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Sample records for age current repair

  1. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  2. Current Trends in Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Patapis, Paul; Zavras, Nick; Tzanetis, Panagiotis; Machairas, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical technique, postoperative complications, and possible recurrence after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) in comparison with open ventral hernia repair (OVHR), based on the international literature. Database: A Medline search of the current English literature was performed using the terms laparoscopic ventral hernia repair and incisional hernia repair. Conclusions: LVHR is a safe alternative to the open method, with the main advantages being minimal postoperative pain, shorter recovery, and decreased wound and mesh infections. Incidental enterotomy can be avoided by using a meticulous technique and sharp dissection to avoid thermal injury. PMID:26273186

  3. Chromatin Remodeling, DNA Damage Repair and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Yip, Raymond KH; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and endogenous conditions causing DNA damage, which is detected and repaired by conserved DNA repair pathways to maintain genomic integrity. Chromatin remodeling is critical in this process, as the organization of eukaryotic DNA into compact chromatin presents a natural barrier to all DNA-related events. Studies on human premature aging syndromes together with normal aging have suggested that accumulated damages might lead to exhaustion of resources that are required for physiological functions and thus accelerate aging. In this manuscript, combining the present understandings and latest findings, we focus mainly on discussing the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and regulation of aging. PMID:23633913

  4. Base Excision Repair, Aging and Health Span

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guogang; Herzig, Maryanne; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Walter, Christi A.

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage and mutagenesis are suggested to contribute to aging through their ability to mediate cellular dysfunction. The base excision repair (BER) pathway ameliorates a large number of DNA lesions that arise spontaneously. Many of these lesions are reported to increase with age. Oxidized guanine, repaired largely via base excision repair, is particularly well studied and shown to increase with age. Spontaneous mutant frequencies also increase with age which suggests that mutagenesis may contribute to aging. It is widely accepted that genetic instability contributes to age-related occurrences of cancer and potentially other age-related pathologies. BER activity decreases with age in multiple tissues. The specific BER protein that appears to limit activity varies among tissues. DNA polymerase-β is reduced in brain from aged mice and rats while AP endonuclease is reduced in spermatogenic cells obtained from old mice. The differences in proteins that appear to limit BER activity among tissues may represent true tissue-specific differences in activity or may be due to differences in techniques, environmental conditions or other unidentified differences among the experimental approaches. Much remains to be addressed concerning the potential role of BER in aging and age-related health span. PMID:18423806

  5. Eddy current inspection of bonded composite crack repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Thomas K., Jr.; Guijt, Cornelius; Fredell, Robert

    1996-11-01

    The aging of the US aircraft fleet poses serious economic and safety challenges. Fatigue cracks in the 7079-T6 aluminum fuselage skin of aging transports have presented zn opportunity to test a prototype repair. GLARE, a fiber metal laminate, has been applied to repair fuselage cracks in the fuselage skin of a US transport aircraft. This affordable prototype solution to extend the life of aging aircraft requires an inspection method to track crack growth and monitor the effectiveness of the patch on repaired fuselage skin. The fiber metal laminate patch is opaque and the fuselage skin at the damage location generally can only be accessed from the outside surface requiring the use of a non-destructive means to monitor crack length. Advances in eddy current inspection technology have provided a means to detect and track crack growth beneath patches on fuselage skins. This paper describes the development of low-frequency eddy current techniques to monitor cracks under bonded composite repair patches applied to stiffened fuselage structures. The development involved the use of a rugged portable eddy current inspection unit. The results show crack growth can be monitored to ensure the continued structural integrity of repaired flawed structures; however, the influence of substructure present a challenge to the inspector in detecting crack growth.

  6. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair: current endovascular perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nathan; Minion, David; Bobadilla, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    Thoracoabdominal aneurysms account for roughly 3% of identified aneurysms annually in the United States. Advancements in endovascular techniques and devices have broadened their application to these complex surgical problems. This paper will focus on the current state of endovascular thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair, including specific considerations in patient selection, operative planning, and perioperative complications. Both total endovascular and hybrid options will be considered. PMID:25170271

  7. BRCA Mutations, DNA Repair Deficiency, and Ovarian Aging1

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Kutluk; Turan, Volkan; Titus, Shiny; Stobezki, Robert; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging. PMID:26224004

  8. Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Soper, Nathaniel J; Teitelbaum, Ezra N

    2013-10-01

    The advent of laparoscopy has significantly improved postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgical repair of a paraesophageal hernia. Although this minimally invasive approach considerably reduces postoperative pain and recovery times, and may improve physiologic outcomes, laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair remains a complex operation requiring advanced laparoscopic skills and experience with the anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction and diaphragmatic hiatus. In this article, we describe our approach to patient selection, preoperative evaluation, operative technique, and postoperative management. Specific attention is paid to performing an adequate hiatal dissection and esophageal mobilization, the decision of whether to use a mesh to reinforce the crural repair, and construction of an adequate antireflux barrier (ie, fundoplication). PMID:24105282

  9. Premature aging and cancer in nucleotide excision repair-disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diderich, K.; Alanazi, M.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    During past decades the major impact of DNA damage on cancer as ‘disease of the genes’ has become abundantly apparent. In addition to cancer recent years have also uncovered a very strong association of DNA damage with many features of (premature) aging. The notion that DNA repair systems not only protect against cancer but equally against too fast aging has become evident from a systematic, integral analysis of a variety of mouse mutants carrying defects in e.g. transcription-coupled repair with or without an additional impairment of global genome nucleotide excision repair and the corresponding segmental premature aging syndromes in man. A striking correlation between the degree of the DNA repair deficiency and the acceleration of specific progeroid symptoms has been discovered for those repair systems that primarily protect from the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of DNA damage. These observations are explained from the perspective of nucleotide excision repair mouse mutant and human syndromes. However, similar principles likely apply to other DNA repair pathways including interstrand crosslink repair and double strand break repair and genome maintenance systems in general, supporting the notion that DNA damage constitutes an important intermediate in the process of aging. PMID:21680258

  10. Current trends in laparoscopic groin hernia repair: A review

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Kumar, Awanish; Agarwal, Prerit; Agarwal, Akshay Anand

    2015-01-01

    Hernia is a common problem of the modern world with its incidence more in developing countries. Inguinal hernia is the most common groin hernia repaired worldwide. With advancement in technology operative techniques of repair have also evolved. A PubMed and COCHRANE database search was accomplished in this regard to establish the current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in view of recent published literature. Published literature support that laparoscopic hernia repair is best suited for recurrent and bilateral inguinal hernia although it may be offered for primary inguinal hernia if expertise is available. PMID:26380826

  11. Current trends in laparoscopic groin hernia repair: A review.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Kumar, Awanish; Agarwal, Prerit; Agarwal, Akshay Anand

    2015-09-16

    Hernia is a common problem of the modern world with its incidence more in developing countries. Inguinal hernia is the most common groin hernia repaired worldwide. With advancement in technology operative techniques of repair have also evolved. A PubMed and COCHRANE database search was accomplished in this regard to establish the current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in view of recent published literature. Published literature support that laparoscopic hernia repair is best suited for recurrent and bilateral inguinal hernia although it may be offered for primary inguinal hernia if expertise is available. PMID:26380826

  12. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Current and Future Status

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, R. J. Ivancev, K.

    2008-05-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair has rapidly expanded since its introduction in the early 1990s. Early experiences were associated with high rates of complications including conversion to open repair. Perioperative morbidity and mortality results have improved but these concerns have been replaced by questions about long-term durability. Gradually, too, these problems have been addressed. Challenges of today include the ability to roll out the endovascular technique to patients with adverse aneurysm morphology. Fenestrated and branch stent-graft technology is in its infancy. Only now are we beginning to fully understand the advantages, limitations, and complications of such technology. This paper outlines some of the concepts and discusses the controversies and challenges facing clinicians involved in endovascular aneurysm surgery today and in the future.

  13. Connecting the Dots: From DNA Damage and Repair to Aging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mei-Ren; Li, Kaiyi; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells evolve a delicate system, the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, to monitor genomic integrity and to prevent the damage from both endogenous end exogenous insults. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant DDR and deficient DNA repair are strongly associated with cancer and aging. Our understanding of the core program of DDR has made tremendous progress in the past two decades. However, the long list of the molecules involved in the DDR and DNA repair continues to grow and the roles of the new "dots" are under intensive investigation. Here, we review the connection between DDR and DNA repair and aging and discuss the potential mechanisms by which deficient DNA repair triggers systemic effects to promote physiological or pathological aging. PMID:27164092

  14. Connecting the Dots: From DNA Damage and Repair to Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Mei-Ren; Li, Kaiyi; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells evolve a delicate system, the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, to monitor genomic integrity and to prevent the damage from both endogenous end exogenous insults. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant DDR and deficient DNA repair are strongly associated with cancer and aging. Our understanding of the core program of DDR has made tremendous progress in the past two decades. However, the long list of the molecules involved in the DDR and DNA repair continues to grow and the roles of the new “dots” are under intensive investigation. Here, we review the connection between DDR and DNA repair and aging and discuss the potential mechanisms by which deficient DNA repair triggers systemic effects to promote physiological or pathological aging. PMID:27164092

  15. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2013-09-11

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a technique to repair aging cables that have been subjected to degradation associated with long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. The physical degradation of the aging cables manifests itself primarily as cracking and increased brittleness of the polymeric electrical insulation. Therefore, the proposed cable-repair concept comprises development of techniques to impart a softening agent within the deteriorated polymer insulation jacket so as to regain the ability of the insulation to stretch without failing and possibly to heal existing cracks in the insulation. Our approach is to use commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, demonstrate the adsorption of chemical treatments in the EPR and quantify changes in resulting physical and mechanical properties. EPR cable samples have been thermally treated in air to produce specimens corresponding to the full range of cable age-performance points from new (>350% elongation at break) to end-of-life (<50% elongation at break). The current focus is on two chemical treatments selected as candidates for restoring age-related cable elasticity loss: a rubber plasticizer and a reactive silane molecule. EPR specimens of 200, 150, 100, and 50% elongation at break have been soaked in the candidate chemical treatments and the kinetics of chemical uptake, measured by change in mass of the samples, has been determined. Mechanical properties as a function of aging and chemical treatment have been measured including ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus at 50% strain, elongation at break, and storage modulus. Dimensional changes with treatment and changes in glass transition temperature were also investigated. These ongoing experiments are expected to provide insight into the physical-chemical nature of the effect of thermal degradation on EPR rejuvenation limits and to advance novel methods for

  16. Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

    1989-03-01

    DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

  17. DNA double strand break repair, aging and the chromatin connection.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Are DNA damage and mutations possible causes or consequences of aging? This question has been hotly debated by biogerontologists for decades. The importance of DNA damage as a possible driver of the aging process went from being widely recognized to then forgotten, and is now slowly making a comeback. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are particularly relevant to aging because of their toxicity, increased frequency with age and the association of defects in their repair with premature aging. Recent studies expand the potential impact of DNA damage and mutations on aging by linking DNA DSB repair and age-related chromatin changes. There is overwhelming evidence that increased DNA damage and mutations accelerate aging. However, an ultimate proof of causality would be to show that enhanced genome and epigenome stability delays aging. This is not an easy task, as improving such complex biological processes is infinitely more difficult than disabling it. We will discuss the possibility that animal models with enhanced DNA repair and epigenome maintenance will be generated in the near future. PMID:26923716

  18. Cutaneous tissue repair: practical implications of current knowledge. II.

    PubMed

    Reed, B R; Clark, R A

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific basis for the certain factors that delay wound repair in the clinical setting. A brief history of wound healing is given, followed by a discussion of endogenous local factors (bacterial infection, hypoxia, foreign body, and desiccation) and endogenous systemic factors (nutritional deficiencies, aging, coagulation disorders, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes) associated with poor wound repair. Also reviewed are the mechanisms by which exogenously administered agents (glucocorticoids, antineoplastic agents, and anticoagulants) may delay healing. Commonly used topical antimicrobials, their spectrum of activity, and evidence of effects on wound healing are examined. Finally, properties of commercially available wound coverings and wound care in the future are discussed. PMID:3908513

  19. Groin hernia repair by laparoscopic techniques: current status and controversies.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Maurice E; Young, Susan B

    2005-08-01

    Laparoscopic hernia repair remains controversial, and its position in current hernia surgery remains in flux. In this article we attempt to put the laparoscopic approach in perspective by describing the rationale for its development. We summarize studies comparing it with open repairs, including recent publications, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews; and we then contrast the data with recent findings of the United States Veterans Affairs Cooperative study 456. We discuss the current and future status of the laparoscopic approach to inguinal hernia repair and present an update of our own laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal technique without mesh fixation. From 1994 to 2004 we performed 314 hernia repairs on 224 patients with no intraoperative complications, no conversions to an open procedure, and no mortality. Thirty (14%) minor postoperative complications occurred. There were three herniated lipomas (preperitoneal fat) but no true peritoneal reherniations. We evaluate critical points of laparoscopic hernia repair including extensive preperitoneal dissection, mesh configuration, size and fixation, cost reduction, and the learning curve. PMID:15983713

  20. Ageing airplane repair assessment program for Airbus A300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillardon, J. M.; Schmidt, HANS-J.; Brandecker, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of the repair categorization activities and includes all details about the methodologies developed for determination of the inspection program for the skin on pressurized fuselages. For inspection threshold determination two methods are defined based on fatigue life approach, a simplified and detailed method. The detailed method considers 15 different parameters to assess the influences of material, geometry, size location, aircraft usage, and workmanship on the fatigue life of the repair and the original structure. For definition of the inspection intervals a general method is developed which applies to all concerned repairs. For this the initial flaw concept is used by considering 6 parameters and the detectable flaw sizes depending on proposed nondestructive inspection methods. An alternative method is provided for small repairs allowing visual inspection with shorter intervals.

  1. Beyond Repair: Literacy, Technology, and a Curriculum of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Lauren Marshall

    2012-01-01

    The magazine of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) often relies on problematic rhetorics that privilege youth-centered ideals and create limited representations of older adults' literacy in digital times. These rhetorics rest on a metaphor of repair, which labels aging adults as primarily bodies in need of fixing or protection. In…

  2. Aging Periodontium, Aging Patient: Current Concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A functioning natural dentition is essential to maintaining overall health in the elderly patient. While age-related alterations in periodontal tissues and the immune system may make an elderly patient more susceptible to periodontal breakdown, age itself is not a major risk factor for periodontal diseases. Rather, individual age-associated factors such as systemic diseases, medications and changes in behavior, motor function and cognitive function should be considered for each elderly patient when making treatment decisions. PMID:26357815

  3. Color stability of repaired composite submitted to accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Beatriz Silva; Silame, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Alandia-Roman, Carla Cecilia; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability (ΔE) of nanoparticulate composite, with consideration for the type of surface treatment performed before repair. A Teflon matrix was used to fabricate 50 test specimens from composite. After initial color readout, the specimens were submitted to 100 hours of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). The samples were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the surface treatment performed: sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 1); sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and a flowable composite (Group 2); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 3); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and a nanoparticulate composite (Group 4); and a control group (Group 5). After repair, a new color readout was taken, the test specimens were submitted to a new AAA cycle (300 hours), and the final color readout was taken. Comparison of the ΔE means (one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, p < 0.05) demonstrated no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05) after 100 hours of AAA. After repair, Group 1 (4.61 ± 2.03) presented the highest color alteration with a statistically significant difference compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). After 300 hours, Group 4 specimens (13.84 ± 0.71) presented the lowest color alteration in comparison with the other groups, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). It was concluded that the repair performed in Group 4 provided greater esthetic recovery, made possible by the regression in the ΔE values of the restorations after repair, and less color alteration of the restorations over the course of time. PMID:23032241

  4. Neutrophil depletion delays wound repair in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Naomi; Okawa, Yayoi; Sakurai, Hidetoshi

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important clinical problems in caring for elderly patients is treatment of pressure ulcers. One component of normal wound healing is the generation of an inflammatory reaction, which is characterized by the sequential infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. Neutrophils migrate early in the wound healing process. In aged C57BL/6 mice, wound healing is relatively inefficient. We examined the effects of neutrophil numbers on wound healing in both young and aged mice. We found that the depletion of neutrophils by anti-Gr-1 antibody dramatically delayed wound healing in aged mice. The depletion of neutrophils in young mice had less effect on the kinetics of wound healing. Intravenous G-CSF injection increased the migration of neutrophils to the wound site. While the rate of wound repair did not change significantly in young mice following G-CSF injection, it increased significantly in old mice. PMID:19424869

  5. Valve repair in rheumatic heart disease in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod K; Dharmapuram, Anil K; Swain, Sunil K; Ramdoss, Nagarajan; Raghavan, Sreekanth S; Murthy, Kona S

    2008-04-01

    Valve repair in children is technically demanding but more desirable than valve replacement. From April 2004 to September 2005, 1 boy and 8 girls with rheumatic heart disease, aged 2-13 years (median, 9 years), underwent valve repair for isolated mitral regurgitation in 5, combined mitral and aortic regurgitation in 2, mitral stenosis in 1, and mitral regurgitation associated with atrial septal defect in 1. Chordal shortening in 7, annular plication in 6, commissurotomy in 1, reconstruction of commissural leaflets in 7 were performed for mitral valve disease. Plication and reattachment of the aortic cusps was carried out in 2 patients. Annuloplasty rings were not used. All patients survived the operation, 8 had trivial or mild residual mitral regurgitation, and 1 had trivial aortic regurgitation. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from 14 to 7 mm Hg postoperatively. During follow-up of 3-18 months, all children were asymptomatic and enjoyed normal activity. None required reoperation. In addition to chordal shortening and annular plication, reconstruction of the commissural leaflets is considered the most important aspect of valve repair. It can be achieved without annuloplasty rings, giving good early and midterm results. PMID:18381871

  6. DNA repair, insulin signaling and sirtuins: at the crossroads between cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2008-01-01

    For many years organismal aging and cancer were viewed as separate entities. Recent studies however have suggested that these two seemingly disparate biological processes may in fact share common biochemical pathways. One area of emerging convergence involves the intersection of pathways known to mediate DNA repair with pathways previously implicated in insulin signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the sirtuin family of proteins act as central mediators of this molecular crosstalk. The coordination of DNA repair with overall energy balance may be essential for reducing the risk of developing cancer as well as for determining the rate at which we age. This review will summarize our current knowledge on how the maintenance of genomic integrity and insulin signaling intersect, the potential regulation of sirtuins in this crosstalk, and how this coordinated regulation may have important implication for both tumor-free and overall survival. PMID:18508709

  7. Current options in umbilical hernia repair in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Kulaçoğlu, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Umbilical hernia is a rather common surgical problem. Elective repair after diagnosis is advised. Suture repairs have high recurrence rates; therefore, mesh reinforcement is recommended. Mesh can be placed through either an open or laparoscopic approach with good clinical results. Standard polypropylene mesh is suitable for the open onlay technique; however, composite meshes are required for laparoscopic repairs. Large seromas and surgical site infection are rather common complications that may result in recurrence. Obesity, ascites, and excessive weight gain following repair are obviously potential risk factors. Moreover, smoking may create a risk for recurrence. PMID:26504420

  8. Current perspectives in stem cell research for knee cartilage repair

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Patrick; Rey-Rico, Ana; Venkatesan, Jagadeesh K; Madry, Henning; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Protocols based on the delivery of stem cells are currently applied in patients, showing encouraging results for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions (focal defects, osteoarthritis). Yet, restoration of a fully functional cartilage surface (native structural organization and mechanical functions) especially in the knee joint has not been reported to date, showing the need for improved designs of clinical trials. Various sources of progenitor cells are now available, originating from adult tissues but also from embryonic or reprogrammed tissues, most of which have already been evaluated for their chondrogenic potential in culture and for their reparative properties in vivo upon implantation in relevant animal models of cartilage lesions. Nevertheless, particular attention will be needed regarding their safe clinical use and their potential to form a cartilaginous repair tissue of proper quality and functionality in the patient. Possible improvements may reside in the use of biological supplements in accordance with regulations, while some challenges remain in establishing standardized, effective procedures in the clinics. PMID:24520197

  9. [Current cell therapy strategies for repairing the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Féron, F

    2007-09-01

    One of the chief contemporary goals of neurologists and neuroscientists is to find a way to overcome the debilitating effects of brain diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases. Since very few molecules have been found to be efficient in curing the patients and even halting the progression of the symptoms, cell therapy is now seen as an attractive alternative. Two therapeutic strategies are currently under investigation: i) the "substitution" strategy, based on grafts of cells capable of differentiating in the appropriate cells and restoring lost functions and ii) the "neuroprotective" or "conservative" strategy aiming to increase the resistance of spared cells to the toxicity of their environment and to reinforce the body's own mechanisms of healing. Twenty years ago, foetal neuroblasts were the first cells to be transplanted in the brains of patients with Parkinson's or Huntington disease. A phase II clinical trial is presently conducted in France for the latter disorder. However, the numerous ethical and technical issues raised by the use of embryonic and foetal cells have directed the focus of clinicians and researchers towards substitute cell types. In this review, we summarise the main findings of the most recent basic studies and clinical trials based on: i) the grafting of surrogate adult cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells; ii) the potential therapeutic applications of neuropoiesis - the persistent neurogenesis in the brain - as a source for tissue engraftment and as self-repair by a person's own indigenous population of pluripotent cells and iii) immune-based therapy (autologous activated macrophages and T cell vaccination) as well as administration of immunomodulatory molecules. Unexpectedly, it has been found that undifferentiated adult stem cells can display immune-like functions when they home in on an inflamed brain area while immune cells and immunosuppressors can improve functional and

  10. Effects of aging on repair bond strengths of a polyacid-modified composite resin.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Sau, C W; Lye, K W

    1999-01-01

    The effect of age of a poly-acid-modified composite resin on repair bond strength after different methods of surface conditioning was studied. Surface conditioning methods included the following: maleic acid with resin application; polyacrylic acid with resin application; sand-blasting with resin application. Shear bond testing between the aged and new material was carried out with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Although repair bonds strengths after all surface conditioning methods were significantly higher than the control group at 1 week, no statistically significant differences in bond strengths were noted after aging the material for 6 months. After all aging periods, surface conditioning with sand-blasting and resin application resulted in the highest repair bond for poly-acid-modified composite resins. Specimens with cohesive failure in the material gave significantly higher repair bond strengths than specimens with adhesive failure at the repaired interface. PMID:10823087

  11. DNA repair: Dynamic defenders against cancer and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, Jill O.; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2006-04-01

    You probably weren't thinking about your body's cellular DNA repair systems the last time you sat on the beach in the bright sunshine. Fortunately, however, while you were subjecting your DNA to the harmful effects of ultraviolet light, your cells were busy repairing the damage. The idea that our genetic material could be damaged by the sun was not appreciated in the early days of molecular biology. When Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 [1], it was assumed that DNA is fundamentally stable since it carries the blueprint of life. However, over 50 years of research have revealed that our DNA is under constant assault by sunlight, oxygen, radiation, various chemicals, and even our own cellular processes. Cleverly, evolution has provided our cells with a diverse set of tools to repair the damage that Mother Nature causes. DNA repair processes restore the normal nucleotide sequence and DNA structure of the genome after damage [2]. These responses are highly varied and exquisitely regulated. DNA repair mechanisms are traditionally characterized by the type of damage repaired. A large variety of chemical modifications can alter normal DNA bases and either lead to mutations or block transcription if not repaired, and three distinct pathways exist to remove base damage. Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA base alterations that do not distort the overall structure of the DNA helix such as bases damaged by oxidation resulting from normal cellular metabolism. While BER removes single damaged bases, nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes short segments of nucleotides (called oligonucleotides) containing damaged bases. NER responds to any alteration that distorts the DNA helix and is the mechanism responsible for repairing bulky base damage caused by carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo [a]pyrene (found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust) as well as covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine bases resulting from the ultraviolet (UV

  12. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Corbett, Anita H; Doetsch, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  13. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nicholas C.; Corbett, Anita H.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. PMID:26519467

  14. Current Space Station Experiments Investigating Component Level Electronics Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    The Soldering in a Reduced Gravity Experiment (SoRGE) and Component Repair Experiment (CRE)-1 are tests performed on the International Space Station to determine the techniques, tools, and training necessary to allow future crews to perform manual electronics repairs at the component level. SoRGE provides information on the formation and internal structure of through-hole solder joints, illustrating the challenges and implications of soldering in reduced gravity. SoRGE showed a significant increase in internal void defects for joints formed in low gravity compared to normal gravity. Methods for mitigating these void defects were evaluated using a modified soldering process. CRE-1 demonstrated the removal, cleaning, and replacement of electronics components by manual means on functional circuit boards. The majority of components successful passed a post-repair functional test demonstrating the feasibility of component-level repair within the confines of a spacecraft. Together, these tasks provide information to recommend material and tool improvements, training improvements, and future work to help enable electronics repairs in future space missions.

  15. Fiber Bragg grating sensing in smart composite patch repairs for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kressel, I.; Botsev, Y.; Leibovich, H.; Guedj, P.; Ben-Simon, U.; Ghilai, G.; Gorbatov, Nahum; Gali, S.; Tur, Moshe

    2005-05-01

    A low spatial resolution Fiber-Bragg-Grating sensor net is proposed for real time health monitoring of bonded composite patches used for aging aircraft structural repairs. FBG reading are shown to have direct correlation with the structural integrity of the patch, making this concept attractive for airworthiness assessment of bonded repairs.

  16. Performance of repair welds on aged Cr-Mo piping girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D.W.

    1999-10-01

    This article documents the results of an industry survey of weld repair practices and describes the results of experimental evaluations performed on service-aged 2{1/4}Cr-1 Mo steel piping using SMAW with both conventional postweld heat treatments and temper bead repair techniques. The overall results of this program provide substantial evidence that service-aged piping systems can be successfully weld repaired with and without postweld heat treatments and that life extension by several decades is achievable under the right design and repair conditions. Weld repairs performed on degraded exservice welds resulted in restoration or improvement of tensile and creep properties. Microhardness test results within the heat-affected zone of each weldment indicated that the temper bead weld repairs produced only slightly higher peak hardness values than those measured for the fully postweld heat treated repairs. Finally, in terms of toughness, temper bead weld repairs consistently produced higher impact properties than those measured for the postweld heat treated weldments. Gas tungsten arc weld repairs with postweld heat treatment resulted in the best combination of tensile strength, uniform microhardness distribution across the weld, Charpy toughness, and creep rupture life.

  17. Inefficient DNA Repair Is an Aging-Related Modifier of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sepe, Sara; Milanese, Chiara; Gabriels, Sylvia; Derks, Kasper W J; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Rijksen, Yvonne M A; Nigg, Alex L; Moreno, Sandra; Cerri, Silvia; Blandini, Fabio; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Mastroberardino, Pier G

    2016-05-31

    The underlying relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) etiopathology and its major risk factor, aging, is largely unknown. In light of the causative link between genome stability and aging, we investigate a possible nexus between DNA damage accumulation, aging, and PD by assessing aging-related DNA repair pathways in laboratory animal models and humans. We demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts from PD patients display flawed nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity and that Ercc1 mutant mice with mildly compromised NER exhibit typical PD-like pathological alterations, including decreased striatal dopaminergic innervation, increased phospho-synuclein levels, and defects in mitochondrial respiration. Ercc1 mouse mutants are also more sensitive to the prototypical PD toxin MPTP, and their transcriptomic landscape shares important similarities with that of PD patients. Our results demonstrate that specific defects in DNA repair impact the dopaminergic system and are associated with human PD pathology and might therefore constitute an age-related risk factor for PD. PMID:27210754

  18. Suffering and Generativity: Repairing Threats to Self in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Suffering is a powerful experience that can be difficult to articulate. Suffering differs from pain alone and includes an individual’s awareness of a threat to self through death, loss of identity, or uncertaintly of the meaningfulness of one’s life. In response to this threat, generative acts, especially creative expressions imbued with the self, may act as a means to repair the self in crisis. The case of Mr. A., an 85-year old man in good health, illustrates how various artistic pieces he created – a wooden dog and several poems -- helps him to restore a “fading” self. For Mr. A, the idea of “fading away” or becoming weaker and less useful until eventually disappearing is a major source of personal suffering. Through his art, he creates unique, interactive and tangible entities that can outlive his physical body and help him reclaim or repair threats to selfhood. PMID:20161268

  19. Age-related macular degeneration: current treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Reddy, Shantan; Schwartz, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although important progress has been made in understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD), management of the disease continues to be a challenge. AMD research has led to a widening of available treatment options and improved prognostic perspectives. This essay reviews these treatment options. Design: Interpretative essay. Methods: Literature review and interpretation. Results: Current treatments to preserve vision in patients with non-exudative AMD include antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementations. Exudative AMD is currently most often treated monthly with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections. However, investigators are beginning to experiment with combination therapy and surgical approaches in an attempt to limit the number of treatment and reduce the financial burden on the health care system. Conclusion: By better understanding the basis and pathogenesis of AMD, newer therapies will continue to be developed that target specific pathways in patients with AMD, with the hoped for outcome of better management of the disease and improved visual acuity. PMID:19668560

  20. Age of the mother as a risk factor and timing of hypospadias repair according to severity

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Brayfield, Marcos Raymond; Torres, Camille M.; Piñeyro-Ruiz, Coriness; Torres, Naillil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives Hypospadias is characterized by a displacement of the urethral opening in males that can change from the typical position within the glans penis to a subcoronal position (Type I), to anywhere along the ventral shaft (Type II), to penoscrotal, scrotal, or perineal positions (Type III). We and others have previously reported that age of the mother (≥ 40 years old) is a risk factor for having a child with hypospadias, but there is a scarcity of reports on whether such risk is higher for having a child with the mild (Type I) or the more severe forms (Types II and III). In addition, we aimed to assess the timing of hypospadias repair according to severity. Methods Parents of children with hypospadias were interviewed by using a series of questionnaires (n = 128 cases). Severity was confirmed in the clinic and age of the mother was self-reported. Number of surgeries, age of child by the first and the last intervention was also assessed. Ordered logistic regression and the Brant test were employed to calculate risk between mild (Type I) and severe cases (Types II and III), and the assumption of proportional odds, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare number of surgeries and age by the last repair between mild and severe cases. One-way ANOVA was employed to compare age of the child at the time of first surgery across severities (Types I - III). Results Women ≥ 40 years of age are 3.89 times [95% CI: 1.20-12.64] at a higher risk for having a child with the more severe forms of the condition than younger women. Repair of Type I was accomplished with 1 intervention whereas more severe cases required 1 – 4 (2 ± 0.5) surgical interventions. The timing for hypospadias repair of Type I cases occurred at an average age of 16.2 ± 4.88 months, of Type II cases occurred at an average age of 20.3 ± 8.15 months whereas the average age of the first hypospadias repair among Type III cases was 12.68 ± 2.52 months. Number of surgeries

  1. The Convergence of Fracture Repair and Stem Cells: Interplay of Genes, Aging, Environmental Factors and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiargyrou, Michael; O’Keefe, Regis J

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of fracture repair makes it an ideal process for studying the interplay between the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ level events involved in tissue regeneration. Additionally, as fracture repair recapitulates many of the processes that occur during embryonic development, investigations of fracture repair provide insights regarding skeletal embryogenesis. Specifically, inflammation, signaling, gene expression, cellular proliferation and differentiation, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, angiogenesis, and remodeling represent the complex array of interdependent biological events that occur during fracture repair. Here we review studies of bone regeneration in genetically modified mouse models, during aging, following environmental exposure, and in the setting of disease that provide insights regarding the role of multipotent cells and their regulation during fracture repair. Complementary animal models and ongoing scientific discoveries define an increasing number of molecular and cellular targets to reduce the morbidity and complications associated with fracture repair. Last, some new and exciting areas of stem cell research such as the contribution of mitochondria function, limb regeneration signaling, and microRNA (miRNA) posttranscriptional regulation are all likely to further contribute to our understanding of fracture repair as an active branch of regenerative medicine. PMID:25264148

  2. Current stem cell delivery methods for myocardial repair.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Calvin C; Zhou, Li; Hao, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure commonly results from an irreparable damage due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In recent years, the rapid advancements in stem cell research have garnered much praise for paving the way to novel therapies in reversing myocardial injuries. Cell types currently investigated for cellular delivery include embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and adult stem cell lineages such as skeletal myoblasts, bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cardiac stem cells (CSCs). To engraft these cells into patients' damaged myocardium, a variety of approaches (intramyocardial, transendocardial, transcoronary, venous, intravenous, intracoronary artery and retrograde venous administrations and bioengineered tissue transplantation) have been developed and explored. In this paper, we will discuss the pros and cons of these delivery modalities, the current state of their therapeutic potentials, and a multifaceted evaluation of their reported clinical feasibility, safety, and efficacy. While the issues of optimal delivery approach, the best progenitor stem cell type, the most effective dose, and timing of administration remain to be addressed, we are highly optimistic that stem cell therapy will provide a clinically viable option for myocardial regeneration. PMID:23509740

  3. Current Stem Cell Delivery Methods for Myocardial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Calvin C.; Zhou, Li; Hao, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure commonly results from an irreparable damage due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In recent years, the rapid advancements in stem cell research have garnered much praise for paving the way to novel therapies in reversing myocardial injuries. Cell types currently investigated for cellular delivery include embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and adult stem cell lineages such as skeletal myoblasts, bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cardiac stem cells (CSCs). To engraft these cells into patients' damaged myocardium, a variety of approaches (intramyocardial, transendocardial, transcoronary, venous, intravenous, intracoronary artery and retrograde venous administrations and bioengineered tissue transplantation) have been developed and explored. In this paper, we will discuss the pros and cons of these delivery modalities, the current state of their therapeutic potentials, and a multifaceted evaluation of their reported clinical feasibility, safety, and efficacy. While the issues of optimal delivery approach, the best progenitor stem cell type, the most effective dose, and timing of administration remain to be addressed, we are highly optimistic that stem cell therapy will provide a clinically viable option for myocardial regeneration. PMID:23509740

  4. Current focus of stem cell application in retinal repair.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, María L; Srivastava, Girish K

    2015-04-26

    The relevance of retinal diseases, both in society's economy and in the quality of people's life who suffer with them, has made stem cell therapy an interesting topic for research. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are the focus in current endeavors as a source of different retinal cells, such as photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The aim is to apply them for cell replacement as an option for treating retinal diseases which so far are untreatable in their advanced stage. ESCs, despite the great potential for differentiation, have the dangerous risk of teratoma formation as well as ethical issues, which must be resolved before starting a clinical trial. iPSCs, like ESCs, are able to differentiate in to several types of retinal cells. However, the process to get them for personalized cell therapy has a high cost in terms of time and money. Researchers are working to resolve this since iPSCs seem to be a realistic option for treating retinal diseases. ADMSCs have the advantage that the procedures to obtain them are easier. Despite advancements in stem cell application, there are still several challenges that need to be overcome before transferring the research results to clinical application. This paper reviews recent research achievements of the applications of these three types of stem cells as well as clinical trials currently based on them. PMID:25914770

  5. Role of metabolic rate and DNA-repair in Drosophila aging Implications for the mitochondrial mutation theory of aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.; Binnard, R.; Fleming, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The notion that injury to mitochondrial DNA is a cause of intrinsic aging was tested by correlating the different respiration rates of several wild strains of Drosophila melanogaster with the life-spans. Respiration rate and aging in a mutant of D. melanogaster deficient in postreplication repair were also investigated. In agreement with the rate of living theory, there was an inverse relation between oxygen consumption and median life-span in flies having normal DNA repair. The mutant showed an abnormally low life-span as compared to the controls and also exhibited significant deficiency in mating fitness and a depressed metabolic rate. Therefore, the short life-span of the mutant may be due to the congenital condition rather than to accelerated aging.

