulated evacuation, there is substantial overlap between healthy people and defecatory disorders, and the effects of age are unknown. We evaluated the effects of age on anorectal pressures and rectal balloon expulsion in healthy women. Design Anorectal pressures (HRM), rectal sensation, and balloon expulsion time (BET) were evaluated in 62 asymptomatic women ranging in age from 21 to 80 years (median age 44 years) without risk factors for anorectal trauma. Thirty women were aged less than 50 years. Results Age is associated with lower (r = − 0.47, p < 0.01) anal resting [63[5] (≥50 y), 88[3] (<50 y)] but not squeeze pressures; higher rectal pressure and rectoanal gradient during simulated evacuation (r = 0.3, p < 0.05); and a shorter (r = −0.4, p < 0.01) rectal BET [17[9]s (≥50 y) vs 31[10]s (<50 y)]. Only 5 women had a prolonged (> 60 s) rectal BET but 52 had higher anal than rectal pressures (ie, negative gradient) during simulated evacuation. The gradient was more negative in younger (−41[6] mm Hg) than older (−12[6] mm Hg) women and negatively (r = −0.51, p <0.0001) correlated with rectal BET but only explained 16% of the variation in rectal BET. Conclusions These observations provide normal values for anorectal pressures by HRM. Increasing age is associated with lower anal resting pressure, a more positive rectoanal gradient during simulated evacuation, and a shorter BET in asymptomatic women. While the rectoanal gradient is negatively correlated with rectal BET, this gradient is negative even in a majority of asymptomatic women, undermining the utility of a negative gradient for diagnosing defecatory disorders by HRM. PMID:22986439

  18. On the Value of Climate Elasticity Indices to Assess the Impact of Climate Change on Streamflow Projection using an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Mehmet; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2015-04-01

    Changes in two climate elasticity indices, i.e. temperature and precipitation elasticity of streamflow, were investigated using an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5 dataset as forcing to two hydrologic models. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) hydrologic models, were calibrated at 1/16 degree resolution and the simulated streamflow was routed to the basin outlet of interest. We estimated precipitation and temperature elasticity of streamflow from: (1) observed streamflow; (2) simulated streamflow by VIC and SAC-SMA models using observed climate for the current climate (1963-2003); (3) simulated streamflow using simulated climate from 10 GCM - CMIP5 dataset for the future climate (2010-2099) including two concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two downscaled climate products (BCSD and MACA). The streamflow sensitivity to long-term (e.g., 30-year) average annual changes in temperature and precipitation is estimated for three periods i.e. 2010-40, 2040-70 and 2070-99. We compared the results of the three cases to reflect on the value of precipitation and temperature indices to assess the climate change impacts on Columbia River streamflow. Moreover, these three cases for two models are used to assess the effects of different uncertainty sources (model forcing, model structure and different pathways) on the two climate elasticity indices.

  19. Surgical Versus Orthodontic Correction for Class II Patients: Age and Severity in Treatment Planning and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Camilla Tulloch, J. F.; Lenz, Brent E.; Phillips, Ceib

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for Class II malocclusion include orthognathic surgery. Treatment choices are particularly difficult for young patients because of the uncertainty regarding future growth. Surgical treatment has generally been considered necessary for older patients with more severe Class II problems. The treatment records of more than 500 patients with Class II malocclusion were reviewed. Patients were grouped according to their initial treatment plan (surgery or orthodontics) and treatment outcome (overjet [OJ] reduced to <4 mm or not). Discriminant function analyses using data from the patient’s pretreatment cephalogram were used to determine whether age, in combination with malocclusion severity, could predict the choice of treatment, and whether a simple set of pretreatment variables could predict the success or failure of OJ reduction. The derived equations were tested in a similar group of growing Class II children. Although the data showed clinicians use patient’s age in determining treatment choice, age did not seem to be associated with treatment outcome. The majority of the variability that determined the success or failure of OJ reduction was not explained by patient’s age or malocclusion severity. These findings suggest other factors, including psychosocial variables, need to be explored if we are to gain a better understanding of why treatments succeed or fail. PMID:10860060

  20. Cognitive Differences for Ages 16 to 89 Years (Canadian WAIS-III): Curvilinear with Flynn and Processing Speed Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hoyee Flora; Gorsuch, Richard L.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Patterson, Colleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Adult cognitive age differences in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Canadian normative data were curvilinear for most scales and for the Verbal Comprehension (VC), Perceptual Organization (PO), and Working Memory (WM) factors. These showed stable or increasing scores in early adulthood followed by decreasing scores, necessitating a…

  1. Cognitive Differences for Ages 16 to 89 Years (Canadian WAIS-III): Curvilinear with Flynn and Processing Speed Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hoyee Flora; Gorsuch, Richard L.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Patterson, Colleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Adult cognitive age differences in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Canadian normative data were curvilinear for most scales and for the Verbal Comprehension (VC), Perceptual Organization (PO), and Working Memory (WM) factors. These showed stable or increasing scores in early adulthood followed by decreasing scores, necessitating a…

  2. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Contact Lens to Intraocular Lens Correction of Monocular Aphakia During Infancy: Grating Acuity and Adverse Events at Age 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the visual outcomes and adverse events of contact lens to primary intraocular lens (IOL) correction of monocular aphakia during infancy. Methods In a randomized, multicenter (12 sites) clinical trial, 114 infants with a unilateral congenital cataract were assigned to undergo cataract surgery between 1 to 6 months of age either with or without primary IOL implantation. Contact lenses were used to correct aphakia in patients who did not receive IOLs. Grating visual acuity was tested at 1 year of age by a masked traveling examiner Main Outcome Measures Grating visual acuity at 1 year of age. Results The median logMAR visual acuity was not significantly different between the treated eyes in the two groups (CL = 0.80, IOL = 0.97, p =.20). More patients in the IOL group underwent one or more additional intraocular surgeries than patients in the CL group (63% vs 12%; p <.0001). Most of these additional surgeries were performed to clear lens reproliferation and pupillary membranes from the visual axis. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in grating visual acuity at age 1 year between the IOL and CL groups; however, additional intraocular surgeries were performed more frequently in the IOL group. Application to Clinical Practice Until longer term follow-up data are available, caution should be exercised when performing IOL implantation in children 6 months of age or younger given the higher incidence of adverse events and the absence of an improved short-term visual outcome compared to contact lens use. PMID:20457949

  3. Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2006-12-01

    Forty USDA Select and 40 upper two-thirds USDA Choice beef carcasses were used to determine the effects of postmortem aging on tenderness of 17 individual beef muscles. Biceps femoris-long head, complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, rectus femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, serratus ventralis, spinalis dorsi, supraspinatus, tensor fasciae latae, teres major, triceps brachii-long head, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles were removed from each carcass. Seven steaks (2.54-cm thick) were cut from every muscle, and each steak was assigned to one of the following postmortem aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, or 28 d postmortem. After completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage (2 degrees C, never frozen), cooked to a peak internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Analysis of WBSF revealed a 3-way interaction (P = 0.004) among individual muscle, USDA quality grade, and postmortem aging period. With the exception of the Select teres major, WBSF of all muscles (both quality grades) decreased with increasing time of postmortem storage. Nonlinear regression was used to characterize the extent (aging response) and rate of decrease in WBSF from 2 through 28 d postmortem for each muscle within each quality grade. In general, WBSF of upper two-thirds Choice muscles decreased more rapidly from 2 to 10 d postmortem than did corresponding Select muscles. Muscles that had greater aging responses generally had greater 2-d WBSF values. The upper two-thirds Choice psoas major, serratus ventralis, and vastus lateralis muscles required similar aging times to complete a majority of the aging response (< or =0.1 kg of aging response remaining) compared with analogous Select muscles. The upper two-thirds Choice complexus, gluteus medius, semitendinosus, triceps brachii-long head, and vastus medialis muscles required 4 to 6 d less time to complete a

  4. Liver Stiffness Values Are Lower in Pediatric Subjects than in Adults and Increase with Age: A Multifrequency MR Elastography Study.

    PubMed

    Etchell, Emily; Jugé, Lauriane; Hatt, Alice; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations. Differences between age groups were determined with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons tests. Results Liver stiffness values (means ± standard deviations) were significantly lower in children and adolescents than in adults at 56 Hz (children, 2.2 kPa ± 0.3; adolescents, 2.2 kPa ± 0.2; adults, 2.6 kPa ± 0.3; analysis of variance, P = .009) and 84 Hz (children, 5.6 kPa ± 0.8; adolescents, 6.5 kPa ± 1.2; adults, 7.8 kPa ± 1.2; analysis of variance, P = .0003) but not at 28 Hz (children, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; adolescents, 1.3 kPa ± 0.3; adults, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; analysis of variance, P = .40). At 56 and 84 Hz, liver stiffness increased with age (Spearman correlation, r = 0.38 [P = .03] and r = 0.54 [P = .001], respectively). Stiffness varied less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults (analysis of variance, P = .0009). No significant differences were found in shear moduli at 28, 56, or 84 Hz or frequency dependence between children and adolescents (P = .38, P = .99, P = .14, and P = .30, respectively, according to Tukey tests). Conclusion Liver stiffness values are lower and vary less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults. Stiffness increases with age during normal development and approaches adult values during adolescence. Comparing pediatric liver stiffness to adult baseline values to detect pediatric liver mechanical abnormalities may not allow detection of mild

  5. Establishing reference values for age-related spermatogonial quantity in prepubertal human testes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Masliukaite, Ieva; Hagen, Julie M; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon; van Pelt, Ans M M

    2016-12-01

    To collect published data on spermatogonial quantity in the testes of healthy children and calculate the reference values of spermatogonial quantities throughout prepuberty. Systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE focusing on the number of spermatogonia per transverse tubular cross section (S/T) and spermatogonial density per cubic centimeter (cm(3)) of testicular volume (S/V) throughout prepuberty. None. None. None. Polynomial meta-regression analyses of S/T and S/V of healthy boys from the ages of 0 to 14 years. We found six papers describing original quantitative data on S/T and S/V of healthy boys (total n = 334 and 62, respectively) that were suitable for meta-analysis. Polynomial meta-regression analyses of S/T and S/V demonstrated a clear pattern of spermatogonial quantity throughout prepubertal life. This consisted of a decline during the first 3 years of life, a gradual increase until the ages of 6 to 7 years, a plateau until the age of 11 years, and a sharp incline reaching pubertal numbers at 13 to 14 years of age. The association between S/T and S/V allowed us to perform S/T to S/V extrapolation, creating reference S/V (rS/V) values throughout prepubertal life from a cohort of 372 boys. Spermatogonial quantity varies during testicular development toward puberty. The values found in this study may serve as a baseline clinical reference to study the impact of diseases and adverse effects of gonadotoxic treatments on spermatogonial quantity in prepubertal testes. Spermatogonial quantity reference values may also help to evaluate the quality of testicular biopsy samples acquired for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    PubMed Central

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61–80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision

  7. Political Correctness--Correct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of political correctness, its roots and objectives, and its successes and failures in coping with the conflicts and clashes of multicultural campuses. Argues that speech codes indicate failure in academia's primary mission to civilize and educate through talk, discussion, thought,166 and persuasion. (SR)

  8. The Prevalence of Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria: Can New Cutoff Values Be Suggested According to Age and Sex?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP) and to define new cutoff values according to age and sex for both conditions. Methods Data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted among a random sample of 2,128 adults were analyzed in this study. Participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire including the International Continence Society (ICS) definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form. Additionally, a 1-day bladder diary was given to each individual. The participants were divided into 5 age groups. The prevalence of nocturia was calculated based on definitions of nocturia as ≥1 voiding episodes, ≥2 episodes, and ≥3 episodes. NP was evaluated according to the ICS definition. The mean±standard errors and 95th percentile values were calculated in each group as new cutoff values for NP. Results The prevalence of nocturia was estimated as 28.4%, 17.6%, and 8.9% for ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 voiding episodes each night, respectively. When nocturia was defined as 2 or more voiding episodes at night, the prevalence decreased significantly. The mean NP index was 29.4%±15.0% in men and 23.1%±11.8% in women. For the age groups of <50 years, 50–59 years, and ≥60 years, the new cutoff values for the diagnosis of NP were calculated as 48%, 69%, and 59% for men and 41%, 50%, and 42% for women, respectively. Conclusions We found that the definition of nocturia was still controversial and that waking up once for voiding might be within the normal spectrum of behavior. The definition of NP should be modified, and new cutoff values should be defined using the data presented in our study and in other forthcoming studies. PMID:28043108

  9. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in foals: reference values, effect of age, rate of acoustic stimulation, and neurologic deficits.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, L; Gains, M; Blond, L; Parent, J

    2015-01-01

    Age and rate of acoustic stimulation affect peak latencies in brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) in humans. Those effects are unknown in foals. Our goals were to (1) establish reference values for BAER in foals by using 3 different stimulation protocols, (2) evaluate the effects of age and stimulation frequencies on BAER tracing in foals up to 6 months old, and (3) compare the data with BAER obtained from foals with central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Thirty-nine neurologically normal foals and 16 foals with neurologic diseases. Prospective observational clinical study. BAER recorded by using 3 protocols of stimulation (11.33 repetitions per second [Hz]/70 decibel normal hearing level [dBNHL]; 11.33 Hz/90 dBNHL; 90 Hz/70 dBNHL). No effect of age was observed in normal foals (P > .005). No significant difference was observed for latencies and interpeak latencies (IPL) when comparing foals with neurologic diseases and normal foals (P > .05), but 78.6% of foals with neurologic diseases had an asymmetry in their tracing, reflecting a difference in conduction time between the left and right side of the brainstem. Increasing the stimulation rate did not improve detection of CNS disorders. We propose BAER reference values for foals up to 6 months of age by using 3 protocols. Most foals with neurologic deficits had abnormal BAER tracing. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Impact of Age and Target-Organ Damage on Prognostic Value of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Thomas B; Stidsen, Jacob V; Blicher, Marie K; Pareek, Manan; Rasmussen, Susanne; Vishram-Nielsen, Julie K K; Olsen, Michael H

    2017-09-11

    Markers of target-organ damage and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurement improve cardiovascular risk stratification. The prevalence of target-organ damage and raised BP increases with aging. The study aim was to evaluate the impact of age and target-organ damage on the prognostic value of ambulatory BP. Markers of target-organ damage and ambulatory BP were measured in 1408 healthy people aged 41 or 51 (middle-aged group), and 61 or 71 (older group) years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular events after 16 years of follow-up, with data obtained from national registries. The prognostic value of BP was evaluated with Cox regression models, adjusted for traditional risk factors and target-organ damage, including left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity, carotid plaques, and urine albumin/creatinine ratio. A total of 323 events were observed. In comparison with traditional risk factors, adding systolic BP and presence of target-organ damage improved risk stratification by increasing concordance index from 0.711 to 0.728 (P=0.01). In middle-aged subjects with target-organ damage, increment in pulse pressure (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.21; P<0.01) and increment in average real variability (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.59; P=0.02) were associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared with subjects without target-organ damage: hazard ratio, 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.46; P=0.81); P for interaction, 0.02; and hazard ratio, 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.14; P=0.36); P for interaction, 0.01. Target-organ damage may be a marker of individual susceptibility to the harmful effects of pulse pressure and BP variability on the cardiovascular system in middle-aged individuals. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Follow-up at the corrected age of 24 months of preterm newborns receiving continuous infusion of fentanyl for pain control during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Gina; Lago, Paola; Garetti, Elisabetta; Pirelli, Anna; Merazzi, Daniele; Pierantoni, Luca; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Faldella, Giacomo

    2017-02-24

    The neurodevelopmental impact of fentanyl given to preterm newborns for pain control is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the neurodevelopmental impact of 2 regimens of fentanyl administration by a prospective follow-up evaluation. In our previous multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 131 mechanically ventilated newborns (gestational age ≤32 weeks) were randomized to fentanyl (continuous infusion of fentanyl + open label boluses of fentanyl) or placebo (continuous infusion of placebo + open label boluses of fentanyl). Infant development was evaluated using Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (Griffiths, 1996) until 24 months of corrected age by trained psychologists who were not aware of the group allocation. 106/131 infants survived at discharge; 3 died after discharge, 25 were lost to follow-up (12 in the fentanyl and 13 in the placebo group). Seventy-eight patients were evaluated at 2 years of corrected age. Children in the fentanyl group, compared with those in the placebo group, obtained significantly lower Griffiths general developmental quotient (mean [SD]: 89.95 [13.64] vs 97.18 [12.72], P = 0.024) together with the scores on the eye-hand coordination (mean [SD]: 89.09 [12.13] vs 99.19 [13.19], P = 0.002) and performance skills (mean [SD]: 79.71 [15.80] vs 90.09 [15.28], P = 0.009) scales. After adjustment for clinical confounders (gestational age, CRIB score, and sex) only eye-hand co-ordination was associated with fentanyl infusion. This study demonstrates that continuous infusion of fentanyl in very preterm infants, given at 1 mcg·kg·h during mechanical ventilation, is associated with a significant decrease in eye and hand co-ordination skills. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact on future motor, cognitive, and behavioral functions.