  6. Rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair: a survey of current UK practice

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff disorders, including rotator cuff tears, are common and can be treated conservatively or surgically. Data suggest that the incidence of surgery to repair the rotator cuff is rising. Despite this rise, the most effective approach to postoperative rehabilitation, a critical component of the recovery process, is not well developed. The present study aimed to describe current practice in the UK in relation to rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair. Methods An electronic survey was developed and disseminated to UK based physiotherapists and surgeons involved with rotator cuff repair. Results One hundred valid responses were received. Although there is a degree of variation, current practice for the majority of respondents consists of sling immobilization for 4 weeks to 6 weeks. During this time, passive movement would be commenced before active movement is introduced towards the end of this phase. Resisted exercise begins 7 weeks to 12 weeks postoperatively, alongside return to light work. A progressive resumption of function, including manual work and sport, is advised from approximately 13 weeks. Conclusions In the context of the current literature, it might be suggested that the current approach to rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair for the majority of respondents is somewhat cautious and has not progressed for over a decade.

  7. The Role of Current Techniques and Concepts in Peripheral Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Houschyar, K. S.; Momeni, A.; Pyles, M. N.; Cha, J. Y.; Maan, Z. N.; Duscher, D.; Jew, O. S.; Siemers, F.; van Schoonhoven, J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with peripheral nerve injuries, especially severe injury, often face poor nerve regeneration and incomplete functional recovery, even after surgical nerve repair. This review summarizes treatment options of peripheral nerve injuries with current techniques and concepts and reviews developments in research and clinical application of these therapies. PMID:26904282

  8. The Role of Current Techniques and Concepts in Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    PubMed

    Houschyar, K S; Momeni, A; Pyles, M N; Cha, J Y; Maan, Z N; Duscher, D; Jew, O S; Siemers, F; van Schoonhoven, J

    2016-01-01

    Patients with peripheral nerve injuries, especially severe injury, often face poor nerve regeneration and incomplete functional recovery, even after surgical nerve repair. This review summarizes treatment options of peripheral nerve injuries with current techniques and concepts and reviews developments in research and clinical application of these therapies. PMID:26904282

  9. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Michio W.; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M.; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J.; Zhang, Alice X.; Wagers, Amy J.; Havton, Leif A.; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro nor in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired de-differentiation, myelin clearance and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  10. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-07-16

    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  11. REHABILITATION AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR: CURRENT CONCEPTS REVIEW AND EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDELINES

    PubMed Central

    Westgard, Paul; Chandler, Zachary; Gaskill, Trevor R.; Kokmeyer, Dirk; Millett, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of the characteristics and timing of rotator cuff healing and provide an update on treatments used in rehabilitation of rotator cuff repairs. The authors' protocol of choice, used within a large sports medicine rehabilitation center, is presented and the rationale behind its implementation is discussed. Background: If initial nonsurgical treatment of a rotator cuff tear fails, surgical repair is often the next line of treatment. It is evident that a successful outcome after surgical rotator cuff repair is as much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. To this end, rehabilitation protocols have proven challenging to both the orthopaedic surgeon and the involved physical therapist. Instead of being based on scientific rationale, traditionally most rehabilitation protocols are solely based on clinical experience and expert opinion. Methods: A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair on PUBMED / MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. Results: There is little high-level scientific evidence available to support or contest current postoperative rotator cuff rehabilitation protocols. Most existing protocols are based on clinical experience with modest incorporation of scientific data. Conclusion: Little scientific evidence is available to guide the timing of postsurgical rotator cuff rehabilitation. To this end, expert opinion and clinical experience remains a large facet of rehabilitation protocols. This review describes a rotator cuff rehabilitation protocol that incorporates currently available scientific literature guiding rehabilitation. PMID:22530194

  12. NRMT1 knockout mice exhibit phenotypes associated with impaired DNA repair and premature aging

    PubMed Central

    Bonsignore, Lindsay A.; Tooley, John G.; Van Hoose, Patrick M.; Wang, Eugenia; Cheng, Alan; Cole, Marsha P.; Tooley, Christine E. Schaner

    2015-01-01

    Though defective genome maintenance and DNA repair have long been know to promote phenotypes of premature aging, the role protein methylation plays in these processes is only now emerging. We have recently identified the first N-terminal methyltransferase, NRMT1, which regulates protein-DNA interactions and is necessary for both accurate mitotic division and nucleotide excision repair. To demonstrate if complete loss of NRMT1 subsequently resulted in developmental or aging phenotypes, we constructed the first NRMT1 knockout (Nrmt1−/−) mouse. The majority of these mice die shortly after birth. However, the ones that survive exhibit decreased body size, female-specific infertility, kyphosis, decreased mitochondrial function, and early-onset liver degeneration; phenotypes characteristic of other mouse models deficient in DNA repair. The livers from Nrmt1−/− mice produce less reactive oxygen species (ROS) than wild type controls, and Nrmt1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a decreased capacity for handling oxidative damage. This indicates that decreased mitochondrial function may benefit Nrmt1−/− mice and protect them from excess internal ROS and subsequent DNA damage. These studies position the NRMT1 knockout mouse as a useful new system for studying the effects of genomic instability and defective DNA damage repair on organismal and tissue-specific aging. PMID:25843235

  13. Coordination of DNA repair by NEIL1 and PARP-1: a possible link to aging

    PubMed Central

    Noren Hooten, Nicole; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Kompaniez, Kari; Jacob, Kimberly D.; Moore, Brittany R.; Nagle, Julia; Barnes, Janice; Lohani, Althaf; Evans, Michele K.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage accumulates with age and is repaired primarily via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. This process is initiated by DNA glycosylases, which remove damaged bases in a substrate-specific manner. The DNA glycosylases human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and NEIL1, a mammalian homolog of Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII, have overlapping yet distinct substrate specificity. Recently, we reported that OGG1 binds to the Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a DNA damage sensor protein that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates nuclear proteins in response to DNA damage and other cellular signals. Here, we show that NEIL1 and PARP-1 bind both in vitro and in vivo. PARP-1 binds to the C-terminal-100 amino acids of NEIL1 and NEIL1 binds to the BRCT domain of PARP-1. NEIL1 stimulates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity of PARP-1. Furthermore, NEIL-deficient fibroblasts have impaired poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of cellular proteins after DNA damage, which can be rescued by NEIL1 expression. Additionally, PARP-1 inhibits NEIL1 incision activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with the idea of impaired DNA repair during aging, we observed differential binding of PARP-1 to recombinant NEIL1 in older mice compared to younger mice. These data further support the idea that dynamic interplay between different base excision repair proteins is important for efficient BER. PMID:23104860

  14. DNA repair diseases: What do they tell us about cancer and aging?

    PubMed Central

    Menck, Carlos FM; Munford, Veridiana

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of DNA repair defects in human syndromes, initially in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) but later in many others, led to striking observations on the association of molecular defects and patients’ clinical phenotypes. For example, patients with syndromes resulting from defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) or translesion synthesis (TLS) present high levels of skin cancer in areas exposed to sunlight. However, some defects in NER also lead to more severe symptoms, such as developmental and neurological impairment and signs of premature aging. Skin cancer in XP patients is clearly associated with increased mutagenesis and genomic instability, reflecting the defective repair of DNA lesions. By analogy, more severe symptoms observed in NER-defective patients have also been associated with defective repair, likely involving cell death after transcription blockage of damaged templates. Endogenously induced DNA lesions, particularly through oxidative stress, have been identified as responsible for these severe pathologies. However, this association is not that clear and alternative explanations have been proposed. Despite high levels of exposure to intense sunlight, patients from tropical countries receive little attention or care, which likely also reflects the lack of understanding of how DNA damage causes cancer and premature aging. PMID:24764756

  15. Genetic Variability in DNA Repair Proteins in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Blasiak, Janusz; Synowiec, Ewelina; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is complex and involves interactions between environmental and genetic factors, with oxidative stress playing an important role inducing damage in biomolecules, including DNA. Therefore, genetic variability in the components of DNA repair systems may influence the ability of the cell to cope with oxidative stress and in this way contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. However, few reports have been published on this subject so far. We demonstrated that the c.977C>G polymorphism (rs1052133) in the hOGG1 gene and the c.972G>C polymorphism (rs3219489) in the MUTYH gene, the products of which play important roles in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA, might be associated with the risk of AMD. Oxidative stress may promote misincorporation of uracil into DNA, where it is targeted by several DNA glycosylases. We observed that the g.4235T>C (rs2337395) and c.–32A>G (rs3087404) polymorphisms in two genes encoding such glycosylases, UNG and SMUG1, respectively, could be associated with the occurrence of AMD. Polymorphisms in some other DNA repair genes, including XPD (ERCC2), XRCC1 and ERCC6 (CSB) have also been reported to be associated with AMD. These data confirm the importance of the cellular reaction to DNA damage, and this may be influenced by variability in DNA repair genes, in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:23202958

  16. Cyclin A2 promotes DNA repair in the brain during both development and aging.

    PubMed

    Gygli, Patrick E; Chang, Joshua C; Gokozan, Hamza N; Catacutan, Fay P; Schmidt, Theresa A; Kaya, Behiye; Goksel, Mustafa; Baig, Faisal S; Chen, Shannon; Griveau, Amelie; Michowski, Wojciech; Wong, Michael; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Sicinski, Piotr; Nelson, Randy J; Czeisler, Catherine; Otero, José J

    2016-07-01

    Various stem cell niches of the brain have differential requirements for Cyclin A2. Cyclin A2 loss results in marked cerebellar dysmorphia, whereas forebrain growth is retarded during early embryonic development yet achieves normal size at birth. To understand the differential requirements of distinct brain regions for Cyclin A2, we utilized neuroanatomical, transgenic mouse, and mathematical modeling techniques to generate testable hypotheses that provide insight into how Cyclin A2 loss results in compensatory forebrain growth during late embryonic development. Using unbiased measurements of the forebrain stem cell niche, we parameterized a mathematical model whereby logistic growth instructs progenitor cells as to the cell-types of their progeny. Our data was consistent with prior findings that progenitors proliferate along an auto-inhibitory growth curve. The growth retardation inCCNA2-null brains corresponded to cell cycle lengthening, imposing a developmental delay. We hypothesized that Cyclin A2 regulates DNA repair and that CCNA2-null progenitors thus experienced lengthened cell cycle. We demonstrate that CCNA2-null progenitors suffer abnormal DNA repair, and implicate Cyclin A2 in double-strand break repair. Cyclin A2's DNA repair functions are conserved among cell lines, neural progenitors, and hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that neuronal CCNA2 ablation results in learning and memory deficits in aged mice. PMID:27425845

  17. Cyclin A2 promotes DNA repair in the brain during both development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Gygli, Patrick E.; Chang, Joshua C.; Gokozan, Hamza N.; Catacutan, Fay P.; Schmidt, Theresa A.; Kaya, Behiye; Goksel, Mustafa; Baig, Faisal S.; Chen, Shannon; Griveau, Amelie; Michowski, Wojciech; Wong, Michael; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Sicinski, Piotr; Nelson, Randy J.; Czeisler, Catherine; Otero, José J.

    2016-01-01

    Various stem cell niches of the brain have differential requirements for Cyclin A2. Cyclin A2 loss results in marked cerebellar dysmorphia, whereas forebrain growth is retarded during early embryonic development yet achieves normal size at birth. To understand the differential requirements of distinct brain regions for Cyclin A2, we utilized neuroanatomical, transgenic mouse, and mathematical modeling techniques to generate testable hypotheses that provide insight into how Cyclin A2 loss results in compensatory forebrain growth during late embryonic development. Using unbiased measurements of the forebrain stem cell niche, we parameterized a mathematical model whereby logistic growth instructs progenitor cells as to the cell-types of their progeny. Our data was consistent with prior findings that progenitors proliferate along an auto-inhibitory growth curve. The growth retardation in CCNA2-null brains corresponded to cell cycle lengthening, imposing a developmental delay. We hypothesized that Cyclin A2 regulates DNA repair and that CCNA2-null progenitors thus experienced lengthened cell cycle. We demonstrate that CCNA2-null progenitors suffer abnormal DNA repair, and implicate Cyclin A2 in double-strand break repair. Cyclin A2's DNA repair functions are conserved among cell lines, neural progenitors, and hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that neuronal CCNA2 ablation results in learning and memory deficits in aged mice. PMID:27425845

  18. Current research in aging: a report from the 2015 Ageing Summit.

    PubMed

    Moyse, Emmanuel; Lahousse, Lies; Krantic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Ageing Summit, London, UK, 10-12 February 2015 The Ageing Summit 2015 held on 10-12 February 2015 in London (UK) provided an extensive update to our knowledge of the 'Biology of Ageing' and a forum to discuss the participants' latest research progress. The meeting was subdivided into four thematic sessions: cellular level research including the aging brain; slowing down progression, rejuvenation and self-repair; genetic and epigenetic regulation; and expression and pathology of age-related diseases. Each session included multiple key presentations, three to five short research communications and ongoing poster presentations. The meeting provided an exciting multidisciplinary overview of the aging process from cellular and molecular mechanisms to medico-social aspects of human aging. PMID:26107317

  19. Current Concepts of Bone Tissue Engineering for Craniofacial Bone Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Fishero, Brian Alan; Kohli, Nikita; Das, Anusuya; Christophel, John Jared; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial fractures and bony defects are common causes of morbidity and contribute to increasing health care costs. Successful regeneration of bone requires the concomitant processes of osteogenesis and neovascularization. Current methods of repair and reconstruction include rigid fixation, grafting, and free tissue transfer. However, these methods carry innate complications, including plate extrusion, nonunion, graft/flap failure, and donor site morbidity. Recent research efforts have focused on using stem cells and synthetic scaffolds to heal critical-sized bone defects similar to those sustained from traumatic injury or ablative oncologic surgery. Growth factors can be used to augment both osteogenesis and neovascularization across these defects. Many different growth factor delivery techniques and scaffold compositions have been explored yet none have emerged as the universally accepted standard. In this review, we will discuss the recent literature regarding the use of stem cells, growth factors, and synthetic scaffolds as alternative methods of craniofacial fracture repair. PMID:25709750

  20. DNA repair and aging: the impact of the p53 family

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Sara; Rossi, Antonello; Di Daniele, Nicola; Melino, Gerry; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous factors that threaten the integrity of their DNA. The maintenance of genome stability is of paramount importance in the prevention of both cancer and aging processes. To deal with DNA damage, cells put into operation a sophisticated and coordinated mechanism, collectively known as DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR orchestrates different cellular processes, such as DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. Among the key factors of the DDR, the related proteins p53, p63 and p73, all belonging to the same family of transcription factors, play multiple relevant roles. Indeed, the members of this family are directly involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest that is necessary to allow the cells to repair. Alternatively, they can promote cell death in case of prolonged or irreparable DNA damage. They also take part in a more direct task by modulating the expression of core factors involved in the process of DNA repair or by directly interacting with them. In this review we will analyze the fundamental roles of the p53 family in the aging process through their multifaceted function in DDR. PMID:26668111

  1. The role of aging and DNA repair in chronic disease. Final progress report, December 1, 1985--September 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.

    1993-11-01

    We carried out a molecular epidemiological study of the DNA repair of photochemical damage as a risk factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In that clinic-based control study of 88 cases and 135 cancer-free control it was found that DNA repair in the controls declined linearly at a rate of 0.61% per year over a 30-60 year age group. However, repair in younger BCC cases, significantly less than their age-matched controls, did not decline at the same rate so that the repair differences between the cases and the controls disappeared as the cases grew older. Besides this age effect, the odds are high (5:1) that an individual with low repair overexposed to sunlight will have basal cell carcinoma. That these odds increase to 10:1 for females compared to male subjects led to the observation that repair may be sensitive to hormonal control. Because of the ease of BCC diagnosis it is possible to demonstrate significantly that the level of DNA repair directly influences the multiplicity of tumors. Further, both those cases and controls with a family history of BCC invariably have reduced levels of DNA repair (p<0-05).

  2. The zebrafish as a gerontology model in nervous system aging, disease, and repair.

    PubMed

    Van Houcke, Jessie; De Groef, Lies; Dekeyster, Eline; Moons, Lieve

    2015-11-01

    Considering the increasing number of elderly in the world's population today, developing effective treatments for age-related pathologies is one of the biggest challenges in modern medical research. Age-related neurodegeneration, in particular, significantly impacts important sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, seriously constraining life quality of many patients. Although our understanding of the causal mechanisms of aging has greatly improved in recent years, animal model systems still have much to tell us about this complex process. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained enormous popularity for this research topic over the past decade, since their life span is relatively short but, like humans, they are still subject to gradual aging. In addition, the extensive characterization of its well-conserved molecular and cellular physiology makes the zebrafish an excellent model to unravel the underlying mechanisms of aging, disease, and repair. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in zebrafish gerontology, with special emphasis on nervous system aging. We review the evidence that classic hallmarks of aging can also be recognized within this small vertebrate, both at the molecular and cellular level. Moreover, we illustrate the high level of similarity with age-associated human pathologies through a survey of the functional deficits that arise as zebrafish age. PMID:26538520

  3. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Pérezprina, Juan Cristóbal; León-Galván, Miguel Ángel; Konigsberg, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”). The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others. PMID:23213348

  4. DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Chasman, Daniel I.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Elks, Cathy; Albrecht, Eva; Andrulis, Irene L.; Beesley, Jonathan; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Brown, Judith; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Esko, Tõnu; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Flyger, Henrik; Fraser, Abigail; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Giles, Graham; Guenel, Pascal; Hägg, Sara; Hall, Per; Hayward, Caroline; Hopper, John; Ingelsson, Erik; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kasiman, Katherine; Knight, Julia A.; Lahti, Jari; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Margolin, Sara; Marsh, Julie A.; Metspalu, Andres; Olson, Janet E.; Pennell, Craig E.; Polasek, Ozren; Rahman, Iffat; Ridker, Paul M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Salumets, Andres; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Smith, Erin N.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Southey, Melissa; Stöckl, Doris; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Truong, Therese; Ulivi, Sheila; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Qin; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F.; Zgaga, Lina; Ong, Ken K.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Karasik, David; Murray, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using genome-wide complex trait analysis. However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P = 1.9 × 10−9), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility. PMID:24357391

  5. DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Chasman, Daniel I; Johnson, Andrew D; Elks, Cathy; Albrecht, Eva; Andrulis, Irene L; Beesley, Jonathan; Berenson, Gerald S; Bergmann, Sven; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brown, Judith; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Eriksson, Johan G; Esko, Tõnu; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine D; Flyger, Henrik; Fraser, Abigail; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Giles, Graham; Guenel, Pascal; Hägg, Sara; Hall, Per; Hayward, Caroline; Hopper, John; Ingelsson, Erik; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kasiman, Katherine; Knight, Julia A; Lahti, Jari; Lawlor, Debbie A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Margolin, Sara; Marsh, Julie A; Metspalu, Andres; Olson, Janet E; Pennell, Craig E; Polasek, Ozren; Rahman, Iffat; Ridker, Paul M; Robino, Antonietta; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Salumets, Andres; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Smith, Erin N; Smith, Jennifer A; Southey, Melissa; Stöckl, Doris; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Thompson, Deborah J; Truong, Therese; Ulivi, Sheila; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Qin; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Zgaga, Lina; Ong, Ken K; Murabito, Joanne M; Karasik, David; Murray, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using genome-wide complex trait analysis. However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P = 1.9 × 10(-9)), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility. PMID:24357391

  6. Age-related loss of the DNA repair response following exposure to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cabelof, Diane C; Raffoul, Julian J; Ge, Yubin; Van Remmen, Holly; Matherly, Larry H; Heydari, Ahmad R

    2006-05-01

    Young (4- to 6-month-old) and aged (24- to 28-month-old) mice were exposed to 2-nitropropane (2-NP), a DNA oxidizing agent, and the ability to induce DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) and AP endonuclease (APE) was determined. In contrast to the inducibility of these gene products in response to oxidative damage in young mice, aged mice showed a lack of inducibility of beta-pol and APE. APE protein level and endonuclease activity were both reduced 40% (p<.01) in response to 2-NP. Accordingly, the accumulation of DNA repair intermediates in response to 2-NP differed with age. Young animals accumulated 3'OH-containing DNA strand breaks, whereas the aged animals did not. A role for p53 in the difference in DNA damage response with age is suggested by the observation that the accumulation of p53 protein in response to DNA damage in young animals was absent in the aged animals. Our results are consistent with a reduced ability to process DNA damage with age. PMID:16720738

  7. Genome Instability in Development and Aging: Insights from Nucleotide Excision Repair in Humans, Mice, and Worms

    PubMed Central

    Edifizi, Diletta; Schumacher, Björn

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage causally contributes to aging and cancer. Congenital defects in nucleotide excision repair (NER) lead to distinct cancer-prone and premature aging syndromes. The genetics of NER mutations have provided important insights into the distinct consequences of genome instability. Recent work in mice and C. elegans has shed new light on the mechanisms through which developing and aging animals respond to persistent DNA damage. The various NER mouse mutants have served as important disease models for Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD), while the traceable genetics of C. elegans have allowed the mechanistic delineation of the distinct outcomes of genome instability in metazoan development and aging. Intriguingly, highly conserved longevity assurance mechanisms respond to transcription-blocking DNA lesions in mammals as well as in worms and counteract the detrimental consequences of persistent DNA damage. The insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) effector transcription factor DAF-16 could indeed overcome DNA damage-driven developmental growth delay and functional deterioration even when DNA damage persists. Longevity assurance mechanisms might thus delay DNA damage-driven aging by raising the threshold when accumulating DNA damage becomes detrimental for physiological tissue functioning. PMID:26287260

  8. A Review of Current Concepts in Flexor Tendon Repair: Physiology, Biomechanics, Surgical Technique and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Rymer, Ben; Theobald, Peter; Thomas, Peter B M

    2015-12-28

    Historically, the surgical treatment of flexor tendon injuries has always been associated with controversy. It was not until 1967, when the paper entitled Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man's land was presented at the American Society of Hand Surgery, which reported excellent results and catalyzed the implementation of this technique into worldwide practice. We present an up to date literature review using PubMed and Google Scholar where the terms flexor tendon, repair and rehabilitation were used. Topics covered included functional anatomy, nutrition, biome-chanics, suture repair, repair site gapping, and rehabilitation. This article aims to provide a comprehensive and complete overview of flexor tendon repairs. PMID:26793293

  9. Management of Mesh Complications after SUI and POP Repair: Review and Analysis of the Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Deng, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical treatment concepts for the complications related to the implantation of mesh material for urogynecological indications. Materials and Methods. A review of the current literature on PubMed was performed. Results. Only retrospective studies were detected. The rate of mesh-related complications is about 15–25% and mesh erosion is up to 10% for POP and SUI repair. Mesh explantation is necessary in about 1-2% of patients due to complications. The initial approach appears to be an early surgical treatment with partial or complete mesh resection. Vaginal and endoscopic access for mesh resection is favored. Prior to recurrent surgeries, a careful examination and planning for the operation strategy are crucial. Conclusions. The data on the management of mesh complication is scarce. Revisions should be performed by an experienced surgeon and a proper follow-up with prospective documentation is essential for a good outcome. PMID:25973425

  10. SIRT6 rescues the age related decline in base excision repair in a PARP1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhu; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Wenjun; Meng, Du; Zhang, Hongxia; Jiang, Ying; Xu, Xiaojun; Van Meter, Michael; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Mao, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In principle, a decline in base excision repair (BER) efficiency with age should lead to genomic instability and ultimately contribute to the onset of the aging phenotype. Although multiple studies have indicated a negative link between aging and BER, the change of BER efficiency with age in humans has not been systematically analyzed. Here, with foreskin fibroblasts isolated from 19 donors between 20 and 64 y of age, we report a significant decline of BER efficiency with age using a newly developed GFP reactivation assay. We further observed a very strong negative correlation between age and the expression levels of SIRT6, a factor which is known to maintain genomic integrity by improving DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Our mechanistic study suggests that, similar to the regulatory role that SIRT6 plays in DNA DSB repair, SIRT6 regulates BER in a PARP1-depdendent manner. Moreover, overexpression of SIRT6 rescues the decline of BER in aged fibroblasts. In summary, our results uncovered the regulatory mechanisms of BER by SIRT6, suggesting that SIRT6 reactivation in aging tissues may help delay the process of aging through improving BER. PMID:25607651

  11. Mechanisms of maladaptive repair after AKI leading to accelerated kidney ageing and CKD

    PubMed Central

    Ferenbach, David A.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is an increasingly common complication of hospital admission and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A hypotensive, septic, or toxic insult can initiate a cascade of events, resulting in impaired microcirculation, activation of inflammatory pathways and tubular cell injury or death. These processes ultimately result in acutely impaired kidney function and initiation of a repair response. This Review explores the various mechanisms responsible for the initiation and propagation of acute kidney injury, the prototypic mechanisms by which a substantially damaged kidney can regenerate its normal architecture, and how the adaptive processes of repair can become maladaptive. These mechanisms, which include G2/M cell-cycle arrest, cell senescence, profibrogenic cytokine production, and activation of pericytes and interstitial myofibroblasts, contribute to the development of progressive fibrotic kidney disease. The end result is a state that mimics accelerated kidney ageing. These mechanisms present important opportunities for the design of targeted therapeutic strategies to promote adaptive renal recovery and minimize progressive fibrosis and chronic kidney disease after acute insults. PMID:25643664

  12. Stem Cell Therapies for Knee Cartilage Repair: The Current Status of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John A.; Little, Dianne; Toth, Alison P.; Moorman, Claude T.; Tucker, Bradford S.; Ciccotti, Michael G.; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage damage of the knee is common, causing significant morbidity worldwide. Many adult tissues contain cells that are able to differentiate into multiple cell types, including chondrocytes. These stem cells have gained significant attention over the past decade and may become frontline management for cartilage defects in the very near future. Purpose The role of stem cells in the treatment of knee osteochondral defects was reviewed. Recent animal and clinical studies were reviewed to determine the benefits and potential outcomes of using stem cells for cartilage defects. Study Design Literature review. Methods A PubMed search was undertaken. The key phrase “stem cells and knee” was used. The search included reviews and original articles over an unlimited time period. From this search, articles outlining animal and clinical trials were selected. A search of current clinical trials in progress was performed on the clinicaltrials.gov website, and “stem cells and knee” was used as the search phrase. Results Stem cells have been used in many recent in vitro and animal studies. A number of cell-based approaches for cartilage repair have progressed from preclinical animal studies into clinical trials. Conclusion The use of stem cells for the treatment of cartilage defects is increasing in animal and clinical studies. Methods of delivery of stem cells to the knee’s cartilage vary from direct injection to implantation with scaffolds. While these approaches are highly promising, there is currently limited evidence of a direct clinical benefit, and further research is required to assess the overall outcome of stem cell therapies for knee cartilage repair. PMID:24220016

  13. Osteochondral repair in hemophilic ankle arthropathy: from current options to future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    BUDA, ROBERTO; CAVALLO, MARCO; CASTAGNINI, FRANCESCO; FERRANTI, ENRICO; NATALI, SIMONE; GIANNINI, SANDRO

    2015-01-01

    Young hemophilic patients are frequently affected by ankle arthropathy. At the end stage of the disease, the current treatments are arthrodesis and arthroplasty, which have significant drawbacks. Validated procedures capable of slowing down or even arresting the progression towards the end stage are currently lacking. This review aims to discuss the rationale for and feasibility of applying, in mild hemophilic ankle arthropathy, the main techniques currently used to treat osteochondral defects, focusing in particular on ankle distraction, chondrocyte implantation, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, allograft transplantation and the use of growth factors. To date, ankle distraction is the only procedure that has been successfully used in hemophilic ankle arthropathy. The use of mesenchymal stem cells have recently been evaluated as feasible for osteochondral repair in hemophilic patients. There may be a rationale for the use of growth factors if they are combined with the previous techniques, which could be useful to arrest the progression of the degeneration or delay end-stage procedures. PMID:26904526

  14. Influence of repair welding of aged 18Ni 250 maraging steel weldments on tensile and fracture properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, P.P.; Arumugham, S.; Nagarajan, K.V. . Materials and Metallurgy Group)

    1993-08-01

    The effects of repair welding on tensile strength and fracture toughness of aged weldments of 18 Ni 250-grade maraging steel have been studied. It has been established that aged weldments in the steel can be repaired and approximately 95% of the tensile strength of the initial welds could be achieved by postrepair aging treatment. Also, the repairs had practically no effect on the fracture toughness (K[sub IC]) of the weldment. These results have been discussed in terms of microstructural conditions in the various affected and unaffected zones of the initial weld. One important inference that emerges from the mechanical properties-microstructural correlation in the study is that (K[sub IC]) of the weld is independent of the gross microstructural features of the dendritic size and shapes in the ranges observed in this study. It has, however, been cautioned that the above statement is not valid in cases in which heavy segregation occurs along the interdendritic boundaries resulting in heavily banded microstructure. This can result from faulty weld parameters such as excessive heat input. A second aging to recover the mechanical properties of the repaired zone has additional beneficial effects on tensile strengths and helps in maintaining fracture toughness to the original level of the initial weld.