  12. Feasibility of a Preventive Parenting Intervention for Very Preterm Children at 18 Months Corrected Age: A Randomized Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Flierman, Monique; Koldewijn, Karen; Meijssen, Dominique; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke; van Schie, Petra; Jeukens-Visser, Martine

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of an age-appropriate additional parenting intervention for very preterm born toddlers. In a randomized controlled pilot study, 60 of 94 eligible very preterm born children who had received a responsive parenting intervention in their first year were randomized to usual care or the additional intervention, consisting of 4-6 home visits between 18 and 22 months' corrected gestational age (CA). Parents were supported to responsively interact during increasingly complex daily activities and play. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was evaluated with a questionnaire. At baseline and 24 months CA, parents completed the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and the Dutch Schlichting Lexilist for receptive language. At 24 months CA, motor, and cognitive development was measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition Dutch version, and parent-child interaction was evaluated by the Emotional Availability Scales. Parental compliance and satisfaction with the intervention was high. Effect sizes (after correction for baseline variables) were small for internalizing and competence behavior, receptive language, and problem solving; medium for cognitive development and parent-child interaction; and large for externalizing and dysregulation behavior and motor development. After a postdischarge intervention during the first year, an additional responsive parenting support at toddler-age is feasible and associated with positive outcomes in a broad array of parental and child outcome measures. www.toetsingonline.nl: NL40208.018.12. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential vulnerability of gray matter and white matter to intrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants at 12 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Nelly; Junqué, Carme; Figueras, Francesc; Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Bargalló, Núria; Arranz, Angela; Donaire, Antonio; Figueras, Josep; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-01-30

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Underlying neuroanatomical substrates are partially documented. We hypothesized that at 12 months preterm infants would evidence specific white-matter microstructure alterations and gray-matter differences induced by severe IUGR. Twenty preterm infants with IUGR (26-34 weeks of gestation) were compared with 20 term-born infants and 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age. Preterm groups showed no evidence of brain abnormalities. At 12 months, infants were scanned sleeping naturally. Gray-matter volumes were studied with voxel-based morphometry. White-matter microstructure was examined using tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between diffusivity indices in white matter, gray matter volumes, and perinatal data was also investigated. Gray-matter decrements attributable to IUGR comprised amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus and insula bilaterally, left occipital and parietal lobes, and right perirolandic area. Gray-matter volumes positively correlated with birth weight exclusively. Preterm infants had reduced FA in the corpus callosum, and increased FA in the anterior corona radiata. Additionally, IUGR infants had increased FA in the forceps minor, internal and external capsules, uncinate and fronto-occipital white matter tracts. Increased axial diffusivity was observed in several white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy positively correlated with birth weight and gestational age at birth. These data suggest that IUGR differentially affects gray and white matter development preferentially affecting gray matter. At 12 months IUGR is associated with a specific set of structural gray-matter decrements. White matter follows an unusual developmental pattern, and is apparently affected by IUGR and prematurity combined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing a Correction to Remove Systematic Bias in U-Pb LA-ICP-MS Zircon Ages Related to Zircon "Matrix Effects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, W. A.; Angelo, T. V.; Guest, B.

    2014-12-01

    For more than a decade the occurrence of systematic discrepancies between the U-Pb ages of zircons determined by LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS has been acknowledged. Trace element concentrations, crystallographic orientation and damage to the crystal lattice by radioactive decay have all been cited as possible causes for the discrepancy termed the "matrix effect". Recent studies have concluded that differences in Laser Induced Elemental Fractionation (LIEF) between zircon reference materials results from variations in the ablation rate between the primary reference, which is used to build a model for LIEF during data reduction, and the unknowns. These variations are likely related to physical differences in the crystal lattice caused by alpha particle ejection. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the ablation rate for ~200 individual ablation pits in a variety of reference materials using an optical profilometer. Our data demonstrate a clear relationship between delta age (the difference between the age calculated by LA-ICP-MS and the accepted ID-TIMS age, expressed as a percentage) and ablation rate. The relationship between calculated alpha dosage for each ablation and delta age is less clear. This suggests that the zircon's thermal history may play an important role in controlling ablation rate through annealing of crystal lattice defects. However, alpha dosage is readily quantifiable during routine zircon U-Pb analyses and therefore its relationship to delta age may provide a useful first order correction to remove systematic biases from U-Pb ages. Raman spectroscopy could provide a more robust measure of radiation damage in the zircon lattice and could help to refine our understanding of the processes involved.

  15. An assessment of the educational value of service-learning community placements in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J P; Blinkhorn, A S; Blinkhorn, F A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dental hygiene students attending residential aged care facilities (RACFs) during a placement programme gained any knowledge about the oral care of elderly patients and the RACF environment. Aged Care Facilities on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia. Final year dental hygiene students undertook a 12-week placement, one day per week, in one of 17 residential aged care facilities on the NSW Central Coast. They were asked to complete pre-placement and post-placement questionnaires, which recorded their knowledge of medical, dental and environmental issues related to older people. The placement questionnaires used five point Likert scales, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree, pre- and post-mean scores were produced for each question and P values calculated using a paired t-test. Thirty-three students attended the placement, 26 (79%) completed both the pre- and post-placement questionnaires. Post-placement mean scores as compared to pre-placement mean scores showed significant improvement in student knowledge of medical (P < 0.05) and dental (P < 0.05) conditions specific to the older person and improvement in knowledge (P < 0.05) about the residential aged care facility environment. The placement programme enhanced student knowledge across three subject categories; medical and dental conditions of the older person and the structure and services of the residential aged care environment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MRI neurological studies with continuous-valued attenuation coefficients for bone through a conversion from R2* to CT-Hounsfield units.

    PubMed

    Juttukonda, Meher R; Mersereau, Bryant G; Chen, Yasheng; Su, Yi; Rubin, Brian G; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Lalush, David S; An, Hongyu

    2015-05-15

    MR-based correction for photon attenuation in PET/MRI remains challenging, particularly for neurological applications requiring quantitation of data. Existing methods are either not sufficiently accurate or are limited by the computation time required. The goal of this study was to develop an MR-based attenuation correction method that accurately separates bone tissue from air and provides continuous-valued attenuation coefficients for bone. PET/MRI and CT datasets were obtained from 98 subjects (mean age [±SD]: 66yrs [±9.8], 57 females) using an IRB-approved protocol and with informed consent. Subjects were injected with 352±29MBq of (18)F-Florbetapir tracer, and PET acquisitions were begun either immediately or 50min after injection. CT images of the head were acquired separately using a PET/CT system. Dual echo ultrashort echo-time (UTE) images and two-point Dixon images were acquired. Regions of air were segmented via a threshold of the voxel-wise multiplicative inverse of the UTE echo 1 image. Regions of bone were segmented via a threshold of the R2* image computed from the UTE echo 1 and UTE echo 2 images. Regions of fat and soft tissue were segmented using fat and water images decomposed from the Dixon images. Air, fat, and soft tissue were assigned linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) of 0, 0.092, and 0.1cm(-1), respectively. LACs for bone were derived from a regression analysis between corresponding R2* and CT values. PET images were reconstructed using the gold standard CT method and the proposed CAR-RiDR method. The RiDR segmentation method produces mean Dice coefficient±SD across subjects of 0.75±0.05 for bone and 0.60±0.08 for air. The CAR model for bone LACs greatly improves accuracy in estimating CT values (28.2%±3.0 mean error) compared to the use of a constant CT value (46.9%±5.8, p<10(-6)). Finally, the CAR-RiDR method provides a low whole-brain mean absolute percent-error (MAPE±SD) in PET reconstructions across subjects of 2.55%±0

  17. Reference value of induced sputum cell counts and its relationship with age in healthy adults in Guangzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Chen, Qiaoli; Chen, Ruchong; Xie, Yanqing; Wang, Hui; Lai, Kefang

    2017-05-02

    To establish the reference value of total and differential cell counts in induced sputum in healthy adults in Guangzhou, and to explore the relationship of age and gender with sputum cell counts. A total of 185 healthy, nonatopic, never-smokers between 19 and 74 years old underwent induced sputum test with hypertonic saline (3%) inhalation. Sputum samples were collected for total and differential cell counts. Qualified sputum samples were obtained from 153 subjects (mean age: 43 ± 17) with a success rate of 82.7% (153/185). The mean Standard Deviation (STDEV) and 2.5% to 97.5% percentile total cell counts were 2.1 × 106/g (1.0), (.7-4.5 × 106/g). The mean STDEV and 2.5% to 97.5% percentile differential cell counts were as follows: neutrophil 38.3% (17.7), (8.9%-72.9%); macrophage 58.9% (17.7), (24.7%-90.0%); eosinophils: median, .3%; interquartile range (IQR), 1.1%; and .0% to 95.0% percentile, .0% to 2.0%; and lymphocytes: median, 1.0%; IQR, 1.8%; and .0% to 95.0% percentile, .0% to 4.5%. There was positive correlation of age with the percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil (r = .659, r = .402; P < .001). The percentage of neutrophil, macrophage and eosinophil were significantly different among different age groups. The total cell counts and sputum cell counts were comparable between males and females. This study initially establishes reference value of induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults in Guangzhou, Southern China, and it verifies that neutrophilic and eosinophilic counts increase by age. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An evidence-based approach to the creation of normative data: base rates of impaired scores within a brief neuropsychological battery argue for age corrections, but against corrections for medical conditions.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan E; Tuokko, Holly; Voll, Stacey; Simard, Martine; Griffith, Lauren E; Taler, Vanessa; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan; Raina, Parminder

    We detail a new approach to the creation of normative data for neuropsychological tests. The traditional approach to normative data creation is to make demographic adjustments based on observations of correlations between single neuropsychological tests and selected demographic variables. We argue, however, that this does not describe the implications for clinical practice, such as increased likelihood of misclassification of cognitive impairment, nor does it elucidate the impact on decision-making with a neuropsychological battery. We propose base rate analyses; specifically, differential base rates of impaired scores between theoretical and actual base rates as the basis for decisions to create demographic adjustments within normative data. Differential base rates empirically describe the potential clinical implications of failing to create an appropriate normative group. We demonstrate this approach with data from a short telephone-administered neuropsychological battery given to a large, neurologically healthy sample aged 45-85 years old. We explored whether adjustments for age and medical conditions were warranted based on differential base rates of spuriously impaired scores. Theoretical base rates underestimated the frequency of impaired scores in older adults and overestimated the frequency of impaired scores in younger adults, providing an evidence base for the creation of age-corrected normative data. In contrast, the number of medical conditions (numerous cardiovascular, hormonal, and metabolic conditions) was not related to differential base rates of impaired scores. Despite a small correlation between number of medical conditions and each neuropsychological variable, normative adjustments for number of medical conditions does not appear warranted. Implications for creation of normative data are discussed.

  19. THE BURDEN OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: A VALUE-BASED MEDICINE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Sharma, Sanjay; Stein, Joshua D; Roth, Zachary; Campanella, Joseph; Beauchamp, George R

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To assess the quality-of-life loss and the macroeconomic financial consequences associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods Time tradeoff utility analysis was performed to assess the quality-of-life diminution caused by ARMD (both dry and neovascular) in cohorts consisting of (1) patients with ARMD, (2) ophthalmologists asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD, (3) healthcare providers asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD, and (4) participants from the general community asked to assume they had various degrees of severity of ARMD. ARMD was classified according to vision in the better-seeing eye as (1) mild: 20/20 to 20/40, (2) moderate: 20/50 to 20/100, (3) severe: ≤ 20/200, or (4) very severe: ≤ 20/800. Results Mild ARMD caused a 17% decrement in the quality of life of the average patient, similar to that encountered with moderate cardiac angina or symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus syndrome. Moderate ARMD caused a 32% decrease in the average patient’s quality of life, similar to that associated with severe cardiac angina or a fractured hip. Severe ARMD caused a 53% decrease in quality, more than that of dialysis, and very severe ARMD caused a 60% decrease in the average ARMD patient’s quality of life, similar to that encountered with end-stage prostate cancer or a catastrophic stroke that leaves a person bedridden, incontinent, and requiring constant nursing care. Patients with varying degrees of severity of ARMD were found to have quality-of-life impairment ranging from 96% to 750% greater than that estimated by treating ophthalmologists for the same condition. An economic analysis based upon losses to the gross domestic product suggests that ARMD has approximately a $30 billion annual negative impact. The return on investment is therefore potentially high for both treatment with current ARMD therapies and the research costs invested in the development of new ARMD treatment

  20. WAIS-IV reliable digit span is no more accurate than age corrected scaled score as an indicator of invalid performance in a veteran sample undergoing evaluation for mTBI.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert J; Axelrod, Bradley N; Drag, Lauren L; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Pangilinan, Percival H; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2013-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a measure of effort derived from the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler intelligence scales. Some authors have suggested that the age-corrected scaled score provides a more accurate measure of effort than RDS. This study examined the relative diagnostic accuracy of the traditional RDS, an extended RDS including the new Sequencing task from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and the age-corrected scaled score, relative to performance validity as determined by the Test of Memory Malingering. Data were collected from 138 Veterans seen in a traumatic brain injury clinic. The traditional RDS (≤ 7), revised RDS (≤ 11), and Digit Span age-corrected scaled score ( ≤ 6) had respective sensitivities of 39%, 39%, and 33%, and respective specificities of 82%, 89%, and 91%. Of these indices, revised RDS and the Digit Span age-corrected scaled score provide the most accurate measure of performance validity among the three measures.

  1. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    PubMed

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  2. [Efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells intracerebral transplantation for the correction of age-related cerebral microcirculation alterations in rats].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, I B; Fedotova, O R; Gilerovich, E G; Sergeev, I V; Anisimov, S V; Puzanov, M V; Dvoretskiĭ, D P

    2014-01-01

    Using a television-based vital microscopy method and immunohystochemical analysis, we have assessed the effect of intracerebral transplantation of syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on the brain cortex structure and the microcirculation in the pia mater of old rats. Using "open field" system, we have studied the effect of MSC transplantation on position-finding and discovery behavior of older animals. We have found that density of microvascular network of the pia mater increased ca. 1.9-fold in MSC recipients, compared to age-matched intact animals. Density of the arteriolar area of microvascular network of the pia mater increased ca. 2-fold. Reactivity of the newly formed arterioles was nearly equal to that of native microvessels. Intracerebral transplantation procedure itself was traumatic for brain cortex of rats, but it had no effect on the microcirculation in the contralateral hemisphere. Intracerebral transplantation of MSC did not improve locomotor behavi- or and emotional stage of old rats, did not increase their position-finding and discovery activity.

  3. Impact of age and serum creatinine value on outcome after autologous blood stem cell transplantation for patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gertz, M A; Lacy, M Q; Dispenzieri, A; Hayman, S R; Kumar, S; Leung, N; Gastineau, D A

    2007-05-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation (SCT) is feasible for elderly patients and patients with renal insufficiency. However, the impact of treatment on this patient population is unclear. We evaluated 678 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma who underwent SCT at Mayo Clinic. The complete response rate, time to progression and overall survival was recorded. Patients were stratified according to age (< or =65 or >65 years) and serum creatinine value at the time of transplantation (< or =2 or >2 mg/dl). Patient age did not have an effect on any outcome measure. Creatinine level did not affect complete response rate and time to progression, but patients with creatinine levels above 2 mg/ml had a higher day-100 mortality rate and a shorter overall survival rate. Platelet engraftment was also significantly delayed for patients with renal insufficiency. Selected patients over age 65 years may have outcomes identical to that of younger patients. When compared with patients with creatinine levels less than 2 mg/ml, patients with elevated creatinine levels had similar response rates and time to progression, but their overall survival was inferior. Transplantation should be offered to selected patients over age 65 years or selected patients with creatinine elevation.

  4. Effects of aging on [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and QSM MRI values in the subcortex.

    PubMed

    Keuken, M C; Bazin, P-L; Backhouse, K; Beekhuizen, S; Himmer, L; Kandola, A; Lafeber, J J; Prochazkova, L; Trutti, A; Schäfer, A; Turner, R; Forstmann, B U

    2017-02-06

    The aging brain undergoes several anatomical changes that can be measured with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Early studies using lower field strengths have assessed changes in tissue properties mainly qualitatively, using [Formula: see text]- or [Formula: see text]- weighted images to provide image contrast. With the development of higher field strengths (7 T and above) and more advanced MRI contrasts, quantitative measures can be acquired even of small subcortical structures. This study investigates volumetric, spatial, and quantitative MRI parameter changes associated with healthy aging in a range of subcortical nuclei, including the basal ganglia, red nucleus, and the periaqueductal grey. The results show that aging has a heterogenous effects across regions. Across the subcortical areas an increase of [Formula: see text] values is observed, most likely indicating a loss of myelin. Only for a number of areas, a decrease of [Formula: see text] and increase of QSM is found, indicating an increase of iron. Aging also results in a location shift for a number of structures indicating the need for visualization of the anatomy of individual brains.

  5. A comprehensive analysis of cardiac valve plane displacement in healthy adults: age-stratified normal values by cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Marco M; Fritz, Thomas; André, Florian; Riffel, Johannes; Mereles, Derliz; Müller-Hennessen, Matthias; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A; Friedrich, Matthias G; Buss, Sebastian J

    2017-01-21

    Cardiac valve plane displacement (CVPD) reflects longitudinal LV function. The purpose of the present study was to determine regional heterogeneity of CVPD in healthy adults to provide normal values by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We measured the anterior aortic plane systolic excursion (AAPSE); the anterior, anterolateral, inferolateral, inferior, and inferoseptal mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE); and the lateral tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Systolic excursion was measured as the distance from peak end-diastolic to peak end-sysstolic annular position (peak-to-peak) in cine images acquired in 2-, 3- and 4-chamber views. Echocardiographic measurements of CVPD were performed in M-Mode as previously described. We retrospectively analyzed 209 healthy Caucasians (57% men), who participated in the Heidelberg normal cohort between March 2009 and September 2014. The analysis was possible in all participants. Mean values were: AAPSE = 14 ± 3 mm (8-20); MAPSEanterior = 14 ± 3 mm (8-20); MAPSEanterolateral = 16 ± 3 mm (10-22); MAPSEinferolateral = 16 ± 3 mm (10-22); MAPSEinferior = 17 ± 3 mm (11-23); MAPSEinferoseptal = 13 ± 3 mm (7-19) and TAPSE = 26 ± 4 mm (18-34) respectively. MAPSE was significantly elevated in lateral compared to septal regions (p = 0.0001). Sex-differences for CVPD were not found. Age-dependency of CVPD revealed distinct regional differences. AAPSE decreased the most with age (B=-0.48; p = 0.0001), whereas MAPSEinferior was the least age-dependent site (B=-0.17; p = 0.01). AAPSE revealed favorable intra-/interobserver reproducibility and interstudy agreement. Intermethod-comparison of CMR and M-Mode echocardiography showed good agreement between both measurements of CVPD. Age-stratified normal values of regional CVPD are provided. AAPSE revealed the most pronounced age-related decrease and provided favorable reproducibility

  6. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won

    2015-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:26339172

  7. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  8. Cortisol Levels in Relation to Maternal Interaction and Child Internalizing Behavior in Preterm and Full-Term Children at 18 Months Corrected Age

    PubMed Central

    Brummelte, Susanne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Weinberg, Joanne; Nordstokke, David; Cepeda, Ivan L.