  15. The knee meniscus: structure-function, pathophysiology, current repair techniques, and prospects for regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Eleftherios A.; Hadidi, Pasha; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive scientific investigations in recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical, and functional importance that the meniscus holds within the knee joint. As a vital part of the joint, it acts to prevent the deterioration and degeneration of articular cartilage, and the onset and development of osteoarthritis. For this reason, research into meniscus repair has been the recipient of particular interest from the orthopedic and bioengineering communities. Current repair techniques are only effective in treating lesions located in the peripheral vascularized region of the meniscus. Healing lesions found in the inner avascular region, which functions under a highly demanding mechanical environment, is considered to be a significant challenge. An adequate treatment approach has yet to be established, though many attempts have been undertaken. The current primary method for treatment is partial meniscectomy, which commonly results in the progressive development of osteoarthritis. This drawback has shifted research interest towards the fields of biomaterials and bioengineering, where it is hoped that meniscal deterioration can be tackled with the help of tissue engineering. So far, different approaches and strategies have contributed to the in vitro generation of meniscus constructs, which are capable of restoring meniscal lesions to some extent, both functionally as well as anatomically. The selection of the appropriate cell source (autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic cells, or stem cells) is undoubtedly regarded as key to successful meniscal tissue engineering. Furthermore, a large variation of scaffolds for tissue engineering have been proposed and produced in experimental and clinical studies, although a few problems with these (e.g., byproducts of degradation, stress shielding) have shifted research interest towards new strategies (e.g., scaffoldless approaches, self-assembly). A large number of different chemical (e.g., TGF-β1, C-ABC) and

  16. A Review of Current Concepts in Flexor Tendon Repair: Physiology, Biomechanics, Surgical Technique and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, Ben; Theobald, Peter; Thomas, Peter B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the surgical treatment of flexor tendon injuries has always been associated with controversy. It was not until 1967, when the paper entitled Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man’s land was presented at the American Society of Hand Surgery, which reported excellent results and catalyzed the implementation of this technique into worldwide practice. We present an up to date literature review using PubMed and Google Scholar where the terms flexor tendon, repair and rehabilitation were used. Topics covered included functional anatomy, nutrition, biome-chanics, suture repair, repair site gapping, and rehabilitation. This article aims to provide a comprehensive and complete overview of flexor tendon repairs. PMID:26793293

  17. Oxytocin and socioemotional aging: Current knowledge and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Maura, Gabriela M.; MacDonald, Kai; Westberg, Lars; Fischer, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The oxytocin (OT) system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and—though evidence is somewhat mixed-intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model) which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety-all of which have high relevance in aging—and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan. PMID:24009568

  18. Chronic Wound Repair and Healing in Older Adults: Current Status and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R.; High, Kevin P.; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Margolish, David; McFarland Horne, Frances; Reed, May J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, JoAnne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of chronic wounds is increased among older adults, and the impact of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. It is well established that wound healing slows with age. However, the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The impact of age and accompanying multi-morbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables, lack of standardization in data collection, and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this paper, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify key research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25486905

  19. Chronic Wound Repair and Healing in Older Adults: Current Status and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R.; High, Kevin P.; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Margolis, David; Horne, Frances McFarland; Reed, May J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, Jo Anne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to have chronic wounds than younger people, and the effect of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. Wound healing slows with age, but the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The effect of age and accompanying multimorbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables; lack of standardization in data collection; and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this article, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25753048

  20. Chronic wound repair and healing in older adults: current status and future research.

    PubMed

    Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R; High, Kevin P; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Margolis, David; McFarland Horne, Frances; Reed, May J; Sullivan, Dennis H; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, Jo Anne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Older adults are more likely to have chronic wounds than younger people, and the effect of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. Wound healing slows with age, but the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The effect of age and accompanying multimorbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables; lack of standardization in data collection; and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this article, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25753048

  1. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: Current therapies

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Albert J; Scholl, Stefan; Kirchhof, Janna

    2009-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is now the leading cause of blindness and severe vision loss among people over the age of 40 in the Western world. Its prevalence is certain to increase substantially as the population ages. Treatments currently available for the disease include laser photocoagulation, verteporfin photodynamic therapy, and intravitreal injections of corticosteroids and anti-angiogenic agents. Many studies have reported the benefits of each of these treatments, although none is without its risks. No intervention actually cures AMD, nor the neovascularization associated with it. However, its symptoms are treated with varying degrees of success. Some treatments stabilize or arrest the progress of the disease. Others have been shown to reverse some of the damage that has already been done. These treatments can even lead to visual improvement. This paper will review the major classes of drugs and therapies designed to treat this condition. PMID:19668562

  2. Genetic polymorphisms of multiple DNA repair pathways impact age at diagnosis and TP53 mutations in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tasha R; Liu-Mares, Wen; Van Emburgh, Beth O; Levine, Edward A; Allen, Glenn O; Hill, Jeff W; Reis, Isildinha M; Kresty, Laura A; Pegram, Mark D; Miller, Mark S; Hu, Jennifer J

    2011-09-01

    Defective DNA repair may contribute to early age and late stage at time of diagnosis and mutations in critical tumor suppressor genes, such as TP53 in breast cancer. Using DNA samples from 436 breast cancer cases (374 Caucasians and 62 African-Americans), we tested these associations with 18 non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in four DNA repair pathways: (i) base excision repair: ADPRT V762A, APE1 D148E, XRCC1 R194W/R280H/R399Q and POLD1 R119H; (ii) double-strand break repair: NBS1 E185Q and XRCC3 T241M; (iii) mismatch repair: MLH1 I219V, MSH3 R940Q/T1036A and MSH6 G39E and (iv) nucleotide excision repair: ERCC2 D312N/K751Q, ERCC4 R415Q, ERCC5 D1104H and XPC A499V/K939Q. Younger age at diagnosis (<50) was associated with ERCC2 312 DN/NN genotypes [odds ratio (OR) = 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10, 2.81] and NBS1 185 QQ genotype (OR = 3.09; 95% CI = 1.47, 6.49). The XPC 939 QQ genotype was associated with TP53 mutations (OR = 5.80; 95% CI = 2.23, 15.09). There was a significant trend associating younger age at diagnosis (<50) with increasing numbers of risk genotypes for ERCC2 312 DN/NN, MSH6 39 EE and NBS1 185 QQ (P(trend) < 0.001). A similar significant trend was also observed associating TP53 mutations with increasing numbers of risk genotypes for XRCC1 399 QQ, XPC 939 QQ, ERCC4 415 QQ and XPC 499 AA (P(trend) < 0.001). Our pilot data suggest that nsSNPs of multiple DNA repair pathways are associated with younger age at diagnosis and TP53 mutations in breast cancer and larger studies are warranted to further evaluate these associations. PMID:21700777

  3. Impact of age-associated cyclopurine lesions on DNA repair helicases.

    PubMed

    Khan, Irfan; Suhasini, Avvaru N; Banerjee, Taraswi; Sommers, Joshua A; Kaplan, Daniel L; Kuper, Jochen; Kisker, Caroline; Brosh, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    8,5' cyclopurine deoxynucleosides (cPu) are locally distorting DNA base lesions corrected by nucleotide excision repair (NER) and proposed to play a role in neurodegeneration prevalent in genetically defined Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients. In the current study, purified recombinant helicases from different classifications based on sequence homology were examined for their ability to unwind partial duplex DNA substrates harboring a single site-specific cPu adduct. Superfamily (SF) 2 RecQ helicases (RECQ1, BLM, WRN, RecQ) were inhibited by cPu in the helicase translocating strand, whereas helicases from SF1 (UvrD) and SF4 (DnaB) tolerated cPu in either strand. SF2 Fe-S helicases (FANCJ, DDX11 (ChlR1), DinG, XPD) displayed marked differences in their ability to unwind the cPu DNA substrates. Archaeal Thermoplasma acidophilum XPD (taXPD), homologue to the human XPD helicase involved in NER DNA damage verification, was impeded by cPu in the non-translocating strand, while FANCJ was uniquely inhibited by the cPu in the translocating strand. Sequestration experiments demonstrated that FANCJ became trapped by the translocating strand cPu whereas RECQ1 was not, suggesting the two SF2 helicases interact with the cPu lesion by distinct mechanisms despite strand-specific inhibition for both. Using a protein trap to simulate single-turnover conditions, the rate of FANCJ or RECQ1 helicase activity was reduced 10-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, by cPu in the translocating strand. In contrast, single-turnover rates of DNA unwinding by DDX11 and UvrD helicases were only modestly affected by the cPu lesion in the translocating strand. The marked difference in effect of the translocating strand cPu on rate of DNA unwinding between DDX11 and FANCJ helicase suggests the two Fe-S cluster helicases unwind damaged DNA by distinct mechanisms. The apparent complexity of helicase encounters with an unusual form of oxidative damage is likely to have important consequences in the

  4. Human DNA repair disorders in dermatology: A historical perspective, current concepts and new insight.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Products of DNA damage, such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4 PPs), are continually formed in genomes after exposure to UV radiation. When these DNA damages remain unrepaired in essential DNA sites for prolonged periods, DNA replication and transcription are hampered or mutation is induced, which may cause cell death, cellular senescence, and carcinogenesis of the skin. To protect against such UV-induced DNA damage, living organisms nicely retain "DNA repair systems", which can efficiently repair "harmful" DNA damage through precise mechanisms by the integrated functions of many proteins. In humans, the failure of DNA repair systems causes a variety of disorders. Dermatological conditions such as hereditary photodermatoses, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are caused by congenital functional defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system or the translesion synthesis (TLS) system. In this review, we describe the historical progress, recent findings, and future prospects of studies of human diseases associated with DNA-repair defects. PMID:26493104

  5. The role of age and comorbidities in postoperative outcome of mitral valve repair: A propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Vincent; Boisselier, Clément; Saplacan, Vladimir; Belin, Annette; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Fischer, Marc-Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The average age of patients undergoing mitral valve repair is increasing each year. This retrospective study aimed to compare postoperative complications of mitral valve repair (known to be especially high-risk) between 2 age groups: under and over the age of 80.Patients who underwent mitral valve repair were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (<80 years old) and group 2 (≥80 years old). Baseline characteristics, pre- and postoperative hemodynamic data, surgical characteristics, and postoperative follow-up data until hospital discharge were collected.A total of 308 patients were included: 264 in group 1 (age 63 ± 13 years) and 44 in group 2 (age 83 ± 2 years). Older patients had more comorbidities (atrial fibrillation, history of cardiac decompensation, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic kidney disease) and they presented more postoperative complications (50.0% vs 33.7%; P = 0.043), with a longer hospital stay (8.9 ± 6.9 vs 6.6 ± 4.6 days; P = 0.005). To assess the burden of age, a propensity score was awarded to postoperative complications. Active smoking, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, associated ischemic heart disease, obesity, and cardio pulmonary by-pass duration were described as independent risk factors. When matched on this propensity score, there was no difference in morbidity or mortality between group 1 and group 2.Older patients suffered more postoperative complications, which were related to their comorbidities and not only to their age. PMID:27336886

  6. Fiber Bragg grating sensing in smart composite patch repairs for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botsev, Y.; Gorbatov, Nahum; Tur, Moshe; Ben-Simon, U.; Kressel, I.; Green, A. K.; Ghilai, G.; Gali, S.

    2004-06-01

    A Fiber-Bragg-Grating based, advanced co-cured smart composite patch for the repair of metallic structures is proposed and demonstrated. Advantages include real time cure monitoring and long-term in-service structural integrity evaluation.

  7. Epigenomic maintenance through dietary intervention can facilitate DNA repair process to slow down the progress of premature aging.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage caused by various sources remains one of the most researched topics in the area of aging and neurodegeneration. Increased DNA damage causes premature aging. Aging is plastic and is characterised by the decline in the ability of a cell/organism to maintain genomic stability. Lifespan can be modulated by various interventions like calorie restriction, a balanced diet of macro and micronutrients or supplementation with nutrients/nutrient formulations such as Amalaki rasayana, docosahexaenoic acid, resveratrol, curcumin, etc. Increased levels of DNA damage in the form of double stranded and single stranded breaks are associated with decreased longevity in animal models like WNIN/Ob obese rats. Erroneous DNA repair can result in accumulation of DNA damage products, which in turn result in premature aging disorders such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Epigenomic studies of the aging process have opened a completely new arena for research and development of drugs and therapeutic agents. We propose here that agents or interventions that can maintain epigenomic stability and facilitate the DNA repair process can slow down the progress of premature aging, if not completely prevent it. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):717-721, 2016. PMID:27364681

  8. Molecular mechanisms in aging and current strategies to counteract sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko

    2010-07-01

    Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement and a decline in strength and power. Sarcopenia is a highly significant public health problem. Since these age-related changes in skeletal muscle are largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostatis, and apoptosis, the mechanisms responsible for these deleterious changes present numerous therapeutic targets for drug discovery. We and other researchers demonstrated that a disruption of Akt-mTOR and RhoA-SRF signaling but not Atrogin-1 or MuRF1 contributes to sarcopenia. In addition, sarcopenia seems to include a marked loss of fibers attributable to apoptosis. This review deals with molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy and provides an update on current strategies (resistance training, myostatin inhibition, treatment with amino acids or testosterone, calorie restriction, etc) for counteracting this loss. Resistance training in combination with amino acid-containing nutrition would be the best candidate to attenuate, prevent, or ultimately reverse age-related muscle wasting and weakness. PMID:20158492

  9. When ageing meets the blues: Are current antidepressants effective in depressed aged patients?

    PubMed

    Felice, Daniela; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Gardier, Alain M; Sánchez, Connie; David, Denis J

    2015-08-01

    "I had to wait 110 years to become famous. I wanted to enjoy it as long as possible.", Jeanne Louise Calment (1875-1997). This review summarizes current knowledge of the effects of antidepressant drugs in elderly patients (double-blind placebo (n=27) or active comparator-controlled clinical trials (n=21) indexed in Pubmed in depressed patients aged ≥60) and in aged mice (≥9 months) and middle-aged rats (≥14 months) on depression-related symptoms and cognitive performances. Finally, other potential therapeutic targets for treating depression-related disorders in elderly patients are also addressed (neurogenesis, GABAB receptor, 5-HT4 receptor, mTOR signaling). Overall, the very few published preclinical studies (n=12 in total) in middle-aged and aged rodents seem to suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be less effective than tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCAs) in ameliorating depression-like behavior and cognitive functions. On the other hand, results from clinical trials suggest that there is not a marked difference in efficacy and safety profiles of current marketed classes of antidepressant drugs. PMID:26054791

  10. Analysis of gene expression dynamics revealed delayed and abnormal epidermal repair process in aged compared to young skin.

    PubMed

    Sextius, Peggy; Marionnet, Claire; Tacheau, Charlotte; Bon, François-Xavier; Bastien, Philippe; Mauviel, Alain; Bernard, Bruno A; Bernerd, Françoise; Dubertret, Louis

    2015-05-01

    With aging, epidermal homeostasis and barrier function are disrupted. In a previous study, we analyzed the transcriptomic response of young skin epidermis after stratum corneum removal, and obtained a global kinetic view of the molecular processes involved in barrier function recovery. In the present study, the same analysis was performed in aged skin in order to better understand the defects which occur with aging. Thirty healthy male volunteers (67 ± 4 years old) were involved. Tape-strippings were carried out on the inner face of one forearm, the other unstripped forearm serving as control. At 2, 6, 18, 30 and 72 h after stripping, TEWL measurements were taken, and epidermis samples were collected. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed using DermArray(®) cDNA microarrays. The results highlighted that barrier function recovery and overall kinetics of gene expression were delayed following stripping in aged skin. Indeed, the TEWL measurements showed that barrier recovery in the young group appeared to be dramatically significant during the overall kinetics, while there were no significant evolution in the aged group until 30 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that the number of modulated genes following tape stripping increased as a function of time and reached a peak at 6 h after tape stripping in young skin, while it was at 30 h in aged skin, showing that cellular activity linked to the repair process may be engaged earlier in young epidermis than in aged epidermis. A total of 370 genes were modulated in the young group. In the aged group, 382 genes were modulated, whose 184 were also modulated in the young group. Only eight genes that were modulated in both groups were significantly differently modulated. The characterization of these genes into 15 functional families helped to draw a scenario for the aging process affecting epidermal repair capacity. PMID:25740152

  11. Current therapeutic developments in atrophic age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation, which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarises recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem cell-based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  12. Current Therapeutic Development for Atrophic Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Jakub; Zhao, Fangkun; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disorder of the central retina, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of the advanced form of dry AMD, also named geographic atrophy (GA) or atrophic AMD, remains unclear. Consequently, no cure is available for dry AMD or GA. The only prevention option currently available is the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation which has been demonstrated to slow down the progression of dry AMD. This review summarizes recent advances in therapy for dry AMD and GA. Building on the new understanding of the disease and recent technological breakthroughs, numerous ongoing clinical trials have the goal of meeting the need to cure AMD. Therapeutic agents are being developed to target the key features of the disease, including inhibiting the complement pathway and other inflammatory pathways, reducing oxidative stress and protecting retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, inhibiting lipofuscin and visual cycle, regenerating RPE cells from stem cells and restoring choroidal blood flow. Some of these therapeutic options, especially the stem-cell based therapy, hold great promise, which brings great hope for this devastating blinding disease. PMID:26553922

  13. Current Progress in Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengde; Deng, Youwen; Feng, Pei; Mao, Zhongzheng; Li, Pengjian; Yang, Bo; Deng, Junjie; Cao, Yiyuan; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics have received great attention in the past decades owing to their success in stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and bone tissue regeneration. They can react and form chemical bonds with cells and tissues in human body. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the application of bioactive ceramics for bone repair and regeneration. The review systematically summarizes the types and characters of bioactive ceramics, the fabrication methods for nanostructure and hierarchically porous structure, typical toughness methods for ceramic scaffold and corresponding mechanisms such as fiber toughness, whisker toughness and particle toughness. Moreover, greater insights into the mechanisms of interaction between ceramics and cells are provided, as well as the development of ceramic-based composite materials. The development and challenges of bioactive ceramics are also discussed from the perspective of bone repair and regeneration. PMID:24646912

  14. Abdominal ventral hernia repair with current biological prostheses: an experimental large animal model.

    PubMed

    Stanwix, Matthew G; Nam, Arthur J; Hui-Chou, Helen G; Ferrari, Jonathan P; Aberman, Harold M; Hawes, Michael L; Keledjian, Kaspar M; Jones, Luke S; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2011-04-01

    Biologic prostheses have emerged to address the limitations of synthetic materials for ventral hernia repairs; however, they lack experimental comparative data. Fifteen swine were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 bioprosthetic groups (DermaMatrix, AlloDerm, and Permacol) after creation of a full thickness ventral fascial defect. At 15 weeks, host incorporation, hernia recurrence, adhesion formation, neovascularization, inflammation, and biomechanical properties were assessed. No animals had hernia recurrence or eventration. DermaMatrix and Alloderm implants demonstrated more adhesions, greater inflammatory infiltration, and more longitudinal laxity, but near identical neovascularization and tensile strength to Permacol. We found that porcine acellular dermal products (Permacol) contain following essential properties of an ideal ventral hernia repair material: low inflammation, less elastin and stretch, lower adhesion rates and cost, and more contracture. The addition of lower cost xenogeneic acellular dermal products to the repertoire of available acellular dermal products demonstrates promise, but requires long-term clinical studies to verify advantages and efficacy. PMID:21042180

  15. Hospital mortality of patients aged 80 and older after surgical repair for type A acute aortic dissection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, Tetsu; Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate whether patients aged 80 and older have higher risk of hospital mortality after repair of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD).Emergency surgery for TAAAD in patients aged 80 and older remains a controversial issue because of its high surgical risk.Data from patients who underwent surgical repair of TAAAD between April 2011 and March 2013 were retrospectively extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The effect of age on hospital mortality was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.A total of 5175 patients were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 67.1 ± 13.0 years, and the male:female ratio was 51:49. Patients aged 80 and older more frequently received tracheostomy than their younger counterparts (9.5% vs 5.4%, P <0.001). Intensive care unit and hospital stays were significantly longer in the elderly cohort versus the younger cohort (7.6 vs 6.7 days, P <0.001, and 42.2 vs 35.8 days, P <0.001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥80 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.06; P <0.001). In linear regression analysis, age ≥80 years was also significantly associated with longer hospital stay (P = 0.007).In a large, nationwide, Japanese database, patients aged 80 and older were at increased risk of hospital mortality and length of hospital stay. PMID:27495057

  16. Retinal pigment epithelial cell multinucleation in the aging eye - a mechanism to repair damage and maintain homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Rajapakse, Dinusha; Fraczek, Monika; Luo, Chang; Forrester, John V; Xu, Heping

    2016-06-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are central to retinal health and homoeostasis. Dysfunction or death of RPE cells underlies many age-related retinal degenerative disorders particularly age-related macular degeneration. During aging RPE cells decline in number, suggesting an age-dependent cell loss. RPE cells are considered to be postmitotic, and how they repair damage during aging remains poorly defined. We show that RPE cells increase in size and become multinucleate during aging in C57BL/6J mice. Multinucleation appeared not to be due to cell fusion, but to incomplete cell division, that is failure of cytokinesis. Interestingly, the phagocytic activity of multinucleate RPE cells was not different from that of mononuclear RPE cells. Furthermore, exposure of RPE cells in vitro to photoreceptor outer segment (POS), particularly oxidized POS, dose-dependently promoted multinucleation and suppressed cell proliferation. Both failure of cytokinesis and suppression of proliferation required contact with POS. Exposure to POS also induced reactive oxygen species and DNA oxidation in RPE cells. We propose that RPE cells have the potential to proliferate in vivo and to repair defects in the monolayer. We further propose that the conventionally accepted 'postmitotic' status of RPE cells is due to a modified form of contact inhibition mediated by POS and that RPE cells are released from this state when contact with POS is lost. This is seen in long-standing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment as overtly proliferating RPE cells (proliferative vitreoretinopathy) and more subtly as multinucleation during normal aging. Age-related oxidative stress may promote failure of cytokinesis and multinucleation in RPE cells. PMID:26875723

  17. Hospital mortality of patients aged 80 and older after surgical repair for type A acute aortic dissection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Tetsu; Shinjo, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate whether patients aged 80 and older have higher risk of hospital mortality after repair of type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD). Emergency surgery for TAAAD in patients aged 80 and older remains a controversial issue because of its high surgical risk. Data from patients who underwent surgical repair of TAAAD between April 2011 and March 2013 were retrospectively extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The effect of age on hospital mortality was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 5175 patients were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 67.1 ± 13.0 years, and the male:female ratio was 51:49. Patients aged 80 and older more frequently received tracheostomy than their younger counterparts (9.5% vs 5.4%, P <0.001). Intensive care unit and hospital stays were significantly longer in the elderly cohort versus the younger cohort (7.6 vs 6.7 days, P <0.001, and 42.2 vs 35.8 days, P <0.001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥80 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.28–2.06; P <0.001). In linear regression analysis, age ≥80 years was also significantly associated with longer hospital stay (P = 0.007). In a large, nationwide, Japanese database, patients aged 80 and older were at increased risk of hospital mortality and length of hospital stay. PMID:27495057

  18. Current advances in tissue repair and regeneration: the future is bright.

    PubMed

    Ninov, Nikolay; Yun, Maximina H

    2015-04-01

    The fifth EMBO conference on 'The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Regeneration and Repair' took place in the peaceful coastal town of Sant Feliu de Guixols (Spain) on September 2014. The meeting was organised by Emili Saló (U. Barcelona, Spain), Kimberly Mace (U. Manchester, UK), Patrizia Ferretti (University College London, UK) and Michael Brand (Centre for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Germany) and received the generous support of Society for Developmental Biology, The Company of Biologists, Centre for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Garland Science and the journals Regeneration and Cell Signalling. The natural surroundings provided an inspiring setting for 185 researchers from all over the world to share their latest findings and views on the field. The conference showcased the great diversity of model organisms used for studying regeneration and tissue repair, including invertebrate and vertebrate species (Fig. 1). Importantly, this diversity in animal models allowed for a global overview of the mechanisms that promote regeneration. In addition, it highlighted some of the unique aspects that confer differences in regenerative capacities among different species. These differences might lie in each of the different steps involved in performing regeneration, including triggering the regenerative response, controlling cellular plasticity, re-stablishing the correct tissue patterns, as well as determining the roles of extrinsic factors, such as the role of inflammation in regeneration. A deeper understanding of these processes in the naturally regenerating species is a prerequisite for advancing the field of regenerative medicine and tissue repair in humans. PMID:27499870

  19. Characterization of recovery, repair, and inflammatory processes following contusion spinal cord injury in old female rats: is age a limitation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is steadily rising in the elderly human population, few studies have investigated the effect of age in rodent models. Here, we investigated the effect of age in female rats on spontaneous recovery and repair after SCI. Young (3 months) and aged (18 months) female rats received a moderate contusion SCI at T9. Behavioral recovery was assessed, and immunohistocemical and stereological analyses performed. Results Aged rats demonstrated greater locomotor deficits compared to young, beginning at 7 days post-injury (dpi) and lasting through at least 28 dpi. Unbiased stereological analyses revealed a selective increase in percent lesion area and early (2 dpi) apoptotic cell death caudal to the injury epicenter in aged versus young rats. One potential mechanism for these differences in lesion pathogenesis is the inflammatory response; we therefore assessed humoral and cellular innate immune responses. No differences in either acute or chronic serum complement activity, or acute neutrophil infiltration, were observed between age groups. However, the number of microglia/macrophages present at the injury epicenter was increased by 50% in aged animals versus young. Conclusions These data suggest that age affects recovery of locomotor function, lesion pathology, and microglia/macrophage response following SCI. PMID:25512759

  20. Tissue adhesives for meniscus tear repair: an overview of current advances and prospects for future clinical solutions.

    PubMed

    Bochyńska, A I; Hannink, G; Grijpma, D W; Buma, P

    2016-05-01

    Menisci are crucial structures in the knee joint as they play important functions in load transfer, maintaining joint stability and in homeostasis of articular cartilage. Unfortunately, ones of the most frequently occurring knee injuries are meniscal tears. Particularly tears in the avascular zone of the meniscus usually do not heal spontaneously and lead to pain, swelling and locking of the knee joint. Eventually, after a (partial) meniscectomy, they will lead to osteoarthritis. Current treatment modalities to repair tears and by that restore the integrity of the native meniscus still carry their drawbacks and a new robust solution is desired. A strong tissue adhesive could provide such a solution and could potentially improve on sutures, which are the current gold standard. Moreover, a glue could serve as a carrier for biological compounds known to enhance tissue healing. Only few tissue adhesives, e.g., Dermabond(®) and fibrin glue, are already successfully used in clinical practice for other applications, but are not considered suitable for gluing meniscus tissue due to their sub-optimal mechanical properties or toxicity. There is a growing interest and research field focusing on the development of novel polymer-based tissue adhesives, but up to now, there is no material specially designed for the repair of meniscal tears. In this review, we discuss the current clinical gold standard treatment of meniscal tears and present an overview of new developments in this field. Moreover, we discuss the properties of different tissue adhesives for their potential use in meniscal tear repair. Finally, we formulate recommendations regarding the design criteria of material properties and adhesive strength for clinically applicable glues for meniscal tears. PMID:26970767

  1. [Repair of ventricular septal defects before 6 months of age. Apropos of a series of 194 infants].

    PubMed

    Chambran, P; Maatouk, M; Bruniaux, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Binet, J P; Planché, C

    1989-05-01

    Between 1982 and 1988, 194 infants under 6 months of age underwent surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect at the Marie Lannelongue Surgical Centre. The hospital death in this series was 6.7 p. 100. Mortality was influenced by the infant's age, by associated cardiac or extracardiac lesions and by the pre-operative ventilatory status. A residual ventricular septal defect was present in 11 infants (5.6 p. 100). Complete atrioventricular block occurred in 2 cases (1.1 p. 100). These results are in favour of a complete repair of simple ventricular septal defects at a very young age if medical treatment does not result in a satisfactory improvement. PMID:2500096

  2. Caloric restriction promotes genomic stability by induction of base excision repair and reversal of its age-related decline.

    PubMed

    Cabelof, Diane C; Yanamadala, Sunitha; Raffoul, Julian J; Guo, ZhongMao; Soofi, Abdulsalam; Heydari, Ahmad R

    2003-03-01

    Caloric restriction is a potent experimental manipulation that extends mean and maximum life span and delays the onset and progression of tumors in laboratory rodents. While caloric restriction (CR) clearly protects the genome from deleterious damage, the mechanism by which genomic stability is achieved remains unclear. We provide evidence that CR promotes genomic stability by increasing DNA repair capacity, specifically base excision repair (BER). CR completely reverses the age-related decline in BER capacity (P<0.01) in all tissues tested (brain, liver, spleen and testes) providing aged, CR animals with the BER phenotype of young, ad libitum-fed animals. This CR-induced reversal of the aged BER phenotype is accompanied by a reversal in the age-related decline in DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol), a rate-limiting enzyme in the BER pathway. CR significantly reversed the age-related loss of beta-pol protein levels (P<0.01), mRNA levels (P<0.01) and enzyme activity (P<0.01) in all tissues tested. Additionally, in young (4-6-month-old) CR animals a significant up-regulation in BER capacity, beta-pol protein and beta-pol mRNA is observed (P<0.01), demonstrating an early effect of CR that may provide insight in distinguishing the anti-tumor from the anti-aging effects of CR. This up-regulation in BER by caloric restriction in young animals corresponds to increased protection from carcinogen exposure, as mutation frequency is significantly reduced in CR animals exposed to either DMS or 2-nitropropane (2-NP) (P<0.01). Overall the data suggest an important biological consequence of moderate BER up-regulation and provides support for the hormesis theory of caloric restriction. PMID:12547392

  3. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants: M3LW-14OR0404015 Cable Rejuvenation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this project is to conceptually demonstrate techniques to repair cables that have degraded through subjection to long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. In fiscal year 2014 (FY14) we focused on commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, isolated a high surface area form of the EPR material to facilitate chemical treatment screening and charaterization, and measured chemical changes in the material due to aging and treatment using Fourier Transfrom Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  4. Current advances in tissue repair and regeneration: the future is bright

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fifth EMBO conference on ‘The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Regeneration and Repair’ took place in the peaceful coastal town of Sant Feliu de Guixols (Spain) on September 2014. The meeting was organised by Emili Saló (U. Barcelona, Spain), Kimberly Mace (U. Manchester, UK), Patrizia Ferretti (University College London, UK) and Michael Brand (Centre for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Germany) and received the generous support of Society for Developmental Biology, The Company of Biologists, Centre for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Garland Science and the journals Regeneration and Cell Signalling. The natural surroundings provided an inspiring setting for 185 researchers from all over the world to share their latest findings and views on the field. The conference showcased the great diversity of model organisms used for studying regeneration and tissue repair, including invertebrate and vertebrate species (Fig. 1). Importantly, this diversity in animal models allowed for a global overview of the mechanisms that promote regeneration. In addition, it highlighted some of the unique aspects that confer differences in regenerative capacities among different species. These differences might lie in each of the different steps involved in performing regeneration, including triggering the regenerative response, controlling cellular plasticity, re‐stablishing the correct tissue patterns, as well as determining the roles of extrinsic factors, such as the role of inflammation in regeneration. A deeper understanding of these processes in the naturally regenerating species is a prerequisite for advancing the field of regenerative medicine and tissue repair in humans.

  5. A current genetic and epigenetic view on human aging mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Sala; Pereza, Nina; Kapović, Miljenko

    2009-06-01

    The process of aging is one of the most complex and intriguing biological phenomenons. Aging is a genetically regulated process in which the organism's maximum lifespan potential is pre-determined, while the rate of aging is influenced by environmental factors and lifestyle. Considering the complexity of mechanisms involved in the regulation of aging process, up to this date there isn't a major, unifying theory which could explain them. As genetic/epigenetic and environmental factors both inevitably influence the aging process, here we present a review on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of the most important molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the process of aging. Based on the studies on oxidative stress, metabolism, genome stability, epigenetic modifications and cellular senescence in animal models and humans, we give an overview of key genetic and molecular pathways related to aging. As most of genetic manipulations which influence the aging process also affect reproduction, we discuss aging in humans as a post-reproductive genetically determined process. After the age of reproductive success, aging continously progresses which clinically coincides with the onset of most chronic diseases, cancers and dementions. As evolution shapes the genomes for reproductive success and not for post-reproductive survival, aging could be defined as a protective mechanism which ensures the preservation and progress of species through the modification, trasmission and improvement of genetic material. PMID:19662799

  6. Current state of laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeAsis, Francis J; Lapin, Brittany; Gitelis, Matthew E; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the laparoscopic approaches for parastomal hernia repair reported in the literature. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted using various combination of the following keywords: stoma repair, laparoscopic, parastomal, and hernia. Case reports, studies with less than 5 patients, and articles not written in English were excluded. Eligible studies were further scrutinized with the 2011 levels of evidence from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Two authors reviewed and analyzed each study. If there was any discrepancy between scores, the study in question was referred to another author. A meta -analysis was performed using both random and fixed-effect models. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s regression test. The primary outcome analyzed was recurrence of parastomal hernia. Secondary outcomes were mesh infection, surgical site infection, obstruction requiring reoperation, death, and other complications. Studies were grouped by operative technique where indicated. Except for recurrence, most postoperative morbidities were reported for the overall cohort and not by approach so they were analyzed across approach. RESULTS: Fifteen articles with a total of 469 patients were deemed eligible for review. Most postoperative morbidities were reported for the overall cohort, and not by approach. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8-3.2), and there was no difference between techniques. The most common postoperative complication was surgical site infection, which was seen in 3.8% (95%CI: 2.3-5.7). Infected mesh was observed in 1.7% (95%CI: 0.7-3.1), and obstruction requiring reoperation also occurred in 1.7% (95%CI: 0.7-3.0). Other complications such as ileus, pneumonia, or urinary tract infection were noted in 16.6% (95%CI: 11.9-22.1). Eighty-one recurrences were reported overall for a recurrence rate of 17.4% (95%CI: 9

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ageing: Targeting the "Purinome" to Promote Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Repair.