    2011-01-01

    Cortisol levels were compared in children born preterm at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; 24–28 weeks), very low gestational age (VLGA; 29–32 weeks), and full-term in response to cognitive assessment at 18 months corrected age (CA). Further, we investigated the relationship between maternal interactive behaviors and child internalizing behaviors (rated by the mother) in relation to child cortisol levels. ELGA children had higher “pretest” cortisol levels and a different pattern of cortisol response to cognitive assessment compared to VLGA and full-terms. Higher cortisol levels in ELGA, but not full-term, children were associated with less optimal mother interactive behavior. Moreover, the pattern of cortisol change was related to internalizing behaviors among ELGA, and to a lesser degree VLGA children. In conclusion, our findings suggest altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in preterm children, as well as their greater sensitivity to environmental context such as maternal interactive behavior. PMID:21298633

  9. Depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants are decreased at 4 months corrected age with Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Preterm delivery can precipitate maternal psychological morbidities. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) was designed to minimize these by facilitating the emotional connection between mother and infant, beginning early in the infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. We examined depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants at 4 months infant corrected age (CA). One hundred fifteen mothers who delivered between 26 and 34 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive standard care (SC) or standard care plus FNI. Mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: CES-D) and state anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) symptoms were assessed at enrollment, near to term age, and 4 months (CA). At 4 months CA, mean CES-D and STAI scores were significantly lower in FNI mothers compared to SC mothers. Effectiveness of FNI can only be evaluated as an integrated intervention strategy as it was not possible to control all aspects of FNI activities. Although there was considerable loss to follow-up, analyses suggest that resulting biases could have masked rather than inflated the measured effect size for depressive symptoms. FNI may be a feasible and practicable way to diminish the impact of premature delivery on maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  10. Customized versus population-based growth curves: prediction of low body fat percent at term corrected gestational age following preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Law, Tameeka L; Katikaneni, Lakshmi D; Taylor, Sarah N; Korte, Jeffrey E; Ebeling, Myla D; Wagner, Carol L; Newman, Roger B

    2012-07-01

    Compare customized versus population-based growth curves for identification of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and body fat percent (BF%) among preterm infants. Prospective cohort study of 204 preterm infants classified as SGA or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) by population-based and customized growth curves. BF% was determined by air-displacement plethysmography. Differences between groups were compared using bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Customized curves reclassified 30% of the preterm infants as SGA. SGA infants identified by customized method only had significantly lower BF% (13.8 ± 6.0) than the AGA (16.2 ± 6.3, p = 0.02) infants and similar to the SGA infants classified by both methods (14.6 ± 6.7, p = 0.51). Customized growth curves were a significant predictor of BF% (p = 0.02), whereas population-based growth curves were not a significant independent predictor of BF% (p = 0.50) at term corrected gestational age. Customized growth potential improves the differentiation of SGA infants and low BF% compared with a standard population-based growth curve among a cohort of preterm infants.

  11. The effect of ageing on fMRI: Correction for the confounding effects of vascular reactivity evaluated by joint fMRI and MEG in 335 adults.

    PubMed

    Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Henson, Richard N A; Tyler, Lorraine K; Davis, Simon W; Shafto, Meredith A; Taylor, Jason R; Williams, Nitin; Cam-Can; Rowe, James B

    2015-06-01

    -based activation studies with fMRI do not survive correction for changes in vascular reactivity, and are likely to have been overestimated in previous fMRI studies of ageing. The results from the mediation analysis demonstrate that RSFA is modulated by measures of vascular function and is not driven solely by changes in the variance of neural activity. Based on these findings we propose that the RSFA scaling method is articularly useful in large scale and longitudinal neuroimaging studies of ageing, or with frail participants, where alternative measures of vascular reactivity are impractical.

  12. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants <2000 g from a geographically defined area were randomized to an intervention (71) or a control group (69), and compared with term infants (74). The intervention was a modified version of the "Mother-Infant Transaction Program". Regulatory competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.

  13. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  14. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    PubMed

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  15. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the “normal” metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the “normal” metabolome and its main sources of variation. PMID:28278231

  16. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Schmutz, Joel A

    2009-06-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  17. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Association with Indometacin Therapy and Effects on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 18-22 months Corrected Age

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R.; Saha, Shampa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is associated with the use of postnatal glucocorticoids and indometacin in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. We hypothesized: 1) an association of SIP with the use of antenatal steroids (ANS) and indometacin either as prophylaxis for IVH (P Indo) or for treatment of PDA (Indo/PDA) and 2) an increased risk of death or abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with SIP at 18-22 months corrected age. Design/Methods We retrospectively identified ELBW infants with SIP in the Neonatal Research Network’s generic database. Unadjusted analysis identified the differences in maternal, neonatal and clinical variables between infants with and without SIP. Logistic regression analysis identified the adjusted odds ratio for SIP with reference to ANS, P Indo and Indo/PDA. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed among survivors at 18 to 22 months corrected age. Results Indo/PDA was associated with an increased risk of SIP (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.25,2.08), while P Indo and ANS were not. SIP was independently associated with an increased risk of death or NDI (adjusted OR−1.85; 95% CI 1.32,2.60) and NDI among survivors (adjusted OR−1.75, 95% CI 1.20,2.55). Conclusion Indometacin used for IVH prophylaxis and ANS were not associated with the occurrence of SIP in ELBW infants. Indometacin used for treatment of symptomatic PDA was however associated with an increased risk of SIP. ELBW infants with SIP have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:22684157

  18. Values for bony acetabular roof angle and percentage femoral head cover in a selective ultrasound neonatal hip-screening programme: effect of age, sex and side.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, A Graham; Wilkinson, Sally; Elton, Robert A

    2017-02-22

    Published maturation curves for bony acetabular roof or α angle (AA) and percentage femoral head cover (FHC) with age are sparse. We aimed to determine typical values for AA and FHC in 2236 infants referred to a selective ultrasound screening programme. There was increase in the values of first measurement of AA and FHC related to the logarithm of age. Males had greater values than females (P<0.001) and right hips had greater values than left (P<0.001) for both measurements. Significant side differences have not been reported previously. Treatment decisions should be made on the basis of sex, side and age-specific data.

  19. Buckle up safely (shoalhaven): a process and impact evaluation of a pragmatic, multifaceted preschool-based pilot program to increase correct use of age-appropriate child restraints.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Kate; Keay, Lisa; Clapham, Kathleen; Lyford, Marilyn; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a process and impact evaluation of a multifaceted education-based pilot program targeting correct use of age-appropriate restraints in a regional setting with a high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families. The program was delivered in 2010 in 3 early learning centers where 31 percent of the children were of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent. Each component of the program was assessed for message consistency and uptake. To measure program effectiveness, participating children were matched 1:1 by age, language spoken at home, and annual household income with 71 children from the control arm of a contemporaneous trial. The outcome measure in the control and program centers (a 4-category ordinal scale of restraint use) was compared using ordinal logistic regression accounting for age of the parent. Process evaluation found that though program components were delivered with a consistency of message, uptake was affected by turnover of all staff at one center and by parents experiencing difficulty in paying for subsidized restraints at each of the centers. Impact evaluation found that children from the centers receiving the program had nearly twice the odds of being in a better restraint category than children matched from the control group (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] = 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.90). This was a pragmatic study reflecting the real-life issues of implementing a program in preschools where 57 percent of families had a low income and turnover of staff was high. Despite these issues, impact evaluation showed that the integrated educational program showed promise in increasing correct use of age-appropriate restraints. The findings from this pilot study support the use of an integrated educational program that includes access to subsidized restraints to promote best practice child restraint use among communities that include a high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families in New

  20. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis.

    PubMed

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Frink, Michael; Jostmeier, Janine; Haneder, Stefan; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA), possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips). Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips) was 54.32 years (18-100, SD 22.05 years). The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°-147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3-31°; SD 4.4°); the correlation was high (0.738; p < 0.001). Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated.

  1. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jostmeier, Janine; Haneder, Stefan; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA), possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips). Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips) was 54.32 years (18–100, SD 22.05 years). The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°–147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3–31°; SD 4.4°); the correlation was high (0.738; p < 0.001). Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated. PMID:28070521

  2. The effect of ageing on fMRI: Correction for the confounding effects of vascular reactivity evaluated by joint fMRI and MEG in 335 adults

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N. A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Davis, Simon W.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Taylor, Jason R.; Williams, Nitin; Cam‐CAN; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    of age on task‐based activation studies with fMRI do not survive correction for changes in vascular reactivity, and are likely to have been overestimated in previous fMRI studies of ageing. The results from the mediation analysis demonstrate that RSFA is modulated by measures of vascular function and is not driven solely by changes in the variance of neural activity. Based on these findings we propose that the RSFA scaling method is articularly useful in large scale and longitudinal neuroimaging studies of ageing, or with frail participants, where alternative measures of vascular reactivity are impractical. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2248–2269, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25727740

  3. Bayesian Inference for Time Trends in Parameter Values: Case Study for the Ageing PSA Network of the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Albert Malkhasyan

    2010-06-01

    There is a nearly ubiquitous assumption in PSA that parameter values are at least piecewise-constant in time. As a result, Bayesian inference tends to incorporate many years of plant operation, over which there have been significant changes in plant operational and maintenance practices, plant management, etc. These changes can cause significant changes in parameter values over time; however, failure to perform Bayesian inference in the proper time-dependent framework can mask these changes. Failure to question the assumption of constant parameter values, and failure to perform Bayesian inference in the proper time-dependent framework were noted as important issues in NUREG/CR-6813, performed for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in 2003. That report noted that “industry lacks tools to perform time-trend analysis with Bayesian updating.” This paper describes an application of time-dependent Bayesian inference methods developed for the European Commission Ageing PSA Network. These methods utilize open-source software, implementing Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The paper also illustrates the development of a generic prior distribution, which incorporates multiple sources of generic data via weighting factors that address differences in key influences, such as vendor, component boundaries, conditions of the operating environment, etc.

  4. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery wall thickening with age in healthy subjects using high resolution MRI with beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction.

    PubMed

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Firmin, David N

    2011-10-01

    To demonstrate coronary artery wall thickening with age in a small healthy cohort using a highly efficient, reliable, and reproducible high-resolution MR technique. A 3D cross-sectional MR vessel wall images (0.7 × 0.7 × 3 mm resolution) with retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) were obtained in the proximal right coronary artery of 21 healthy subjects (age, 22-62 years) with no known cardiovascular disease. Lumen and outer wall (lumen + vessel wall) areas were measured in one central slice from each subject and average wall thickness and wall area/outer wall area ratio (W/OW) calculated. Imaging was successful in 18 (86%) subjects with average respiratory efficiency 99.3 ± 1.7%. Coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW significantly correlate with subject age, increasing by 0.088 mm and 0.031 per decade respectively (R = 0.53, P = 0.024 and R = 0.48, P = 0.046). No relationship was found between lumen area and vessel wall thickness (P = NS), but outer wall area increased significantly with vessel wall thickness at 19 mm(2) per mm (P = 0.046). This is consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Despite the small size of our healthy cohort, using high-resolution MR imaging and B2B-RMC, we have demonstrated increasing coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW with age. The results obtained are consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Diagnostic and prognostic value of Doppler echocardiographic coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending artery in hypertensive and normotensive patients [corrected]..

    PubMed

    Cortigiani, Lauro; Rigo, Fausto; Galderisi, Maurizio; Gherardi, Sonia; Bovenzi, Francesco; Picano, Eugenio; Sicari, Rosa

    2011-11-01

    Vasodilator stress echocardiography allows dual imaging of regional wall motion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) on left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Hypertension may affect CFR independently of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) through coronary microcirculatory damage. The authors sought to determine the best value of Doppler-echocardiography-derived coronary flow reserve (CFR) for detecting ≥75% stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and assessing the risk in patients with and without hypertension. Participants The study group was formed by 2089 patients (1411 hypertensive patients and 678 normotensive patients) with known or suspected coronary artery disease who underwent dipyridamole (up to 0.84 mg/kg over 6 min) stress echo with CFR assessment of LAD by Doppler and coronary angiography. Mean CFR was 2.20±0.62 in hypertensive patients and 2.36±0.70 in normotensive patients (p<0.0001). A significant LAD stenosis was present in 376 (18%) cases. With a receiver operating characteristic analysis, a CFR ≤1.91 was the best value for diagnosing LAD stenosis in both hypertensive patients (area under curve 0.86 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.88), sensitivity 87% (95% CI 82% to 91%), specificity 76% (95% CI 73% to 78%)) and normotensive patients (area under curve 0.90 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.92), sensitivity 89% (95% CI 81% to 95%), specificity 80% (95% CI 77% to 83%)). During a median follow-up of 15 months, there were 348 events (58 deaths, 79 ST elevation myocardial infarctions and 211 non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions). Multivariable prognostic indicators were age (HR=1.0; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.04), test positivity for wall motion criteria (HR=5.9; 95% CI 3.6 to 9.6) and CFR on LAD ≤1.91 (HR=3.4; CI 95% 2.0 to 5.6) in normotensive patients and previous myocardial infarction (HR=1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7), test positivity for wall motion criteria (HR=5.0; 95% CI 3.8 to 6.6) and CFR on LAD ≤1.91 (HR=3.1; CI 95% 2.4 to 4.1) in hypertensive patients. CFR

  6. Age-related associative memory deficits in value-based remembering: The contribution of agenda-based regulation and strategy use.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Robert; Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Value-based remembering in free-recall tasks may be spared from the typical age-related cognitive decline observed for episodic memory. However, it is unclear whether value-based remembering for associative information is also spared from age-related cognitive decline. The current experiments evaluated the contribution of agenda-based based regulation and strategy use during study to age differences and similarities in value-based remembering of associative information. Participants studied word pairs (Experiments 1-2) or single words (Experiment 2) slated with different point values by moving a mouse controlled cursor to different spatial locations to reveal either items for study or the point value associated with remembering each item. Some participants also provided strategy reports for each item. Younger and older adults allocated greater time to studying high- than low-valued information, reported using normatively effective encoding strategies to learn high-valued pairs, and avoided study of low-valued pairs. As a consequence, both age groups selectively remembered more high- than low-valued items. Despite nearly identical regulatory behavior, an associative memory deficit for older adults was present for high-valued pairs. Age differences in value-based remembering did not occur when the materials were word lists. Fluid intelligence also moderated the effectiveness of older adults' strategy use for high-valued pairs (Experiment 2). These results suggest that age differences in associative value-based remembering may be due to some older adults' gleaning less benefit from using normatively effective encoding strategies rather than age differences in metacognitive self-regulation per se.

  7. Age-related Associative Memory Deficits in Value-based Remembering: The Contribution of Agenda-based Regulation and Strategy Use

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Robert; Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Value-based remembering in free recall tasks may be spared from the typical age-related cognitive decline observed for episodic memory. However, it is unclear whether value-based remembering for associative information is also spared from age-related cognitive decline. The current experiments evaluated the contribution of agenda-based based regulation and strategy use during study to age differences and similarities in value-based remembering of associative information. Participants studied word pairs (Experiments 1-2) or single words (Experiment 2) slated with different point values by moving a mouse controlled cursor to different spatial locations to reveal either items for study or the point value associated with remembering each item. Some participants also provided strategy reports for each item. Younger and older adults allocated greater time to studying high than low valued information, reported using normatively effective encoding strategies to learn high-valued pairs, and avoided study of low-valued pairs. As a consequence, both age groups selectively remembered more high than low-valued items. Despite nearly identical regulatory behavior, an associative memory deficit for older adults was present for high valued pairs. Age differences in value-based remembering did not occur when the materials were word lists. Fluid intelligence also moderated the effectiveness of older adults’ strategy use for high valued pairs (Experiment 2). These results suggest that age differences in associative value-based remembering may be due to some older adults’ gleaning less benefit from using normatively effective encoding strategies rather than age differences in metacognitive self-regulation per se. PMID:26523692

  8. Post-traumatic segmental corpus cavernosum fibrosis: the diagnostic value of cavernosography and the surgical correction by cavernosum-cavernosum shunt.

    PubMed

    Abrahamy, R; Leiter, E

    1980-02-01

    A case is reported of post-traumatic segmental corpus cavernosum fibrosis with subsequent loss of erection. Evaluation of such problems with cavernosography is essential. Surgical correction included resection of the fibrotic segment and a cavernosum-cavernosum shunt, which resulted in good erections.

  9. DemTect, PANDA, EASY, and MUSIC: cognitive screening tools with age correction and weighting of subtests according to their sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, Elke; Calabrese, Pasquale; Fengler, Sophie; Kessler, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Many cognitive screening instruments have been developed during the last decades to detect mild cognitive dysfunction and dementia, and there is an ongoing discussion as to which tool should be used in which setting and which challenges have to be considered. Among other aspects, dependence on age is a recognized problem in screening tools which still has not found its way into common scoring procedures. Another aspect which has been handled very heterogeneously is which domain is represented in which proportion in the total score. Furthermore, screening ethnic minority patients has been identified as an important but so far widely unresolved matter. In this review, four cognitive screening tools that all follow a common, stringent concept and pay regard to some critical aspects are described: the DemTect, a "generic" tool; the PANDA for Parkinson's disease patients; the EASY, a non-verbal, culture-fair screening test for patients with migration background; and the MUSIC for patients with multiple sclerosis. All of these screening instruments have an age-correction, provide a total score in which the different subtests are weighted according to their individual sensitivity and specificity, and include tasks that are specifically aligned to the cognitive profile of the target group, including the EASY with non-verbal, culture-fair tasks to overcome language and cultural barriers. The development, main characteristics, data, and limitations of these tools are presented and discussed against the background of the current landscape of cognitive screening tools.

  10. [Assessment of 2 portable peak expiratory flow meters and reference values for students 6 to 16 years of age].

    PubMed

    Cobos Barroso, N; Reverté Bover, C; Liñán Cortés, S

    1996-12-01

    This study examines the technical characteristics of two different peak expiratory flow meters, of high range, and the reference values of peak expiratory flow (PEF) for schoolchildren. The gauge accuracy and precision were previously determined in 20 units of each model (PF-Control and Mini-Wright), with a syringe servocontrolled by simulating 4 predetermined PEF fluxes (125, 262, 424 and 587 L/min). Relatives were asked about passive smoking and the childhood background concerning asthma, recurrent bronchitis or recent respiratory infection. The PEF of 1,142 schoolchildren, 669 boys and 473 girls between 6 and 16 years of age and coming from 6 different locations of different demographic and social characteristic of Catalonia, Spain, were measured. Readings of both gauges differed in accuracy, although they presented a good intradevice precision. The PF-control is within the reliance intervals for fluxes of 425 and 587 L/min, with a suprareading of 15.3% for the 262 L/min and infrareading of 19.2% for the 125 L/min controls. Flux with the Mini-Wright shows systematic over-reading of between 17.9% and 30.2%, with an accurate reading only in the 587 L/min control flux. No significant correlation was found between the PEF and family passive smoking (56.3%), pupils with asthma background (7.1%), recurrent bronchitis (11%) or recent respiratory infection (7.7%). The accuracy difference forces the use of diverse percentile tables for each of the PEF gauge patterns; hence, we present the reference tables for each gauge, in means of 10, 50 and 90 percentiles, which can be used as reference values for our school population according to their age, size and sex.

  11. Need for Supplemental Oxygen at Discharge in Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Is Not Associated with Worse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 3 Years Corrected Age

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Abhay; Sauvé, Reg; Bhandari, Vineet; Tang, Selphee; Christianson, Heather; Bhandari, Anita; Amin, Harish; Singhal, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if chronic oxygen dependency (discharge home on supplemental oxygen) in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; defined as requirement for supplemental O2 at 36 weeks postmenstrual age) predicts neurodevelopmental disability rates and growth outcomes at 36 months corrected age (CA). Study Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Southern Alberta regional center located at high altitude. Participants Preterm infants weighing ≤1250 grams with no BPD, BPD, and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency. Main outcome measures Neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes. Results Of 1563 preterm infants admitted from 1995–2007, 1212 survived. Complete follow-up data were available for 1030 (85%) children. Children in BPD and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency groups had significantly lower birth weights, gestational ages, prolonged mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation and received more postnatal steroids, compared to those without BPD. Children with BPD and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency were more likely to be below the 5th centile in weight and height compared to those without BPD but there was little difference between the BPD and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency groups. After controlling for confounding variables, children who had BPD and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency had higher odds of neurodevelopmental disability compared to those without BPD [OR (odds ratio) 1.9 (95%CI 1.1 to 3.5) and OR 1.8 (1.1 to 2.9), respectively], with no significant difference between BPD and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency [OR 0.9 (95% CI 0.6 to 1.5)]. Conclusions BPD and BPD with chronic oxygen dependency in children predicts abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months CA. However, the neurodevelopmental disability rates were not significantly higher in BPD with chronic oxygen dependency children compared to children with BPD only. Compared to those without BPD, growth is impaired in children with BPD and BPD with chronic oxygen

  12. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (< 1,500 g) with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) develop lung damage caused by mechanical ventilation and maturational arrest. We compared functional lung development after discharge from hospital between VLBW infants with and without BPD. Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]). Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks), birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g), and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%), differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth), maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC), or blood gas (pO2, pCO2) levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways) were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems. PMID

  13. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  14. Value of information: interim analysis of a randomized, controlled trial of goal-directed hemodynamic treatment for aged patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A randomized, controlled trial, intended to include 460 patients, is currently studying peroperative goal-directed hemodynamic treatment (GDHT) of aged hip-fracture patients. Interim efficacy analysis performed on the first 100 patients was statistically uncertain; thus, the trial is continuing in accordance with the trial protocol. This raised the present investigation’s main question: Is it reasonable to continue to fund the trial to decrease uncertainty? To answer this question, a previously developed probabilistic cost-effectiveness model was used. That model depicts (1) a choice between routine fluid treatment and GDHT, given uncertainty of current evidence and (2) the monetary value of further data collection to decrease uncertainty. This monetary value, that is, the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), could be used to compare future research costs. Thus, the primary aim of the present investigation was to analyze EVPI of an ongoing trial with interim efficacy observed. Methods A previously developed probabilistic decision analytic cost-effectiveness model was employed to compare the routine fluid treatment to GDHT. Results from the interim analysis, published trials, the meta-analysis, and the registry data were used as model inputs. EVPI was predicted using (1) combined uncertainty of model inputs; (2) threshold value of society’s willingness to pay for one, quality-adjusted life-year; and (3) estimated number of future patients exposed to choice between GDHT and routine fluid treatment during the expected lifetime of GDHT. Results If a decision to use GDHT were based on cost-effectiveness, then the decision would have a substantial degree of uncertainty. Assuming a 5-year lifetime of GDHT in clinical practice, the number of patients who would be subject to future decisions was 30,400. EVPI per patient would be €204 at a €20,000 threshold value of society’s willingness to pay for one quality-adjusted life-year. Given a future

  15. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. Value of conventional pap smear, liquid-based cytology, visual inspection and human papillomavirus testing as optional screening tools among latin american women <35 and > or =35 years of age: experience from the Latin American Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Kari; Derchain, Sophie; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Hammes, Luciano S; Sarian, Luis

    2008-01-01

    To compare performance of conventional Pap test, liquid based cytology (LBC) and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in 2 subcohorts of women, <35 and > or =35 years of age. Performance indicators were calculated using colposcopic biopsies as the gold standard; all results were corrected for verification bias using maximum likelihood. Both conventional Pap test n d Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay performed significantly better among older women than younger; no difference was observed in performance of LBC and VIA, both inferior to Pap and HC2. The Pap test was more specific than HC2 in both subcohorts; HC2 had the highest sensitivity. For individual tests, the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was obtained for HC2 assay corrected for verification bias in the older women's subcohort; this was further improved by the combined use of the Pap test and HC2. Age of the target population is an important determinant of the performance of different screening tests. The choice of optimal test for women <35 and > or =35 years of age depends on whether the highest positive predictive value (Pap test).

  17. Partial correction of the dwarf phenotype by non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene in mice: Treatment age is critical.

    PubMed

    Higuti, Eliza; Cecchi, Cláudia R; Oliveira, Nélio A J; Lima, Eliana R; Vieira, Daniel P; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Jorge, Alexander A L; Bartolini, Paolo; Peroni, Cibele N

    2016-02-01

    Non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene to different muscles of immunodeficient dwarf (lit/scid) mice is under study with the objective of improving phenotypic correction via this particular gene therapy approach. Plasmid DNA was administered into the exposed quadriceps or non-exposed tibialis cranialis muscle of lit/scid mice followed by electroporation, monitoring several growth parameters. In a 6-month bioassay, 50μg DNA were injected three times into the quadriceps muscle of 80-day old mice. A 50% weight increase, with a catch-up growth of 21%, together with a 16% increase for nose-to-tail and tail lengths (catch-up=19-21%) and a 24-28% increase for femur length (catch-up=53-60%), were obtained. mIGF1 serum levels were ~7-fold higher than the basal levels for untreated mice, but still ~2-fold lower than in non-dwarf scid mice. Since treatment age was found to be particularly important in a second bioassay utilizing 40-day old mice, these pubertal mice were compared in a third bioassay with adult (80-day old) mice, all treated twice with 50μg DNA injected into each tibialis cranialis muscle, via a less invasive approach. mIGF1 concentrations at the same level as co-aged scid mice were obtained 15days after administration in pubertal mice. Catch-up growth, based on femur length (77%), nose-to-tail (36%) and tail length (39%) increases was 40 to 95% higher than those obtained upon treating adult mice. These data pave the way for the development of more effective pre-clinical assays in pubertal dwarf mice for the treatment of GH deficiency via plasmid-DNA muscular administration.

  18. Fortification of bread with iodized salt corrected iodine deficiency in school-aged children, but not in their mothers: a national cross-sectional survey in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Avni, Freddy; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-10-01

    In the years 1985-1998, it was noted that mild iodine deficiency (MID) was a public health problem in Belgium. Therefore, an agreement was signed in 2009 between the bakery sector and the Ministry of Health, to fortify bread with iodized salt. We tested the hypothesis that the iodine status of Belgian children improved after the introduction of bread fortified with iodized salt. Since the dietary habits of children and adults may differ, we also investigated whether the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the children in this study reflected the iodine status of their mothers. The study was cross-sectional. In a van, equipped with an ultrasound device, the thyroid volumes (Tvol) of children were measured and household salt samples and urine samples were collected from the children and their mothers. From across Belgium, 60 schools were selected and 1541 children participated in the study. The median UIC in children was 113.1 and 84.4 μg/L among their mothers. The median UIC among children was substantially greater compared to more than 10 years ago (80 μg/L; p<0.001). The median UIC in school-aged children was lower in Wallonia than in Flanders (p<0.001) and was higher in boys than in girls (p<0.001). The percentage of children with goiter was 7.2%. Of the 904 salt samples received, 63.2% did not contain iodine. Fortification of bread with iodized salt corrected iodine deficiency in Belgian children, but not in their mothers. To provide these women with an adequate iodine intake, the use of both iodized salt in bread and iodized instead of noniodized household salt needs to increase. Our findings suggest that the median UIC in children may not be an adequate surrogate of adults' iodine status. Therefore, monitoring iodine status should not be limited to children, but should be extended to women of child-bearing age.

  19. Effects of lipid and urea extraction on δ15N values of deep-sea sharks and hagfish: Can mathematical correction factors be generated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Diana A.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Dean Grubbs, R.

    2015-05-01

    Stable isotope analysis is broadly employed to investigate diverse ecological questions. In order to make appropriate comparisons among multiple taxa, however, it is necessary to standardize values to account for interspecific differences in factors that affect isotopic ratios. For example, varying concentrations of soluble nitrogen compounds, such as urea or trimethylamine oxide, can affect the analysis and interpretation of δ15N values of sharks or hagfish. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a standard chloroform/methanol extraction on the stable isotope values of muscle tissue obtained from 10 species of sharks and three species of hagfish collected from poorly-known deep-water (>200 m) communities. We detected significant differences in δ15N, %N, and C:N values as a result of extractions in 8 of 10 shark and all three hagfish species. We observed increased δ15N values, but shifts in %N and C:N values were not unidirectional. Mathematical normalizations for δ15N values were successfully created for four shark and two hagfish species. However, they were not successful for two shark species. Therefore, performing extractions of all samples is recommended.

  20. Proposed equations and reference values for calculating bone health in children and adolescent based on age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; de Arruda, Miguel; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background The Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for measuring BMD and bone mineral content (BMC). In general, DXA is ideal for pediatric use. However, the development of specific standards for particular geographic regions limits its use and application for certain socio-cultural contexts. Additionally, the anthropometry may be a low cost and easy to use alternative method in epidemiological contexts. The goal of our study was to develop regression equations for predicting bone health of children and adolescents based on anthropometric indicators to propose reference values based on age and sex. Methods 3020 students (1567 males and 1453 females) ranging in ages 4.0 to 18.9 were studied from the Maule Region (Chile). Anthropometric variables evaluated included: weight, standing height, sitting height, forearm length, and femur diameter. A total body scan (without the head) was conducted by means of the Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) and the bone mineral content (BMC) were also determined. Calcium consumption was controlled for by recording the intake of the three last days prior to the evaluation. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated, and somatic maturation was determined by using the years of peak growth rate (APHV). Results Four regression models were generated to calculate bone health: for males BMD = (R2 = 0.79) and BMC = (R2 = 0.84) and for the females BMD = (R2 = 0.76) and BMC = (R2 = 0.83). Percentiles were developed by using the LMS method (p3, p5, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p95 and p97). Conclusions Regression equations and reference curves were developed to assess the bone health of Chilean children and adolescents. These instruments help identify children with potential underlying problems in bone mineralization during the growth stage and biological maturation. PMID:28759569

  1. Proposed equations and reference values for calculating bone health in children and adolescent based on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Arruda, Miguel de; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for measuring BMD and bone mineral content (BMC). In general, DXA is ideal for pediatric use. However, the development of specific standards for particular geographic regions limits its use and application for certain socio-cultural contexts. Additionally, the anthropometry may be a low cost and easy to use alternative method in epidemiological contexts. The goal of our study was to develop regression equations for predicting bone health of children and adolescents based on anthropometric indicators to propose reference values based on age and sex. 3020 students (1567 males and 1453 females) ranging in ages 4.0 to 18.9 were studied from the Maule Region (Chile). Anthropometric variables evaluated included: weight, standing height, sitting height, forearm length, and femur diameter. A total body scan (without the head) was conducted by means of the Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) and the bone mineral content (BMC) were also determined. Calcium consumption was controlled for by recording the intake of the three last days prior to the evaluation. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated, and somatic maturation was determined by using the years of peak growth rate (APHV). Four regression models were generated to calculate bone health: for males BMD = (R2 = 0.79) and BMC = (R2 = 0.84) and for the females BMD = (R2 = 0.76) and BMC = (R2 = 0.83). Percentiles were developed by using the LMS method (p3, p5, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p95 and p97). Regression equations and reference curves were developed to assess the bone health of Chilean children and adolescents. These instruments help identify children with potential underlying problems in bone mineralization during the growth stage and biological maturation.

  2. Influence of Weight-Age Normalization on Glomerular Filtration Rate Values of Renal Patients: A STROBE-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hongwei, Si; Ying, Qiao; Jianzhong, Liu; Zhifang, Wu; Ling, Gao; Sijin, Li

    2016-01-01

    To explore whether weight-age (W-A) could be applied in clinical practice, this study was designed to verify the normalization ability of W-A by the data from another medical center, and to access the influence of the normalization on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values in renal patients.Both plasma clearance (pGFR) and camera-based (gGFR), which were separately scaled to W-A and body surface area (BSA), were measured for patients with diffuse renal diseases. The patients (n = 298) were stratified according to the Chinese body mass index (BMI) criteria and were staged according to the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiatives guideline based on gGFR and pGFR separately.The indices of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and ratio of residual standard deviation to pooled standard deviation (RSD/PSD) suggested that, for all patients and each BMI stratum, W-A was obviously better than BSA in scaling GFR. Both under pGFR or gGFR renal stages, only small amount of the patients encountered stage migrations from BSA to W-A scaled stages. The differences between any 2 of the unscaled, BSA scaled, and W-A scaled gGFR (or pGFR) were not obviously changed. Additionally, in some strata, W-A normalization is better than BSA normalization in decreasing the median bias between pGFR and gGFR.W-A is better than BSA in scaling GFR without obvious modifying GFR values and can be applied in routine clinical practice.

  3. Understanding speech in noise after correction of congenital unilateral aural atresia: effects of age in the emergence of binaural squelch but not in use of head-shadow.