    PubMed

    Noronha-Matos, J B; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone forming cells. Such ability is compromised in elderly individuals resulting in bone disorders such as osteoporosis, also limiting their clinical usage for cell transplantation and bone tissue engineering strategies. In bone marrow niches, adenine and uracil nucleotides are important local regulators of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Nucleotides can be released to the extracellular milieu under both physiological and pathological conditions via (1) membrane cell damage, (2) vesicle exocytosis, (3) ATP-binding cassette transporters, and/or (4) facilitated diffusion through maxi-anion channels, hemichannels or ligand-gated receptor pores. Nucleotides and their derivatives act via adenosine P1 (A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 ) and nucleotide-sensitive P2 purinoceptors comprising ionotropic P2X and G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Purinoceptors activation is terminated by membrane-bound ecto-nucleotidases and other ecto-phosphatases, which rapidly hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides to their respective nucleoside 5'-di- and mono-phosphates, nucleosides and free phosphates, or pyrophosphates. Current knowledge suggests that different players of the "purinome" cascade, namely nucleotide release sites, ecto-nucleotidases and purinoceptors, orchestrate to fine-tuning regulate the activity of MSCs in the bone microenvironment. Increasing studies, using osteoprogenitor cell lines, animal models and, more recently, non-modified MSCs from postmenopausal women, raised the possibility to target chief components of the purinergic signaling pathway to regenerate the ability of aged MSCs to differentiate into functional osteoblasts. This review summarizes the main findings of those studies, prompting for novel therapeutic strategies to control ageing disorders where bone destruction exceeds bone formation, like osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fracture mal-union. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1852

  8. Non-canonical roles for caveolin in regulation of membrane repair and mitochondria: implications for stress adaptation with age.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jan M; Patel, Hemal H

    2016-08-15

    Many different theories of ageing have been proposed but none has served the unifying purpose of defining a molecular target that can limit the structural and functional decline associated with age that ultimately leads to the demise of the organism. We propose that the search for a molecule with these unique properties must account for regulation of the signalling efficiency of multiple cellular functions that degrade with age due to a loss of a particular protein. We suggest caveolin as one such molecule that serves as a regulator of key processes in signal transduction. We define a particular distinction between cellular senescence and ageing and propose that caveolin plays a distinct role in each of these processes. Caveolin is traditionally thought of as a membrane-localized protein regulating signal transduction via membrane enrichment of specific signalling molecules. Ultimately we focus on two non-canonical roles for caveolin - membrane repair and regulation of mitochondrial function - which may be novel features of stress adaptation, especially in the setting of ageing. The end result of preserving membrane structure and mitochondrial function is maintenance of homeostatic signalling, preserving barrier function, and regulating energy production for cell survival and resilient ageing. PMID:26333003

  9. Adult mesenchymal stem cells in neural regeneration and repair: Current advances and future prospects (Review).

    PubMed

    Trzaska, Katarzyna A; Castillo, Marianne D; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine as they can be easily isolated from bone marrow (BM) aspirates and expanded in culture while maintaining their 'stemness'. In addition to differentiating into mesodermal cells, MSCs have shown considerable plasticity and generate ectodermal neurons and glia, which can be used to replace cells damaged by neurological diseases and injuries. These unique stem cells also exhibit immunomodulatory functions and secrete a variety of trophic factors which support regeneration and repair. This review focuses on the therapeutic usage of MSCs for neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries to the nervous system. Animal studies demonstrate great promise for MSC transplantation in neurological disorders. In fact, a few clinical trials have already been initiated and show that MSCs are a safe cellular therapy and have great potential to become a viable treatment for neural disorders in the years to come. PMID:21479411

  10. Meta-analyses identify 13 novel loci associated with age at menopause and highlights DNA repair and immune pathways

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Lisette; Perry, John RB; Chasman, Daniel I; He, Chunyan; Mangino, Massimo; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M; Ernst, Florian; Esko, Tõnu; Franceschini, Nora; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kraft, Peter; McArdle, Patick F; Porcu, Eleonora; Shin, So-Youn; Smith, Albert V; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhai, Guangju; Zhuang, Wei V; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Aspelund, Thor; Bandinelli, Stefania; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boban, Mladen; Boerwinkle, Eric; Broekmans, Frank J; Burri, Andrea; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Constance; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D; d’Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George VZ; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Emilsson, Valur; Eriksson, Johan G; Fauser, Bart CJM; Ferreli, Liana; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Krista; Folsom, Aaron R; Garcia, Melissa E; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Glazer, Nicole; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hankinson, Susan E; Hass, Merli; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Ingelsson, Erik; Janssens, A Cecile JW; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Kardia, Sharon LR; Keyzer, Jules; Kiel, Douglas P; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop SE; Lawlor, Debbie A; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M; Louwers, Yvonne V; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Marongiu, Mara; Martin, Nicholas G; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E; Melzer, David; Mooser, Vincent; Navarro, Pau; Newman, Anne B; Nyholt, Dale R; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Palotie, Aarno; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peeters, Petra HM; Pistis, Giorgio; Plump, Andrew S; Polasek, Ozren; Pop, Victor JM; Psaty, Bruce M; Räikkönen, Katri; Rehnberg, Emil; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Salumets, Andres; Scuteri, Angelo; Singleton, Andrew; Smith, Jennifer A; Snieder, Harold; Soranzo, Nicole; Stacey, Simon N; Starr, John M; Stathopoulou, Maria G; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Sun, Yan V; Tenesa, Albert; Thorand, Barbara; Toniolo, Daniela; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; Ulivi, Sheila; van Dam, Rob M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; van Gils, Carla H; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M; Visscher, Peter M; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wichmann, H Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Gent, Colette JM Wijnands-van; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Alan F; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Zillikens, M. Carola; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Launer, Lenore J; Metspalu, Andres; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Ridker, Paul M; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Völzke, Henry; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M; Visser, Jenny A; Lunetta, Kathryn L

    2011-01-01

    To identify novel loci for age at natural menopause, we performed a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 new age at natural menopause loci (P < 5 × 10−8). The new loci included genes implicated in DNA repair (EXO1, HELQ, UIMC1, FAM175A, FANCI, TLK1, POLG, PRIM1) and immune function (IL11, NLRP11, BAT2). Gene-set enrichment pathway analyses using the full GWAS dataset identified exodeoxyribonuclease, NFκB signalling and mitochondrial dysfunction as biological processes related to timing of menopause. PMID:22267201

  11. Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Lisette; Perry, John R B; Chasman, Daniel I; He, Chunyan; Mangino, Massimo; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M; Ernst, Florian; Esko, Tõnu; Franceschini, Nora; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kraft, Peter; McArdle, Patrick F; Porcu, Eleonora; Shin, So-Youn; Smith, Albert V; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhai, Guangju; Zhuang, Wei V; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Aspelund, Thor; Bandinelli, Stefania; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boban, Mladen; Boerwinkle, Eric; Broekmans, Frank J; Burri, Andrea; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Constance; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D; d'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V Z; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Emilsson, Valur; Eriksson, Johan G; Fauser, Bart C J M; Ferreli, Liana; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Krista; Folsom, Aaron R; Garcia, Melissa E; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Glazer, Nicole; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hankinson, Susan E; Hass, Merli; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Ingelsson, Erik; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Johnson, Andrew D; Karasik, David; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keyzer, Jules; Kiel, Douglas P; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S E; Lawlor, Debbie A; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M; Louwers, Yvonne V; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Marongiu, Mara; Martin, Nicholas G; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E; Melzer, David; Mooser, Vincent; Navarro, Pau; Newman, Anne B; Nyholt, Dale R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palotie, Aarno; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peeters, Petra H M; Pistis, Giorgio; Plump, Andrew S; Polasek, Ozren; Pop, Victor J M; Psaty, Bruce M; Räikkönen, Katri; Rehnberg, Emil; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia; Salumets, Andres; Scuteri, Angelo; Singleton, Andrew; Smith, Jennifer A; Snieder, Harold; Soranzo, Nicole; Stacey, Simon N; Starr, John M; Stathopoulou, Maria G; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Sun, Yan V; Tenesa, Albert; Thorand, Barbara; Toniolo, Daniela; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; Ulivi, Sheila; van Dam, Rob M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; van Gils, Carla H; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M; Visscher, Peter M; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wichmann, H Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Alan F; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Zillikens, M Carola; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Launer, Lenore J; Metspalu, Andres; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Ridker, Paul M; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Völzke, Henry; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M; Visser, Jenny A; Lunetta, Kathryn L

    2012-03-01

    To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural menopause (at P < 5 × 10(-8)). Candidate genes located at these newly associated loci include genes implicated in DNA repair (EXO1, HELQ, UIMC1, FAM175A, FANCI, TLK1, POLG and PRIM1) and immune function (IL11, NLRP11 and PRRC2A (also known as BAT2)). Gene-set enrichment pathway analyses using the full GWAS data set identified exoDNase, NF-κB signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction as biological processes related to timing of menopause. PMID:22267201

  12. Nanobiomotors of archaeal DNA repair machineries: current research status and application potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiomotors perform various important functions in the cell, and they also emerge as potential vehicle for drug delivery. These proteins employ conserved ATPase domains to convert chemical energy to mechanical work and motion. Several archaeal nucleic acid nanobiomotors, such as DNA helicases that unwind double-stranded DNA molecules during DNA damage repair, have been characterized in details. XPB, XPD and Hjm are SF2 family helicases, each of which employs two ATPase domains for ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive DNA unwinding. They also carry additional specific domains for substrate binding and regulation. Another helicase, HerA, forms a hexameric ring that may act as a DNA-pumping enzyme at the end processing of double-stranded DNA breaks. Common for all these nanobiomotors is that they contain ATPase domain that adopts RecA fold structure. This structure is characteristic for RecA/RadA family proteins and has been studied in great details. Here we review the structural analyses of these archaeal nucleic acid biomotors and the molecular mechanisms of how ATP binding and hydrolysis promote the conformation change that drives mechanical motion. The application potential of archaeal nanobiomotors in drug delivery has been discussed. PMID:24995126

  13. Cell cycle age dependence for radiation-induced G/sub 2/ arrest: evidence for time-dependent repair

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, R.

    1985-09-01

    Exponentially growing eucaryotic cells, irradiated in interphase, are delayed in progression to mitosis chiefly by arrest in G/sub 2/. The sensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells to G/sub 2/ arrest induction by X rays increases through the cell cycle, up to the X-ray transition point (TP) in G/sub 2/. This age response can be explained by cell cycle age-dependent changes in susceptibility of the target(s) for G/sub 2/ arrest and/or by changes in capability for postirradiation recovery from G/sub 2/ arrest damage. Discrimination between sensitivity changes and repair phenomena is possible only if the level of G/sub 2/ arrest-causing damage sustained by a cell at the time of irradiation and the level ultimately expressed as arrest can be determined. The ability of caffeine to ameliorate radiation-induced G/sub 2/ arrest, while inhibiting repair of G/sub 2/ arrest-causing damage makes such an analysis possible. In the presence of caffeine, progression of irradiated cells was relatively unperturbed, but on caffeine removal, G/sub 2/ arrest was expressed. The duration of G/sub 2/ arrest was independent of the length of the prior caffeine exposure. This finding indicates that the target for G/sub 2/ arrest induction is present throughout the cell cycle and that the level of G/sub 2/ arrest damage incurred is initially constant for all cell cycle phases. The data are consistent with the existence of a time-dependent recovery mechanism to explain the age dependence for radiation induction of G/sub 2/ arrest.

  14. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in plants. Phylogenetic distribution and the accumulation of substrate proteins in aged barley seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Mudgett, M B; Lowenson, J D; Clarke, S

    1997-01-01

    Protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferases (MTs; EC 2.1.1.77) can initiate the conversion of detrimental L-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal L-aspartyl residues. We detected this enzyme in 45 species from 23 families representing most of the divisions of the plant kingdom. MT activity is often localized in seeds, suggesting that it has a role in their maturation, quiescence, and germination. The relationship among MT activity, the accumulation of abnormal protein L-isoaspartyl residues, and seed viability was explored in barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivar Himalaya) seeds, which contain high levels of MT. Natural aging of barley seeds for 17 years resulted in a significant reduction in MT activity and in seed viability, coupled with increased levels of "unrepaired" L-isoaspartyl residues. In seeds heated to accelerate aging, we found no reduction of MT activity, but we did observe decreased seed viability and the accumulation of isoaspartyl residues. Among populations of accelerated aged seed, those possessing the highest levels of L-isoaspartyl-containing proteins had the lowest germination percentages. These results suggest that the MT present in seeds cannot efficiently repair all spontaneously damaged proteins containing altered aspartyl residues, and their accumulation during aging may contribute to the loss of seed viability. PMID:9414558

  15. Delirium in the elderly: current problems with increasing geriatric age

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, Deepti; Günther, Ulf; Popp, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition seen relatively commonly in people aged 65 yr or older. The prevalence is estimated to be between 11 and 42 per cent for elderly patients on medical wards. The prevalence is also high in nursing homes and long term care (LTC) facilities. The consequences of delirium could be significant such as an increase in mortality in the hospital, long-term cognitive decline, loss of autonomy and increased risk to be institutionalized. Despite being a common condition, it remains under-recognised, poorly understood and not adequately managed. Advanced age and dementia are the most important risk factors. Pain, dehydration, infections, stroke and metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Delirium is preventable in a large proportion of cases and therefore, it is also important from a public health perspective for interventions to reduce further complications and the substantial costs associated with these. Since the aetiology is, in most cases, multfactorial, it is important to consider a multi-component approach to management, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Detection and treatment of triggering causes must have high priority in case of delirium. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of delirium in the elderly population, given the increasing numbers of ageing people as well as increasing geriatric age. PMID:26831414

  16. Inter-individual variation in nucleotide excision repair in young adults: effects of age, adiposity, micronutrient supplementation and genotype.

    PubMed

    Tyson, John; Caple, Fiona; Spiers, Alison; Burtle, Brian; Daly, Ann K; Williams, Elizabeth A; Hesketh, John E; Mathers, John C

    2009-05-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is responsible for repairing bulky helix-distorting DNA lesions and is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Severe hereditary impairment of NER leads to cancers such as those in xeroderma pigmentosum, and more moderate reductions in NER capacity have been associated with an increased cancer risk. Diet is a proven modifier of cancer risk but few studies have investigated the potential relationships between diet and NER. In the present study, the plasmid-based host cell reactivation assay was used to measure the NER capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from fifty-seven volunteers aged 18-30 years before and after 6 weeks of supplementation with micronutrients (selenium and vitamins A, C and E). As a control, nine individuals remained unsupplemented over the same period. Volunteers were genotyped for the following polymorphisms in NER genes: ERCC5 Asp1104His (rs17655); XPC Lys939Gln (rs2228001); ERCC2 Lys751Gnl (rs13181); XPC PAT (an 83 bp poly A/T insertion-deletion polymorphism in the XPC gene). NER capacity varied 11-fold between individuals and was inversely associated with age and endogenous DNA strand breaks. For the first time, we observed an inverse association between adiposity and NER. No single polymorphism was associated with the NER capacity, although significant gene-gene interactions were observed between XPC Lys939Gln and ERCC5 Asp1104His and XPC Lys939Gln and ERCC2 Lys751Gnl. While there was no detectable effect of micronutrient supplementation on NER capacity, there was evidence that the effect of fruit intake on the NER capacity may be modulated by the ERCC2 Lys751Gnl single nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:18838045

  17. Gender differences, aging and hormonal status in mucosal injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Grishina, Irina; Fenton, Anne; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi

    2014-04-01

    As the "baby boomers" age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation. PMID:24729941

  18. Geroprotectors.org: a new, structured and curated database of current therapeutic interventions in aging and age-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Chernyagina, Elizaveta; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Barardo, Diogo; Thoppil, Harikrishnan; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Budovsky, Arie; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; Garazha, Andrew; Tsvetkov, Vasily; Bronovitsky, Evgeny; Bogomolov, Vladislav; Scerbacov, Alexei; Kuryan, Oleg; Gurinovich, Roman; Jellen, Leslie C.; Kennedy, Brian; Mamoshina, Polina; Dobrovolskaya, Evgeniya; Aliper, Alex; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    As the level of interest in aging research increases, there is a growing number of geroprotectors, or therapeutic interventions that aim to extend the healthy lifespan and repair or reduce aging-related damage in model organisms and, eventually, in humans. There is a clear need for a manually-curated database of geroprotectors to compile and index their effects on aging and age-related diseases and link these effects to relevant studies and multiple biochemical and drug databases. Here, we introduce the first such resource, Geroprotectors (http://geroprotectors.org). Geroprotectors is a public, rapidly explorable database that catalogs over 250 experiments involving over 200 known or candidate geroprotectors that extend lifespan in model organisms. Each compound has a comprehensive profile complete with biochemistry, mechanisms, and lifespan effects in various model organisms, along with information ranging from chemical structure, side effects, and toxicity to FDA drug status. These are presented in a visually intuitive, efficient framework fit for casual browsing or in-depth research alike. Data are linked to the source studies or databases, providing quick and convenient access to original data. The Geroprotectors database facilitates cross-study, cross-organism, and cross-discipline analysis and saves countless hours of inefficient literature and web searching. Geroprotectors is a one-stop, knowledge-sharing, time-saving resource for researchers seeking healthy aging solutions. PMID:26342919

  19. Eddy current array probe for corrosion mapping on ageing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Rémi; Samson, Rock

    2000-05-01

    The life of an airplane in the civil and military fleet is expanding by many years. The corrosion on aircraft is becoming a serious problem. The corrosion can also lead to the development of "multi-site damage" (MSD) and catastrophic failure. The need for a fast and reliable nondestructive technique for the detection of corrosion is a prime concern. A simple eddy current or ultrasonic probe can be very time consuming in the inspection because of the small area covered by the probe. The use of an eddy current array probe can cut the time use for an inspection or increase the surface scanned. Because it is an eddy current technology, the surface preparation is minimal compared to other techniques like ultrasound. It is also possible to detect defects beyond the first layer in a multiple layer panel. A flexible probe was employed to demonstrate the capacities of an eddy current array probe. This flexible probe can also match the profile of the structure to inspect limiting the lift-off. The C-scan technique is used in the display to see all the data on the same screen. The interpretation is also simplified.

  20. The l-Isoaspartyl Protein Repair Methyltransferase Enhances Survival of Aging Escherichia coli Subjected to Secondary Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Visick, Jonathan E.; Cai, Hui; Clarke, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Like its homologs throughout the biological world, the l-isoaspartyl protein repair methyltransferase of Escherichia coli, encoded by the pcm gene, can convert abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in proteins (which form spontaneously from asparaginyl or aspartyl residues) to normal aspartyl residues. Mutations in pcm were reported to greatly reduce survival in stationary phase and when cells were subjected to heat or osmotic stresses (C. Li and S. Clarke, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:9885–9889, 1992). However, we subsequently demonstrated that those strains had a secondary mutation in rpoS, which encodes a stationary-phase-specific sigma factor (J. E. Visick and S. Clarke, J. Bacteriol. 179:4158–4163, 1997). We now show that the rpoS mutation, resulting in a 90% decrease in HPII catalase activity, can account for the previously observed phenotypes. We further demonstrate that a new pcm mutant lacks these phenotypes. Interestingly, the newly constructed pcm mutant, when maintained in stationary phase for extended periods, is susceptible to environmental stresses, including exposure to methanol, oxygen radical generation by paraquat, high salt concentrations, and repeated heating to 42°C. The pcm mutation also results in a competitive disadvantage in stationary-phase cells. All of these phenotypes can be complemented by a functional pcm gene integrated elsewhere in the chromosome. These data suggest that protein denaturation and isoaspartyl formation may act synergistically to the detriment of aging E. coli and that the repair methyltransferase can play a role in limiting the accumulation of the potentially disruptive isoaspartyl residues in vivo. PMID:9573145

  1. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR ON ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries among patients under 50 years of age. Methods: Sixty-three patients with rotator cuff injuries who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in the Fernandinho Simonsen wing of Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, between August 1998 and December 2007, were reassessed. The study included all patients with rotator cuff injuries who were under 50 years of age and had been followed up postoperatively for at least 24 months. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 59 patients (92%) showed excellent and good results; five (8%) showed fair results; and none showed poor results. The postoperative evaluation showed that the mean range of motion was 145° for elevation, 47° for lateral rotation and T10 for medial rotation. Unsatisfactory results were associated with prolonged duration of the injury, with a statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in young patients produces excellent or good results for most patients. PMID:27047819

  2. [Scarcity in health care, age as selection criterion and the value of old age. Current discussion].

    PubMed

    Naafs, J

    1993-06-01

    There is a growing attention for setting limits in health care. Contemporary medical scarcity makes choices necessary, but what are the arguments? Only medical criteria for selection are accepted in the Netherlands, but that does not mean at all that age is an unimportant criterion. In this article the discussion on age as criterion for selection is reviewed. It seems that arguments are based on different basic (moral) assumptions and that age and aging can be appreciated from different points of view. There is among other things the principle of justice and the idea of a natural life-span (Daniels), the norm of a worthwhile life-time (the fair-innings argument of Harris) and the idea of old age as a period of its own (Callahan). The different starting points can lead to the same way of thinking about age as a criterion for selection. Daniels, Harris, and Callahan justify this kind of selection. The Dunning-committee however does not accept it, from the point of a fundamental equality of people, the protection of life and the principle of solidarity in our society. It seems that not only the different arguments lead towards different conclusions but also the different views on the value of old age by different groups or by society as a whole. PMID:8328008

  3. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  4. [Complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot in infants under the age of 6 months. Apropos of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Guirgis, N H; Losay, J; Serraf, A; Ouaknine, R; Chambran, P; Lacour-Gayet, F; Bruniaux, J; Binet, J P; Planché, C

    1991-05-01

    Between January 1982 and October 1988, 25 infants with Tetralogy of Fallot underwent total correction, total primary repair was carried out in 22 cases; 3 underwent correction after a palliative anastomosis. The average age was 3.7 +/- 1.6 months; the average weight was 5.06 +/- 1.41 kg and average body surface area was 0.30 +/- 0.06 m2. Nineteen patients had a regular anatomic form and 6 had an irregular form of the condition. The hospital mortality was 8% (2 cases): the mortality was nil in the regular anatomic form but 33% in the irregular anatomic forms. Twenty-one patients have been followed up for an average of 50.8 +/- 19.2 months. There were no late deaths; two patients were reoperated for a residual pulmonary stenosis; 19 patients are well and asymptomatic. Doppler echocardiography shows a residual pressure gradient between the right ventricule and pulmonary artery of 17.8 +/- 22.7 mmHg associated with a grade 1-2/4 pulmonary regurgitation. There are no residual ventricular septal defects or cases of atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacing. PMID:1898202

  5. Fibrin Sealant: A Review of the History, Biomechanics, and Current Applications for Prosthetic Fixation in Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jefferson Tyler; Webb, David L; Stoikes, Nathaniel F N; Voeller, Guy R

    2015-11-01

    The role of surgical adhesives in hernia repair has continued to evolve. The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of fibrin sealant and its application in general surgery for mesh fixation, specifically the history, biomechanics, and clinical utilization. The utilization of fibrin sealant for repair of groin hernias, both open and laparoscopic, ventral hernias, and hiatal hernias will be discussed. PMID:26696538

  6. Anhydrobiosis vs. aging: comparative genomics of protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferases in the sleeping chironomid. .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Kikawada, Takahiro; Shagimardanova, Elena; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ayupov, Rustam

    Origin of anhydrobiosis in the larvae of the sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki represents unique example of set of evolutionary events in a single species, resulted in acquiring new ability allowing survival in extremely changeable environment. Complex comparative analysis of the genome of P. vanderplanki resulted in discovery of a set of features, including existence of the set of unique clusters of genes contributing in desiccation resistance. Surprisingly, in several cases, the genes mainly contributing to the formation of the molecular shield in the larvae are sleeping chironomid-specific and have no homology with genes from other insects, including P. nubifer - a chironomid from the same genus. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) acts on proteins that have been non-enzymatically damaged due to age, and partially restores aspartic residues, extending life of the polypeptides. PIMT a highly conserved enzyme present in nearly all eukaryotes, and microorganisms mostly in a single copy (or in a few isoforms in certain plants and some bacteria). While conducting a comparative analysis of the genomes of two chironomid midge species different in their ability to stand complete water loss, we have noticed that structure and number of PIMT-coding genes in the desiccation resistant (anhydrobiotic) midge (Polypedilum vanderplanki, Pv) is different from those of the common desiccation-sensitive midge (Polypedilum nubifer, Pn) and the rest of insects. Both species have a clear orthologous PIMT shared by all insects. At the same time, in contrast to Pn which has only one PIMT gene (PnPimt-1), the Pv genome contains 12 additional genes paralogous to Pimt1 (PvPimt-2-12) presumably coding functional PIMT proteins, which are arranged in a single cluster. Remarkably, PvPimt-1 location in the Pv is different from the rest of Pimt-like genes. PvPimt-1 gene is ubiquitously expressed during the life cycle, but expression of the PvPimt2-12 is limited to the eggs

  7. Meningocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... a medical team with experience in children with spina bifida. Your baby will likely have an MRI (magnetic ...

  8. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts. PMID:25114387

  9. Traditional native tissue versus mesh-augmented pelvic organ prolapse repairs: providing an accurate interpretation of current literature.

    PubMed

    Stanford, E J; Cassidenti, A; Moen, M D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the literature on pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and compare the success of traditional/native tissue versus mesh-augmented repairs. A comprehensive literature review was performed using PubMed and bibliography searches to compare the anatomic success rates of native tissue (NT) and mesh-augmented (MA) prolapse repairs and to analyze outcome measures used to report success rates. Articles were included if anatomic outcomes were stated for the specific compartment of interest and included both prospective and retrospective studies. The published success rates for NT repairs versus MA repairs by anterior, posterior, or apical compartments are reported. When continence is used as the primary outcome measure, anterior NT has a success rate of 54%. Anterior NT success is as low as 30% in some studies, but generally is 88-97% when prolapse is the primary outcome particularly if apical support is included. This compares to the 87-96% success reported for anterior MA. Posterior NT success is 54-81%, which is lower than the 92-97% reported for posterior MA when prolapse is the outcome measure. The success rates for apical NT are 97-98% for uterosacral ligament suspension and 96% for sacrospinous ligament suspension, which compare favorably to sacrocolpopexy (91-100%). There are some differences in the complications reported for NT and MA. The rate of complications is approximately 8% for NT and is reported at 0-19% for MA. The higher rate for MA is largely due to mesh erosion/exposure. When similar outcome measures are compared, the published anatomic success rates of POP of anterior and apical compartmental surgery are similar for NT and MA repairs. There may be a higher rate of complications noted for mesh implantation. POP surgery is complex, and both NT and MA techniques require skills to perform proper compartmental reconstruction. An understanding of the published literature and knowledge of individual surgeon factors are

  10. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  11. DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, E.C.; Hanawalt, P.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this book included: Eukaryote model systems for DNA repair study; Sensitive detection of DNA lesions and their repair; and Defined DNA sequence probes for analysis of mutagenesis and repair.

  12. Wound repair and regeneration: Mechanisms, signaling, and translation

    PubMed Central

    Eming, Sabine A.; Martin, Paul; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning tissue repair and its failure to heal are still poorly understood, and current therapies are limited. Poor wound healing after trauma, surgery, acute illness, or chronic disease conditions affects millions of people worldwide each year and is the consequence of poorly regulated elements of the healthy tissue repair response, including inflammation, angiogenesis, matrix deposition, and cell recruitment. Failure of one or several of these cellular processes is generally linked to an underlying clinical condition, such as vascular disease, diabetes, or aging, which are all frequently associated with healing pathologies. The search for clinical strategies that might improve the body’s natural repair mechanisms will need to be based on a thorough understanding of the basic biology of repair and regeneration. In this review, we highlight emerging concepts in tissue regeneration and repair, and provide some perspectives on how to translate current knowledge into viable clinical approaches for treating patients with wound-healing pathologies. PMID:25473038

  13. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  14. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  15. Late Na+ current and protracted electrical recovery are critical determinants of the aging myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Signore, Sergio; Sorrentino, Andrea; Borghetti, Giulia; Cannata, Antonio; Meo, Marianna; Zhou, Yu; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Pasqualini, Francesco; O'Malley, Heather; Sundman, Mark; Tsigkas, Nikolaos; Zhang, Eric; Arranto, Christian; Mangiaracina, Chiara; Isobe, Kazuya; Sena, Brena F.; Kim, Junghyun; Goichberg, Polina; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Isom, Lori L.; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The aging myopathy manifests itself with diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction. We raised the possibility that, in a mouse model of physiological aging, defects in electromechanical properties of cardiomyocytes are important determinants of the diastolic characteristics of the myocardium, independently from changes in structural composition of the muscle and collagen framework. Here we show that an increase in the late Na+ current (INaL) in aging cardiomyocytes prolongs the action potential (AP) and influences temporal kinetics of Ca2+ cycling and contractility. These alterations increase force development and passive tension. Inhibition of INaL shortens the AP and corrects dynamics of Ca2+ transient, cell contraction and relaxation. Similarly, repolarization and diastolic tension of the senescent myocardium are partly restored. Thus, INaL offers inotropic support, but negatively interferes with cellular and ventricular compliance, providing a new perspective of the biology of myocardial aging and the aetiology of the defective cardiac performance in the elderly. PMID:26541940

  16. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  17. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  18. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  19. Sn-Ag-Cu to Cu joint current aging test and evolution of resistance and microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Di Erick; Chow, Jasper; Mayer, Michael; Jung, Jae Pil; Yoon, Jong Hyun

    2015-11-01

    SAC 305 solder bump with 800 μm diameter were produced and soldered to a custom substrate with Cu lines as leads that allow for resistance measurement during current aging. The measured joint resistance values (leads plus solder bump) before aging are 7.7 ± 1.8 mΩ and 11.8 ± 2.8 mΩ at room temperature and 160°C, respectively. In general, the resistance of the solder joint increases instantly by about 1 mΩ, when subjected to a 2.2 A aging current at 160°C. The increase is gradual in the following hours of aging and more drastic as it approaches the final failure. Four stages are identified in the resistance signal curve and compared with observations from cross sections. The stages are IMC growth, crack formation and propagation, intermittent crack healing-forming, and final failure resulting in an open connection at the cathode. Recently a periodical drop and rise behavior was reported for the resistance signal. This behavior is reproduced and attributed to the intermittent crack healing-forming stage. The healing events observed are faster than the sampling time. Possibly, as current is concentrated when bypassing interfacial cracks, local melting occurs partially filling cracks before resolidifying. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Repair of the Ankle Syndesmosis

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Jonathan D.; Clanton, Thomas O.; Whitlow, Scott R.; Williams, Brady T.; Liechti, Daniel; Dornan, Grant J.; Saroki, Adriana; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Significant debate exists regarding the optimal repair techniques for unstable syndesmosis injuries. Techniques range from one to multiple screw fixation, suture-button fixation devices, or a combination of the two. The purpose of the current investigation was to biomechanically compare three common syndesmotic repair techniques using a simulated weight-bearing protocol with internal and external rotation of the foot. Methods: Twenty-four, lower leg specimens with mean age 54.25 years (range, 38 to 68 years) were utilized for testing. Following the creation of a complete syndesmotic injury (AITFL, ITFL, PITFL, interosseous membrane) specimens were repaired using one of three randomly assigned repair techniques: (1) one 3.5 mm syndesmotic screw, (2) one suture-button construct, and (3) two divergent suture-button constructs. For testing, specimens were oriented in neutral plantar/dorsiflexion and neutral internal/external rotation with the respect to the vertical tibia. Repairs were then cycled for 500 cycles between 7.5 Nm of internal/external rotation torque under a constant 750 N axial compressive load. At 0, 10, 100, and 500 cycles, torsional cyclic loading was interrupted to assess torsional stiffness and resistance to rotation within a physiologic range of motion. While axially loaded to 750 N, the foot was externally rotated to 15° and then rotated to 10° of internal rotation. Torsional cyclic loading was then resumed. Torque (Nm) and rotational position (degrees) were recorded continuously throughout testing. Three-dimensional data was also collected throughout testing to characterize the relative spatial relationships of the tibiofibular articulation. Results: Biomechanically, there were no significant differences between techniques when repairs were compared to the intact syndesmosis. Three-dimensional analysis revealed significant differences between all repair techniques for sagittal fibular translation with external rotation of the foot

  1. Influence of the humidity on leakage current under accelerated aging of polymer insulating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Otsubo, M.; Shimono, Y.; Hikami, T.; Honda, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the experimental results of accelerated aging tests conducted on three different types of polymer materials. Salt fog chamber tests were used to study the surface degradation modes for all materials. The work presented here was performed using a newly constructed fog chamber system that was able to control both chamber humidity and UV radiation. The changes in the surface morphology, material structure and leakage current were examined to study the influence of environmental humidity.

  2. Engineering skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-10-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaired. In this article, we will describe current approaches to restore the function of diseased or injured muscle through combined use of myogenic stem cells, biomaterials, and functional tissue-engineered muscle. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for expanding the future use of human cell sources toward the development of cell-based clinical therapies and in vitro models of human muscle disease. PMID:23711735

  3. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and grade on bilingual language performance.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Griffin, Zenzi M; Hixon, J Gregory

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information about English and Spanish language use. Short tests of semantic and morphosyntactic development in Spanish and English were used to quantify children's knowledge of each language. There were significant interactions between AoEE and Current Input/Output for children at third grade in English and in both grades for Spanish. In English, the relationship between AoEE and language scores were linear for first- and third-graders. In Spanish a nonlinear relationship was observed. We discuss how much of the variance was accounted for by AoEE and Current Input/Output. PMID:26916066

  4. Absence of age-related dopamine transporter loss in current cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.

    1997-05-01

    The brain dopamine (DA) system appears to play a crucial role in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Using PET we had previously shown significant decreases in DA D2 receptors but no changes in DA transporters (DAT) in detoxified cocaine abusers (>1 month after last cocaine use). This study evaluates DAT availability in current cocaine abusers (15 male and 5 female; age = 36.2{+-}5.3 years old) using PET and [C-11]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, and compares it to that in 18 male and 2 female age matched normal controls. Cocaine abusers had a history of abusing 4.2{+-}2.8 gm /week of cocaine for an average of 11.0{+-}4.9 years and their last use of cocaine was 5.4{+-}8 days prior to PET study. DAT availability was obtained using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, pulamen) to that in cerebellum which is a function of Bmax./Kd.+1. DAT availability in cocaine abusers did not differ to that in normals (N) (C= 1.78{+-}0.14, N= 1.77{+-}0.13). In addition, there were no differences between the groups in the distribution volume or the Kl (plasma to brain transfer constant) measures for [C-11]cocaine. However, in the normals but not in the abusers striatal DAT availability decreased with age (C: r = -0.07, p = 0.76; N: r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Though this study fails to show group differences in DAT availability between normals and current cocaine abusers it indicates a blunting of the age-related decline in DAT availability in the cocaine abusers. Future studies in older cocaine abusers at different time after detoxification arc required in order to assess if cocaine slows the loss of DAT with age or whether these changes reflect compensation to increased DAT blockade and recover with detoxification.

  5. Tumor Mismatch Repair Immunohistochemistry and DNA MLH1 Methylation Testing of Patients With Endometrial Cancer Diagnosed at Age Younger Than 60 Years Optimizes Triage for Population-Level Germline Mismatch Repair Gene Mutation Testing

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Daniel D.; Tan, Yen Y.; Walsh, Michael D.; Clendenning, Mark; Metcalf, Alexander M.; Ferguson, Kaltin; Arnold, Sven T.; Thompson, Bryony A.; Lose, Felicity A.; Parsons, Michael T.; Walters, Rhiannon J.; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Cummings, Margaret; Oehler, Martin K.; Blomfield, Penelope B.; Quinn, Michael A.; Kirk, Judy A.; Stewart, Colin J.; Obermair, Andreas; Young, Joanne P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Clinicopathologic data from a population-based endometrial cancer cohort, unselected for age or family history, were analyzed to determine the optimal scheme for identification of patients with germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. Patients and Methods Endometrial cancers from 702 patients recruited into the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study (ANECS) were tested for MMR protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and for MLH1 gene promoter methylation in MLH1-deficient cases. MMR mutation testing was performed on germline DNA of patients with MMR-protein deficient tumors. Prediction of germline mutation status was compared for combinations of tumor characteristics, age at diagnosis, and various clinical criteria (Amsterdam, Bethesda, Society of Gynecologic Oncology, ANECS). Results Tumor MMR-protein deficiency was detected in 170 (24%) of 702 cases. Germline testing of 158 MMR-deficient cases identified 22 truncating mutations (3% of all cases) and four unclassified variants. Tumor MLH1 methylation was detected in 99 (89%) of 111 cases demonstrating MLH1/PMS2 IHC loss; all were germline MLH1 mutation negative. A combination of MMR IHC plus MLH1 methylation testing in women younger than 60 years of age at diagnosis provided the highest positive predictive value for the identification of mutation carriers at 46% versus ≤ 41% for any other criteria considered. Conclusion Population-level identification of patients with MMR mutation-positive endometrial cancer is optimized by stepwise testing for tumor MMR IHC loss in patients younger than 60 years, tumor MLH1 methylation in individuals with MLH1 IHC loss, and germline mutations in patients exhibiting loss of MSH6, MSH2, or PMS2 or loss of MLH1/PMS2 with absence of MLH1 methylation. PMID:24323032

  6. Clubfoot repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... release; Talipes equinovarus - repair; Tibialis anterior tendon transfer Images Clubfoot repair - series References Kelly DM. Congenital Anomalies ... provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  7. Stereotactic radiotherapy for wet age-related macular degeneration: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Neffendorf, James E; Jackson, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Currently, the treatment of choice is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF medications. These require frequent dosing, up to monthly, and impose a substantial burden on patients and the health economy. Ionizing radiation was proposed as a possible treatment for age-related macular degeneration due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Stereotactic radiotherapy is an outpatient-based radiotherapy platform that provides stereotactic application of low energy X-ray to the retina in three highly collimated beams that cross the inferior sclera to overlap at the macula. A randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled trial of 230 patients (INTREPID) showed that a single dose of stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduces the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections needed over 2 years. A larger randomized controlled trial (STAR) is underway. PMID:26491243

  8. Stereotactic radiotherapy for wet age-related macular degeneration: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Neffendorf, James E; Jackson, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Currently, the treatment of choice is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF medications. These require frequent dosing, up to monthly, and impose a substantial burden on patients and the health economy. Ionizing radiation was proposed as a possible treatment for age-related macular degeneration due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Stereotactic radiotherapy is an outpatient-based radiotherapy platform that provides stereotactic application of low energy X-ray to the retina in three highly collimated beams that cross the inferior sclera to overlap at the macula. A randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled trial of 230 patients (INTREPID) showed that a single dose of stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduces the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections needed over 2 years. A larger randomized controlled trial (STAR) is underway. PMID:26491243

  9. Current technology for the treatment of infection following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) fixation by endovascular repair (EVAR).

    PubMed

    Capoccia, L; Mestres, G; Riambau, V

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, in parallel with the increase of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) procedures performances, a rise of late open surgical removal of EVAR implants has been observed, due to non-endovascularly correctable graft complications. Among them endograft infection is a rare but devastating occurrence, accounting for an incidence ranging from 0.2% to 0.7% in major series, and almost 1% of all causes of endograft explantations. However, a real estimation of the incidence of the problem respect to the number of EVAR implantations is difficult to obtain. Time to infection is usually defined as the period between EVAR and presentation of symptoms that leads to the infection diagnosis. It can be extremely variable, depending on bacterial virulence and host conditions. The diagnosis of an endograft infection is usually based on a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies and microbial cultures whenever possible. If computed tomography (CT) scan is employed in almost 100% of infection diagnosis, a combination of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and CT scan is nowadays used with increasing frequency in order to rise the likelihood of detecting a graft infection, since even cultures of blood or samples collected from the infected field can sometimes be negative. Complete graft excision seems the best approach whenever a surgical reconstruction could be attempted. In situ reconstruction can be performed by the interposition of an autologous vein, a cryopreserved allograft or a rifampin-soaked Dacron graft. The so-called conventional treatment contemplates the re-establishment of vascularization through extranatomical routes, thus preserving the new graft material from possible contamination by the surgical field just cleaned. When severe comorbid conditions did not allow graft excision, a conservative treatment should be taken into account. It is mainly based on broad-spectrum or culture-specific antibiotic therapy combined, whenever

  10. Dry age-related macular degeneration: A currently unmet clinical need

    PubMed Central

    Girmens, Jean-François; Sahel, José-Alain; Marazova, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of severe visual impairment and disability in older people worldwide. Although considerable advances in the management of the neovascular form of AMD have been made in the last decade, no therapy is yet available for the advanced dry form of AMD (geographic atrophy). This review focuses on current trends in the development of new therapies targeting specific pathophysiological pathways of dry AMD. Increased understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie dry AMD will help to address this largely unmet clinical need. PMID:25343081

  11. Angiotensin II receptor blockade promotes repair of skeletal muscle through down-regulation of aging-promoting C1q expression

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Chizuru; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Rie; Yano, Masamichi; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Sumida, Tomokazu; Kamo, Takehiro; Yagi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Yu; Saga-Kamo, Akiko; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Uejima, Etsuko; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor prolonged life span in mice. Since aging-related decline in skeletal muscle function was retarded in Atgr1a−/− mice, we examined the role of AT1 receptor in muscle regeneration after injury. Administration of AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan increased the size of regenerating myofibers, decreased fibrosis, and enhanced functional muscle recovery after cryoinjury. We recently reported that complement C1q, secreted by macrophages, activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoted aging-related decline in regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Notably, irbesartan induced M2 polarization of macrophages, but reduced C1q expression in cryoinjured muscles and in cultured macrophage cells. Irbesartan inhibited up-regulation of Axin2, a downstream gene of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in cryoinjured muscles. In addition, topical administration of C1q reversed beneficial effects of irbesartan on skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. These results suggest that AT1 receptor blockade improves muscle repair and regeneration through down-regulation of the aging-promoting C1q-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26571361

  12. Age decreases macrophage IL-10 expression: Implications for functional recovery and tissue repair in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; Bailey, William M; Braun, Kaitlyn J; Gensel, John C

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages with different activation states are present after spinal cord injury (SCI). M1 macrophages purportedly promote secondary injury processes while M2 cells support axon growth. The average age at the time of SCI has increased in recent decades, however, little is known about how different physiological factors contribute to macrophage activation states after SCI. Here we investigate the effect of age on IL-10, a key indicator of M2 macrophage activation. Following mild-moderate SCI in 4 and 14 month old (MO) mice we detected significantly reduced IL-10 expression with age in the injured spinal cord. Specifically, CD86/IL-10 positive macrophages, also known as M2b or regulatory macrophages, were reduced in 14 vs. 4 MO SCI animals. This age-dependent shift in macrophage phenotype was associated with impaired functional recovery and enhanced tissue damage in 14-month-old SCI mice. In vitro, M2b macrophages release anti-inflammatory cytokines without causing neurotoxicity, suggesting that imbalances in the M2b response in 14-month-old mice may be contributing to secondary injury processes. Our data indicate that age is an important factor that regulates SCI inflammation and recovery even to mild-moderate injury. Further, alterations in macrophage activation states may contribute to recovery and we have identified the M2b phenotype as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26263843

  13. Base Excision Repair and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Susan S.; Murphy, Drew L.; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2012-01-01

    Base excision repair is the system used from bacteria to man to remove the tens of thousands of endogenous DNA damages produced daily in each human cell. Base excision repair is required for normal mammalian development and defects have been associated with neurological disorders and cancer. In this paper we provide an overview of short patch base excision repair in humans and summarize current knowledge of defects in base excision repair in mouse models and functional studies on short patch base excision repair germ line polymorphisms and their relationship to cancer. The biallelic germ line mutations that result in MUTYH-associated colon cancer are also discussed. PMID:22252118

  14. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  15. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  16. Current Understanding of the Pathways Involved in Adult Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration for Tissue Homeostasis and Repair.

    PubMed

    Goichberg, Polina

    2016-08-01

    With the advancements in the field of adult stem and progenitor cells grows the recognition that the motility of primitive cells is a pivotal aspect of their functionality. There is accumulating evidence that the recruitment of tissue-resident and circulating cells is critical for organ homeostasis and effective injury responses, whereas the pathobiology of degenerative diseases, neoplasm and aging, might be rooted in the altered ability of immature cells to migrate. Furthermore, understanding the biological machinery determining the translocation patterns of tissue progenitors is of great relevance for the emerging methodologies for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. The present article provides an overview of studies addressing the physiological significance and diverse modes of stem and progenitor cell trafficking in adult mammalian organs, discusses the major microenvironmental cues regulating cell migration, and describes the implementation of live imaging approaches for the exploration of stem cell movement in tissues and the factors dictating the motility of endogenous and transplanted cells with regenerative potential. PMID:27209167

  17. Robotic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Escobar Dominguez, Jose E; Gonzalez, Anthony; Donkor, Charan

    2015-09-01

    Inguinal hernias have been described throughout the history of medicine with many efforts to achieve the cure. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what is going to be the best approach for inguinal hernia repair? Is there a real benefit with the robotic approach? Should minimally invasive hernia surgery be the standard of care? In this report we address these questions by describing our experience with robotic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:26153353

  18. Large steam turbine repair: A survey

    SciTech Connect

    Findlan, S.J.; Lube, B. )

    1991-07-01

    This report covers a survey taken to document the current state-of-the-art in repairs to large steam turbines. One objective was to provide information to assist utilities in making repair or replacement decisions. The survey revealed that a large number of repairs have been successfully repaired involving both mechanical and welding repair techniques. Repair techniques have been improving in recent years and are being used more frequently. No guidelines or codes exist for the repair of steam turbine components so each repair is primarily controlled by agreement between the utility, contractor and insurer. Types of repairs are reviewed in this report and in addition, the capabilities of various contractors who are currently active in providing repair service. 40 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Human DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Wood, R D; Mitchell, M; Sgouros, J; Lindahl, T

    2001-02-16

    Cellular DNA is subjected to continual attack, both by reactive species inside cells and by environmental agents. Toxic and mutagenic consequences are minimized by distinct pathways of repair, and 130 known human DNA repair genes are described here. Notable features presently include four enzymes that can remove uracil from DNA, seven recombination genes related to RAD51, and many recently discovered DNA polymerases that bypass damage, but only one system to remove the main DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light. More human DNA repair genes will be found by comparison with model organisms and as common folds in three-dimensional protein structures are determined. Modulation of DNA repair should lead to clinical applications including improvement of radiotherapy and treatment with anticancer drugs and an advanced understanding of the cellular aging process. PMID:11181991

  20. Genetics of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Concepts, Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Silveira, Alexandra C.; Carr, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive degenerative disease which leads to blindness, affecting the quality of life of millions of Americans. More than 1.75 million individuals in the United States are affected by the advanced form of AMD. The etiological pathway of AMD is not yet fully understood, but there is a clear genetic influence on disease risk. To date, the 1q32 (CFH) and 10q26 (PLEKHA1/ARMS2/HTRA1) loci are the most strongly associated with disease; however, the variation in these genomic regions alone is unable to predict disease development with high accuracy. Therefore, current genetic studies are aimed at identifying new genes associated with AMD and their modifiers, with the goal of discovering diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Moreover, these studies provide the foundation for further investigation into the pathophysiology of AMD by utilizing a systems-biology-based approach to elucidate underlying mechanistic pathways. PMID:21609220

  1. Therapies for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Approaches and Pharmacologic Agents in Development

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Daniel; Kherani, Saleema; Sepah, Yasir J.; Rajagopalan, Nithya; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Do, Diana V.; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2013-01-01

    As one of the leading causes of blindness, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has remained at the epicenter of clinical research in ophthalmology. During the past decade, focus of researchers has ranged from understanding the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the angiogenic cascades to developing new therapies for retinal vascular diseases. Anti-VEGF agents such as ranibizumab and aflibercept are becoming increasingly well-established therapies and have replaced earlier approaches such as laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy. Many other new therapeutic agents, which are in the early phase clinical trials, have shown promising results. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the available treatment modalities for neovascular AMD and then focus on promising new therapies that are currently in various stages of development. PMID:24319688

  2. Telocytes in cardiac regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Bei, Yihua; Zhou, Qiulian; Sun, Qi; Xiao, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of stromal cells reported by Popescu's group in 2010. The unique feature that distinguishes TCs from other "classical" stromal cells is their extremely long and thin telopodes (Tps). As evidenced by electron microscopy, TCs are widely distributed in almost all tissues and organs. TCs contribute to form a three-dimensional interstitial network and play as active regulators in intercellular communication via homocellular/heterocellular junctions or shed vesicles. Interestingly, increasing evidence suggests the potential role of TCs in regenerative medicine. Although the heart retains some limited endogenous regenerative capacity, cardiac regenerative and repair response is however insufficient to make up the loss of cardiomyocytes upon injury. Developing novel strategies to increase cardiomyocyte renewal and repair is of great importance for the treatment of cardiac diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of TCs in cardiac regeneration and repair. We particularly describe the intercellular communication between TCs and cardiomyocytes, stem/progenitor cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Also, we discuss the current knowledge about TCs in cardiac repair after myocardial injury, as well as their potential roles in cardiac development and aging. TC-based therapy or TC-derived exosome delivery might be used as novel therapeutic strategies to promote cardiac regeneration and repair. PMID:26826525

  3. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  4. Large-scale genomic analyses link reproductive aging to hypothalamic signaling, breast cancer susceptibility and BRCA1-mediated DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Day, Felix R; Ruth, Katherine S; Thompson, Deborah J; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Pervjakova, Natalia; Chasman, Daniel I; Stolk, Lisette; Finucane, Hilary K; Sulem, Patrick; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Esko, Tõnu; Johnson, Andrew D; Elks, Cathy E; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Brody, Jennifer A; Franke, Lude L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Keller, Margaux F; McArdle, Patrick F; Nutile, Teresa; Porcu, Eleonora; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Schick, Ursula M; Smith, Jennifer A; Teumer, Alexander; Traglia, Michela; Vuckovic, Dragana; Yao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Corre, Tanguy; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Mangino, Massimo; Smith, Albert V; Tanaka, Toshiko; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antoniou, Antonis C; Arndt, Volker; Arnold, Alice M; Barbieri, Caterina; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bernstein, Leslie; Bielinski, Suzette J; Blomqvist, Carl; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boutin, Thibaud S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Campbell, Archie; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J; Chapman, J Ross; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M; Eicher, John D; Fasching, Peter A; Faul, Jessica D; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Gandin, Ilaria; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G; Girotto, Giorgia G; Goldberg, Mark S; González-Neira, Anna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grove, Megan L; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiman, Christopher A; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Henderson, Brian E; Hocking, Lynne J; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Huang, Jinyan; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Samuel E; Kabisch, Maria; Karasik, David; Knight, Julia A; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooperberg, Charles; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kristensen, Vessela; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Li, Jingmei; Li, Xin; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Yongmei; Luan, Jian'an; Lubinski, Jan; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Manz, Judith; Margolin, Sara; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G; Masciullo, Corrado; Meindl, Alfons; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nalls, Michael; Neale, Benjamin M; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Newman, Anne B; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Olson, Janet E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peters, Ulrike; Petersmann, Astrid; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pirastu, Nicola N; Pirie, Ailith; Pistis, Giorgio; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Psaty, Bruce M; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Raffel, Leslie J; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F; Sanna, Serena; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmidt, Frank; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Scott, Robert A; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Simard, Jacques; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Swerdlow, Anthony; Taylor, Kent D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Thérèse; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Turner, Stephen T; Vozzi, Diego; Wang, Qin; Wellons, Melissa; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce B H R; Wright, Alan F; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zheng, Wei; Zygmunt, Marek; Bergmann, Sven; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Ferrucci, Luigi; Montgomery, Grant W; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Spector, Tim D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Ciullo, Marina; Crisponi, Laura; Easton, Douglas F; Gasparini, Paolo P; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hayward, Caroline; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kraft, Peter; McKnight, Barbara; Metspalu, Andres; Morrison, Alanna C; Reiner, Alex P; Ridker, Paul M; Rotter, Jerome I; Toniolo, Daniela; Uitterlinden, André G; Ulivi, Sheila; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Price, Alkes L; Stefansson, Kari; Visser, Jenny A; Ong, Ken K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Murabito, Joanne M; Perry, John R B; Murray, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in ∼70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two regions harboring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in or near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses identified major association with DNA damage response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk (∼6% increase in risk per year; P = 3 × 10(-14)), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure rather than DDR mechanisms. PMID:26414677

  5. Large-scale genomic analyses link reproductive ageing to hypothalamic signaling, breast cancer susceptibility and BRCA1-mediated DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Pervjakova, Natalia; Chasman, Daniel I.; Stolk, Lisette; Finucane, Hilary K.; Sulem, Patrick; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Esko, Tõnu; Johnson, Andrew D.; Elks, Cathy E.; Franceschini, Nora; He, Chunyan; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Brody, Jennifer A.; Franke, Lude L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Keller, Margaux F.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Nutile, Teresa; Porcu, Eleonora; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Schick, Ursula M.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Teumer, Alexander; Traglia, Michela; Vuckovic, Dragana; Yao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Corre, Tanguy; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Mangino, Massimo; Smith, Albert V.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Abecasis, Goncalo; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Arndt, Volker; Arnold, Alice M.; Barbieri, Caterina; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bernstein, Leslie; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Blomqvist, Carl; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boutin, Thibaud S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Campbell, Archie; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chapman, J. Ross; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Coviello, Andrea D.; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M.; Eicher, John D.; Fasching, Peter A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Gandin, Ilaria; Garcia, Melissa E.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Girotto, Giorgia G.; Goldberg, Mark S.; González-Neira, Anna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grove, Megan L.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Henderson, Brian E.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Hu, Frank B.; Huang, Jinyan; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Samuel E.; Kabisch, Maria; Karasik, David; Knight, Julia A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooperberg, Charles; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kriebel, Jennifer; Kristensen, Vessela; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Li, Jingmei; Li, Xin; Lindström, Sara; Liu, Yongmei; Luan, Jian’an; Lubinski, Jan; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Manz, Judith; Margolin, Sara; Marten, Jonathan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Masciullo, Corrado; Meindl, Alfons; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nalls, Michael; Neale, Ben M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Newman, Anne B.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Olson, Janet E.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peters, Ulrike; Petersmann, Astrid; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Pirastu, Nicola N.; Pirie, Ailith; Pistis, Giorgio; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Psaty, Bruce M.; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Raffel, Leslie J.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F.; Sanna, Serena; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmidt, Frank; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Scott, Robert A.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Simard, Jacques; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Swerdlow, Anthony; Taylor, Kent D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Toland, Amanda E.; Tomlinson, Ian; Truong, Thérèse; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Turner, Stephen T.; Vozzi, Diego; Wang, Qin; Wellons, Melissa; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce B.H.R.; Wright, Alan F.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zheng, Wei; Zygmunt, Marek; Bergmann, Sven; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Montgomery, Grant W.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Spector, Tim D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Ciullo, Marina; Crisponi, Laura; Easton, Douglas F.; Gasparini, Paolo P.; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Hayward, Caroline; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kraft, Peter; McKnight, Barbara; Metspalu, Andres; Morrison, Alanna C.; Reiner, Alex P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Toniolo, Daniela; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulivi, Sheila; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Price, Alkes L.; Stefansson, Kari; Visser, Jenny A.; Ong, Ken K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Murabito, Joanne M.; Perry, John R.B.; Murray, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in ~70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two harbouring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in/near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses revealed a major association with DNA damage-response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomisation analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk (~6% risk increase per-year, P=3×10−14), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure, rather than DDR mechanisms. PMID:26414677

  6. Cobbler's Technique for Iridodialysis Repair

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Surinder Singh; Gupta, Parul Chawla; Singh, Rishi Raj; Das, Kalpita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Raj, Srishti; Ram, Jagat

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis. PMID:26957855

  7. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (∼11%), temperature (∼40%), thermal pressure (∼55%), mass flux (∼34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (∼41%), energy flux (∼48%), IMF magnitude (∼31%), and radial component of the IMF (∼38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ∼1.4 nPa, compared to ∼2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ∼11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  8. EUVL Mask Blank Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Mirkarimi, P; Stearns, D G; Sweeney, D; Chapman, H N; Clift, M; Hector, S; Yi, M

    2002-05-22

    EUV mask blanks are fabricated by depositing a reflective Mo/Si multilayer film onto super-polished substrates. Small defects in this thin film coating can significantly alter the reflected field and introduce defects in the printed image. Ideally one would want to produce defect-free mask blanks; however, this may be very difficult to achieve in practice. One practical way to increase the yield of mask blanks is to effectively repair multilayer defects, and to this effect they present two complementary defect repair strategies for use on multilayer-coated EUVL mask blanks. A defect is any area on the mask which causes unwanted variations in EUV dose in the aerial image obtained in a printing tool, and defect repair is correspondingly defined as any strategy that renders a defect unprintable during exposure. The term defect mitigation can be adopted to describe any strategy which renders a critical defect non-critical when printed, and in this regard a non-critical defect is one that does not adversely affect device function. Defects in the patterned absorber layer consist of regions where metal, typically chrome, is unintentionally added or removed from the pattern leading to errors in the reflected field. There currently exists a mature technology based on ion beam milling and ion beam assisted deposition for repairing defects in the absorber layer of transmission lithography masks, and it is reasonable to expect that this technology will be extended to the repair of absorber defects in EUVL masks. However, techniques designed for the repair of absorber layers can not be directly applied to the repair of defects in the mask blank, and in particular the multilayer film. In this paper they present for the first time a new technique for the repair of amplitude defects as well as recent results on the repair of phase defects.

  9. Current trends and age-based differences of unintentional injury in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Natsuki; Honda, Chikako; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-05-23

    Unintentional injury in children is a worldwide public health problem, as it increases the health burden and is a leading cause of death among children. It is important to understand the differences between different age groups of children in regard to unintentional injury, in order to effectively implement child safety education. The present study aimed to determine the current trends of unintentional injury in children, and to identify the differences between different age groups of children with regard to unintentional injury. We identified 1,521 children who attended an 18-month health checkup (18-month group), and 1,368 children who attended a 36-month health checkup (36-month group), between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The rate of hospital visits associated with unintentional injury was 10.6% (161/1,521) in the 18-month group, and 13.1% (180/1,368) in the 36-month group. In both groups, present/past illness was associated with hospital visits, and in the 36-month group, hospital visits were more common in boys than in girls. The number of unintentional injuries that occurred outdoors was higher in the 36-month group than in the 18-month group. Unintentional injuries resulting from accidental ingestion and falls were more common in the 18-month group, while unintentional injuries resulting from turning over were more common in the 36-month group. In conclusion, the number of hospital visits for unintentional injury might be higher, and the number of preventive actions taken by mothers might be lower, among children attending the 36-month health checkup than among those attending the 18-month health checkup. PMID:27020119

  10. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  11. Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes OGG1 and XPD and the risk of age-related cataract in Egyptians

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Amal F.; Dabour, Sherif A.; Fouad, Rania A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the association of the polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase-1 (OGG1) genes with the risk of age-related cataract (ARC) in an Egyptian population. Methods This case-control study included 150 patients with ARC and 50 controls. Genotyping of XPD Asp312Asn was performed by amplification refractory mutation system PCR assay and genotyping of OGG1 Ser326Cys was carried out by PCR including confronting two-pair primers. Results The Asn/Asn genotype of XPD gene was significantly associated with increased risk of ARC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–7.43, p = 0.04) and cortical cataract (OR = 5.06, 95% CI = 1.70–15.05, p = 0.002). The Asn312 allele was significantly associated with an increased risk of ARC (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.06–2.89, p = 0.03) and cortical cataract (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.56–5.08, p<0.001). The OGG1 Cys/Cys genotype frequency was significantly higher in ARC (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 0.93–18.21, p = 0.04) and the Cys326 allele (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.07–3.20, p = 0.03). Moreover, the Cys/Cys genotype of the OGG1 gene was significantly higher in cortical cataract (OR = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.24–28.99, p = 0.01) and the Cys326 allele was also significantly associated with cortical cataract (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.30–4.63, p = 0.005). Conclusions The results suggest that the Asn/Asn genotype and Asn312 allele of XPD polymorphism, as well as the Cys/Cys genotype and Cys326 allele of the OGG1 polymorphism, may be associated with increased risk of the development of ARC, particularly the cortical type, in the Egyptian population. PMID:24868140

  12. Gastroschisis repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and surgery in general are: Allergic reactions to medicines Breathing problems Bleeding Infection Risks for gastroschisis repair are: Breathing problems if the baby's belly area (abdominal space) is smaller than normal. The baby may need ...

  13. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... is excellent. However, another hydrocele may form over time, or if there was also a hernia present. Alternative Names Hydrocelectomy Images Hydrocele repair - series References Aiken JJ, Oldham KT. Inguinal hernias. In: ...

  14. Current and emerging therapies for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Emerson, M Vaughn; Lauer, Andreas K

    2008-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the industrialized world. In the last few decades, the mainstay of treatment for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to AMD has been thermal laser photocoagulation. In the last decade, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin extended treatment for more patients. While both of these treatments have prevented further vision loss in a subset of patients, improvement in visual acuity is rare. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of AMD-related CNV. Pegaptanib, an anti-VEGF aptamer prevents vision loss in CNV, although the performance is similar to that of photodynamic therapy. Ranibizumab, an antibody fragment and bevacizumab, a full-length humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF have both shown promising results with improvements in visual acuity with either agent. VEGF trap, a modified soluble VEGF receptor analogue, binds VEGF more tightly than all other anti-VEGF agents and has also shown promising results in early trials. Other treatment strategies to decrease the effect of VEGF have used small interfering ribonucleic acid (RNA) to inhibit VEGF production and VEGF receptor production. Steroids, including anecortave acetate in the treatment and prevention of CNV, have shown promise in controlled trials. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as vatalanib, inhibit downstream effects of VEGF, and have been effective in the treatment of CNV in early studies. Squalamine lactate inhibits plasma membrane ion channels with downstream effects on VEGF, and has shown promising results with systemic administration. Other growth factors, including pigment epithelium-derived growth factor that has been administered via an adenoviral vector has shown promising initial results. In some patients ciliary neurotrophic factor is currently being studied for the inhibition of progression of geographic atrophy. Combination therapy has been

  15. Evolution of crystal imperfections during current-stress ageing tests of green InGaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yue; Peng, Zhangbao; Zhu, Lihong; Yan, Wei; Shih, Tien-mo; Wu, Tingzhu; Lu, Yijun; Gao, Yulin; Chen, Zhong; Guo, Ziquan; Liu, Zhuguang

    2016-09-01

    We perform ageing tests under high current on several green InGaN light-emitting diodes and compare the luminous homogeneities of chip surfaces, shapes of external quantum efficiency (EQE) curves, and electroluminescence spectra during different ageing stages. By curve fittings to the EQE curves, with the ABC and two-level models, we discover that a high injection current density can modify the defect configuration in quantum wells even at room temperature, as high-temperature annealing can. For In-rich devices, the removal of localization centers is another origin of luminous intensity decay in addition to the formation of point defects.

  16. Nuclear power plant cable materials : review of qualification and currently available aging data for margin assessments in cable performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostlyinert' aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section - a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on original

  17. Measures of Job Perceptions: Gender and Age of Current Incumbents, Suitability, and Job Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macan, Therese Hoff; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares two ways of examining the gender and age stereotypes of jobs, using characteristics of incumbents and potential suitability. Seventy female and 66 male college students provided gender and age perceptions for 58 jobs. Results support conceptual and empirical distinctions between perceived incumbent job perceptions and suitability ratings…

  18. Human Caloric Restriction for Retardation of Aging: Current Approcahes and Preliminary Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the percentage of the U.S. population over 65 y continues to increase, there is growing recognition that we need to identify effective ways to reduce age-associated morbidity and understand the potential for delaying biological aging to improve health in the later years. Caloric restriction (CR) ...

  19. Characterization of Retrogression and Re-Aging Heat Treatment of AA7075-T6 Using Nonlinear Acoustics and Eddy Current

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthula, Rajeshwar; Ko, Ray T.; Sathish, Shamachary; Blodgett, Mark

    2004-02-26

    Nonlinear acoustic parameter and eddy current methods have been utilized to characterize the heat treatment process of retrogression and re-aging of aluminum 7075-T6. The results of nonlinear acoustic parameter measurements show two distinct peaks at 30 minutes and 45 minutes of retrogression time. The phase of the through-thickness eddy current signal shows a minimum at 42 minutes of retrogression time. Application of combined methods for identifying the optimized properties in the material is discussed.

  20. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Slegtenhorst, Bendix R; Dor, Frank J M F; Elkhal, Abdala; Rodriguez, Hector; Yang, Xiaoyong; Edtinger, Karoline; Quante, Markus; Chong, Anita S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2014-06-15

    Donor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased immunogenicity are interrelated and impacted by physiological and pathological aging processes. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are needed to develop age-specific interventional strategies with regards to organ preservation, immunosuppression, and allocation. In this overview, we summarize current knowledge of injury and repair mechanisms and the effects of aging relevant to transplantation. PMID:24646769

  1. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants1

    PubMed Central

    Slegtenhorst, Bendix R; Dor, Frank JMF; Elkhal, Abdala; Rodriguez, Hector; Yang, Xiaoyong; Edtinger, Karoline; Quante, Markus; Chong, Anita S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    Donor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased immunogenicity are interrelated and impacted by physiological and pathological aging processes. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are needed to develop age-specific interventional strategies with regards to organ preservation, immunosuppression, and allocation. In this overview, we summarize current knowledge of injury and repair mechanisms and the effects of aging relevant to transplantation. PMID:24646769

  2. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  3. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  4. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  5. Age- and sex-related characteristics of tonic GABA currents in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Chudomel, O; Hasson, H; Bojar, M; Moshé, S L; Galanopoulou, A S

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age- and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  6. Evolution and advances in laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Vorst, Alan L; Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Carbonell, Alfredo M; Franz, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Primary ventral hernias and ventral incisional hernias have been a challenge for surgeons throughout the ages. In the current era, incisional hernias have increased in prevalence due to the very high number of laparotomies performed in the 20th century. Even though minimally invasive surgery and hernia repair have evolved rapidly, general surgeons have yet to develop the ideal, standardized method that adequately decreases common postoperative complications, such as wound failure, hernia recurrence and pain. The evolution of laparoscopy and ventral hernia repair will be reviewed, from the rectoscopy of the 4th century to the advent of laparoscopy, from suture repair to the evolution of mesh reinforcement. The nuances of minimally invasive ventral and incisional hernia repair will be summarized, from preoperative considerations to variations in intraoperative practice. New techniques have become increasingly popular, such as primary defect closure, retrorectus mesh placement, and concomitant component separation. The advent of robotics has made some of these repairs more feasible, but only time and well-designed clinical studies will tell if this will be a durable modality for ventral and incisional hernia repair. PMID:26649152

  7. The Somatotropic Axis in Human Aging: Framework for the Current State of Knowledge and Future Research.

    PubMed

    Milman, Sofiya; Huffman, Derek M; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-06-14

    Mutations resulting in reduced signaling of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis are associated with increased life- and healthspan across model organisms. Similar findings have been noted in human cohorts with functional mutations in the somatotropic axis, suggesting that this pathway may also be relevant to human aging and protection from age-related diseases. While epidemiological data indicate that low circulating IGF-1 level may protect aging populations from cancer, results remain inconclusive regarding most other diseases. We propose that studies in humans and animals need to consider differences in sex, pathway function, organs, and time-specific effects of GH/IGF-1 signaling in order to better define the role of the somatotropic axis in aging. Agents that modulate signaling of the GH/IGF-1 pathway are available for human use, but before they can be implemented in clinical studies that target aging and age-related diseases, researchers need to address the challenges discussed in this Review. PMID:27304500

  8. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  9. Sarcopenic obesity in aging population: current status and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2014-02-01

    The combination of sarcopenia and obesity, an age-related change in body composition, is a concern in the aged society. Sarcopenic obesity is not the combination of two conditions, but is more related to cardio-metabolic and functional abnormalities. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with more physical functional decline than simple obesity. Sarcopenic obesity may be more insulin resistant, and have a higher risk for metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis than simple obesity. However, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity differs substantially among studies because of the lack of a standard definition. For further understanding of the pathophysiological role of sarcopenic obesity, a standardized definition for both sarcopenia and obesity is necessary. PMID:23821364

  10. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  11. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  12. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  13. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... small surgical cut in the fold of the groin, and then drains the fluid. The sac (hydrocele) holding the fluid may be removed. The surgeon strengthens the muscle wall with stitches. This is called a hernia repair. Sometimes the surgeon uses a laparoscope to do ...

  14. Bladder exstrophy repair

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... in boys and is often linked to other birth defects. Surgery is necessary to: Allow the child to ...

  15. Conscientiousness and Public Health: Synthesizing Current Research to Promote Healthy Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of…

  16. Diminishing risk for age related macular degeneration with nutrition: A current view

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies because they are more affordable...

  17. Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, Gregory; Bouet, Valentine; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Dauphin, François; Paizanis, Eleni; Boulouard, Michel; Freret, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered) navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered) navigation—based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks—declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25642173

  18. Cartilage defect repair in horses: Current strategies and recent developments in regenerative medicine of the equine joint with emphasis on the surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Cokelaere, Stefan; Malda, Jos; van Weeren, René

    2016-08-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology are highly prevalent conditions in horses (and humans) and commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis and progression of joint deterioration. Regenerative medicine of articular cartilage is an emerging clinical treatment option for patients with articular cartilage injury or disease. Functional articular cartilage restoration, however, remains a major challenge, but the field is progressing rapidly and there is an increasing body of supportive clinical and scientific evidence. This review gives an overview of the established and emerging surgical techniques employed for cartilage repair in horses. Through a growing insight in surgical cartilage repair possibilities, surgeons might be more stimulated to explore novel techniques in a clinical setting. PMID:27387728

  19. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  20. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  1. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  2. The effects of gender, age, and body mass index on standing lumbar curvature in persons without current low back pain.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H; Krause, David A

    2006-11-01

    Reference values for standing lumbar curvature (SLC) obtained via noninvasive methods are not well established in persons without current low back pain. The effect of gender is considered to have a significant effect on SLC with women having more lumbar lordosis than men. The effect of age and degree of obesity are not considered to have a statistically significant effect on SLC. The purpose of this study was to test the assumption that measurements of SLC in healthy adults obtained by a flexible curve will differ between genders, whereas the SLC will not differ across categories of age and body mass index (BMI). Two hundred thirty-five volunteers (119 men and 116 women) whose ages ranged between 20 and 79 years participated in the study. Subjects were almost exclusively White and from the Midwest. Measurements of the SLC were obtained by a flexible curve. The curve's shape was transferred to poster board, and the value of SLC was quantified by a previously described technique. A three-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) was used to examine the main effects of gender, age, and BMI on SLC. The effect of gender (F1,199 = 21.4, p < 0.0001) and the effect of age (F5,199 = 2.8, p < 0.017) were statistically significant. The effect of BMI (F2,199 = 1.8, p = 0.176) was not significant. Women (mean, 49.5 degrees +/-10.7 degrees ) demonstrated about 6.5 degrees more SLC than their male (mean, 43.0 degrees +/-10.7 degrees ) counterparts. For age, the only significant difference was between the 20 to 29- and 50 to 59-year-old age categories. This study provides physical therapists with typical values of SLC in men and women without current low back pain. PMID:17118891

  3. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer L; Burgess, John A; Lodge, Caroline J; Johns, David P; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB) in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age. Methods The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583). Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729), from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389) underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relevant associations. Results The prevalence of CB in middle age was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5, 6.8). Current asthma and/or wheezy breathing in middle age was independently associated with adult CB (odds ratio [OR]: 6.2 [95% CI: 4.6, 8.4]), and this estimate was significantly higher than for current smokers of at least 20 pack-years (OR: 3.0 [95% CI: 2.1, 4.3]). Current asthma and smoking in middle age were similarly associated with obstructive CB, in contrast to the association between allergy and nonobstructive CB. Childhood predictors included allergic history (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.7]), current asthma (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7]), “episodic” childhood asthma (OR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4, 3.9]), and parental bronchitis symptoms (OR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6, 4.1]). Conclusion The strong independent association between current asthma and CB in middle age suggests that this condition may be even more influential than personal smoking in a general population. The independent associations of childhood allergy and asthma, though not

  4. Aging Decreases L-Type Calcium Channel Currents and Pacemaker Firing Fidelity in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Sarah Y.; Sharma, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons are involved in behavioral processes that include cognition, reward learning, and voluntary movement. Selective deterioration of these neurons is responsible for the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aging is the leading risk factor for PD, suggesting that adaptations occurring in dopamine neurons during normal aging may predispose individuals to the development of PD. Previous studies suggest that the unique set of ion conductances that drive spontaneous, rhythmic firing of action potentials could predispose substantia nigra dopamine neurons to selective neurodegeneration. Here we show, using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, that substantia nigra dopamine neurons from mice 25–30 months of age (old) have comparable membrane capacitance and input resistance to neurons from mice 2–7 months of age (young). However, neurons from old mice exhibit slower firing rates, narrower spike widths, and more variable interspike intervals compared with neurons from young mice. Dopamine neurons from old mice also exhibit smaller L-type calcium channel currents, providing a plausible mechanism that likely contributes to the changes in impulse activity. Age-related decrements in the physiological function of dopamine neurons could contribute to the decrease in voluntary movement and other dopamine-mediated behaviors observed in aging populations. Furthermore, as pharmacological antagonism of L-type calcium channels has been proposed as a potential treatment for the early stages of PD, our results could point to a limited temporal window of opportunity for this therapeutic intervention. PMID:25009264

  5. Small Rayed Crater Ejecta Retention Age Calculated from Current Crater Production Rates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calef, F. J. III; Herrick, R. R.; Sharpton, V. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ejecta from impact craters, while extant, records erosive and depositional processes on their surfaces. Estimating ejecta retention age (Eret), the time span when ejecta remains recognizable around a crater, can be applied to estimate the timescale that surface processes operate on, thereby obtaining a history of geologic activity. However, the abundance of sub-kilometer diameter (D) craters identifiable in high resolution Mars imagery has led to questions of accuracy in absolute crater dating and hence ejecta retention ages (Eret). This research calculates the maximum Eret for small rayed impact craters (SRC) on Mars using estimates of the Martian impactor flux adjusted for meteorite ablation losses in the atmosphere. In addition, we utilize the diameter-distance relationship of secondary cratering to adjust crater counts in the vicinity of the large primary crater Zunil.