    PubMed

    Gray, Lincoln; Kesser, Bradley; Cole, Erika

    2009-09-01

    Unilateral hearing loss causes difficulty hearing in noise (the "cocktail party effect") due to absence of redundancy, head-shadow, and binaural squelch. This study explores the emergence of the head-shadow and binaural squelch effects in children with unilateral congenital aural atresia undergoing surgery to correct their hearing deficit. Adding patients and data from a similar study previously published, we also evaluate covariates such as the age of the patient, surgical outcome, and complexity of the task that might predict the extent of binaural benefit--patients' ability to "use" their new ear--when understanding speech in noise. Patients with unilateral congenital aural atresia were tested for their ability to understand speech in noise before and again 1 month after surgery to repair their atresia. In a sound-attenuating booth participants faced a speaker that produced speech signals with noise 90 degrees to the side of the normal (non-atretic) ear and again to the side of the atretic ear. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT for adults or HINT-C for children) was used to estimate the patients' speech reception thresholds. The speech-in-noise test (SPIN) or the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI) Test was used in the previous study. There was consistent improvement, averaging 5dB regardless of age, in the ability to take advantage of head-shadow in understanding speech with noise to the side of the non-atretic (normal) ear. There was, in contrast, a strong negative linear effect of age (r(2)=.78, selecting patients over 8 years) in the emergence of binaural squelch to understand speech with noise to the side of the atretic ear. In patients over 8 years, this trend replicated over different studies and different tests. Children less than 8 years, however, showed less improvement in the HINT-C than in the PSI after surgery with noise toward their atretic ear (effect size=3). No binaural result was correlated with degree of hearing improvement after surgery. All

  4. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: a randomized clinical trial of HOTV optotype acuity at age 4.5 years and clinical findings at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Scott R; Lynn, Michael J; Hartmann, E Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Freedman, Sharon F; Plager, David A; Buckley, Edward G; Wilson, M Edward

    2014-06-01

    The efficacy and safety of primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation during early infancy is unknown. To compare the visual outcomes of patients optically corrected with contact lenses vs IOLs following unilateral cataract surgery during early infancy. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study is a randomized clinical trial with 5 years of follow-up that involved 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataracts at 12 sites. A traveling examiner assessed visual acuity at age 4.5 years. Cataract surgery with or without primary IOL implantation. Contact lenses were used to correct aphakia in patients who did not receive IOLs. Treatment was determined through random assignment. HOTV optotype visual acuity at 4.5 years of age. The median logMAR visual acuity was not significantly different between the treated eyes in the 2 treatment groups (both, 0.90 [20/159]; P = .54). About 50% of treated eyes in both groups had visual acuity less than or equal to 20/200. Significantly more patients in the IOL group had at least 1 adverse event after cataract surgery (contact lens, 56%; IOL, 81%; P = .02). The most common adverse events in the IOL group were lens reproliferation into the visual axis, pupillary membranes, and corectopia. Glaucoma/glaucoma suspect occurred in 35% of treated eyes in the contact lens group vs 28% of eyes in the IOL group (P = .55). Since the initial cataract surgery, significantly more patients in the IOL group have had at least 1 additional intraocular surgery (contact lens, 21%; IOL, 72%; P < .001). There was no significant difference between the median visual acuity of operated eyes in children who underwent primary IOL implantation and those left aphakic. However, there were significantly more adverse events and additional intraoperative procedures in the IOL group. When operating on an infant younger than 7 months of age with a unilateral cataract, we recommend leaving the eye aphakic and focusing the eye with a contact lens. Primary IOL

  5. I-Xe systematics of the impact plume produced chondrules from the CB carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for the half-life value of 129I and absolute age normalization of 129I-129Xe chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Krot, A. N.

    2017-03-01

    It is inferred that magnesian non-porphyritic chondrules in the CB (Bencubbin-type) carbonaceous chondrites formed in an impact generated plume of gas and melt at 4562.49 ± 0.21 Ma (Bollard et al., 2015) and could be suitable for the absolute age normalization of relative chronometers. Here xenon isotopic compositions of neutron irradiated chondrules from the CB chondrites Gujba and Hammadah al Hamra (HH) 237 have been analyzed in an attempt to determine closure time of their I-Xe isotope systematics. One of the HH 237 chondrules, #1, yielded a well-defined I-Xe isochron that corresponds to a closure time of 0.29 ± 0.16 Ma after the Shallowater aubrite standard. Release profiles and diffusion properties of radiogenic 129*Xe and 128*Xe, extracted from this chondrule by step-wise pyrolysis, indicate presence of two iodine host phases with distinct activation energies of 73 and 120 kcal/mol. In spite of the activation energy differences, the I-Xe isotope systematics of these two phases closed simultaneously, suggesting rapid heating and cooling (possibly quenching) of the CB chondrules. The release profiles of U-fission Xe and I-derived Xe correlate in the high temperature host phase supporting simultaneous closure of 129I-129Xe and 207Pb-206Pb systematics. The absolute I-Xe age of Shallowater standard is derived from the observed correlation between I-Xe and Pb-Pb ages in a number of samples. It is re-evaluated here using Pb-Pb ages adjusted for an updated 238U/235U ratio of 137.794 and meteorite specific U-isotope ratios. With the addition of the new data for HH 237 chondrule #1, the re-evaluated absolute I-Xe age of Shallowater is 4562.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The absolute I-Xe age of the HH 237 chondrule #1 is 4562.1 ± 0.3 Ma, in good agreement with U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of the Gujba chondrules (Bollard et al., 2015) and HH 237 silicates (Krot et al., 2005). All I-Xe data used here, and in previous estimates of the absolute age of Shallowater, are calculated using 15.7

  6. N2O source partitioning in soils using (15)N site preference values corrected for the N2O reduction effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Köster, Jan Reent; Cárdenas, Laura M; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Bol, Roland

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of isotope fractionation associated with N2O reduction during soil denitrification on N2O site preference (SP) values and hence quantify the potential bias on SP-based N2O source partitioning. The N2O SP values (n = 431) were derived from six soil incubation studies in N2-free atmosphere, and determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The N2 and N2O concentrations were measured directly by gas chromatography. Net isotope effects (NIE) during N2O reduction to N2 were compensated for using three different approaches: a closed-system model, an open-system model and a dynamic apparent NIE function. The resulting SP values were used for N2O source partitioning based on a two end-member isotopic mass balance. The average SP0 value, i.e. the average SP values of N2O prior to N2O reduction, was recalculated with the closed-system model, resulting in -2.6 ‰ (±9.5), while the open-system model and the dynamic apparent NIE model gave average SP0 values of 2.9 ‰ (±6.3) and 1.7 ‰ (±6.3), respectively. The average source contribution of N2O from nitrification/fungal denitrification was 18.7% (±21.0) according to the closed-system model, while the open-system model and the dynamic apparent NIE function resulted in values of 31.0% (±14.0) and 28.3% (±14.0), respectively. Using a closed-system model with a fixed SP isotope effect may significantly overestimate the N2O reduction effect on SP values, especially when N2O reduction rates are high. This is probably due to soil inhomogeneity and can be compensated for by the application of a dynamic apparent NIE function, which takes the variable reduction rates in soil micropores into account. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Age-based differences in the predictive accuracy of a one-size-fits-all risk-cutoff value in prenatal integrated screening for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jia; Ayer, Turgay; Keskinocak, Pinar; Caughey, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess variation in detection and false positive rates and adverse pregnancy outcomes across different age groups when a one-size-fits-all risk-cutoff value, such as 1/270, is used in integrated screening for Down syndrome. A Monte Carlo simulation was utilized to estimate the detection and false positive rates as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes. Using a one-size-fits-all risk-cutoff value, such as 1/270, can result in considerably high variations in detection and false positive rates across maternal ages and lead to a higher than the minimum possible total number of adverse outcomes. Our findings indicate that the one-size-fits-all risk-cutoff value of 1/270, commonly used in DS screening, should be revisited and alternative (possibly age-based) cutoff values and strategies should be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normalizing 13C values of animal tissue for lipid content is necessary to accurately interpret food web relationships from stable isotope analysis. This is because lipids are 13C-depleted relative to proteins and carbohydrates, and because lipid content varies among speci...

  9. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normalizing 13C values of animal tissue for lipid content is necessary to accurately interpret food web relationships from stable isotope analysis. This is because lipids are 13C-depleted relative to proteins and carbohydrates, and because lipid content varies among speci...

  10. A study of the relationship between gender/age and apparent diffusion coefficient values in spleen of healthy adults using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nazarlou, Ali Kiani; Abdolmohammadi, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) systems are very effective in detecting strokes, and they also have shown significant promise in the detection of fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. However, such systems have the disadvantages of poor reproducibility and noise, which can diminish the accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) provided by the DWI process. The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the age and gender of healthy adults in terms of the ADC values of the spleen measured by DWI. Methods: Sixty-nine subjects selected for this study from people who were referred to the Tabesh Medical Imaging Center in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Each subject underwent echo-planar DWI for her or his ADC values of the spleen with b-values of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm2, and the resulting ADC values were evaluated. Results: No significant differences were observed in ADC values of the spleen among the female and male participants or those from various ages (P>0.05). Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the effect of age and gender on the spleen’s ADC values can be omitted from the spleen-diagnosis procedure. In other words, the spleen’s ADC values are not related to the age or the gender of healthy adults. PMID:26052412

  11. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) show greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA), however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm, and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full-term) seen at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index-III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale-IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term controls (P =0.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P <0.05); higher parent education (P <0.03), lower Parenting Stress (P =0.001), and fewer children in the home (P <0.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender and child cognitive ability (all P >0.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term controls. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population. PMID:23748079

  12. Neurodevelopmental outcome of Italian preterm children at 1year of corrected age by Bayley-III scales: An assessment using local norms.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Corinna; Caravale, Barbara; Rea, Monica; Coletti, Maria Franca; Tonchei, Valentina; Bucci, Silvia; Dotta, Andrea; De Curtis, Mario; Gentile, Simonetta; Ferri, Rosa

    2017-07-08

    Premature birth is often associated with neurodevelopmental difficulties throughout childhood. In the first three years of life, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III) constitute one of the most used tools for assessing child development. Since Bayley-III original norms are based on United States (US) population, it remains uncertain whether their use in other countries (e.g., European) is appropriate. This research aimed to examine neurodevelopment of preterm infants and full-term infants, using Bayley-III US norms in comparison to Italian (IT) norms. Patterns of developmental outcomes for both infant groups were also explored. 104 preterm and 58 full-term infants were included in the study. Bayley-III was used for neurodevelopmental assessment at 1year of corrected age, considering both IT and US norms for scores computation. Comparing scores obtained with IT vs US norms, differences in means were all significant across five subscales (p<0.05 at least) for preterm infants, whereas for full-term peers significant differences were found only for Receptive Language and Fine Motor subscales (p<0.001). Effect size (η(2)) ranged from 0.22 to 0.94. Within each group, significant discrepancies across subscales were found. Moreover, Italian preterm infants had significantly lower performances than full-term peers, excepting for Expressive Language and Gross Motor subscales. As regards to Italian 1-year children, our study seems to provide evidence for the tendency of Bayley-III US norms to overestimate development compared to IT norms. These findings emphasize the need to early detect children at risk for developmental delay and to plan early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P<.05); higher parent education (P<.03), lower Parenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (P<.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  14. MULTIPLE SEGMENTAL OSTEOTOMIES TO THE KYPHOSIS CORRECTION

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Barbosa, Marcello Henrique Nogueira; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of the surgical treatment of the spinal Kyphosis using the Ponte's technique (multiple posterior osteotomies). Methods: Ten patients (8 with Scheuermann's kyphosis and 2 with kyphosis after laminectomy) submitted to surgical correction of kyphotic deformity greater than 70° were retrospectively assessed. The age at the surgical time ranged from 12 to 20 years old (mean age16.8 years ± 2.89). The radiographic parameters evaluated were the kyphosis, the lordosis and the scoliosis – whenever present. The presence of proximal and distal junctional kyphosis, loss of correction, and complications as implants loosening and breakage were also assessed. The radiographic parameters were evaluated at the preoperative, early postoperative and late postoperative time. Results: The patients were followed through a period that ranged from 24 to 144 months (65.8 ±39.92). The mean value of the kyphosis was 78.8° ± 7.59° (Cobb) before surgery and 47.5° ± 12.54° at late follow up, with mean correction of 33.9° ± 9.53° and lost correction of 2.2°. Conclusion: The surgical treatment of the thoracic kyphosis using multiples posterior osteotomies presented a good correction of the deformity and minimal lost of correction during follow up. PMID:27077062

  15. Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit Nos. 101 and 102: Central and western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the basis for and present the results of a value of information analysis (VOIA) for the Pahute Mesa underground test area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site used for underground nuclear testing in the past. The value of information analysis was used to evaluate and compare potential characterization options at the Pahute Mesa underground test area for site remediation purposes. Thirty six characterization options were evaluated, ranging from a single, inexpensive study using existing data and intended to address a single question or uncertainty, to a forty-million-dollar suite of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to address multiple uncertainties. The characterization options were compared and ranked based on how effective the experts though the information collection would be in reducing uncertainties, how this effected the distance to contaminant boundary, and the cost of the option.

  16. Evaluation of the age related systematic patterns of stable oxygen and carbon isotope values of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagavciuc, Viorica; Popa, Ionel; Persoiu, Aurel; Kern, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Tree-ring derived stable isotope time series are becoming increasingly important parameters in investigation of past environmental changes. However, potential age related trend-bias on these parameters, and the proper handling of it, is still not well understood. We here present measurements on a new multicentennial data set of annually resolved stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope compositions from 3 living and 4 subfossil Stone pine (Pinus cembra) samples collected at a timberline habitat in the Eastern Carpathians (Romania) to evaluate any potential systematic ontogenetic pattern on their δ18O and δ13C data. Oldest analyzed ring represented 129th, 135th and 142th cambial year in the living and 115th, 130th, 165th and 250th cambial year in the subfossil samples. The fact that Stone pine samples are backbone of the longest dendrochronological series both in the Alps and the Carpathians arouses special interest concerning their potential in stable isotope dendroclimatological research. Whole-ring samples were prepared to alpha-cellulose by the modified Jayme-Wise method. Cellulose samples were analyzed by a high-temperature pyrolysis system (Thermo Quest TC-EA) coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finningan Delta V). A ring by ring (i.e., non-pooled) approach was followed since age-related trends are by definition intrinsic to individual tree-ring series so pooling of rings may distort the detection of the trends. Raw measured δ13C values have been corrected for changes in the atmospheric CO2 regarding both its stable isotope signature and mixing ratio. Neither isotopic parameter showed any age related variance bias suggesting a homoscedastic character. Alignment of the δ13C data by cambial age revealed a relatively short period (~40 years) of systematic behaviour manifested in a ~1‰ enrichment in 13C over a <40 year-long period after germination. While a moderate but persistent positive trend (~0.33‰ per 100years, p<10-10) can

  17. The forms and fitness cost of senescence: age-specific recapture, survival, reproduction, and reproductive value in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Choquet, Rémi; Sheldon, Ben C; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of senescence accumulate rapidly from natural populations. However, it is largely unknown whether different fitness components senesce in parallel, how reproductive and survival senescence contribute to declines in reproductive value, and how large the fitness cost of senescence is (the difference between the observed reproductive value and the hypothetical reproductive value, if senescence would not occur). We analyzed age-specific survival in great tits Parus major and combined our results with analyses of reproductive senescence to address these issues. Recapture probability of breeding females declined with age, suggesting age-specific increases in skipped or failed breeding and highlighting an important bias that studies of senescence in wild populations should incorporate. Survival probability also declined with age and in parallel with recruit production. Reproductive value decreased 87% between age 1 and age 9 but at a fitness cost of only 4%; the proportion of the contribution of reproductive senescence versus survival senescence to this cost was 0.7. For 11 other species, we estimated fitness costs of senescence of 6%-63% (average: birds, 9%; mammals, 42%), with relative contributions of reproductive senescence of 0.0-0.7 (average: birds, 0.4; mammals, 0.3). We suggest that understanding when and why reproductive and survival senescence differ will help in the identification of proximate mechanisms underlying variation in rates of senescence and its evolution.

  18. Correction: Correction to 'Clinical Policy for Well-Appearing Infants and Children Younger Than 2 Years of Age Presenting to the Emergency Department With Fever' [Annals of Emergency Medicine 67 (2016) 625-639.e13].

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E; Gemme, Seth R; Valente, Jonathan H; Eskin, Barnet; Bakes, Katherine; Brecher, Deena; Brown, Michael D

    2017-04-07

    Due to a miscommunication during the process of transferring this manuscript from our editorial team to Production, the Members of the American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Committee (Oversight Committee) were not properly indexed in PubMed. This has now been corrected online. The publisher would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOEpatents

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  20. [Predictive value of cerebellar growth and general movements assessments for neurodevelopment of very preterm infants at 18-24 months' corrected age].

    PubMed

    Cunha, M; Correa, F; Cadete, A; Oliveira, A; Figueiredo, H; Valerio, P; Barroso, R; Carreiro, H

    2017-01-16

    Introduccion. La evaluacion de los movimientos de ajetreo es sumamente sensible a la hora de predecir el desenlace a largo plazo o la paralisis cerebral del neonato prematuro, un tipo de paciente en el que se ha descrito el crecimiento anomalo del cerebelo. Objetivo. Comparar el valor pronostico de la determinacion ecografica del crecimiento anomalo del cerebelo y el de la evaluacion de los movimientos de ajetreo en el neurodesarrollo de grandes prematuros a los 18-24 meses de edad corregida. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio prospectivo con una cohorte de 88 neonatos (32 semanas o menos de gestacion) en que se analizo el diametro transversal del cerebelo por medio de una ecografia semanal hasta las 40 semanas de edad corregida. Los movimientos de ajetreo se evaluaron a los tres meses de edad corregida. El estado de maduracion neurologica a los 18-24 meses de edad corregida se evaluo en 68 neonatos con la escala de evaluacion de las competencias en el desarrollo infantil (SGS-II) y la escala de evaluacion neurologica de Amiel-Tison (ATNA). Resultados. En la edad a termino, el crecimiento del cerebelo fue inferior al tercer percentil en 11 neonatos (10,3%). Los movimientos de ajetreo eran normales en 42 (61,8%), y anormales o ausentes, en 7 (10,3%). A los 18-24 meses de edad corregida, 54 (79,4%) mostraron resultados normales en la SGS-II y 6 (8,8%) fueron calificados como afectados por paralisis cerebral segun la ATNA. El diametro cerebelar inferior al tercer percentil a termino estuvo asociado con un desenlace motor anomalo y los movimientos de ajetreo normales se correlacionaron con el neurodesarrollo normal. Conclusion. La estimacion del tamaño del cerebelo y las exploraciones funcionales (movimientos de ajetreo) poseen un importante papel complementario en el pronostico del desarrollo nervioso en el gran prematuro.

  1. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Möricke, Esmé; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Beuker, Karin T; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-08-01

    It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14-15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1(1/2)-5 at age 3 years, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, an on-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4-5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14-15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 years and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4-5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14-15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems.