  6. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p < 0.0001) and a specificity of 67% (p < 0.0001). The strongest predictors of rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.004). Sonographic assessments of tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  7. Age-Associated Skin Conditions and Diseases: Current Perspectives and Future Options.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan; Sterry, Wolfram; Hodin, Michael W; Griffiths, Tamara W; Watson, Rachel E B; Hay, Roderick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2016-04-01

    The International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS), a global, not-for-profit organization representing 157 dermatological societies worldwide, has identified the consequences of skin aging as one of the most important grand challenges in global skin health. Reduced functional capacity and increased susceptibility of the skin with development of dermatoses such as dry skin, itching, ulcers, dyspigmentation, wrinkles, fungal infections, as well as benign and malignant tumors are the most common skin conditions in aged populations worldwide. Environmental (e.g., pollution) and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, sunbed use) negatively affect skin health. In turn altered appearance, dry skin, chronic wounds, and other conditions decrease general health and reduce the likelihood for healthy and active aging. Preventive skin care includes primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. Continuous sun protection from early childhood onward is most important, to avoid extrinsic skin damage and skin cancer. Exposure to irritants, allergens, or other molecules damaging the skin must be avoided or reduced to a minimum. Public health approaches are needed to implement preventive and basic skin care worldwide to reach high numbers of dermatological patients and care receivers. Education of primary caregivers and implementation of community dermatology are successful strategies in resource-poor countries. Besides specialist physicians, nurses and other health care professionals play important roles in preventing and managing age-related skin conditions in developing as well as in developed countries. Healthy skin across the life course leads to better mental and emotional health, positive impact on social engagement, and healthier, more active, and productive lives. PMID:26994263

  8. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-01-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures either through formal channels such as pension plans or through health or socioeconomic security measures such as the provision of subsidies for health care, home help or any form of nursing care. This means that an older person is forced to be dependent upon family support if it exists. We examine demographic trends of population ageing in Lebanon between 1970 and 1995 and provide projections until 2025. Variations in population ageing within the country are also considered. We also assess health care and social policy implications of demographic changes in the context of health and economic sector reforms initiated recently by the state, and explore their impact upon the expanding population of elderly people. PMID:15112011

  9. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-03-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures either through formal channels such as pension plans or through health or socioeconomic security measures such as the provision of subsidies for health care, home help or any form of nursing care. This means that an older person is forced to be dependent upon family support if it exists. We examine demographic trends of population ageing in Lebanon between 1970 and 1995 and provide projections until 2025. Variations in population ageing within the country are also considered. We also assess health care and social policy implications of demographic changes in the context of health and economic sector reforms initiated recently by the state, and explore their impact upon the expanding population of elderly people. PMID:15112011

  10. Initiation of DNA Interstrand Cross-link Repair in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hlavin, Erica M.; Smeaton, Michael B.; Miller, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are among the most cytotoxic DNA lesions to cells because they prevent the two DNA strands from separating, thereby precluding replication and transcription. Even though chemotherapeutic cross-linking agents are well established in clinical use, and numerous repair proteins have been implicated in the initial events of mammalian ICL repair, the precise mechanistic details of these events remain to be elucidated. This review will summarize our current understanding of how ICL repair is initiated with an emphasis on the context (replicating, transcribed or quiescent DNA) in which the ICL is recognized, and how the chemical and physical properties of ICLs influence repair. Although most studies have focused on replication-dependent repair because of the relation to highly replicative tumor cells, replication-independent ICL repair is likely to be important in the circumvention of cross-link cytotoxicity in non-dividing, terminally differentiated cells that may be challenged with exogenous or endogenous sources of ICLs. Consequently, the ICL repair pathway that should be considered ‘dominant’ appears to depend on the cell type and the DNA context in which the ICL is encountered. The ability to define and inhibit distinct pathways of ICL repair in different cell cycle phases may help in developing methods that increase cytotoxicity to cancer cells while reducing side-effects in non-dividing normal cells. This may also lead to a better understanding of pathways that protect against malignancy and aging. PMID:20658650

  11. Meniscal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyoung Ho

    2014-01-01

    The meniscus has several important roles, such as transmission of the load, absorption of the shock in the knee joint, acting as a secondary anteroposterior stabilizer of the knee joint, and contributing to proprioception of the knee joint. Degenerative changes of the knee joint develop in the long-term follow-up even after partial meniscectomy. Thus, there has been growing interest in meniscal repair. In addition, with increased understanding of the important roles of the meniscal root and advancement of diagnostic methods, efforts have been made to ensure preservation of the meniscal roots. In this review article, we will discuss operative techniques and clinical outcomes of arthroscopic repair of the meniscus and the meniscal root and postoperative rehabilitation and complications as well. PMID:24944971

  12. Transportation for School-Age Child Care: Current Status in Westchester County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Council of Westchester, Inc., White Plains, NY.

    Based on countywide interviews with transportation and child care personnel in Westchester County, New York, this report describes current practices, legislation, and issues related to the transportation of elementary school children to and from child care providers. Following a brief introduction, the report discusses various regulated and…

  13. Effect of Postweld Aging Treatment on Fatigue Behavior of Pulsed Current Welded AA7075 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Ravisankar, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2008-04-01

    This article reports the effect of postweld aging treatment on fatigue behavior of pulsed current welded AA 7075 aluminum alloy joints. AA7075 aluminum alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers, and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of AA7075 aluminum alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 10 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing multipass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt.%)) grade aluminum alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW), and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Rotary bending fatigue testing machine has been used to evaluate fatigue behavior of the welded joints. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in GTA and GMA welds. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit. Simple postweld aging treatment applied to the joints is found to be beneficial to enhance the fatigue performance of the welded joints.

  14. Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?

    PubMed

    Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. PMID:25180915

  15. A national survey of Rett syndrome: age, clinical characteristics, current abilities, and health.

    PubMed

    Cianfaglione, Rina; Clarke, Angus; Kerr, Mike; Hastings, Richard P; Oliver, Chris; Felce, David

    2015-07-01

    As part of a wider study to investigate the behavioral phenotype of a national sample of girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) in comparison to a well-chosen contrast group and its relationship to parental well-being, the development, clinical severity, current abilities and health of 91 participants were analyzed in relation to diagnostic, clinical and genetic mutation categories. Early truncating mutations or large deletions were associated with greater severity. Early regression was also associated with greater severity. All three were associated with lower current abilities. Epilepsy and weight, gastrointestinal and bowel problems were common co-morbidities. Participants with classic RTT had greater health problems than those with atypical RTT. A substantial minority of respondents reported fairly frequent signs of possible pain experienced by their relative with RTT. Overall, the study provides new data on the current abilities and general health of people with RTT and adds to the evidence that the severity of the condition and variation of subsequent disability, albeit generally within the profound range, may be related to gene mutation. The presence of certain co-morbidities represents a substantial ongoing need for better health. The experience of pain requires further investigation. PMID:25820775

  16. Survey of inward ionic currents acquired by the cochleovestibular ganglion of the early-aged embryonic chick.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Bernd H A

    2006-03-01

    The acquisition of ion channels is critical to the formation of neuronal pathways in the peripheral and central nervous systems. This study describes the different types of inward currents (Ii) recorded from the soma of isolated cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG) cells of the embryonic chicken, Gallus gallus. Cells were isolated for whole-cell tight-seal recording from embryonic day (ED) 3, an age when the CVG is a cell cluster, to ED 9, an age when the cochlear and vestibular ganglia (CG, VG) are distinct structures. Results show Na+ and Ca2+ currents (INa and ICa) are acquired by ED 3, although INa dominates with greater density levels that peak by ED 6-7 in VG neurons. In the CG, INa acquisition is slower, reaching peak values by ED 8-9. Isolation of ICa, using Ba2+ as the charge carrier, showed both transient (IBaT)- and sustained (IBaL)-type currents on ED 3. Unlike INa, IBa density varied with age and ganglion. Total IBa increased steadily, showing a decline only in CG cells on ED 8-9 as a result of a decrease in IBaT. IBaL density increased over time, reaching a maximum on ED 6-7 in VG cells, followed by a decline on ED 8-9. In comparison, IBaL in CG neurons, did not increase significantly beyond mean values measured on ED 5. The early onset of these currents and the variations in Ca2+ channel expression between the ganglia suggests that intracellular signals relevant to phenotypic differentiation begin within these early time frames. PMID:16447282

  17. Stem cell-based therapies for age-related macular degeneration: current status and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yalin; Zhao, Manli; Su, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of irreversible blindness both in developed and developing countries. During the past decades, the managements of neovascular AMD (wet AMD) have dramatically progressed. However, still no effective treatment for non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD) which was characterized by geographic macular atrophy. Recent advances in stem cell sciences have demonstrated that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells can be generated from several types of stem cells (including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, et al) by cell co-culturing or defined factors. Additionally, studies also showed that visual function could be recovered by transplantation of these cells into subretinal space in vivo. Moreover, the United States Food and Drug Administration already approved several clinical trials to evaluate the efficiencies of stem cell based cell transplantation for dry AMD patients. Till now, a few patients enrolled in these studies achieved promising outcomes. This review will summarize recent advances in stem cell based RPE differentiation, transplantation, and the preliminary results of clinical trials. The obstacles and prospects in this field will also be discussed. PMID:25550892

  18. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation temporarily reverses age-associated cognitive decline and functional brain activity changes.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Antonenko, Daria; Flaisch, Tobias; Flöel, Agnes

    2013-07-24

    The rising proportion of elderly people worldwide will yield an increased incidence of age-associated cognitive impairments, imposing major burdens on societies. Consequently, growing interest emerged to evaluate new strategies to delay or counteract cognitive decline in aging. Here, we assessed immediate effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) on cognition and previously described detrimental changes in brain activity attributable to aging. Twenty healthy elderly adults were assessed in a crossover sham-controlled design using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and concurrent transcranial DCS administered to the left inferior frontal gyrus. Effects on performance and task-related brain activity were evaluated during overt semantic word generation, a task that is negatively affected by advanced age. Task-absent resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) assessed atDCS-induced changes at the network level independent of performance. Twenty matched younger adults served as controls. During sham stimulation, task-related fMRI demonstrated that enhanced bilateral prefrontal activity in older adults was associated with reduced performance. RS-fMRI revealed enhanced anterior and reduced posterior functional brain connectivity. atDCS significantly improved performance in older adults up to the level of younger controls; significantly reduced task-related hyperactivity in bilateral prefrontal cortices, the anterior cingulate gyrus, and the precuneus; and induced a more "youth-like" connectivity pattern during RS-fMRI. Our results provide converging evidence from behavioral analysis and two independent functional imaging paradigms that a single session of atDCS can temporarily reverse nonbeneficial effects of aging on cognition and brain activity and connectivity. These findings may translate into novel treatments to ameliorate cognitive decline in normal aging in the future. PMID:23884951

  19. Management of acute malnutrition in infants aged under 6 months (MAMI): Current issues and future directions in policy and research

    PubMed Central

    Kerac, Marko; Mwangome, Martha; McGrath, Marie; Haider, Rukhsana; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, some 4.7 million infants aged under 6 months are moderately wasted and 3.8 million are severely wasted. Traditionally, they have been overlooked by clinicians, nutritionists, and policy makers. Objective To present evidence and arguments for why treating acute malnutrition in infants under 6 months of age is important and outline some of the key debates and research questions needed to advance their care. Methods Narrative review. Results and conclusions Treating malnourished infants under 6 months of age is important to avoid malnutrition-associated mortality in the short term and adverse health and development outcomes in the long term. Physiological and pathological differences demand a different approach from that in older children; key among these is a focus on exclusive breastfeeding wherever possible. New World Health Organization guidelines for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) include this age group for the first time and are also applicable to management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Community-based breastfeeding support is the core, but not the sole, treatment. The mother–infant dyad is at the heart of approaches, but wider family and community relationships are also important. An urgent priority is to develop better case definitions; criteria based on mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) are promising but need further research. To effectively move forward, clinical trials of assessment and treatment are needed to bolster the currently sparse evidence base. In the meantime, nutrition surveys and screening at health facilities should routinely include infants under 6 months of age in order to better define the burden and outcomes of acute malnutrition in this age group. PMID:25993754

  20. Current Operative Management of Breast Cancer: An Age of Smaller Resections and Bigger Cures

    PubMed Central

    Rostas, Jack W.; Dyess, Donna Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Surgical resection was the first effective treatment for breast cancer and remains the most important treatment modality for curative intent. Refinements in operative techniques along with the use of adjuvant radiotherapy and advanced chemotherapeutic agents have facilitated increasingly focused breast cancer operations. Surgical management of breast cancer has shifted from extensive and highly morbid procedures, to the modern concept obtaining the best possible cosmetic result in tandem with the appropriate oncological resection. An ever-growing comprehension of breast cancer biology has led to substantial advances in molecular diagnosis and targeted therapies. An emerging frontier involves the breast cancer microenvironment, as a thorough understanding, while currently lacking, represents a critical opportunity for diagnosis and treatment. Collectively, these improvements will continue to push all therapeutic interventions, including operative, toward the goal of becoming more focused, targeted, and less morbid. PMID:22295246

  1. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. PMID:27217528

  2. Interacting effects of age, density, and weather on survival and current reproduction for a large mammal

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Emmanuelle; Simpson, Steven E; Medill, Sarah A; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Individual-based study of natural populations allows for accurate and precise estimation of fitness components and the extent to which they might vary with ecological conditions. By tracking the fates of all 701 horses known to have lived on Sable Island, Canada, from 2009 to 2013 (where there is no predation, human interference, or interspecific competition for food), we present a detailed analysis of structured population dynamics with focus on interacting effects of intraspecific competition and weather on reproduction and survival. Annual survival of adult females (0.866 ± 0.107 [ ± SE]) was lower than that of 3-year-olds (0.955 ± 0.051), although annual fecundity (producing a foal in a year that was observed during our census) was higher in adults (0.616 ± 0.023) compared to 3-year-olds (0.402 ± 0.054). Milder winters and lower densities during gestation increased fecundity. Density negatively impacted survival for all age and sex categories; however, highest adult female survival was observed during high-density years coupled with a harsh winter, the result expected if pregnancy loss during winter or loss of foals in spring improved survival. Three-year-old females, which reproduced at lower rates, experienced higher survival than adults. Our results contrast with a previous study of feral horses that suggested recently feral ungulates might be artificially selected to reproduce even when costs to survival are high. In part, this may be because of the comparably long history of feralization (250 years; at least 25 generations) for Sable Island horses. PMID:25614799

  3. Current status of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Shaker A; Mousa, Shaymaa S

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the process by which new vessels are created from pre-existing vasculature, has become the subject of intense research in recent years. Increased rates of angiogenesis are associated with several disease states, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetic retinopathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important modulator of angiogenesis, and has been implicated in the pathology of a number of conditions, including AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. AMD is a progressive disease of the macula and the third major cause of blindness worldwide. If not treated appropriately, AMD can progress to involve both eyes. Until recently, the treatment options for AMD have been limited, with photodynamic therapy (PDT) the mainstay of treatment. Although PDT is effective at slowing disease progression, it rarely results in improved vision. Several therapies have been or are now being developed for neovascular AMD, with the goal of inhibiting VEGF. These VEGF inhibitors include the RNA aptamer pegaptanib, partial and full-length antibodies ranibizumab and bevacizumab, the VEGF receptor decoy aflibercept, small interfering RNA-based therapies bevasiranib and AGN 211745, sirolimus, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including vatalanib, pazopanib, TG 100801, TG 101095, AG 013958, and AL 39324. At present, established therapies have met with great success in reducing the vision loss associated with neovascular AMD, whereas those still under investigation offer the potential for further advances. In AMD patients, these therapies slow the rate of vision loss and in some cases increase visual acuity. Although VEGF-inhibitor therapies are a milestone in the treatment of these disease states, several concerns need to be addressed before their impact can be fully realized. PMID:20210371

  4. Defect repair performance using the nanomachining repair technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Yasutaka; Kokubo, Haruo; Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Hayashi, Naoya; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Terrill, Lee

    2003-08-01

    Nanomachining is a new technique for repairing photomask defects. The advantages of this technique are no substrate damage, precise edge placement position and Z height accuracy when compared with current Laser zapper or FIB GAE repair techniques. This technique can be applied to any type of opaque defects at any type of film materials and quartz bump defects on Alternating Aperture Phase Sifting Masks (AAPSM). Furthermore, these characteristics enable complex pattern repairs of most advanced photomasks for 193nm lithography and enables iterative repair to achieve improved printing performance when analyzed with an AIMS 193nm tool. Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. (DNP) has been producing AAPSMs in mass production for quite some time. The standard type of AAPSMs manufactured has been etched quartz, single trench with an undercut structure. On this structure, there is a potential for quartz defects underneath the chrome overhang based on the combination of dry and wet etching to create the undercut. For this study, we fabricated this kind of designed quartz defects and repaired them using the nanomachining system. These types of defects are particularly difficult to repair perfectly because they exist underneath the chrome overhang. We will show some options to achieve better printing results through the repair of these kinds of defects. In this report, we confirmed basic performance of this technique such as edge placement accuracy, Z height accuracy and AIMS printability. Additionally, we also tried to repair some complex defects such as quartz defects of AAPSM, quartz defects of CPL mask and oversized Serifs for application options. We will show these nanomachining repairs with evaluation results of printing performance simulated by the AIMS 193nm tool.

  5. The golden age of minimally invasive cardiothoracic surgery: current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Iribarne, Alexander; Easterwood, Rachel; Chan, Edward YH; Yang, Jonathan; Soni, Lori; Russo, Mark J; Smith, Craig R; Argenziano, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, minimally invasive cardiothoracic surgery (MICS) has grown in popularity. This growth has been driven, in part, by a desire to translate many of the observed benefits of minimal access surgery, such as decreased pain and reduced surgical trauma, to the cardiac surgical arena. Initial enthusiasm for MICS was tempered by concerns over reduced surgical exposure in highly complex operations and the potential for prolonged operative times and patient safety. With innovations in perfusion techniques, refinement of transthoracic echocardiography and the development of specialized surgical instruments and robotic technology, cardiac surgery was provided with the necessary tools to progress to less invasive approaches. However, much of the early literature on MICS focused on technical reports or small case series. The safety and feasibility of MICS have been demonstrated, yet questions remain regarding the relative efficacy of MICS over traditional sternotomy approaches. Recently, there has been a growth in the body of published literature on MICS long-term outcomes, with most reports suggesting that major cardiac operations that have traditionally been performed through a median sternotomy can be performed through a variety of minimally invasive approaches with equivalent safety and durability. In this article, we examine the technological advancements that have made MICS possible and provide an update on the major areas of cardiac surgery where MICS has demonstrated the most growth, with consideration of current and future directions. PMID:21627475

  6. Aging Reduces L-Type Calcium Channel Current and the Vasodilatory Response of Small Mesenteric Arteries to Calcium Channel Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Albarwani, Sulayma A.; Mansour, Fathi; Khan, Abdul Aleem; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Al-Kaabi, Abdulla; Al-Busaidi, Al-Manar; Al-Hadhrami, Safa; Al-Husseini, Isehaq; Al-Siyabi, Sultan; Tanira, Musbah O.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension. As aging is an independent risk factor for CVD, the use of CCBs increases with increasing age. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of aging on the sensitivity of small mesenteric arteries to L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LTCC) blockers and also to investigate whether there was a concomitant change in calcium current density. Third order mesenteric arteries from male F344 rats, aged 2.5–3 months (young) and 22–26 months (old) were mounted on wire myograph to measure the tension during isometric contraction. Arteries were contracted with 100 mM KCl and were then relaxed in a cumulative concentration-response dependent manner with nifedipine (0.1 nM–1 μM), verapamil (0.1 nM–10 μM), or diltiazem (0.1 nM–10 μM). Relaxation-concentration response curves produced by cumulative concentrations of three different CCBs in arteries of old rats were shifted to the right with statistically significant IC50s. pIC50 ± s.e.m: (8.37 ± 0.06 vs. 8.04 ± 0.05, 7.40 ± 0.07 vs. 6.81 ± 0.04, and 6.58 ± 0.07 vs. 6.34 ± 0.06) in young vs. old. It was observed that the maximal contractions induced by phenylephrine and reversed by sodium nitroprusside were not different between young and old groups. However, Bay K 8644 (1 μM) increased resting tension by 23 ± 4.8% in young arteries and 4.7 ± 1.6% in old arteries. LTCC current density were also significantly lower in old arteries (−2.77 ± 0.45 pA/pF) compared to young arteries (−4.5 ± 0.40 pA/pF); with similar steady-state activation and inactivation curves. Parallel to this reduction, the expression of Cav1.2 protein was reduced by 57 ± 5% in arteries from old rats compared to those from young rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that aging reduces the response of small mesenteric arteries to the vasodilatory effect of the CCBs and this may be due to, at least in part, reduced

  7. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

  8. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  9. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  10. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

  11. Current Treatment Limitations in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Future Approaches Based on Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Robredo, P.; Sancho, A.; Johnen, S.; Recalde, S.; Gama, N.; Thumann, G.; Groll, J.; García-Layana, A.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world. With an ageing population, it is anticipated that the number of AMD cases will increase dramatically, making a solution to this debilitating disease an urgent requirement for the socioeconomic future of the European Union and worldwide. The present paper reviews the limitations of the current therapies as well as the socioeconomic impact of the AMD. There is currently no cure available for AMD, and even palliative treatments are rare. Treatment options show several side effects, are of high cost, and only treat the consequence, not the cause of the pathology. For that reason, many options involving cell therapy mainly based on retinal and iris pigment epithelium cells as well as stem cells are being tested. Moreover, tissue engineering strategies to design and manufacture scaffolds to mimic Bruch's membrane are very diverse and under investigation. Both alternative therapies are aimed to prevent and/or cure AMD and are reviewed herein. PMID:24672707

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  13. An enhancement of the threshold current in InGaAsP heterolasers in the process of aging at an elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, R. I.; Kochetkov, A. A.

    1991-02-01

    Data are presented on changes in the threshold current of InGaAsP lasers due to aging at 65 C for up to 30,000 hrs. Results showed a linear increase in the threshold current with aging, indicating that measurements of threshold current can be used as a method for selecting heterolasers with the longest lifetime and for rejecting low-quality lasers.

  14. Delivered growth factor therapy to improve healing after rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Emilie V; Silverio, Luz; Yao, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Background Degenerative rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder pain in the aging population. Rotator cuff repair surgery may be more successful when growth factors are delivered to the repair site. This study was designed to determine the cellular processes involved in normal bone-to-tendon healing and the current approaches used for biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair. Methods This review focuses on animal studies of rotator cuff repair and early human trials. Results Regular bone-to-tendon healing forms a fibrous junction between tendon and bone that is markedly different from the original bone-to-tendon junction. Tendon augmentation with cellular components serves as scaffolding for endogenous fibroblastic cells and a possible source of growth factors and fibroblastic cells. Extracellular matrices provide a scaffold for incoming fibroblastic cells. However, research in extracellular matrices is not conclusive due to intermanufacturer variation and the lack of human subject research. Growth factors and platelet-rich plasma are established in other fields of research and show promise, but have not yet been rigorously tested in rotator cuff repair augmentation. Conclusions Rotator cuff repair can benefit from biologic augmentation. However, research in this field is still young and has not yet demonstrated that the benefits in healing rates are significant enough to merit regular clinical use. Randomized controlled trials will elucidate the use of biologic augmentation in rotator cuff repairs. PMID:24198519

  15. Proteoglycans and cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Ouzzine, Mohamed; Venkatesan, Narayanan; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Repair of damaged articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA) is a clinical challenge. Because cartilage is an avascular and aneural tissue, normal mechanisms of tissue repair through recruitment of cells to the site of tissue destruction are not feasible. Proteoglycan (PG) depletion induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, a principal mediator in OA, is a major factor in the onset and progression of joint destruction. Current symptomatic treatments of OA by anti-inflammatory drugs do not alter the progression of the disease. Various therapeutic strategies have been developed to antagonize the effect of proinflammatory cytokines. However, relatively few studies were conducted to stimulate anabolic activity, in an attempt to enhance cartilage repair. To this aim, a nonviral gene transfer strategy of glycosyltransferases responsible for PG synthesis has been developed and tested for its capacity to promote cartilage PG synthesis and deposition. Transfection of chondrocytes or cartilage explants by the expression vector for the glycosyltransferase β-1,3-glucuronosyltransferase-I (GlcAT-I) enhanced PG synthesis and deposition in the ECM by promoting the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate GAG chains of the cartilage matrix. This indicates that therapy mediated through GT gene delivery may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of OA. PMID:22252645

  16. Base Excision Repair in Physiology and Pathology of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Bosshard, Matthias; Markkanen, Enni; van Loon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Relatively low levels of antioxidant enzymes and high oxygen metabolism result in formation of numerous oxidized DNA lesions in the tissues of the central nervous system. Accumulation of damage in the DNA, due to continuous genotoxic stress, has been linked to both aging and the development of various neurodegenerative disorders. Different DNA repair pathways have evolved to successfully act on damaged DNA and prevent genomic instability. The predominant and essential DNA repair pathway for the removal of small DNA base lesions is base excision repair (BER). In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of BER proteins in the maintenance of genetic stability in different brain regions and how changes in the levels of these proteins contribute to aging and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23203191

  17. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  18. Efficacy of Different Rotator Cuff Repair Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gurnani, Navin; van Deurzen, Derek Friedrich Petrus; Flipsen, Mark; Raven, Eric Ernest Joseph; van den Bekerom, Michel Pieter Jozef

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the currently used techniques for rotator cuff repair and after treatment. The literature was searched for the different surgical techniques and additional treatment including: [1] full arthroscopic and arthroscopic assisted rotator cuff repair, [2] acromioplasty as an additional treatment to rotator cuff repair, [3] the use of plasma rich platelets (PRP) after rotator cuff repair, [4] the single and double row fixation techniques, [5] long head of the biceps brachii tenotomy or tenodesis with rotator cuff repair, [6] scaffolds in rotator cuff surgery, and [7] early motion or immobilization after rotator cuff repair. The rationale, the results, and the scientific evidence were reported for the eligible procedures. PMID:26055023

  19. Does transcranial direct current stimulation enhance cognitive and motor functions in the ageing brain? A systematic review and meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jeffery J; Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive and motor functions has enjoyed a massive increase in popularity. Modifying neuroplasticity via non-invasive cortical stimulation has enormous potential to slow or even reverse declines in functions associated with ageing. The current meta-analysis evaluated the effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor performance in healthy older adults. Of the 81 studies identified, 25 qualified for inclusion. A random effects model meta-analysis revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference equal to 0.53 (SE=0.09; medium heterogeneity: I(2)=57.08%; and high fail-safe: N=448). Five analyses on moderator variables indicated significant tDCS beneficial effects: (a) on both cognitive and motor task performances, (b) across a wide-range of cognitive tasks, (c) on specific brain areas, (d) stimulation offline (before) or online (during) the cognitive and motor tasks. Although the meta-analysis revealed robust support for enhancing both cognitive and motor performance, we outline a number of caveats on the use of tDCS. PMID:26607412

  20. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  1. Development of a Remote External Repair Tool for Damaged or Defective Polyethylene Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth H. Green; Willie E. Rochefort; Nick Wannenmacher; John A. Clark; Kevin Harris

    2006-06-30

    Current procedures for repairing polyethylene (PE) gas pipe require excavation, isolation, and removal of the damaged section of pipe followed by fusing a new section of pipe into place. These techniques are costly and very disruptive. An alternative repair method was developed at Timberline Tool with support from Oregon State University (OSU) and funding by the U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL). This project was undertaken to design, develop and test a tool and method for repairing damaged PE pipe remotely and externally in situ without squeezing off the flow of gas, eliminating the need for large-scale excavations. Through an iterative design and development approach, a final engineered prototype was developed that utilizes a unique thermo-chemical and mechanical process to apply a permanent external patch to repair small nicks, gouges and punctures under line pressure. The project identified several technical challenges during the design and development process. The repair tool must be capable of being installed under live conditions and operate in an 18-inch keyhole. This would eliminate the need for extensive excavations thus reducing the cost of the repair. Initially, the tool must be able to control the leak by encapsulating the pipe and apply slight pressure at the site of damage. Finally, the repair method must be permanent at typical operating pressures. The overall results of the project have established a permanent external repair method for use on damaged PE gas pipe in a safe and cost-effective manner. The engineered prototype was subjected to comprehensive testing and evaluation to validate the performance. Using the new repair tool, samples of 4-inch PE pipe with simulated damage were successfully repaired under line pressure to the satisfaction of DOE/NETL and the following natural gas companies: Northwest Natural; Sempra Energy, Southwest Gas Corporation, Questar, and Nicor. However, initial results of

  2. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  3. Pipeline incidents and emergency repair in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.D.

    1988-12-01

    The failures of submarine pipelines in the North Sea, and the response of pipeline operators are first discussed. Against this background, the methods currently available for submarine pipeline repairs are reviewed. The Emergency Pipeline Repair Services available are described, and some future developments in the field of submarine pipeline repair are briefly outlined.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  6. Strain- and Age-dependent Hippocampal Neuron Sodium Currents Correlate with Epilepsy Severity in Dravet Syndrome Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Akshitkumar M.; Thompson, Christopher H.; Miller, Alison R.; Vanoye, Carlos G.; George, Alfred L.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function SCN1A mutations cause Dravet syndrome, an epileptic encephalopathy of infancy that exhibits variable clinical severity. We utilized a heterozygous Scn1a knockout (Scn1a+/−) mouse model of Dravet syndrome to investigate the basis for phenotype variability. These animals exhibit strain-dependent seizure severity and survival. Scn1a+/− mice on strain 129S6/SvEvTac (129.Scn1a+/−) have no overt phenotype and normal survival compared with Scn1a+/− mice bred to C57BL/6J (F1.Scn1a+/−) that have severe epilepsy and premature lethality. We tested the hypothesis that strain differences in sodium current (INa) density in hippocampal neurons contribute to these divergent phenotypes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recording was performed on acutely-dissociated hippocampal neurons from postnatal day 21–24 (P21–24) 129.Scn1a+/− or F1.Scn1a+/− mice and wild-type littermates. INa density was lower in GABAergic interneurons from F1.Scn1a+/− mice compared to wild-type littermates, while on the 129 strain there was no difference in GABAergic interneuron INa between 129.Scn1a+/− mice and wild-type littermate controls. By contrast, INa density was elevated in pyramidal neurons from both 129.Scn1a+/− and F1.Scn1a+/− mice, and was correlated with more frequent spontaneous action potential firing in these neurons, as well as more sustained firing in F1.Scn1a+/− neurons. We also observed age-dependent differences in pyramidal neuron INa density between wild-type and Scn1a+/− animals. We conclude that preserved INa density in GABAergic interneurons contributes to the milder phenotype of 129.Scn1a+/− mice. Furthermore, elevated INa density in excitatory pyramidal neurons at P21–24 correlates with age-dependent onset of lethality in F1.Scn1a+/− mice. Our findings illustrate differences in hippocampal neurons that may underlie strain- and age-dependent phenotype severity in a Dravet syndrome mouse model, and emphasize a contribution of

  7. Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Composites Using Surface Treatments and Repair Materials: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, M; Saritha, G; Rajasekhar, V; Pachlag, K Amit; Purushotham, R; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhancement of bond strength between new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness of old composite to promote mechanical interlocking and subsequent coating with bonding agents to improve surface wetting and chemical bonding. So this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and repair materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite repairs The mode of failure of repaired composites whether cohesive or adhesive was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The substrates for 60 composite specimens were fabricated and aged with water treatment and subjected to various surface treatments. The surface treatment regimens used in the study were: No surface treatment, abraded with diamond bur, air abraded (sandblasted) with 50 µ aluminum oxide particles. Specimens were then repaired with fresh composite using either Clearfil™ repair or all-bond two adhesive systems. Specimens were water stored, thermocycled and tested for SBS using universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope to determine the mode of failure. Results: It was clearly showed that surface roughening of the aged composite substrate with air abrasion, followed by the application of Clearfil™ repair adhesive system (Group IIIa) yielded the highest repair bond strength (32.3 ± 2.2 MPa). Conclusion: Surface treatment with air abrasion followed by bonding with Clearfil™ repair adhesive system can be attempted clinically for the repair of composite restorations. PMID:25628478

  8. Surgical repair of myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, M W

    1993-12-01

    The birth of an infant with myelomeningocele provides a devastating experience for parents, a management dilemma for medical personnel, and an economic liability of immense proportions associated with the multiple disciplinary management program throughout the patient's life. Although undue delay in the onset of therapy is to be avoided, time can be taken for through assessment and appropriate discussion with the family without compromising the outcome. Once decisions are made to proceed with repair, early cover of the myelomeningocele defect is necessary to prevent progressive loss of neural tissue through exposure, desiccation, and sepsis. Many techniques of repair have been advocated. In principle, the ideal should be applicable to all sizes of defect, should be able to be executed in the neonatal age group with minimal morbidity, and should provide long-term, stable soft tissue cover without significant secondary scarring. A technique adhering to these principles is described and supported by results in a personal series of 84 patients during a 12-year period. PMID:8297082

  9. DNA Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    MARINUS, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair functions to correct replication errors in newly synthesized DNA and to prevent recombination between related, but not identical (homeologous), DNA sequences. The mechanism of mismatch repair is best understood in Escherichia coli and is the main focus of this review. The early genetic studies of mismatch repair are described as a basis for the subsequent biochemical characterization of the system. The effects of mismatch repair on homologous and homeologous recombination are described. The relationship of mismatch repair to cell toxicity induced by various drugs is included. The VSP (Very Short Patch) repair system is described in detail. PMID:26442827

  10. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  11. [Stress and optimal ageing].