  2. Trends of Research on Prevention of Physiological Aging and the Value of Exercise for Fitness and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cureton, Thomas K.

    In this document, "middle age" is defined as the 26- to 65-year age span during which there is a steady decline of both physical and mental capabilities and a change for the worse in personality traits. The document summarizes the findings of recent training experiments in adult health and physical education that indicate possible ways of…

  3. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (<30 years), a middle age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  4. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (<30 years), a middle age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  5. Corrective work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Leslie A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses some general principles for planning corrective instruction and exercises in English as a second language, and follows with examples from the areas of phonemics, phonology, lexicon, idioms, morphology, and syntax. (IFS/WGA)

  6. Normative Values of Hand Grip Strength for Elderly Singaporeans Aged 60 to 89 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rahul; Ang, Shannon; Allen, John Carson; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Østbye, Truls; Saito, Yasuhiko; Chan, Angelique

    2016-09-01

    What are normative values for hand grip strength (HGS) for elderly Singaporeans? Which elderly characteristics influence the normative values of HGS for elderly Singaporeans? Nationally representative, cross-sectional observational study. Singapore. A total of 2664 community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans aged 60 to 89 years. HGS was measured in a standing position with elbows extended twice for each hand; a Smedley spring-type dynamometer was used. Elderly characteristics known to affect HGS, including age, sex, hand dominance, height, weight, occupation, education, and ethnicity, were also assessed. We present single-year age, sex-, and hand-specific graphs for normative values (5th, 20th, and 50th percentiles) of HGS. The influence of specific elderly characteristics on the normative values of HGS varies by sex, hand, and considered percentile. We present equations for considered percentiles of HGS that account for such influences. This study uses a large, nationally representative sample to establish normative values for HGS for elderly Singaporeans aged 60 to 89 years. These results will facilitate the interpretation of HGS measurements conducted using Smedley spring-type dynamometers in clinical and research settings in Singapore, and potentially other Asian countries. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  8. Population-based reference values of handgrip strength and functional tests of muscle strength and balance in men aged 70-80 years.

    PubMed

    Ribom, Eva L; Mellström, Dan; Ljunggren, Östen; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    With aging, the incidence of falls and fractures increases. There has during the last decades been secular changes in demographics so that the proportion of elderly increases in society. Hence, there is an increasing need for clinicians to be able to make a solid appraisal of the elderly patient's functional capacity, as to identify individuals with an increased risk to fall. If high risk individuals could be targeted fall preventive strategies might be implemented in specific risk cohorts. This would require reference values for muscle strength tests and functional tests, in order to defined high risk individuals performing inferior. From the MrOS Sweden cohort, 999 subjects aged 70-80 years were evaluated. Muscle strength and functional performance was tested by timed-stands test, 6-m and 20-cm narrow walk tests and Jamar handgrip strength test. Normative data is presented. With increasing age, there was a 10-18% successively decline in performance throughout the entire age span. This study provides reference values for handgrip strength and functional muscle tests in 70-80 years old men. The decline in the test values with increasing age, infer the use of age-specific normative data when using these tests both in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Aging and Disability Perspectives on Home Care: Uncovering Facts and Values in Public-Policy Narratives and Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phillip G.

    2007-01-01

    Every public-policy problem can be defined in terms of its empirical ("facts") and normative ("values") dimensions and the interrelationship between them. An understanding of the connection between facts and values at the foundation of the home care policy debate in the Canadian health-care system is developed through the…

  10. US/UK second level panel discussions on the health and value of: Ageing and lifetime predictions (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G

    2011-01-18

    Many healthy physics, engineering, and materials exchanges are being accomplished in ageing and lifetime prediction that directly supports US and UK Stockpile Management Programs. Lifetime assessment studies of silicon foams under compression - Joint AWE/LANLlLLNL study of compression set in stress cushions completed. Provides phenomenological prediction out to 50 years. Polymer volatile out-gassing studies - New exchange on the out-gassing of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) using isotopic {sup 13}C labeling studies to interrogate mechanistic processes. Infra-red (IR) gas cell analytical capabilities developed by AWE will be used to monitor polymer out-gassing profiles. Pu Strength ageing Experiments and Constitutive Modeling - In recently compared modeling strategies for ageing effects on Pu yield strength at high strain rates, a US/UK consensus was reached on the general principle that the ageing effect is additive and not multiplicative. The fundamental mechanisms for age-strengthening in Pu remains unknown. Pu Surface and Interface Reactions - (1) US/UK secondment resulted in developing a metal-metal oxide model for radiation damaged studies consistent with a Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential; and (2) Joint US/UK collaboration to study the role of impurities in hydride initiation. Detonator Ageing (wide range of activities) - (1) Long-term ageing study with field trials at Pantex incorporating materials from LANL, LLNL, SNL and AWE; (2) Characterization of PETN growth to detonation process; (3) Detonator performance modeling; and (4) Performance fault tree analysis. Benefits are a unified approach to lifetime prediction that Includes: materials characterization and the development of ageing models through improved understanding of the relationship between materials properties, ageing properties and detonator performance.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of hyaline articular cartilage T2 maps of knee and determine the relationship of cartilage T2 values with age, gender, articular changes.

    PubMed

    Cağlar, E; Şahin, G; Oğur, T; Aktaş, E

    2014-11-01

    To identify changes in knee joint cartilage transverse relaxation values depending on the patient's age and gender and to investigate the relationship between knee joint pathologies and the transverse relaxation time. Knee MRI images of 107 symptomatic patients with various pathologic knee conditions were analyzed retrospectively. T2 values were measured at patellar cartilage, posteromedial and posterolateral femoral cartilage adjacent to the central horn of posterior meniscus. 963 measurements were done for 107 knees MRI. Relationship of T2 values with seven features including subarticular bone marrow edema, subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, anterior-posterior cruciate and collateral ligament tears, posterior medial and posterior lateral meniscal tears, synovial thickening and effusion were analyzed. T2 values in all three compartments were evaluated according to age and gender. A T2 value increase correlated with age was present in all three compartments measured in the subgroup with no knee joint pathology and in all patient groups. According to the ROC curve, an increase showing a statistically significant difference was present in the patient group aged over 40 compared to the patient group aged 40 and below in all patient groups. There is a statistically difference at T2 values with and without subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, synovial thickening and effusion. T2 relaxation time showed a statistically significant increase in the patients with a medial meniscus tear compared to those without a tear and no statistically significant difference was found in T2 relaxation times of patients with and without a posterior lateral meniscus tear. T2 cartilage mapping on MRI provides opportunity to exhibit biochemical and structural changes related with cartilage extracellular matrix without using invasive diagnostic methods.

  12. Diamagnetic Corrections and Pascal's Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Gordon A.; Berry, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Measured magnetic susceptibilities of paramagnetic substances must typically be corrected for their underlying diamagnetism. This correction is often accomplished by using tabulated values for the diamagnetism of atoms, ions, or whole molecules. These tabulated values can be problematic since many sources contain incomplete and conflicting data.…

  13. Diamagnetic Corrections and Pascal's Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Gordon A.; Berry, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Measured magnetic susceptibilities of paramagnetic substances must typically be corrected for their underlying diamagnetism. This correction is often accomplished by using tabulated values for the diamagnetism of atoms, ions, or whole molecules. These tabulated values can be problematic since many sources contain incomplete and conflicting data.…

  14. Demography of deep-dwelling red coral populations: Age and reproductive structure of a highly valued marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, Cristina; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Erra, Fabrizio; Angiolillo, Michela; Canese, Simonpietro; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    The valuable Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum (Octocorallia Gorgonacea) has been harvested for more than 2 thousand years. Although our knowledge on the demographic features of red coral populations living between 10 and 50 m depth has increased considerably in recent years, the main life-history traits of deeper populations (the main target of current harvesting) are still largely unknown. To increase the demographic knowledge of the latter populations, sampling was carried out during early Summer 2010 in the North-Western Mediterranean (Tyrrhenian Sea - Italy), between 50 and 130 m depth. This paper quantifies the main demographic descriptors of this coral population in terms of size/age and sexual structure. Colony age was estimated by counting annual growth rings on thin sections of 69 colonies. A 2-way ANOVA showed no significant difference between the age estimated by three independent observers. The average annual colony growth rate (basal diameter), showing some decrease with colony age increase, was 0.26 mm/yr. The relationship between age and basal diameter derived from a subsample of colonies was then applied to assess the age of a larger sample of the population and showed 38% of the sampled colonies reached the commercial size (≥7 mm of basal diameter), corresponding to about 30 years in this population and a maximum life span of 93 years; about half of them (51.1%) were in the 21-25 and 26-30 age classes. The analysis of the sexual features revealed a balanced sex ratio, a colony fertility of 90.3% and an average fecundity of 0.83 oocytes or planulae per polyp. The knowledge of these life-history descriptors is needed for our understanding of deep dwelling red coral population dynamics and for matching of harvesting to population growth rate.

  15. Influence of age on manifestation, VC and TLCO values, and bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts of sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Sterclova, Martina; Paluch, Peter; Skibova, Jelena; Vasakova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Immune response probably changes during human life, being influenced by cumulative exposure to environmental factors and individual genetic background. Patients investigated for suspected interstitial lung disease were prospectively enrolled. After completing the diagnostic process, 121 patients were diagnosed extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) and 136 sarcoidosis. Three groups according to age were established (<30 years, 30-60 years, >60 years), clinical manifestation, vital capacity (VC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1 ), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide-transfer factor (TLCO ) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) differential cell count were compared among the groups. Age subgroups of EAA patients did not significantly differ in lung functions. In the group above 60 years, non-significantly higher neutrophils and eosinophils counts and CD4/CD8 ratio were observed. Sarcoidosis patients were significantly younger than EAA group and had significantly better lung functions (VC, FEV1 , TLCO ). Patients with sarcoidosis above 60 years of age had significantly higher percentages of neutrophils in BALF compared with younger patients. BALF percentage of neutrophils positively correlated with age. Presented results may support the hypothesis that reactivity of immune system changes during the life, which may result in different manifestation of interstitial lung diseases according to age. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    PubMed

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  17. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height

    PubMed Central

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17–90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006–2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men’s and women’s 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a ‘weak grip’. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65–69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80–90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a ‘critically weak grip’ that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value. PMID:27701433

  18. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

  19. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

  20. Reproducibility, interrater agreement, and age-related changes of fractional anisotropy measures at 3T in healthy subjects: effect of the applied b-value.

    PubMed

    Bisdas, S; Bohning, D E; Besenski, N; Nicholas, J S; Rumboldt, Z

    2008-06-01

    There is no reproducibility study of fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements at 3T using regions of interest (ROIs). Our purpose was to establish the extent and statistical significance of the interrater variability, the variability observed with 2 different b-values, and in 2 separate scanning sessions. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging twice. MR imaging was performed on a 3T unit, and FA maps were analyzed independently by 2 observers using ROIs positioned in the corpus callosum, internal capsules, corticospinal tracts, and right thalamus. Changes in FA values (x10(3)) measured with 2 b-values (700 and 1000 s/mm(2)), age-related differences, interobserver agreement, and measurement reproducibility were assessed. In the right internal capsule genu (FA = 702/728; b = 1000/700 s/mm(2)) and the left anterior limb of the internal capsule (AIC; FA = 617/745; b = 1000/700 s/mm(2)), the FA values were significantly different between the 2 b-values (P = .02 and .05, respectively). Significant age-related differences in FA were observed in the genu of the corpus callosum and in the left AIC. Interrater measurements showed fair-to-moderate agreement for most anatomic structures. The lowest significant change for a single subject regarding any FA values between the 2 sessions was in the corpus callosum (4%), whereas the highest one was in the corticospinal tracts (27%). The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the 1000-s/mm(2) b-value gave satisfactorily reproducible measurements equally good or better than the 700-s/mm(2) b-value. The reproducibility of FA estimates using ROIs was satisfactory. Measurements with a b-value at 1000 s/mm(2) showed superior reproducibility in most anatomic locations.

  1. Age-related normative values of trabecular bone score (TBS) for Japanese women: the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) study.

    PubMed

    Iki, M; Tamaki, J; Sato, Y; Winzenrieth, R; Kagamimori, S; Kagawa, Y; Yoneshima, H

    2015-01-01

    Trabecular bone score (TBS), a surrogate measure of bone microarchitecture, represents fracture risk independently of bone density. We present normative TBS values from a representative population study of Japanese women. This database would enhance our understanding of trabecular bone microarchitecture and improve osteoporosis management. TBS is a texture parameter that quantifies local variation in gray level distribution within dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images of the lumbar spine. While TBS is associated with fracture risk independently of areal bone mineral density (aBMD), normative TBS values have only been reported for Caucasian women. This study provides age-specific normative values of TBS from a representative sample of Japanese women. We randomly selected 4,550 women aged 15-79 years from 7 areas throughout Japan. Women younger than 20 years and those with any medical history which might affect bone metabolism were excluded, and the remaining 3,069 with at least two assessable vertebrae from the first to the fourth vertebrae were subjected to analysis. TBS values were calculated from spine DXA images using TBS iNsight software (Med-Imaps, France). Age-related models of TBS were constructed using piecewise linear regression analysis. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), spine aBMD, and TBS (mean ± SD) were 48.7 ± 16.8 years, 22.9 ± 3.4, 0.888 ± 0.169 g/cm(2), and 1.187 ± 0.137, respectively. A three-piece linear regression model of TBS on age explained 70.7% of the total variance in TBS and comprised very small age-related changes in the youngest segment of the regression line, rapid loss in the middle segment, and small loss in the oldest segment. TBS was lower in Japanese women than in Caucasian women across all age ranges, with the difference increasing with age up through 65 years. The normative values of TBS for Japanese women presented here would enhance our understanding of trabecular bone microarchitecture

  2. Jitter Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waegell, Mordecai J.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Jitter_Correct.m is a MATLAB function that automatically measures and corrects inter-frame jitter in an image sequence to a user-specified precision. In addition, the algorithm dynamically adjusts the image sample size to increase the accuracy of the measurement. The Jitter_Correct.m function takes an image sequence with unknown frame-to-frame jitter and computes the translations of each frame (column and row, in pixels) relative to a chosen reference frame with sub-pixel accuracy. The translations are measured using a Cross Correlation Fourier transformation method in which the relative phase of the two transformed images is fit to a plane. The measured translations are then used to correct the inter-frame jitter of the image sequence. The function also dynamically expands the image sample size over which the cross-correlation is measured to increase the accuracy of the measurement. This increases the robustness of the measurement to variable magnitudes of inter-frame jitter

  3. Evaluation of the relationship between T1ρ and T2 values and patella cartilage degeneration in patients of the same age group.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Hiroaki; Hirose, Jun; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Okada, Tatsuya; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taniwaki, Takuya; Nakamura, Eiichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the T1ρ and T2 values and the progression of cartilage degeneration in patients of the same age group. Sagittal T1ρ and T2 mapping and three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo images were obtained from 78 subjects with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). The degree of patella cartilage degeneration was classified into four groups using MRI-based grading: apparently normal cartilage, mild OA, moderate OA, and severe OA group. We measured the T1ρ and T2 values (ms) in the regions of interest set on the full-thickness patella cartilage. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the T1ρ and T2 values and the degree of patella cartilage degeneration. There were no significant differences in age among the four groups. Both the T1ρ and T2 values showed a positive correlation with the degree of OA progression (ρ=0.737 and ρ=0.632, respectively). By comparison between the apparently normal cartilage and the mild OA groups, there were significant differences in the T1ρ mapping, but not in the T2 mapping. Our study confirmed that T1ρ and T2 mapping can quantitatively evaluate the degree of patella cartilage degeneration in patients within the same age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. Methods It included 2459 adults (range 20–92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. Results In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. Conclusions The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women. PMID:24131857

  5. Correlation of bulk sedimentary and compound-specific δ13C values indicates minimal pre-aging of n-alkanes in a small tropical watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Taylor, Zachary P.; Kerr, Matthew T.

    2016-08-01

    Inherent to sedimentary compound-specific isotopic proxies of paleoecological and paleoclimate change is the assumption that biomarkers are coeval with the surrounding sedimentary matrix. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of lake and nearshore marine sediments have indicated a potential offset between the ages of terrestrial biomarkers and their surrounding sediments that could confound efforts to establish strong chronological control for compound-specific isotopic data. We conducted high-resolution compound-specific δ13C analyses of n-alkanes (δ13Calkane) in a well-studied sediment core from Laguna Castilla, Dominican Republic, and compared the results to bulk sedimentary δ13C (δ13Cbulk), fossil pollen, and sediment geochemistry to assess potential 'pre-aging' of alkanes in the terrestrial environment prior to deposition. We found significant positive correlations between δ13Cbulk values and δ13Calkane values, indicating little or no temporal lag in the response of δ13Calkane values to vegetation change and thus little or no offset in the age of terrestrially-derived compounds and the organic fraction of the sedimentary matrix. While this study highlights the need for further research into the variables affecting age offsets between proxy data, we propose the comparison of δ13Cbulk and δ13Calkane values as a method to assess potential age offsets between compound-specific and other proxy datasets, particularly in small watersheds with sediment records containing a high proportion of allochthonous organic matter. This method is more available to researchers than obtaining numerous compound-specific radiocarbon analyses, which are costly and not a routine service offered by radiocarbon facilities.