    PubMed

    Gogol, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Stress is a stimulus or incident which has an exogenic or endogenic influence on an organism and leads to a biological and/or psychological adaptation from the organism by adaptation. Stressors can be differentiated by the temporal impact (e.g. acute, chronic or acute on chronic), strength and quality. The consequences of stress exposure and adaptation can be measured at the cellular level and as (sub) clinical manifestations, where this process can be biologically seen as a continuum. Over the course of life there is an accumulation of stress incidents resulting in a diminution of the capability for adaptation and repair mechanisms. By means of various interventions it is possible to improve the individual capability for adaptation but it is not currently definitively possible to disentangle alterations due to ageing and the development of diseases. As a consequence the term "healthy ageing" should be replaced by the concept of "optimal ageing". PMID:26208575

  12. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating.

    PubMed

    Rivolo, Paola; Nisticò, Roberto; Barone, Fabrizio; Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella; Martorana, Selanna; Ricciardi, Serena; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2016-08-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV-Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. PMID:27157754

  13. AGING & HEALTH Expectations About Future Use Of Long-Term Services And Supports Vary By CurrentLiving Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Shippee, Tetyana

    2014-01-01

    Most Americans know little about options for long-term services and supports and underestimate their likely future needs for such assistance. Using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we examined expectations about future use of long-term services and supports among adults ages 40–65 and how these expectations varied by current living arrangement. We found differences by living arrangement in expectations about both future need for long-term services and supports and who would provide such care if needed. Respondents living with minor children were the least likely to expect to need long-term services and supports and to require paid care if the need arose. In contrast, respondents living alone were the most likely to expect that it was “very likely” that they would need long-term services and supports and to rely on paid care. Overall, we found a disconnect between expectations of use and likely future reality: 60 percent of respondents believed that they were unlikely to need long-term services and supports in the future, whereas the evidence suggests that nearly 70 percent of older adults will need them at some point. These findings both underscore the need for programs that encourage people to plan for long-term services and supports and indicate that information about living arrangements can be useful in developing and targeting such programs. PMID:25561642

  14. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis compared with repair of isolated type II SLAP lesions in patients older than 35 years.

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J; Lädermann, Alexandre; Parsley, B K; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2014-03-01

    This study compared arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with biceps repair for isolated type II superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions in patients older than 35 years. The authors identified isolated type II SLAP lesions that were surgically managed over a 5-year period. Minimum 2-year follow-up data were available for 22 patients who underwent biceps repair (repair group) and for 15 patients who underwent a primary biceps tenodesis (tenodesis group). Mean age at surgery was 45.2±5.5 years in the repair group and 52.0±8.0 years in the tenodesis group. In the repair group, functional outcome improved from baseline to final follow-up using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) (47.5 to 87.4, respectively; P<.0001) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) scores (18.5 to 31.2, respectively; P<.0001). In the tenodesis group, similar findings were observed for the ASES (43.4 to 89.9, respectively; P<.0001) and UCLA scores (19.0 to 32.7, respectively; P<.0001). No difference was found in functional outcome between the groups. Full range of motion recovery was delayed by approximately 3 months in the repair group compared with the tenodesis group (P=.0631). Two patients in the repair group required a secondary capsular release. Seventy-seven percent of patients in the repair group and 100% of patients in the tenodesis group were satisfied and returned to normal activity (P=.0673). In the current study, individuals older than 35 years with an isolated type II SLAP lesion had a shorter postoperative recovery, a more predictable functional outcome, and a higher rate of satisfaction and return to activity with a biceps tenodesis compared with a biceps repair. Based on these observations, biceps tenodesis is preferable to biceps repair for isolated type II SLAP lesions in nonoverhead athletes older than 35 years. PMID:24762158

  15. Mechanisms of tendon injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Parks, William C.; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon disorders are common and lead to significant disability, pain, healthcare cost, and lost productivity. A wide range of injury mechanisms exist leading to tendinopathy or tendon rupture. Tears can occur in healthy tendons that are acutely overloaded (e.g., during a high speed or high impact event) or lacerated (e.g., a knife injury). Tendinitis or tendinosis can occur in tendons exposed to overuse conditions (e.g., an elite swimmer’s training regimen) or intrinsic tissue degeneration (e.g., age-related degeneration). The healing potential of a torn or pathologic tendon varies depending on anatomic location (e.g., Achilles vs. rotator cuff) and local environment (e.g., intrasynovial vs. extrasynovial). Although healing occurs to varying degrees, in general healing of repaired tendons follows the typical wound healing course, including an early inflammatory phase, followed by proliferative and remodeling phases. Numerous treatment approaches have been attempted to improve tendon healing, including growth factor- and cell-based therapies and rehabilitation protocols. This review will describe the current state of knowledge of injury and repair of the three most common tendinopathies-- flexor tendon lacerations, Achilles tendon rupture, and rotator cuff disorders-- with a particular focus on the use of animal models for understanding tendon healing. PMID:25641114

  16. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  17. Umbilical hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    Umbilical hernia repair is surgery to repair an umbilical hernia . An umbilical hernia is a sac (pouch) formed from the ... the hole or weak spot caused by the umbilical hernia. Your surgeon may also lay a piece ...

  18. Femoral hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair can be done with ... end of the repair, the cuts are stitched closed. In laparascopic surgery: The surgeon makes three to ...

  19. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some hernia repairs are performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. If your surgeon has ... in the abdominal wall (muscle) using small incisions, telescopes and a patch (mesh). Laparoscopic repair offers a ...

  20. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000236.htm Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. AAA repair - endovascular - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular - discharge; EVAR - discharge; Endovascular aneurysm repair - discharge ...

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Strategies in Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Pizzute, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage defects are normally concomitant with posttraumatic inflammation and pose a major challenge in cartilage repair. Due to the avascular nature of cartilage and its inability to surmount an inflammatory response, the cartilage is easily attacked by proinflammatory factors and oxidative stress; if left untreated, osteoarthritis may develop. Suppression of inflammation has always been a crux for cartilage repair. Pharmacological drugs have been successfully applied in cartilage repair; however, they cannot optimally work alone. This review article will summarize current pharmacological drugs and their application in cartilage repair. The development of extracellular matrix-based scaffolds and preconditioned tissue-specific stem cells will be emphasized because both of these tissue engineering components could contribute to an enhanced ability not only for cartilage regeneration but also for anti-inflammation. These strategies could be combined to boost cartilage repair under inflammatory conditions. PMID:24846478

  2. Effects of aging on the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the silicone rubber current transformer insulation bushing for a 500 kV substation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigao; Zhang, Xinghai; Wang, Fangqiang; Lan, Xinsheng; Zhou, Yiqian

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyze the cracking and aging reason of the silicone rubber current transformer (CT) insulation bushing used for 8 years from a 500 kV alternating current substation, characteristics including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical properties analysis, hardness, and thermo gravimetric analysis have been carried out. The FTIR results indicated that the external surface of the silicone rubber CT insulation bushing suffered from more serious aging than the internal part, fracture of side chain Si-C bond was much more than the backbone. Mechanical properties and thermal stability results illustrated that the main aging reasons were the breakage of side chain Si-C bond and the excessive cross-linking reaction of the backbone. This study can provide valuable basis for evaluating degradation mechanism and aging state of the silicone rubber insulation bushing in electric power field. PMID:27390631

  3. Repairability of cross-linked biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Balkenhol, M; Michel, K; Stelzig, J; Wöstmann, B

    2009-02-01

    Repair of biopolymers is a critical issue, especially with aged restorations. Obtaining a chemical bond to the repair surface might solve this problem. We hypothesized that certain repair liquids are suitable to establish a strong bond to an artificially aged dimethacrylate-based biopolymer for temporary restorations. Specimens made of a self-curing temporary crown-and-bridge material were prepared and thermocycled for 7 days (5000x, 5-55 degrees C). Cylinders made of light-curing composites (n=10) were bonded onto the specimen surface, either after grinding or after the application of 4 different experimental repair liquids (Bis-GMA:TEGDMA mixture=bonding, methylmethacrylate=MMA, bonding & acetone, bonding & MMA). A shear bond strength test was performed 24 hrs after repair. The highest bond strength was obtained with the bonding & acetone liquid (20.1+/-2.2 MPa). The use of MMA significantly affected the bond strength (6.8+/-1.9 MPa). MMA is inadequate as a repair liquid on aged composite-based biopolymers. PMID:19278987

  4. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  5. Self-repairing composites for airplane components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2008-03-01

    Durability and damage tolerance criteria drives the design of most composite structures. Those criteria could be altered by developing structure that repairs itself from impact damage. This is a technology for increasing damage tolerance for impact damage. Repaired damage would enable continued function and prevent further degradation to catastrophic failure in the case of an aircraft application. Further, repaired damage would enable applications to be utilized without reduction in performance due to impacts. Self repairing structures are designed to incorporate hollow fibers, which will release a repairing agent when the structure is impacted, so that the repairing agent will fill delaminations, voids and cracks in les than one minute, thus healing matrix voids. The intent is to modify the durability and damage tolerance criteria by incorporation of self-healing technologies to reduce overall weight: The structure will actually remain lighter than current conventional design procedures allow. Research objective(s) were: Prove that damage can be repaired to within 80-90% of original flexural strength in less than one minute, in laminates that are processed at 300-350F typical for aircraft composites. These were successfully met. The main focus was on testing of elements in compression after impact and a larger component in shear at Natural Process Design, Inc. Based on these results the advantages purposes are assessed. The results show potential; with self repairing composites, compressive strength is maintained sufficiently so that less material can be used as per durability and damage tolerance, yielding a lighter structure.

  6. Comet assay to measure DNA repair: approach and applications

    PubMed Central

    Azqueta, Amaya; Slyskova, Jana; Langie, Sabine A. S.; O’Neill Gaivão, Isabel; Collins, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cellular repair enzymes remove virtually all DNA damage before it is fixed; repair therefore plays a crucial role in preventing cancer. Repair studied at the level of transcription correlates poorly with enzyme activity, and so assays of phenotype are needed. In a biochemical approach, substrate nucleoids containing specific DNA lesions are incubated with cell extract; repair enzymes in the extract induce breaks at damage sites; and the breaks are measured with the comet assay. The nature of the substrate lesions defines the repair pathway to be studied. This in vitro DNA repair assay has been modified for use in animal tissues, specifically to study the effects of aging and nutritional intervention on repair. Recently, the assay was applied to different strains of Drosophila melanogaster proficient and deficient in DNA repair. Most applications of the repair assay have been in human biomonitoring. Individual DNA repair activity may be a marker of cancer susceptibility; alternatively, high repair activity may result from induction of repair enzymes by exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Studies to date have examined effects of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and occupation, in addition to clinical investigations. PMID:25202323

  7. Genome instability and aging.

    PubMed

    Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2013-01-01

    Genome instability has long been implicated as the main causal factor in aging. Somatic cells are continuously exposed to various sources of DNA damage, from reactive oxygen species to UV radiation to environmental mutagens. To cope with the tens of thousands of chemical lesions introduced into the genome of a typical cell each day, a complex network of genome maintenance systems acts to remove damage and restore the correct base pair sequence. Occasionally, however, repair is erroneous, and such errors, as well as the occasional failure to correctly replicate the genome during cell division, are the basis for mutations and epimutations. There is now ample evidence that mutations accumulate in various organs and tissues of higher animals, including humans, mice, and flies. What is not known, however, is whether the frequency of these random changes is sufficient to cause the phenotypic effects generally associated with aging. The exception is cancer, an age-related disease caused by the accumulation of mutations and epimutations. Here, we first review current concepts regarding the relationship between DNA damage, repair, and mutation, as well as the data regarding genome alterations as a function of age. We then describe a model for how randomly induced DNA sequence and epigenomic variants in the somatic genomes of animals can result in functional decline and disease in old age. Finally, we discuss the genetics of genome instability in relation to longevity to address the importance of alterations in the somatic genome as a causal factor in aging and to underscore the opportunities provided by genetic approaches to develop interventions that attenuate genome instability, reduce disease risk, and increase life span. PMID:23398157

  8. Current readings: Failed hiatal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sumeet K; Shah, Parth

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hiatal hernia is noted in up to 70% of patients undergoing reoperative antireflux procedure. Role of short esophagus vis-à-vis a need for Collis gastroplasty, mesh reinforcement of hiatus, and access of surgery (thoracotomy vs laparotomy) have been debated. The aim of this article is to review selected recent publications that address these issues. PMID:25837548

  9. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick structures

  10. The dynamics of certain indicators of nuclein metabolism during hypokinesia in rats of different ages under the influence of sinusoidal modulated currents and measured physical load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolova, Z. A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of sinusoidal modulated currents was studied and physical loads on the nucleic acid content and the nucleotide composition of the total RNA in muscles of rats of various ages under conditions of hypodynamia were measured. Methodology utilized is described and conclusions are presented.

  11. Demographic Aspects of Aging and the Older Population in the United States. Current Population Reports, Special Studies, Series P-23, No. 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jacob S.; And Others

    This report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic aspects of aging and the older population in the Unites States. Most of the estimates are based on data from decennial censuses, the program of nonsurvey population estimates and projections carried out by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the Current Population Survey, and other census…

  12. [How traumatized are the children of World War II? The relationship of age during flight and forced displacement and current posttraumatic stress symptoms].

    PubMed

    Wendt, Carolin; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic events experienced in childhood can be reactivated in older age. The present study investigates the relation of age during flight and forced displacement within World War II (WWII; 2-7 years, 8-13 years, 14-20 years) and the current occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events and current posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Impact of Event Scale-revised. Mean age of participants (N=169) was 73.76 years (SD=4.18). The eldest group reported most war-related traumatic events. In each age group a one-week-prevalence for a full PTSD of 10-11% was found. The prevalence for both full and subthreshold PTSD was higher for the age group 14-20 years (60.5%) compared to the younger age groups (33-35%). People, who experienced WWII as adolescents, show a dose-response-effect indicated by a higher prevalence for subthreshold PTSD. PMID:22869529

  13. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  14. Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Abdul; Ullah, Hidayat; Naz, Shazia; Shah, Syed Asif; Tahmeed, Tahmeedullah; Yousaf, Kanwal; Tahir, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital's database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka) and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate) repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086). The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001). Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications. PMID:24579043

  15. Thermally stimulated depolarization current analysis for the dielectric aging of Mn and V-codoped BaTiO3 multi layer ceramic capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Park, Jae-Sung; Kim, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Doo-Young

    2013-07-01

    Dielectric aging of Mn and V-codoped BaTiO3 was investigated. The increase of V concentration had little influence on aging, whereas that of Mn increased it. Thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) of low Mn concentration specimen showed one peak, whereas Mn-increased specimen showed two peaks. The first and second peak is supposed to be caused by the phase transition of the undoped core region and the defect dipole of Mn such as MnTi″-VO•• or MnTi'-VO••, respectively. High TSDC associated with the defect dipole of Mn and significant aging rate experimentally demonstrates that the dielectric aging is controlled by the defect dipole.

  16. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Lo, Ian K Y

    2006-06-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is being performed by an increasing number of orthopaedic surgeons. The principles, techniques, and instrumentation have evolved to the extent that all patterns and sizes of rotator cuff tear, including massive tears, can now be repaired arthroscopically. Achieving a biomechanically stable construct is critical to biologic healing. The ideal repair construct must optimize suture-to-bone fixation, suture-to-tendon fixation, abrasion resistance of suture, suture strength, knot security, loop security, and restoration of the anatomic rotator cuff footprint (the surface area of bone to which the cuff tendons attach). By achieving optimized repair constructs, experienced arthroscopic surgeons are reporting results equal to those of open rotator cuff repair. As surgeons' arthroscopic skill levels increase through attendance at surgical skills courses and greater experience gained in the operating room, there will be an increasing trend toward arthroscopic repair of most rotator cuff pathology. PMID:16757673

  17. Concepts in Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Andre F.; Nöth, Ulrich; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Once articular cartilage is injured, it has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Although current surgical therapeutic procedures to cartilage repair are clinically useful, they cannot restore a normal articular surface. Current research offers a growing number of bioactive reagents, including proteins and nucleic acids, that may be used to augment different aspects of the repair process. As these agents are difficult to administer effectively, gene transfer approaches are being developed to provide their sustained synthesis at sites of repair. To augment regeneration of articular cartilage, therapeutic genes can be delivered to the synovium, or directly to the cartilage lesion. Gene delivery to the cells of the synovial lining is generally considered more suitable for chondroprotective approaches, based on the expression of anti-inflammatory mediators. Gene transfer targeted to cartilage defects can be achieved by either direct vector administration to cells located at or surrounding the defects, or by transplantation of genetically modified chondrogenic cells into the defect. Several studies have shown that exogenous cDNAs encoding growth factors can be delivered locally to sites of cartilage damage, where they are expressed at therapeutically relevant levels. Furthermore, data is beginning to emerge indicating, that efficient delivery and expression of these genes is capable of influencing a repair response toward the synthesis of a more hyaline cartilage repair tissue in vivo. This review presents the current status of gene therapy for cartilage healing and highlights some of the remaining challenges. PMID:18313477

  18. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electric Motor Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    This Electric Motor Repair Course is designed to provide the student with practical information for winding, repairing, and troubleshooting alternating current and direct current motors, and controllers. The course is comprised of eight units: (1) Electric Motor Fundamentals, (2) Rewinding, (3) Split-phase Induction Motors, (4) Capacitor Motors,…

  19. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  20. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits. PMID:27087178

  1. Oxidative DNA Damage and Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Luijten, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative DNA damage is repaired by multiple, overlapping DNA repair pathways. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that nucleotide excision repair (NER), besides base excision repair (BER), is also involved in neutralizing oxidative DNA damage. Recent Advances: NER includes two distinct sub-pathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome repair (GG-NER). The CSA and CSB proteins initiate the onset of TC-NER. Recent findings show that not only CSB, but also CSA is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, in the nucleus as well as in mitochondria. The XPG protein is also of importance for the removal of oxidative DNA lesions, as it may enhance the initial step of BER. Substantial evidence exists that support a role for XPC in NER and BER. XPC deficiency not only results in decreased repair of oxidative lesions, but has also been linked to disturbed redox homeostasis. Critical Issues: The role of NER proteins in the regulation of the cellular response to oxidative (mitochondrial and nuclear) DNA damage may be the underlying mechanism of the pathology of accelerated aging in Cockayne syndrome patients, a driving force for internal cancer development in XP-A and XP-C patients, and a contributor to the mixed exhibited phenotypes of XP-G patients. Future Directions: Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair factors can be involved in multiple DNA repair pathways. However, the distinct detailed mechanism and consequences of these additional functions remain to be elucidated and can possibly shine a light on clinically related issues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2409–2419. PMID:23216312

  2. Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Rates After Delayed Cleft Palate Repair: Lessons Learned From Internationally Adopted Patients.

    PubMed

    Follmar, Keith E; Yuan, Nance; Pendleton, Courtney S; Dorafshar, Amir H; Kolk, Craig Vander; Redett, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Most surgeons recommend cleft palate repair between 6 and 12 months of age. Internationally adopted patients often undergo delayed repair due to social circumstances. There are few outcomes studies on this population. We conducted a 13-year retrospective review of all patients undergoing primary cleft palate repair at a single tertiary-care academic medical center between 1993 and 2006. The primary outcome was velopharyngeal insufficiency, defined as the recommendation for corrective surgery after multiple formal speech assessments. Two hundred one patients (102 males and 99 females) were identified. One hundred eighty-three repairs were performed before 18 months of age (standard repair group). Eighteen repairs were performed after 18 months of age (delayed repair group), with international adoption being a circumstance in 16 cases. The delayed and standard repair groups were similar with regard to sex, presence of craniofacial syndrome, Veau class, cleft size and laterality, type of repair, and operating surgeon. Mean follow-up was 9.3 years, with minimum follow-up of 5.0 years. Six (33%) of 18 patients in the delayed repair group developed velopharyngeal insufficiency compared to 23 (13%) of 183 in the standard repair group (P = 0.03 by Fisher exact test). These data demonstrate that internationally adopted patients undergoing delayed palate repair suffer especially poor speech outcomes. Physiologic differences in patients undergoing late repair, as well as social factors including adaptation to a new language and culture, may be factors. Early repair should be performed when possible. PMID:25046662

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  4. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  5. Outcomes after Arthroscopic Bankart Repair

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Tyler James; Vega, Jose F.; Siqueira, Marcelo BP; Gelber, Jonathan David; Cagle, Robert; Saluan, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The shoulder is the most common joint dislocation effecting roughly 2% of the general population. Males are effected to a higher degree that females at a ratio of 3:1.1-2 The young, athletic population make up the largest portion of shoulder instability, and treated nonoperatively have a recurrent dislocation rate approaching 50%.3-5 Owens et. al recently published a cohort looking at 45 college athletes with an in season shoulder instability event. 73% of athletes returned to play in season. Only 36% of athletes completed the season without re-injury and 64% of athletes had a recurrent instability event.6 It is unknown how the outcomes of those who go on to have a recurrent dislocation in season are effected versus those who have a stabilization procedure after a first time dislocation. The objective of the current study is to report the postoperative outcomes of first time dislocators versus patients with recurrent dislocations prior to surgery. Methods: CPT codes were used to identify patients who had arthroscopic Bankart repair between 2003-2013. 439 patients aged 16-30 years were identified across 8 fellowship trained surgical practices. The first phase of the study was a retrospective chart review to obtain patient demographics, number of reported preoperative dislocations, review imaging, and number of anchors placed. Patients were identified as first time dislocators or as recurrent dislocators when they had more than one dislocation prior to surgical intervention. The second phase consisted of a survey to obtain a simple shoulder test score, whether they returned to sport, postoperative instability events and further surgery on the shoulder. Postoperative instability was defined as a subluxation or dislocation reported by the patient survey in the postoperative period. Of the 439 patients identified, 296 were excluded for revision surgery, open repair, posterior instability, multidirectional instability, HAGL lesion, labral tears involving the

  6. Arthroscopic Repair of Posterior Meniscal Root Tears

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Lauren; Moulton, Samuel G.; Dean, Chase S.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare subjective clinical outcomes in patients requiring arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair for posterior meniscus root tears of the medial and lateral menisci. We hypothesized that improvement in function and activity level would be similar among patients undergoing lateral and medial meniscal root repairs. Methods: This study was IRB approved. All patients who underwent posterior meniscal root repair by a single orthopaedic surgeon were included in this study. Detailed operative data were documented at surgery. Patients completed a subjective questionnaire, including Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, WOMAC, SF-12 and patient satisfaction with outcome, which were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of two years postoperatively. Failure was defined as any patient who underwent revision meniscal root repair or partial meniscectomy following the index surgery. Results: There were 50 patients (16 females, 34 males) with a mean age of 37.8 years (range, 16.6-65.7) and a mean BMI of 27.3 (range, 20.5-49.2) included in this study. Fifteen patients underwent lateral meniscus root repair and 35 patients underwent medial meniscus root repair. Three patients who underwent lateral meniscus root repair required revision meniscus root repair surgery, while no patients who underwent medial meniscus root repair required revision surgery (p=0.26). There was a significant difference in preoperative and postoperative Lysholm score (53 vs. 78) (p<0.001), Tegner activity scale (2.0 vs. 4.0) (p=0.03), SF-12 physical component subscale (38 vs. 50) (p=0.001) and WOMAC (36 vs. 8) (p<0.001) for the total population. Median patient satisfaction with outcome was 9 (range, 1-10). There was no significant difference in mean age between lateral and medial root repair groups (32 vs. 40) (p=0.12) or gender (p=0.19). There was no significant difference in gender between lateral and medial root repair groups (p=0.95). There was a

  7. Animal models of cartilage repair

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. L.; Hung, C. T.; Kuroki, K.; Stoker, A. M.; Cook, C. R.; Pfeiffer, F. M.; Sherman, S. L.; Stannard, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage repair in terms of replacement, or regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage with functional tissue, is the ‘holy grail’ of joint surgery. A wide spectrum of strategies for cartilage repair currently exists and several of these techniques have been reported to be associated with successful clinical outcomes for appropriately selected indications. However, based on respective advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, no single strategy, or even combination of strategies, provides surgeons with viable options for attaining successful long-term outcomes in the majority of patients. As such, development of novel techniques and optimisation of current techniques need to be, and are, the focus of a great deal of research from the basic science level to clinical trials. Translational research that bridges scientific discoveries to clinical application involves the use of animal models in order to assess safety and efficacy for regulatory approval for human use. This review article provides an overview of animal models for cartilage repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;4:89–94. PMID:24695750

  8. Repairs of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  9. Using Current Data to Define New Approach in Age Related Macular Degeneration: Need to Accelerate Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Akshay; Sharma, Kaushal; Chen, Wei; Sharma, Neel Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major retinal degenerative disease of ageing whose complex genetic basis remains undeciphered. The involvement of various other factors like mitochondrial genes, cytoskeletal proteins and the role of epigenetics has been described in this review. Several population based AMD genetic studies have been carried out worldwide. Despite the increased publication of reports, clinical translation still eludes this davastating disease. We suggest models to address roadblocks in clinical translation hoping that these would be beneficial to drive AMD research towards innovative biomarkers and therapeutics Therefore, addressing the need large autopsy studies and combining it with efficient use of bioinformatic tools, statistical modeling and probing SNP-biomarker association are key to time bound resolution of this disease. PMID:25132797

  10. Further Evolution of Composite Doubler Aircraft Repairs Through a Focus on Niche Applications

    SciTech Connect

    ROACH,DENNIS P.

    2000-07-15

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have created an aging aircraft fleet and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safety extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC) is conducting a program with Boeing and Federal Express to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the US commercial aircraft industry. This project focuses on repair of DC-10 structure and builds on the foundation of the successful L-1011 door corner repair that was completed by the AANC, Lockheed-Martin, and Delta Air Lines. The L-1011 composite doubler repair was installed in 1997 and has not developed any flaws in over three years of service, As a follow-on effort, this DC-1O repair program investigated design, analysis, performance (durability, flaw containment, reliability), installation, and nondestructive inspection issues. Current activities are demonstrating regular use of composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft. The primary goal of this program is to move the technology into niche applications and to streamline the design-to-installation process. Using the data accumulated to date, the team has designed, analyzed, and developed inspection techniques for an array of composite doubler repairs

  11. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  12. Participation of DNA repair in the response to 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Michael D.; Wilson, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-metabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is employed clinically to manage solid tumors including colorectal and breast cancer. Intracellular metabolites of 5-FU can exert cytotoxic effects via inhibition of thymidylate synthetase, or through incorporation into RNA and DNA, events that ultimately activate apoptosis. In this review, we cover the current data implicating DNA repair processes in cellular responsiveness to 5-FU treatment. Evidence points to roles for base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR). However, mechanistic details remain unexplained, and other pathways have not been exhaustively interrogated. Homologous recombination is of particular interest, because it resolves unrepaired DNA intermediates not properly dealt with by BER or MMR. Furthermore, crosstalk among DNA repair pathways and S-phase checkpoint signaling has not been examined. Ongoing efforts aim to design approaches and reagents that (i) approximate repair capacity and (ii) mediate strategic regulation of DNA repair in order to improve the efficacy of current anti-cancer treatments. PMID:18979208

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  14. Defects dynamics during ageing cycles of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes revealed by evolution of external quantum efficiency--current dependence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Ziquan; Zhang, Jihong; Huang, Weilin; Lu, Yi-Jun; Deng, Zhonghua; Liu, Zhuguang; Cao, Yongge

    2015-07-27

    We report in detail the defect dynamics in the active region by monitoring the external quantum efficiency (EQE) - injection current curves, I-V curves, and electroluminescence spectra during the ageing test, under a forward current of 850 mA (85 A/cm2), room temperature. We apply a two-level model to analyze the EQE curves and the electroluminescence spectra. The results suggest that high injection density during the ageing may reduce the density of the Shockley-Reed-Hall nonradiative recombination centers and enhance the carrier mobility and diffusion length. The former effect would directly lead to initial surge of EQE, whereas the latter would enhance the effect of extended defects which leads to reduction in peak EQE and increase in EQE droop rate. PMID:26367698

  15. A Comparison of Rehabilitation Methods After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Anthony; Villacis, Diego; Yalamanchili, Raj; Hatch, George F. Rick

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite the significant attention directed toward optimizing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, there has been less focus on rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair surgery. Objective: To determine the effect of different rehabilitation protocols on clinical outcomes by comparing early versus late mobilization approaches and continuous passive mobilization (CPM) versus manual therapy after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Data Sources: PubMed was searched for relevant articles using the keywords rotator cuff, rotator, cuff, tears, lacerations, and rehabilitation to identify articles published from January 1980 to March 2014. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria consisted of articles of level 1 or 2 evidence, written in the English language, and with reported outcomes for early versus late mobilization or rehabilitation with CPM versus manual therapy after primary arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Exclusion criteria consisted of articles of level 3, 4, or 5 evidence, non-English language, and those with significantly different demographic variables between study groups. Included studies were evaluated with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials criteria. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Level of evidence, study type, number of patients enrolled, number of patients at final follow-up, length of follow-up, age, sex, rotator cuff tear size, surgical technique, and concomitant operative procedures were extracted from included articles. Postoperative data included clinical outcome scores, visual analog score for pain, shoulder range of motion, strength, and rotator cuff retear rates. Results: A total of 7 studies met all criteria and were included in the final analysis. Five studies compared early and late mobilization. Two studies compared CPM and manual therapy. Conclusion: In general, current data do not definitively demonstrate a significant difference between postoperative rotator cuff rehabilitation

  16. Hybrid Repair of Proximal Subclavian Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kazuki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Iba, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conventional open repair for proximal subclavian artery aneurysms (SCAAs) requires cardiopulmonary bypass. However, patients with proximal SCAA can be treated with hybrid repair. Methods: Between 2007 and 2012, we performed hybrid repair to treat six consecutive patients with proximal SCAA (three left SCAAs, one right aberrant SCAA, two right SCAAs). Their median age was 73.5 [70–87] years, and the size of their aneurysm was 33.5 [30–45] mm. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) only was used for one patient with left SCAA, TEVAR and supra-aortic bypass for two with left SCAA and one with right aberrant SCAA, and endovascular repair with reconstruction of the vertebral artery using the saphenous vein graft (SVG) for two with right SCAA. Results: The follow-up duration was 3.7 [0.2–6.8] years. There was no 30-day mortality and only one early complication consisting of a minor stroke after TEVAR for shaggy aorta. Two late deaths occurred, one caused by cerebral infarction due to occlusion of SVG to the dominant vertebral artery 2 months after the operation and the other by aortic dissection 5 years postoperatively. Conclusions: Hybrid repair can be a less-invasive alternative for proximal SCAA. Revascularization of neck vessels and TEVAR should be performed very carefully to prevent neurologic complications. PMID:26131027

  17. Laparoscopic Repair of Paraesophageal Hernias

    PubMed Central

    Borao, Frank; Squillaro, Anthony; Mansson, Jonas; Barker, William; Baker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopy has quickly become the standard surgical approach to repair paraesophageal hernias. Although many centers routinely perform this procedure, relatively high recurrence rates have led many surgeons to question this approach. We sought to evaluate outcomes in our cohort of patients with an emphasis on recurrence rates and symptom improvement and their correlation with true radiologic recurrence seen on contrast imaging. Methods: We retrospectively identified 126 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of a large paraesophageal hernia between 2000 and 2010. Clinical outcomes were reviewed, and data were collected regarding operative details, perioperative and postoperative complications, symptoms, and follow-up imaging. Radiologic evidence of any size hiatal hernia was considered to indicate a recurrence. Results: There were 95 female and 31 male patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 71 ± 14 years. Laparoscopic repair was completed successfully in 120 of 126 patients, with 6 operations converted to open procedures. Crural reinforcement with mesh was performed in 79% of patients, and 11% underwent a Collis gastroplasty. Fundoplications were performed in 90% of patients: Nissen (112), Dor (1), and Toupet (1). Radiographic surveillance, obtained at a mean time interval of 23 months postoperatively, was available in 89 of 126 patients (71%). Radiographic evidence of a recurrence was present in 19 patients (21%). Reoperation was necessary in 6 patients (5%): 5 for symptomatic recurrence (4%) and 1 for dysphagia (1%). The median length of stay was 4 days. Conclusion: Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair results in an excellent outcome with a short length of stay when performed at an experienced center. Radiologic recurrence is observed relatively frequently with routine surveillance; however, many of these recurrences are small, and few patients require correction of the recurrence. Furthermore, these

  18. Proficiency of Surgeons in Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Neumayer, Leigh A.; Gawande, Atul A.; Wang, Jia; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Itani, Kamal M. F.; Fitzgibbons, Robert J.; Reda, Domenic; Jonasson, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the influence of surgeon age and other factors on proficiency in laparoscopic or open hernia repair. Summary Background Data: In a multicenter, randomized trial comparing open and laparoscopic herniorrhaphies, conducted in Veterans Administration hospitals (CSP 456), we reported significant differences in recurrence rates (RR) for the laparoscopic procedure as a result of surgeons’ experience. We have also reported significant differences in RR for the open procedure related to resident postgraduate year (PGY) level. Methods: We analyzed data from unilateral laparoscopic and open herniorrhaphies from CSP 456 (n = 1629). Surgeon's experience (experienced ≥250 procedures; inexperienced <250), surgeon's age, median PGY level of the participating resident, operation time, and hospital observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios for mortality were potential independent predictors of RR. Results: Age was dichotomized into older (≥45 years) and younger (<45 years). Surgeon's inexperience and older age were significant predictors of recurrence in laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. The odds of recurrence for an inexperienced surgeon aged 45 years or older was 1.72 times that of a younger inexperienced surgeon. For open repairs, although surgeon's age and operation time appeared to be related to recurrence, only median PGY level of <3 was a significant independent predictor. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates that surgeon's age of 45 years and older, when combined with inexperience in laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphies, increases risk of recurrence. For open repairs, only a median PGY level of <3 was a significant risk factor. PMID:16135920

  19. Design, manufacture, development, test, and evaluation of boron/aluminum structural components for space shuttle. Volume 4: Repairability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. F.; Christian, J. L.; Doyal, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The repairability of boron/aluminum structural components was investigated. It was demonstrated that metal matrix composite material, damaged in service, can be repaired by techniques that are not very different from those currently in use for conventional materials. A list of repair guidelines was prepared to aid in determining the proper repair techniques for a given structure. The guidelines include specifying types of repair material and their applicability, corrosion prevention procedures, design criteria, and inspection criteria. Boron/aluminum structural components were repaired and tested to compare as-fabricated and repaired performance. All but one set of specimens, when repaired, exceeded the strength of the original specimens.