  6. Age- and Sex-Dependent Values of the Distribution of Body Composition Parameters Among Chinese Children Using the Hattori Chart.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Hu, Li; Wu, Qiulian; Gong, Jian; Xu, Hao

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between the fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) and between the fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) in Chinese children using the Hattori chart and to compare the changing pattern with Korean counterparts. In this study, 1541 (764 girls) children and adolescents aged 5-19 yr were recruited from southern China. The subjects' body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between FFM and FM and between FFMI and FMI were delineated using the Hattori chart. Between 5 and 12 yr, a concurrent increase in FFM and FM and in FFMI and FMI was found in both sexes. After 12 yr, the age-related changing patterns are generally characterized by a sharp increase in FM, with a relatively small increase in FFM for girls, and a sharp increase in FFM, with a relatively little fluctuation in FM for boys. The increase in weight and BMI with age for this stage is largely due to the increase in FFM and FFMI in boys and in both the FFM and FM and FFMI and FMI components in girls. Sex differences in the patterns of body composition were found in Chinese children and adolescents.

  7. Health Professionals’ Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Values for Oral Clefting by Age Using a Visual Analogue Scale Method

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To elicit health-related quality of life (HRQL) values associated with oral clefting by age using a visual analogue scale, and to explore the appropriateness of using health professionals as evaluators. Methods A representative group of health professionals working on craniofacial and/or cleft palate teams in the United States was sampled. Values (between 0 and 1) representing the HRQL associated with isolated and nonisolated oral clefting for infants, children, adolescents, and adults were obtained. The relationships between selected evaluator characteristics and values were also assessed. Results Of 330 professionals surveyed, 133 (40%) completed and returned reliable evaluations. Overall, HRQL values were clustered toward the right tail of the scale, indicating modest decreases in HRQL. Most evaluators reported feeling confident in completing the evaluations. HRQL values seemed to vary by team type (cleft palate only versus cleft palate/craniofacial care) and geographic location, but no major differences were found overall for any selected evaluator characteristics. Conclusions This study provides HRQL values for oral clefting based on preferences of health professionals that may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies, including those carried out in clinical trial studies. The clustered pattern of HRQL values suggests either a consensus among evaluators of a limited burden of oral clefting or an overall lack of understanding of the evaluation task. PMID:16854194

  8. The value of time in longitudinal studies of ageing. Lessons from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Byles, Julie E; Dobson, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) involves three cohorts of women born in 1921-1926, 1946-1951 and 1973-1978, who have been surveyed every 3 years since 1996. We describe how the 1921-1926 cohort have changed over time. We also describe trends in health risks among the younger cohorts, providing an indication of future health threats. By Survey 5, 28.4% of the 1921-1926 cohort had died. Among those who survived and remained in the study, 61% maintained high physical function scores over time. Chronic conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, heart disease and stroke were associated with lower physical function scores and decline in scores over time. ALSWH will continue to provide information on changes in health and health service use as we follow the oldest cohort through their 90 s, and as younger cohorts accumulate increasing burden of disease and disability as they age. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  9. [Aorto-arteriography of the legs in the elderly. Tolerability and value. Report of 100 tests carried out consecutively in patients over 70 years of age].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, P; Meck, J M; Bussone, M; Ciprich, G; de Tarragon, E; Disset, B

    1990-10-01

    Over a period of 4 years, we have studied 100 consecutive cases of arteriographies, realized out of emergency, and concerning patients age 70 and above (average age 77). In 2/3 of cases, the arteriography was requested for a stage IV arteriopathy of the inferior limbs, the other 1/3 being equally distributed between stage II and III. On the technical plan, the femoral pathway with retrograde catheterization was mostly performed because femoral pulses were correct in most cases. Only one major complication occurred. The presurgery balance, patience and gentleness have permitted to reduce risks. We haven't observed any type of complications during the procedure in these elderly patients with polysystem disease (HT, diabetes, CVA, cardiopathology) latent renal insufficiency at this age did not create a problem because normal precautions were taken during procedure and new contrast products with low osmolarity used. The study of arteriographies by a personal scoring that we elaborated has clearly confirmed the distal and often bilateral nature of arterial lesions. The indications of this examination are of course already assessed by medico-surgical teams who select patients susceptible of enduring a by pass. The imagery obtained has allowed in almost 40% of cases either a revascularization act or a per cutaneous angioplasty, thus proving the advantages of this examination, finally little aggressive, in evaluation of these predominantly distal lesions in the elderly people.

  10. A Method for the Automatic Exposure Control in Pediatric Abdominal CT: Application to the Standard Deviation Value and Tube Current Methods by Using Patient's Age and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Ken; Akiyama, Shinji; Nambu, Atushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hasebe, Yuusuke

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to apply the pediatric abdominal CT protocol of Donnelly et al. in the United States to the pediatric abdominal CT-AEC. Examining CT images of 100 children, we found that the sectional area of the hepatic portal region (y) was strongly correlated with the body weight (x) as follows: y=7.14x + 84.39 (correlation coefficient=0.9574). We scanned an elliptical cone phantom that simulates the human body using a pediatric abdominal CT scanning method of Donnelly et al. in, and measured SD values. We further scanned the same phantom under the settings for adult CT-AEC scan and obtained the relationship between the sectional areas (y) and the SD values. Using these results, we obtained the following preset noise factors for CT-AEC at each body weight range: 6.90 at 4.5-8.9 kg, 8.40 at 9.0-17.9 kg, 8.68 at 18.0-26.9 kg, 9.89 at 27.0-35.9 kg, 12.22 at 36.0-45.0 kg, 13.52 at 45.1-70.0 kg, 15.29 at more than 70 kg. From the relation between age, weight and the distance of liver and tuber ischiadicum of 500 children, we obtained the CTDIvol values and DLP values under the scanning protocol of Donnelly et al. Almost all of DRL from these values turned out to be smaller than the DRL data of IAEA and various countries. Thus, by setting the maximum current values of CT-AEC to be the Donnelly et al.'s age-wise current values, and using our weight-wise noise factors, we think we can perform pediatric abdominal CT-AEC scans that are consistent with the same radiation safety and the image quality as those proposed by Donnelly et al.

  11. Detection of upper limit of normal values of anti-DNase B antibody in children's age groups who were admitted to hospital with noninfectious reasons.

    PubMed

    Delice, Servet; Adaleti, Riza; Cevan, Simin; Alagoz, Pinar; Bedel, Aynur; Nuhoglu, Cagatay; Aksaray, Sebahat

    2015-01-01

    Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNase B (ADB) titers are used for the diagnosis of poststreptococcal complications. Ranges of normal values of ASO and ADB titers vary, depending on age, population and different time intervals. Although many studies have been performed for determination of the ASO titer in our country, only a few studies have been conducted for specification the upper limit of normal for (ULN) ADB. In our study we aimed to determine the upper limit of normal of ADB antibody titers in children aged 5-15. One hundred and twenty one children aged from 5-15 who were admitted to our outpatient clinic of Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital with noninfectious reasons between November 2013 and March 2014 were included in the study. Patients who met the following criteria were included in the study; absence of streptococcal infection in the last three months in physical examination and/or no growth of group A, C, and G of beta-haemolytic streptococci in throat culture, normal ranges of ASO and C reactive protein (CRP) levels. All serum samples were analyzed collectively by nephelometric method. The upper limit of normal value for anti-DNase B has been defined by separating the upper 20% from the lower 80% of all measurements. Anti-DNase B antibody levels were ranged between 50-576 IU/ml and its upper limit was 219.2 IU/ml. When analyzed according to age groups, anti-DNase B antibody levels in the group aged between 5-10, ranged between 50-576 IU/ml and its upper limit was 212.2 IU/ml, anti-DNase B antibody levels in the group aged 10-15, ranged between 50-408 IU/ml and its upper limit was 231.2 IU/ml (p=0.008). Based on our results, upper normal values ADB antibody showed variations with age in our results. Therefore national reference values should be detected by more comprehensive studies.

  12. Detection of upper limit of normal values of anti-DNase B antibody in children’s age groups who were admitted to hospital with noninfectious reasons

    PubMed Central

    Delice, Servet; Adaleti, Riza; Cevan, Simin; Alagoz, Pinar; Bedel, Aynur; Nuhoglu, Cagatay; Aksaray, Sebahat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNase B (ADB) titers are used for the diagnosis of poststreptococcal complications. Ranges of normal values of ASO and ADB titers vary, depending on age, population and different time intervals. Although many studies have been performed for determination of the ASO titer in our country, only a few studies have been conducted for specification the upper limit of normal for (ULN) ADB. In our study we aimed to determine the upper limit of normal of ADB antibody titers in children aged 5–15. METHODS: One hundred and twenty one children aged from 5–15 who were admitted to our outpatient clinic of Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital with noninfectious reasons between November 2013 and March 2014 were included in the study. Patients who met the following criteria were included in the study; absence of streptococcal infection in the last three months in physical examination and/or no growth of group A, C, and G of beta-haemolytic streptococci in throat culture, normal ranges of ASO and C reactive protein (CRP) levels. All serum samples were analyzed collectively by nephelometric method. The upper limit of normal value for anti-DNase B has been defined by separating the upper 20% from the lower 80% of all measurements. RESULTS: Anti-DNase B antibody levels were ranged between 50–576 IU/ml and its upper limit was 219.2 IU/ml. When analyzed according to age groups, anti-DNase B antibody levels in the group aged between 5–10, ranged between 50–576 IU/ml and its upper limit was 212.2 IU/ml, anti-DNase B antibody levels in the group aged 10–15, ranged between 50–408 IU/ml and its upper limit was 231.2 IU/ml (p=0.008). CONCLUSION: Based on our results, upper normal values ADB antibody showed variations with age in our results. Therefore national reference values should be detected by more comprehensive studies. PMID:28058354

  13. Oxygen isotope values of precipitation and the thermal climate in Europe during the middle to late Weichselian ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arppe, L.; Karhu, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions of 28 mammoth tooth enamel samples from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Denmark provide new quantitative records of the middle to late Weichselian climate in northern Europe. The new δ18O data was combined with records of oxygen isotope values from earlier investigations on European mammoth tooth enamel and palaeogroundwaters to study the spatial patterns and temporal variations in the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and the thermal climate over much of Europe. The reconstructed geographical distribution of δ18O in precipitation during 52-24 ka reflects the progressive isotopic depletion of air masses moving northeast, consistent with a westerly source of moisture for the entire region, and a circulation pattern similar to that of the present-day. Regional long-term average δ18O w values were 0.6-4.1‰ lower than at present, the largest changes recorded for the currently maritime influenced southern Sweden and the Baltic region. The application of regionally varied δ/ T-slopes, estimated from palaeogroundwater data and modern correlations, yield reasonable estimates of glacial surface temperatures in Europe and imply 2-9 °C lower long-term mean annual surface temperatures during the glacial period.

  14. Studies on Diarrhea in Neonatal Calves III. Acid-base and Serum Electrolyte Values in Normal Calves from Birth to Ten Days of Age

    PubMed Central

    Butler, D. G.; Willoughby, R. A.; McSherry, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    A detailed clinical examination was conducted and blood samples were collected from a total of 151 normal calves as soon as possible after birth and at two to three day intervals until the calves were ten days old. The mean venous pH values for calves from birth to ten days of age was 7.38 ± 0.05. The mean serum sodium, potassium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, calcium and chloride ion concentrations in normal calves from birth to ten days of age were 148 ± 13, 5.4 ± 0.8, 2.1 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.8, 5.6 ± 0.5, 95 ±5, mEq/litre respectively. The mean serum osmolality in normal calves from birth to ten days of age was 280 ± 12 mOsm/litre. PMID:4251412

  15. The value of age and medical history for predicting colorectal cancer and adenomas in people referred for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colonoscopy is an invasive and costly procedure with a risk of serious complications. It would therefore be useful to prioritise colonoscopies by identifying people at higher risk of either cancer or premalignant adenomas. The aim of this study is to assess a model that identifies people with colorectal cancer, advanced, large and small adenomas. Methods Patients seen by gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons between April 2004 and December 2006 completed a validated, structured self-administered questionnaire prior to colonoscopy. Information was collected on symptoms, demographics and medical history. Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously assess factors associated with findings on colonoscopy of cancer, advanced adenomas and adenomas sized 6 -9 mm, and ≤ 5 mm. The area under the curve of ROC curve was used to assess the incremental gain of adding demographic variables, medical history and symptoms (in that order) to a base model that included only age. Results Sociodemographic variables, medical history and symptoms (from 8,204 patients) jointly provide good discrimination between colorectal cancer and no abnormality (AUC 0.83), but discriminate less well between adenomas and no abnormality (AUC advanced adenoma 0.70; other adenomas 0.67). Age is the dominant risk factor for cancer and adenomas of all sizes. Having a colonoscopy within the last 10 years confers protection for cancers and advanced adenomas. Conclusions Our models provide guidance about which factors can assist in identifying people at higher risk of disease using easily elicited information. This would allow colonoscopy to be prioritised for those for whom it would be of most benefit. PMID:21899773

  16. The anti-aging effects of LW-AFC via correcting immune dysfunctions in senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Xiaorui; Zhang, Xiaorui; Cheng, Junping; Xu, Yiran; Zeng, Ju; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2016-05-10

    Although there were considerable advances in the anti-aging medical field, it is short of therapeutic drug for anti-aging. Mounting evidence indicates that the immunosenescence is the key physiopathological mechanism of aging. This study showed the treatment of LW-AFC, an herbal medicine, decreased the grading score of senescence, increased weight, prolonged average life span and ameliorated spatial memory impairment in 12- and 24-month-old senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strain. And these anti-aging effects of LW-AFC were more excellent than melatonin. The administration of LW-AFC enhanced ConA- and LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation in aged SAMR1 mice. The treatment of LW-AFC not only reversed the decreased the proportions of helper T cells, suppressor T cells and B cells, the increased regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of old SAMR1 mice, but also could modulate the abnormal secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TNF-β, RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and G-CSF. These data indicated that LW-AFC reversed the immunosenescence status by restoring immunodeficiency and decreasing chronic inflammation and suggested LW-AFC may be an effective anti-aging agent.

  17. The anti-aging effects of LW-AFC via correcting immune dysfunctions in senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhui; Cheng, Xiaorui; Zhang, Xiaorui; Cheng, Junping; Xu, Yiran; Zeng, Ju; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there were considerable advances in the anti-aging medical field, it is short of therapeutic drug for anti-aging. Mounting evidence indicates that the immunosenescence is the key physiopathological mechanism of aging. This study showed the treatment of LW-AFC, an herbal medicine, decreased the grading score of senescence, increased weight, prolonged average life span and ameliorated spatial memory impairment in 12- and 24-month-old senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) strain. And these anti-aging effects of LW-AFC were more excellent than melatonin. The administration of LW-AFC enhanced ConA- and LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation in aged SAMR1 mice. The treatment of LW-AFC not only reversed the decreased the proportions of helper T cells, suppressor T cells and B cells, the increased regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of old SAMR1 mice, but also could modulate the abnormal secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TNF-β, RANTES, eotaxin, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and G-CSF. These data indicated that LW-AFC reversed the immunosenescence status by restoring immunodeficiency and decreasing chronic inflammation and suggested LW-AFC may be an effective anti-aging agent. PMID:27105505

  18. Predictive ability of waist-to-height in relation to adiposity in children is not improved with age and sex-specific values.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Grant, Andrea M; Taylor, Barry J; Goulding, Ailsa

    2011-05-01

    A waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.5 indicates increased health risk in children and adults. However, because of residual correlation between WHtR and height in children, dividing waist circumference by height to the power of one may be insufficient to correctly adjust for height during growth. This study aimed to determine whether age and sex-specific exponents which properly adjust for height affect the predictive ability of WHtR to correctly discriminate between children with differing fat distribution. Total and regional body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 778 (49% male) children and adolescents. WHtR was calculated as waist/height(1) (WHtR(a)), and using two published age and sex-specific exponents for height (WHtR(b)) (1) (WHtR(c)) (2), and compared with various DXA indexes of body composition using receiver operating curve analysis. 15% of males and 17% of females had a WHtR(a) ≥0.5, with corresponding figures of 8% and 27% for WHtR(b), and 23% and 17% for WHtR(c). WHtR(a) was significantly different from WHtR(b) (males only, P < 0.001) but not WHtR(c) (P = 0.121). Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for WHtR(a) were significantly higher than AUCs for WHtR(b) or WHtR(c) in relation to DXA-measured body composition (AUCs ≥0.89 for WHtR(a) compared with AUCs of 0.71-0.84 for WHtR(b) and WHtR(c)). Simply dividing waist circumference by height (WHtR(a)) correctly discriminates between children and adolescents with low and high levels of total and central fat at least 90% of the time. Keeping your waist circumference to less than half your height provides an effective screening index of body composition during growth.

  19. Peteye detection and correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Luo, Huitao; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Redeyes are caused by the camera flash light reflecting off the retina. Peteyes refer to similar artifacts in the eyes of other mammals caused by camera flash. In this paper we present a peteye removal algorithm for detecting and correcting peteye artifacts in digital images. Peteye removal for animals is significantly more difficult than redeye removal for humans, because peteyes can be any of a variety of colors, and human face detection cannot be used to localize the animal eyes. In many animals, including dogs and cats, the retina has a special reflective layer that can cause a variety of peteye colors, depending on the animal's breed, age, or fur color, etc. This makes the peteye correction more challenging. We have developed a semi-automatic algorithm for peteye removal that can detect peteyes based on the cursor position provided by the user and correct them by neutralizing the colors with glare reduction and glint retention.

  20. Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children after Neonatal Corrective Cardiac Surgery for Transposition of the Great Arteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Johanna; Bonnet, Damien; Courtin, Cyril; Concordet, Susan; Plumet, Marie-Helene; Angeard, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Cardiac malformations resulting in cyanosis, such as transposition of the great arteries (TGA), have been associated with neurodevelopmental dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, theory of mind (ToM), which is a key component of social cognition and executive functions in school-aged children with TGA.…

  1. Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children after Neonatal Corrective Cardiac Surgery for Transposition of the Great Arteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Johanna; Bonnet, Damien; Courtin, Cyril; Concordet, Susan; Plumet, Marie-Helene; Angeard, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Cardiac malformations resulting in cyanosis, such as transposition of the great arteries (TGA), have been associated with neurodevelopmental dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, theory of mind (ToM), which is a key component of social cognition and executive functions in school-aged children with TGA.…

  2. Interpretation of plasma PTH concentrations according to 25OHD status, gender, age, weight status, and calcium intake: importance of the reference values.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Montourcy, Marion; Sutton, Angela; Charnaux, Nathalie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Fezeu, Léopold K; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Malvy, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Ezzedine, Khaled; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-01

    Reference values for plasma PTH assessment were generally established on small samples of apparently healthy subjects, without considering their 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status or other potential modifiers of PTH concentration. Our objective was to assess ranges of plasma PTH concentration in a large sample of adults, stratifying by 25OHD status, age, gender, weight status, and calcium intake. This cross-sectional survey is based on 1824 middle-aged Caucasian adults from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (1994). Plasma PTH and 25OHD concentrations were measured by an electrochemoluminescent immunoassay. Extreme percentiles of plasma PTH concentrations were assessed specifically in subjects who had plasmatic values of 25OHD of 20 ng/mL or greater and 30 ng/mL or greater. Among subjects with 25OHD status of 20 ng/mL or greater, the 97.5th percentile of plasma PTH concentration was 45.5 ng/L. By using this value as a reference, 5% of the subjects with plasma 25OHD less than 20 nmol/L had a high plasma PTH level, reflecting secondary hyperparathyroidism. Among vitamin D-replete subjects (25OHD status of 20 ng/mL or greater), the 97.5th percentile of plasma PTH was higher in overweight/obese subjects (51.9 vs 43.5 ng/L among normal weight subjects). The reference value for plasma PTH defined in this vitamin D-replete population was far below the value currently provided by the manufacturer (65 ng/L) and varied according to overweight status. These results may contribute to improve the diagnosis of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and subsequent therapeutic indication.

  3. Impact of age- and gender-specific cut-off values for the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Urturi, Cristina; Andreu, Montserrat; Hernandez, Cristina; Perez-Riquelme, Francisco; Carballo, Fernando; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, Jose; Cubiella, Joaquín; Hernandez, Vicent; Mao, Carmen Gonzalez; Perez, Elena; Salas, Dolores; Andrés, Mercedes; Bujanda, Luis; Portillo, Isabel; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Quintero, Enrique; Morillas, Juan Diego; Lanas, Angel; Sostres, Carlos; Augé, Josep Maria; Castells, Antoni; Bessa, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    There is no information on the impact of age and gender on the diagnostic yield of different positivity thresholds for the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT). To evaluate the performance of this test at distinct positivity cut-offs in a population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. CRC detection rate (DR), and analysis of resources were evaluated retrospectively, at different cut-offs of FIT (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40μg Hb/g) respect to a reference value (15μg Hb/g), according to age and gender, in a screening population of 10,611 participants of the ColonPrev study (Quintero. NEJM 2013). At the reference cut-off value, 36 CRC and 252 advanced adenomas (AA) were diagnosed. Increasing the cut-off in women ≤60 years decreases colonoscopies performed by 44.5% without modifying the CRC (DR). Same CRC DR was observed in men ≤60 years and women >60 years increasing cut-off at 25-30μg Hb/g. In men >60 years, all increases in the cut-off affected the CRC DR, especially when the cut-off was increased from 35 to 40μg Hb/g (CRC miss rate 25%). To improve the performance of FIT in CRC screening programs, FIT cut-offs could be individualized by age and gender. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [An epidemiological index to assess the nutritional status of children based in a polynomial model of values from Z punctuation for the age in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Avila-Curiel, A; Shamah, T; Barragán, L; Chávez, A; Avila, Maria; Juárez, L

    2004-03-01

    A nutritional status index was built by modeling the mathematical function of the mean Z scores of weight for age, from 60,079 children under five years of age, selected in a probabilistic fashion from the Mexican population. The most precise mathematical model was a fifth degree polynomial. The correlation coefficient was between .937values: -17.3 in the lower socioeconomic strata and 18.0 in the higher strata, the latter suggesting the presence of childhood obesity. This index is useful to estimate the epidemiological burden and the characteristics of malnutrition at early ages, as well as to assess the impact of interventions, without being altered by common biases related to the utilization of malnutrition prevalence values.

  5. Dissipative energy loss within the left ventricle detected by vector flow mapping in children: Normal values and effects of age and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Taiyu; Itatani, Keiichi; Inuzuka, Ryo; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Shindo, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoichiro; Miyaji, Kagami

    2015-11-01

    Vector flow mapping (VFM) is a novel echocardiographic technology which enables visualization of the intraventricular flow velocity vector. Dissipative energy loss (EL) derived from the velocity vector field of intraventricular blood flow is considered to reflect the efficiency of blood flow, and could be an indicator of left ventricular function. We aimed to determine the reference values of the EL derived from VFM within the left ventricle. VFM analysis was performed using echocardiography in 64 healthy children. The velocity vector fields of the intra-left ventricular blood flow were obtained from the apical 5-chamber view, and the EL values during systole and diastole were calculated. The measurements were averaged over three cardiac cycles, and indexed to body surface area (BSA). The mean subject age was 6.8±4.3 years. The mean EL was 4.10±2.35mW/m/m(2) BSA during systole and 16.24±11.63mW/m/m(2) BSA during diastole. On multivariate analysis, age and heart rate (HR) were independent predictors of systolic EL, whereas age, HR, and E wave peak velocity were independent predictors of diastolic EL. The regression equations used to predict the BSA-indexed systolic and diastolic EL were as follows: log10 (systolic EL)=-0.0332-0.00213×age (months)+0.00789×HR (beats/min) (adjusted R(2), 0.833; p<0.0001); and log10 (diastolic EL)=0.277-0.00346×age (months)+0.00570×HR (beats/min)+0.00564×E wave peak velocity (cm/s) (adjusted R(2), 0.867; p<0.0001). The systolic and diastolic EL were positively correlated with HR and negatively correlated with age. Moreover, the diastolic EL was positively correlated with the E wave peak velocity. The present study provides reference values for the systolic and diastolic EL that can be used in future studies examining patients with heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A CORRECTION.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1940-03-22

    IN a recently published volume on "The Origin of Submarine Canyons" the writer inadvertently credited to A. C. Veatch an excerpt from a submarine chart actually contoured by P. A. Smith, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The chart in question is Chart IVB of Special Paper No. 7 of the Geological Society of America entitled "Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley, by A. C. Veatch and P. A. Smith," and the excerpt appears as Plate III of the volume fist cited above. In view of the heavy labor involved in contouring the charts accompanying the paper by Veatch and Smith and the beauty of the finished product, it would be unfair to Mr. Smith to permit the error to go uncorrected. Excerpts from two other charts are correctly ascribed to Dr. Veatch.

  7. "Reference values" of trace elements in the hair of a sample group of Spanish children (aged 6-9 years) - are urban topsoils a source of contamination?

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2014-07-01

    Human hair is used as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to contaminants in the individual. However, the use of human hair is controversial, mainly because reference levels for pollutants in hair have not yet been set. In the case of Spain, few biomonitoring studies have involved infants and children. A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the possible normal values of trace elements of toxicological concern in children aged 6-9 years from the city of Alcalá de Henares, Community of Madrid (Spain), following the methodology and strict inclusion criteria previously developed by our group. Levels of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were monitored in scalp-hair from 117 healthy children (47 boys and 70 girls) between April and May of 2001. The levels of trace elements here described could be considered as possible "reference values" for children aged 6-9 years resident in the Community of Madrid. These values might also be selected as a preliminary screening tool to evaluate if a Spanish child has been exposed to any of the contaminants studied here. This study also investigated whether local urban topsoils were a source of metals for this population.

  8. 77 FR 72199 - Technical Corrections; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 171 RIN 3150-AJ16 Technical Corrections; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... corrections, including updating the street address for the Region I office, correcting authority citations and... rule. DATES: The correction is effective on December 5, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  9. [A cohort study on the predictive value of factors influencing cardio-cerebro vascular death among people over 40 years of age].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-min; Lu, Fang-hong; Jin, Shi-kuan; Sun, Shang-wen; Zhao, Ying-xin; Wang, Shu-jian; Zhou, Xiao-hong

    2007-02-01

    To explore the factors influencing cardio-cerebro vascular death events among people over 40 years of age in Shandong area, China. Baseline survey was carried out in 1991. A total number of 11,008 adults over 40 years old had been studied in Shandong province. Data on cardiocerebro death was collected. The correlation between influencing factors and cardio-cerebro vascular death events was analyzed by Cox regression model. Totally, 434 cardio-cerebro death events occurred among the 11,008 subjects during the 8-year follow-up study. Cardio-cerebro death events were related to systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking, stroke history and age. Data from Cox regression analysis showed that the relative risk (RR) for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 2.862 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.976-4.144] times for those people having stroke history. When systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure increased by every 10 mm Hg, the relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 1.171 (95% CI: 1.033-1.328), 1.214 (95% CI: 1.044-1.413) respectively. it was found that a 1.239 (95% CI: 1.088-1.553) times higher in smokers than non-smokers on relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events. However, the predictive values of the influencing factors for cardio-cerebro vascular death were different among population of different years of age. The relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 1.366 (95% CI: 1.102-1.678) times for each 10 mm Hg increase of diastolic blood pressure in 40-59 years old population. However, the effect was taken place by systolic blood pressure in 60-74 years old population,with a relative risk of 1.201 (95% CI: 1.017-1.418) for each 10 mm Hg increase. Age seemed the only significant factor for cardio-cerebro vascular death events on population aged more than 75 years old. Conclusion The predictive values of the risk factors were different among age groups. The different

  10. [Handgrip strength in children and teenagers aged from 6 to 18 years: reference values and relationship with size and body composition].

    PubMed

    Marrodán Serrano, M D; Romero Collazos, J F; Moreno Romero, S; Mesa Santurino, M S; Cabañas Armesilla, M D; Pacheco Del Cerro, J L; González-Montero de Espinosa, M

    2009-04-01

    Handgrip strength is an important test to evaluate physical fitness and nutritional status. The main objective of this research is to prepare a reference standard applicable to the Spanish population of both sexes between 6 and 18 years old. At the same time, to extend our knowledge of normal variation of this characteristic with age, gender, size and body composition. The sample consisted of 2125 subjects between the 6 and 18 years (1176 boys and 949 girls). The handgrip strength of both hands was taken with a digital adjustable dynamometer. Weight, height, forearm circumference and skin fold thickness were measured mass index, fat free. Body mass, percentage of fat and total, muscle and fat forearm areas were estimated. Ontogenetic and sexual variability of dynamometric force was analysed and a table was produced with the mean, standard deviation and percentile distribution, by hand, age and gender. Multiple correlation analysis was applied to establish the relationship between handgrip dynamometric force, body mass index and body composition variables. Handgrip strength increases with age and a significant sexual dimorphism from the age of 12 years is observed. Growth charts with normal values obtained in healthy Spanish children and teenagers could be used as a reference pattern. The correlation between hand static force and fat free mass or arm muscle area is stronger than with direct size variables or body mass index.

  11. The Mathematical Structure of Error Correction Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    The error correction model for a vector valued time series has been proposed and applied in the economic literature with the papers by Sargan (1964...the notion of cointegratedness of a vector process and showed the relation between cointegration and error correction models. This paper defines a...general error correction model, that encompasses the usual error correction model as well as the integral correction model by allowing a finite number of

  12. Analysis of the effect size of overweight in muscular strength tests among adolescents. Reference values according to sex, age and BMI.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Emilio J; De La Torre-Cruz, Manuel; Suarez-Manzano, Sara; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the effect size of overweight on the results of muscular strength tests in adolescents and to report percentile tables based on sex, age and BMI. The study hypothesized that the effect size obtained from the difference between normal-weight and overweight youth would be greater than the differences between sexes within the same age group. A total of 11044 Spanish adolescents (48.5% girls) aged 14.39 ± 1.21 years (range: 12-16 years) from 42 secondary schools participated in the research. Muscular strength was evaluated using standing long jump, hand grip strength (manual dynamometer) and sit-ups (30 s). The effect size was analysed using the adjusted Hedges' ğ. The results show that 76.3% and 72.8% of overweight boys and girls respectively performed a standing long jump equal to or less than the normal-weight average. The 67.4% and 67.1% of overweight boys and girls respectively showed manual dynamometer values equal to or greater than the normalweight average. Finally, 68.7% and 65.9% of overweight boys and girls respectively obtained measures for 30 s of sit-ups equal to or lower than the normal-weight average. It can therefore be concluded that the differential effect size between boys and girls is higher than that between normal-weight and overweight adolescents in the three strength tests analysed. In spite of the above, these results suggest the value of taking into account BMI when assessing the muscular strength of young people, in addition to sex and age.

  13. Construction of Lambda, Mu, Sigma Values for Determining Mid-Upper Arm Circumference z Scores in U.S. Children Aged 2 Months Through 18 Years.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Bi, Charlie; Thaete, Kristi

    2017-02-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) has proven highly predictive of morbidity and mortality associated with malnutrition better, in some cases, than other growth indicators, including body mass index (BMI) z scores and weight-for-height z scores. A recent consensus statement recommended the inclusion of MUAC and MUAC z scores in the nutrition assessment of children in the United States; however, the requisite data to permit z score calculations for children aged >5 years have not been published. This investigation was designed to generate lambda mu sigma (LMS) values to permit the calculation of MUAC z scores in U.S. children 2 months through 18 years of age. Anthropometric data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012) were used for model development (n = 28,995). Smoothed centiles were constructed and compared with previously described CDC percentiles. Independently collected MUAC data from 2 different U.S. studies were used for external validation (n = 1438). Goodness-of-fit was assessed visually and statistically by examining detrended quantile-quantile plots, Q statistics, and the distribution of z scores. The curves generated in this investigation fit the raw data well with no systematic bias and no sacrifice in fit for children aged <12 months. The curves were consistent with those published by the CDC, and the distribution z scores approximated 0 ± 1 in all age groups. These LMS values derived in this investigation can be used by clinicians to generate MUAC z scores for U.S. children.

  14. The Value of Measurement of Macular Carotenoid Pigment Optical Densities and Distributions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Other Retinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Delori, François C.; Richer, Stuart; van Kuijk, Frederik J. M.; Wenzel, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the optical and antioxidant properties of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin play an important role in maintaining the health and function of the human macula. In this review article, we assess the value of non-invasive quantification of macular pigment levels and distributions to identify individuals potentially at risk for visual disability or catastrophic vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, and we consider the strengths and weaknesses of the diverse measurement methods currently available. PMID:19854211

  15. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of cell saver use in instrumented posterior correction and fusion surgery for scoliosis in school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yu-Liang; Ma, Hua-Song; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Ji-Gong; Liu, Yan; Shi, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Mi, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wei-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents is associated with the potential for massive intraoperative blood loss, which requires significant allogeneic blood transfusion. Until now, the intraoperative use of the cell saver has been extensively adopted; however, its efficacy and cost-effectiveness have not been well established. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative cell saver use. This study was a single-center, retrospective study of 247 school-aged and adolescent patients who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery between August 2007 and June 2013. A cell saver was used intraoperatively in 67 patients and was not used in 180 patients. Matched case-control pairs were selected using a propensity score to balance potential confounders in baseline characteristics. Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) and plasma transfusions as well as blood transfusion costs were analyzed. The propensity score matching produced 60 matched pairs. Compared to the control group, the cell saver group had significantly fewer intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusions (P = 0.012). However, when the combined postoperative and total perioperative periods were evaluated for the use of allogeneic RBC transfusion, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (P = 0.813 and P = 0.101, respectively). With regard to the total cost of perioperative transfusion of all blood products (RBC and plasma), costs for the control group were slightly lower than those of the cell saver group, but this variance did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.095). The use of the cell saver in posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents was able to decrease the amount of intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion but failed to decrease total perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion. Moreover, the use of the cell saver

  16. Long-term results of total repair of tetralogy of Fallot in adulthood: 35 years follow-up in 104 patients corrected at the age of 18 or older.

    PubMed

    Nollert, G; Fischlein, T; Bouterwek, S; Böhmer, C; Dewald, O; Kreuzer, E; Welz, A; Netz, H; Klinner, W; Reichart, B

    1997-08-01

    Long-term survival after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is reported to be excellent if the patients are corrected in childhood. However, age at operation has been demonstrated as an important risk-factor. The aim of our study was to investigate whether adult patients also benefit from surgery. From December 1958 to May 1977, 739 patients underwent a correction of their TOF with pulmonary stenosis at our institution. Foreigners (n = 52) and those who moved to a foreign country (n = 13) were excluded from further analysis. Sixteen patients were lost during follow-up (98% complete). Of the remaining patient population (n = 658; mean age: 12.2 +/- 8.6 years; range 2-67 years), 104 patients were 18 years or older at the time of correction. Operative (n = 25) and one-year (n = 8) deaths were excluded for long-term calculations, resulting in a study group of 71 patients. Actuarial 10, 20, 30, and 35-year survival rates were 94%, 93%, 83%, and 72% respectively, and not different from normal life expectancy. The most common cause of death was congestive heart failure (n = 3), followed by myocardial infarction (n = 2) and sudden death (n = 2). Parameters influencing longterm survival could not be detected. At follow-up (mean 27.7 years), more than 80% (n = 48) of the 58 survivors reported themselves to be in NYHA functional class I or II and 95% (n = 55) were in a better condition than before the operation. Repair of tetralogy of Fallot in adulthood shows excellent results with normal life expectancy for the patients.

  17. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differenc