  20. Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and age-associated memory impairment: current understanding and progress toward integrative prevention.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Parris M

    2008-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease, AD, is the most common form of dementia. AD initially targets memory and progressively destroys the mind. The brain atrophies as the neocortex suffers neuronal, synaptic, and dendritic losses, and the hallmark amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles proliferate. Pharmacological management, at best, is palliative and transiently effective, with marked adverse effects. Certain nutrients intrinsic to human biochemistry (orthomolecules) match or exceed pharmacological drug benefits in double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, with superior safety. Early intervention is feasible because its heritability is typically minimal and pathological deterioration is detectable years prior to diagnosis. The syndrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment exhibits AD pathology and to date has frustrated attempts at intervention. The condition age-associated memory impairment is a nonpathological extreme of normal brain aging, but with less severe cognitive impairment than amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Age-associated memory impairment is a feasible target for early intervention against AD, beginning with the modifiable AD risk factors - smoking, hypertension, homocysteine, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity. Stress reduction, avoidance of toxins, and mental and physical exercise are important aspects of prevention. The diet should emphasize omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid; flavonoids and other antioxidant nutrients; and B vitamins, especially folate, B6 and B12. Dietary supplementation is best focused on those proven from randomized, controlled trials: the phospholipids phosphatidylserine and glycerophosphocholine, the energy nutrient acetyl-L-carnitine, vitamins C and E, and other antioxidants. A comprehensive integrative strategy initiated early in cognitive decline is the most pragmatic approach to controlling progression to Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18590347

  1. Properties of BK-type Ca++-dependent K+ channel currents in medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons in rats of different ages

    PubMed Central

    Książek, Aneta; Ładno, Wioletta; Szulczyk, Bartłomiej; Grzelka, Katarzyna; Szulczyk, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive functions, which undergo profound changes during adolescence. This alteration of the PFC function derives from neuron activity, which, in turn, may depend on age-dependent properties and the expression of neuronal ion channels. BK-type channels are involved in controlling both the Ca++ ion concentration in the cell interior and cell excitability. The purpose of this study was to test the properties of BK currents in the medial PFC pyramidal neurons of young (18- to 22-day-old), adolescent (38- to 42-day-old), and adult (60- to 65-day-old) rats. Whole-cell currents evoked by depolarizing voltage steps were recorded from dispersed medial PFC pyramidal neurons. A selective BK channel blocker – paxilline (10 μM) – irreversibly decreased the non-inactivating K+ current in neurons that were isolated from the young and adult rats. This current was not significantly affected by paxilline in the neurons obtained from adolescent rats. The properties of single-channel K+ currents were recorded from the soma of dispersed medial PFC pyramidal neurons in the cell-attached configuration. Of the K+ channel currents that were recorded, ~90% were BK and leak channel currents. The BK-type channel currents were dependent on the Ca++ concentration and the voltage and were inhibited by paxilline. The biophysical properties of the BK channel currents did not differ among the pyramidal neurons isolated from young, adolescent, and adult rats. Among all of the recorded K+ channel currents, 38.9, 12.7, and 21.1% were BK-type channel currents in the neurons isolated from the young, adolescent, and adult rats, respectively. Furthermore, application of paxilline effectively prolonged the half-width of the action potential in pyramidal neurons in slices isolated from young and adult rats but not in neurons isolated from adolescent rats. We conclude that the availability of BK channel currents decreases in medial PFC pyramidal

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  3. Multiple functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts in oral wound healing and repair.

    PubMed

    Chiquet, Matthias; Katsaros, Christos; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblasts are cells of mesenchymal origin. They are responsible for the production of most extracellular matrix in connective tissues and are essential for wound healing and repair. In recent years, it has become clear that fibroblasts from different tissues have various distinct traits. Moreover, wounds in the oral cavity heal under very special environmental conditions compared with skin wounds. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the various interconnected functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts during the repair of oral wounds. The MEDLINE database was searched with the following terms: (gingival OR mucoperiosteal) AND fibroblast AND (wound healing OR repair). The data gathered were used to compare oral fibroblasts with fibroblasts from other tissues in terms of their regulation and function during wound healing. Specifically, we sought answers to the following questions: (i) what is the role of oral fibroblasts in the inflammatory response in acute wounds; (ii) how do growth factors control the function of oral fibroblasts during wound healing; (iii) how do oral fibroblasts produce, remodel and interact with extracellular matrix in healing wounds; (iv) how do oral fibroblasts respond to mechanical stress; and (v) how does aging affect the fetal-like responses and functions of oral fibroblasts? The current state of research indicates that oral fibroblasts possess unique characteristics and tightly controlled specific functions in wound healing and repair. This information is essential for developing new strategies to control the intraoral wound-healing processes of the individual patient. PMID:25867977

  4. Mechanical characterization of composite repairs for fiberglass wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Tanveer Singh

    While in service, wind turbine blades experience various modes of loading. An example is impact loading in the form of hail or bird strikes, which might lead to localized damage or formation of cracks a few plies deep on the blade surface. One of the methods to conduct repairs on wind turbine blades that are damaged while in service is hand lay-up of the repair part after grinding out the damaged portion and some of its surrounding area. The resin used for such repairs usually differs from the parent plate resin in composition and properties such as gel time, viscosity, etc. As a result the properties of the repaired parts are not the same as that of the undamaged blades. Subsequent repetitive loading can be detrimental to weak repairs to such an extent so as to cause delamination at the parent-repair bondline causing the repairs to eventually fall off the blade. Thus the strength and toughness of the repair are of critical importance. Initial part of this work consists of an effort to increase repair strength by identifying an optimum hand layup repair resin for fiberglass wind turbine blades currently being manufactured by a global company. As delamination of the repair from the parent blade is a major concern and unidirectional glass fibers along with a polymer resin are used to manufacture blades under consideration, testing method detailed in ASTM D 5528 (Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites) was followed to determine propagation fracture toughness values of the prospective vinyl ester repair resin candidates. These values were compared to those for a base polyester repair resin used by the company. Experimental procedure and results obtained from the above mentioned testing using double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens are detailed. Three new repair resins were shortlisted through mode I testing. It was also found that variation in the depth of the ground top ply of the parent part

  5. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  6. Inguinal hernia repair: toward Asian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lomanto, Davide; Cheah, Wei-Keat; Faylona, Jose Macario; Huang, Ching Shui; Lohsiriwat, Darin; Maleachi, Andy; Yang, George Pei Cheung; Li, Michael Ka-Wai; Tumtavitikul, Sathien; Sharma, Anil; Hartung, Rolf Ulrich; Choi, Young Bai; Sutedja, Barlian

    2015-02-01

    Groin hernias are very common, and surgical treatment is usually recommended. In fact, hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed worldwide. In countries such as the USA, China, and India, there may easily be over 1 million repairs every year. The need for this surgery has become an important socioeconomic problem and may affect health-care providers, especially in aging societies. Surgical repair using mesh is recommended and widely employed in Western countries, but in many developing countries, tissue-to-tissue repair is still the preferred surgical procedure due to economic constraints. For these reason, the development and implementation of guidelines, consensus, or recommendations may aim to clarify issues related to best practices in inguinal hernia repair in Asia. A group of Asian experts in hernia repair gathered together to debate inguinal hernia treatments in Asia in an attempt to reach some consensus or develop recommendations on best practices in the region. The need for recommendations or guidelines was unanimously confirmed to help overcome the discrepancy in clinical practice between countries; the experts decided to focus mainly on the technical aspects of open repair, which is the most common surgery for hernia in our region. After the identification of 12 main topics for discussion (indication, age, and sex; symptomatic and asymptomatic hernia: type of hernia; type of treatment; hospital admission; preoperative care; anesthesia; surgical technique; perioperative care; postoperative care; early complications; and long-term complications), a search of the literature was carried out according to the five levels of the Oxford Classification of Evidence and the four grades of recommendation. PMID:25598054

  7. Durability of laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Edye, M B; Canin-Endres, J; Gattorno, F; Salky, B A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To define a method of primary repair that would minimize hernia recurrence and to report medium-term follow-up of patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia to verify durability of the repair and to assess the effect of inclusion of an antireflux procedure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Primary paraesophageal hernia repair was completed laparoscopically in 55 patients. There were five recurrences within 6 months when the sac was not excised (20%). After institution of a technique of total sac excision in 30 subsequent repairs, no early recurrences were observed. METHODS: Inclusion of an antireflux procedure, incidence of subsequent hernia recurrence, dysphagia, and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were recorded in clinical follow-up of patients who underwent a laparoscopic procedure. RESULTS: Mean length of follow-up was 29 months. Forty-nine patients were available for follow-up, and one patient had died of lung cancer. Mean age at surgery was 68 years. The surgical morbidity rate in elderly patients was no greater than in younger patients. Eleven patients (22%) had symptoms of mild to moderate reflux, and 15 were taking acid-reduction medication for a variety of dyspeptic complaints. All but 2 of these 15 had undergone 360 degrees fundoplication at initial repair. Two patients (4%) had late recurrent hernia, each small, demonstrated by esophagram or endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic repair in the medium term appeared durable. The incidence of postsurgical reflux symptoms was unrelated to inclusion of an antireflux procedure. In the absence of motility data, partial fundoplication was preferred, although dysphagia after floppy 360 degrees wrap was rare. With the low morbidity rate of this procedure, correction of symptomatic paraesophageal hernia appears indicated in patients regardless of age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9790342

  8. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  9. Molecular regulation of UV-induced DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Shah, Palak; He, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight is a major etiologic factor for skin cancer, the most prevalent cancer in the United States, as well as premature skin aging. In particular, UVB radiation causes formation of specific DNA damage photoproducts between pyrimidine bases. These DNA damage photoproducts are repaired by a process called nucleotide excision repair, also known as UV-induced DNA repair. When left unrepaired, UVB-induced DNA damage leads to accumulation of mutations, predisposing people to carcinogenesis as well as to premature aging. Genetic loss of nucleotide excision repair leads to severe disorders, namely, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are associated with predisposition to skin carcinogenesis at a young age as well as developmental and neurological conditions. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair is an attractive avenue to preventing or reversing these detrimental consequences of impaired nucleotide excision repair. Here, we review recent studies on molecular mechanisms regulating nucleotide excision repair by extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways, with a special focus on the molecular regulation of individual repair factors. PMID:25534312

  10. Molecular Regulation of UV-Induced DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Palak; He, Yu-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight is a major etiologic factor for skin cancer, the most prevalent cancer in the U.S., as well as premature skin aging. In particular, UVB radiation causes formation of specific DNA damage photoproducts between pyrimidine bases. These DNA damage photoproducts are repaired by a process called nucleotide excision repair, also known as UV-induced DNA repair. When left unrepaired, UVB-induced DNA damage leads to accumulation of mutations, predisposing people to carcinogenesis as well as to premature aging. Genetic loss of nucleotide excision repair leads to severe disorders, namely, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are associated with predisposition to skin carcinogenesis at a young age as well as developmental and neurological conditions. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair is an attractive avenue to preventing or reversing these detrimental consequences of impaired nucleotide excision repair. Here we review recent studies on molecular mechanisms regulating nucleotide excision repair by extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways, with a special focus on the molecular regulation of individual repair factors. PMID:25534312

  11. Neurovascular pathophysiology in cerebral ischemia, dementia and the ageing brain – current trends in basic, translational and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 7th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair was held from May 2nd to May 5th, 2012 in Potsdam, Germany. The symposium, which directly continues the successful Magdeburg meeting series, attracted over 330 colleagues from 29 countries to discuss recent findings and advances in the field. The focus of the 2012 symposium was widened from stroke and traumatic brain injury to neurodegenerative diseases, notably dementia, and more generally the ageing brain. Thereby, emphasis was given on neurovascular aspects of neurodegeneration and stroke including the blood–brain barrier, recent findings regarding the pathomechanism of Alzheimer’s disease, and brain imaging approaches. In addition, neurobiochemical aspects of neuroprotection, the role of astrogliosis, the clinical progress of cell-based approaches as well as translational hurdles and opportunities were discussed in-depth. This review summarizes some of the most stimulating discussions and reports from the meeting. PMID:22883324

  12. Geographic atrophy in patients with advanced dry age-related macular degeneration: current challenges and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Ronald P; Lavine, Jeremy A; Domalpally, Amitha

    2015-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a devastating complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). GA may be classified as drusen-related (drusen-associated GA) or neovascularization-related (neovascular-associated GA). Drusen-related GA remains a large public health concern due to the burden of blindness it produces, but pathophysiology of the condition is obscure and there are no proven treatment options. Genotyping, cell biology, and clinical imaging point to upregulation of parainflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and choroidal sclerosis as contributors, among other factors. Onset and monitoring of progression is accomplished through clinical imaging instrumentation such as optical coherence tomography, photography, and autofluorescence, which are the tools most helpful in determining end points for clinical trials at present. A number of treatment approaches with diverse targets are in development at this time, some of which are in human clinical trials. Neovascular-associated GA is a consequence of RPE loss after development of neovascular AMD. The neovascular process leads to a plethora of cellular stresses such as ischemia, inflammation, and dramatic changes in cell environment that further taxes RPE cells already dysfunctional from drusen-associated changes. GA may therefore develop secondary to the neovascular process de novo or preexisting drusen-associated GA may continue to worsen with the development of neovascular AMD. Neovascular-associated GA is a prominent cause of continued vision loss in patients with otherwise successfully treated neovascular AMD. Clearly, treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors early in the course of the neovascular disease is of great clinical benefit. However, there is a rationale and some suggestive evidence that anti-VEGF agents themselves could be toxic to RPE and enhance neovascular-associated GA. The increasing prevalence of legal blindness from this

  13. Geographic atrophy in patients with advanced dry age-related macular degeneration: current challenges and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Danis, Ronald P; Lavine, Jeremy A; Domalpally, Amitha

    2015-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a devastating complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). GA may be classified as drusen-related (drusen-associated GA) or neovascularization-related (neovascular-associated GA). Drusen-related GA remains a large public health concern due to the burden of blindness it produces, but pathophysiology of the condition is obscure and there are no proven treatment options. Genotyping, cell biology, and clinical imaging point to upregulation of parainflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and choroidal sclerosis as contributors, among other factors. Onset and monitoring of progression is accomplished through clinical imaging instrumentation such as optical coherence tomography, photography, and autofluorescence, which are the tools most helpful in determining end points for clinical trials at present. A number of treatment approaches with diverse targets are in development at this time, some of which are in human clinical trials. Neovascular-associated GA is a consequence of RPE loss after development of neovascular AMD. The neovascular process leads to a plethora of cellular stresses such as ischemia, inflammation, and dramatic changes in cell environment that further taxes RPE cells already dysfunctional from drusen-associated changes. GA may therefore develop secondary to the neovascular process de novo or preexisting drusen-associated GA may continue to worsen with the development of neovascular AMD. Neovascular-associated GA is a prominent cause of continued vision loss in patients with otherwise successfully treated neovascular AMD. Clearly, treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors early in the course of the neovascular disease is of great clinical benefit. However, there is a rationale and some suggestive evidence that anti-VEGF agents themselves could be toxic to RPE and enhance neovascular-associated GA. The increasing prevalence of legal blindness from this

  14. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  15. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible. PMID:26069647

  16. Contributions of DNA interstrand cross-links to aging of cells and organisms

    PubMed Central

    Grillari, Johannes; Katinger, Hermann; Voglauer, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Impaired DNA damage repair, especially deficient transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair, leads to segmental progeroid syndromes in human patients as well as in rodent models. Furthermore, DNA double-strand break signalling has been pinpointed as a key inducer of cellular senescence. Several recent findings suggest that another DNA repair pathway, interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair, might also contribute to cell and organism aging. Therefore, we summarize and discuss here that (i) systemic administration of anti-cancer chemotherapeutics, in many cases DNA cross-linking drugs, induces premature progeroid frailty in long-term survivors; (ii) that ICL-inducing 8-methoxy-psoralen/UVA phototherapy leads to signs of premature skin aging as prominent long-term side effect and (iii) that mutated factors involved in ICL repair like ERCC1/XPF, the Fanconi anaemia proteins, WRN and SNEV lead to reduced replicative life span in vitro and segmental progeroid syndromes in vivo. However, since ICL-inducing drugs cause damage different from ICL and since all currently known ICL repair factors work in more than one pathway, further work will be needed to dissect the actual contribution of ICL damage to aging. PMID:18083760

  17. Clinical outcomes for Conduits and Scaffolds in peripheral nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, David J; Tashiro, Jun; Thaller, Seth R

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard of peripheral nerve repair is nerve autograft when tensionless repair is not possible. Use of nerve autograft has several shortcomings, however. These include limited availability of donor tissue, sacrifice of a functional nerve, and possible neuroma formation. In order to address these deficiencies, researchers have developed a variety of biomaterials available for repair of peripheral nerve gaps. We review the clinical studies published in the English literature detailing outcomes and reconstructive options. Regardless of the material used or the type of nerve repaired, outcomes are generally similar to nerve autograft in gaps less than 3 cm. New biomaterials currently under preclinical evaluation may provide improvements in outcomes. PMID:25685760

  18. Planning Maintenance and Repairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of school facility design as an aid to efficiently repairing and maintaining facility systems. Also presents details on facility design's influence in properly maintaining mechanical and electrical systems. (GR)

  19. Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... the likelihood of a hernia including persistent coughing, difficulty with bowel movements or urination, or frequent need for straining. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair? Keep reading... Page 1 of 2 1 2 » Brought to ...

  20. Easily repairable networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a simple class of distribution networks which withstand damage by being repairable instead of redundant. Instead of asking how hard it is to disconnect nodes through damage, we ask how easy it is to reconnect nodes after damage. We prove that optimal networks on regular lattices have an expected cost of reconnection proportional to the lattice length, and that such networks have exactly three levels of structural hierarchy. We extend our results to networks subject to repeated attacks, in which the repairs themselves must be repairable. We find that, in exchange for a modest increase in repair cost, such networks are able to withstand any number of attacks. We acknowledge support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, BCG and EU FP7 (Growthcom).

  1. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  3. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series To use the sharing features on ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  4. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series To use the sharing features on ... to slide 4 out of 4 Indications Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  5. Pectus excavatum repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to repair this condition -- open surgery and closed (minimally invasive) surgery. Either surgery is done while ... At the end of surgery, the incision is closed. The metal struts are removed in 6 to ...

  6. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cystocele Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series References Lentz GM. Anatomic defects of the ... 72. Read More Anterior Inflatable artificial sphincter Stress urinary incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary incontinence - injectable implant Urinary incontinence - ...

  7. Imperforate anus repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100030.htm Imperforate anus repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... of 4 Overview In individuals with a normal anatomy, the large intestine (colon) empties into a pouch- ...

  8. Meningocele repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100128.htm Meningocele repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Review provided ...

  9. Endograft collapse following endovascular repair of traumatic aortic injury.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Ganesan; Cook, Richard; Martin, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The advent of endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries offers a valuable, minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. However, there are limitations of the current endovascular stent graft technology for this group of patients. After endovascular repair meticulous follow-up is required with a high index of suspicion for potential complications including the lethal complication of endograft collapse. PMID:19784919

  10. DNA INTERSTRAND CROSSLINK REPAIR IN MAMMALIAN CELLS: STEP BY STEP

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Parameswary; Liu, Jia; Majumdar, Alokes; Liu, Su-ting; Seidman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are formed by natural products of metabolism and by chemotherapeutic reagents. Work in E. coli identified a two cycle repair scheme involving incisions on one strand on either side of the ICL (unhooking) producing a gapped intermediate with the incised oligonucleotide attached to the intact strand. The gap is filled by recombinational repair or lesion bypass synthesis. The remaining monoadduct is then removed by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). Despite considerable effort, our understanding of each step in mammalian cells is still quite limited. In part this reflects the variety of crosslinking compounds, each with distinct structural features, used by different investigators. Also, multiple repair pathways are involved, variably operative during the cell cycle. G1 phase repair requires functions from NER, although the mechanism of recognition has not been determined. Repair can be initiated by encounters with the transcriptional apparatus, or a replication fork. In the case of the latter, the reconstruction of a replication fork, stalled or broken by collision with an ICL, adds to the complexity of the repair process. The enzymology of unhooking, the identity of the lesion bypass polymerases required to fill the first repair gap, and the functions involved in the second repair cycle are all subjects of active inquiry. Here we will review current understanding of each step in ICL repair in mammalian cells. PMID:20039786

  11. Photomask repair technology by using gas field ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Fumio; Kozakai, Tomokazu; Matsuda, Osamu; Takaoka, Osamu; Sugiyama, Yasuhiko; Oba, Hiroshi; Aita, Kazuo; Yasaka, Anto

    2012-06-01

    Recently, most of defects on high-end masks are repaired with electron beam (EB). The minimum repairable dimension of the current state-of-the-art repair systems is about 20-30 nm, but that dimension is not small enough to repair the next generation masks. Meanwhile, new molybdenum silicide (MoSi) films with high cleaning durability are going to be provided for an alternative technology, but the etching selectivity between new MoSi and quartz under EB repair process is not high enough to control etching depth. We developed the focused ion beam (FIB) technology that uses light ions emitted from a gas field ion source (GFIS). In this study, the performance of our developed GFIS mask repair system was investigated by using new MoSi (HOYA-A6L2). Specifically, the minimum repairable dimension, image resolution, imaging damage, etching material selectivity and through-focus behavior on AIMS were evaluated. The minimum repairable dimension was only 11 nm that is nearly half of that with EB. That result suggests that GFIS technology is a promising candidate for repairing the next generation masks. Meanwhile, the etching selectivity between A6L2 and quartz was 6:1. Additionally, the other evaluations on AIMS showed good results. Those results demonstrate that GFIS technology is a reliable solution of repairing new MoSi masks with high cleaning durability.

  12. Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair

  13. Repairing Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, J.; Buras, D.

    1986-01-01

    Large holes in polyurethane foam insulation repaired reliably by simple method. Little skill needed to apply method, used for overhead repairs as well as for those in other orientations. Plug positioned in hole to be filled and held in place with mounting fixture. Fresh liquid foam injected through plug to bond it in place. As foam cures and expands, it displaces plug outward. Protrusion later removed.

  14. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  15. Free biceps tendon autograft to augment arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Obma, Padraic R

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs have become the standard of treatment for all sizes of tears over the past several years. Current healing rates reported in the literature are quite good, but improving the healing potential of rotator cuff repairs remains a challenging problem. There has been an increase recently in the use of augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with xenografts or synthetics for large and massive tears. Biceps tenodesis is often indicated as part of the treatment plan while one is performing rotator cuff surgery. A subpectoral biceps tenodesis provides a source of autograft to augment rotator cuff repairs of all sizes. Two techniques are presented to augment rotator cuff repairs with a free biceps tendon autograft. This is a novel idea in an attempt to improve healing rates and long-term results of rotator cuff repairs of all sizes. PMID:24400197

  16. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  17. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Marion; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Whitney, Sophie; de Groot, Richard; Perignon, Marlène; Kuong, Khov; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification of children <5 yrs with acute malnutrition is a priority. Acute malnutrition is defined by the World Health Organization as a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) <12.5 cm or a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) <-2. MUAC is a simple and low-cost indicator to screen for acute malnutrition in communities, but MUAC cut-offs currently recommended by WHO do not identify the majority of children with weight-for-height Z-score (<-2 (moderate malnourished) or r<-3 (severe malnourished). Also, no cut-offs for MUAC are established for children >5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition. Methods To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011–2013). Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated using wasting for children <5yrs and thinness for children ≥5yrs as gold standards. Among the highest values of AUC, the cut-off with the highest sensitivity and a false positive rate ≤33% was selected as the optimal cut-off. Results Optimal cut-off values increased with age. Boys had higher cut-offs than girls, except in the 8–10.9 yrs age range. In children <2yrs, the cut-off was lower for stunted children compared to non stunted children. Sensitivity of MUAC to identify WHZ<-2 and <-3 z-scores increased from 24.3% and 8.1% to >80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs. Conclusion Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score <-2 z-scores. International reference of MUAC cut-offs by age group and gender should be established to screen for acute malnutrition at the community level. PMID:26840899

  18. Microglia During Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Harry, G. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are critical nervous system-specific cells influencing brain development, maintenance of the neural environment, response to injury, and repair. They contribute to neuronal proliferation and differentiation, pruning of dying neurons, synaptic remodeling and clearance of debris and aberrant proteins. Colonization of the brain occurs during gestation with an expansion following birth with localization stimulated by programmed neuronal death, synaptic pruning, andaxonal degeneration. Changes inmicroglia phenotype relate to cellular processes including specific neurotransmitter, pattern recognition, or immune-related receptor activation. Upon activation, microglia cells have the capacity to release a number of substances, e.g., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species, which could be detrimental or beneficial to the surrounding cells. With aging, microglia shift their morphology and may display diminished capacity for normal functions related to migration, clearance, and the ability to shift from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state to regulate injury and repair. This shift in microgliapotentially contributes to increased susceptibility and neurodegeneration as a function of age. In the current review, information is provided on the colonization of the brain by microglia, the expression of various pattern recognition receptors to regulate migration and phagocytosis, and the shift in related functions that occur in normal aging. PMID:23644076

  19. Transcriptomic Approaches to Neural Repair

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Martins, Ana; Chandran, Vijayendran; Costigan, Michael; Lerch, Jessica K.; Willis, Dianna E.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding why adult CNS neurons fail to regenerate their axons following injury remains a central challenge of neuroscience research. A more complete appreciation of the biological mechanisms shaping the injured nervous system is a crucial prerequisite for the development of robust therapies to promote neural repair. Historically, the identification of regeneration associated signaling pathways has been impeded by the limitations of available genetic and molecular tools. As we progress into an era in which the high-throughput interrogation of gene expression is commonplace and our knowledge base of interactome data is rapidly expanding, we can now begin to assemble a more comprehensive view of the complex biology governing axon regeneration. Here, we highlight current and ongoing work featuring transcriptomic approaches toward the discovery of novel molecular mechanisms that can be manipulated to promote neural repair. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Transcriptional profiling is a powerful technique with broad applications in the field of neuroscience. Recent advances such as single-cell transcriptomics, CNS cell type-specific and developmental stage-specific expression libraries are rapidly enhancing the power of transcriptomics for neuroscience applications. However, extracting biologically meaningful information from large transcriptomic datasets remains a formidable challenge. This mini-symposium will highlight current work using transcriptomic approaches to identify regulatory networks in the injured nervous system. We will discuss analytical strategies for transcriptomics data, the significance of noncoding RNA networks, and the utility of multiomic data integration. Though the studies featured here specifically focus on neural repair, the approaches highlighted in this mini-symposium will be of broad interest and utility to neuroscientists working in diverse areas of the field. PMID:26468186

  20. Plasma Membrane Repair in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Demonbreun, Alexis R; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Since an intact membrane is required for normal cellular homeostasis, membrane repair is essential for cell survival. Human genetic studies, combined with the development of novel animal models and refinement of techniques to study cellular injury, have now uncovered series of repair proteins highly relevant for human health. Many of the deficient repair pathways manifest in skeletal muscle, where defective repair processes result in myopathies or other forms of muscle disease. Dysferlin is a membrane-associated protein implicated in sarcolemmal repair and also linked to other membrane functions including the maintenance of transverse tubules in muscle. MG53, annexins, and Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins interact with dysferlin to form a membrane repair complex and similarly have roles in membrane trafficking in muscle. These molecular features of membrane repair are not unique to skeletal muscle, but rather skeletal muscle, due to its high demands, is more dependent on an efficient repair process. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, as well as Ca(2+), are central regulators of membrane organization during repair. Given the importance of muscle health in disease and in aging, these pathways are targets to enhance muscle function and recovery from injury. PMID:26781830

  1. Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lei; Wang, Jian-Jun; Li, Li; Tong, Xiao-Wen; Fan, Bo-Zhen; Guo, Yi; Li, Huai-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic vesicovaginal fistulas (VVF) and rectovaginal fistulas. Methods: Seventeen female patients with iatrogenic fistulas (11 cases of VVF and 6 cases of high rectovaginal fistulas) were included. All patients were hospitalized and underwent laparoscopic fistula repair in our hospital between 2008 and 2012. The mean age of the patients was 44.8 ± 9.1 years. The fistulas and scar tissue were completely excised by laparoscopy, orifices were tension-free closed using absorbable sutures, omental flaps were interposed between the vagina and the bladder or rectum, and drainage was kept after repair. Results: Laparoscopic repair of fistulas was successful in all 17 patients. No complication was found during or after repair. No reoperation was needed after the repair. The operative time was 80.2 ± 30.0 minutes (range 50-140 minutes). The blood loss was 229.4 ± 101.6 ml (range 100-400 ml). The double J catheters were placed in 7 patients and removed 1-2 months after repair. Eight VVF patients underwent cystoscopy 3 months after laparoscopic repair and there were no abnormal findings. The follow-up time was 17.1 ± 6.5 months (range 8-29 months). Conclusion: Laparoscopic repair of VVF and rectovaginal fistulas is a safe and an effective minimally invasive procedure for treatment of iatrogenic fistula. PMID:25932174

  2. Fracture repair: general aspects and influence of osteoporosis and anti-osteoporosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Féron, Jean-Marc; Mauprivez, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Bone differs from other tissues in its capacity to self-repair after a fracture. The low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone associated with osteoporosis increases the risk of fragility fracture compared with healthy individuals. The intention of this article is to review the complex process of fracture repair and essential requirements for a successful fracture healing response summarized as the "diamond concept" in terms of aging and osteoporosis. The current preclinical and clinical evidence for a beneficial or harmful influence of anti-osteoporosis medications such as bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone (PTH), strontium ranelate and antibodies of Wnt-inhibiting signaling proteins on bone healing is presented and discussed. Literature suggests that there are no detrimental consequences of such therapeutics on fracture repair processes. Following a fragility fracture, it seems that early start of preventive anti-osteoporotic treatment right after surgery does not delay the union of the fracture, except perhaps in the case of very rigidly fixed fracture requiring direct bone healing. There is some promising experimental and clinical evidence for possible enhancement of the bone repair process via administration of systemic agents. Further well designed studies in humans are necessary to accumulate more evidence on the positive effects and to translate this knowledge into valid therapeutic applications. PMID:26768282

  3. The repair of umbilical hernia in cirrhotic patients: 18 consecutive case series in a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Byung Chul; Lee, Giljae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Traditionally, the surgical repair of umbilical hernia in cirrhotic patients with ascites is avoided because of a significant recurrence rate and perioperative morbidity/mortality. However, recent reports recommend early elective surgery in these patients because surgery-related complications can be reduced with minimally invasive surgery and development of perioperative patient care. The current study was conducted to analyze safety and feasibility of umbilical hernia repairs performed in a single institute. Methods A single center retrospective analysis of patients' data was conducted. Eighteen patients with umbilical hernia accompanied by liver cirrhosis underwent hernia repair in the period between 2005 and 2012. The charts of these patients were reviewed and demographic data, postoperative complications, and recurrence were recorded. Results Eleven males and seven females with a mean age of 62.9 years were analyzed. Two of the patients were classified as Child's class A, 11 as Child's class B, and five as Child's class C. Four patients underwent emergency surgery because of perforations in the hernia sac in two cases and incarcerated hernias in the other two cases. Of the 18 patients who underwent surgery, four (22%) experienced a recurrence, three (17%) developed edema at the surgical sites, one (5%) experienced hepatic coma, and one (5%) showed postoperative variceal hemorrhage. All of these events occurred after emergency surgery. Conclusion In contrast to traditional concepts, early and elective repair of umbilical hernia can be performed easily and safely in cirrhotic patients. PMID:26236698

  4. Age at First Alcoholic Drink as Predictor of Current HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a Sample of Injection Drug Users (IDUs) and Non-IDUs who are Sexual Partners of IDUs, in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Toussova, Olga V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Heimer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether age at first alcoholic drink is associated with sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs who are sexual partners of IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. A path analysis was used to test a model of age at first drink, age at sexual debut, age at first drug use, current substance use patterns and current sexual risk behaviors among 558 participants. Results revealed that age at first drink had an effect on multiple sex partners through age at sexual debut and injection drug use, but no effect on unprotected sex. Age at first drug use was not related to sexual risk behaviors. Investigation of age of drinking onset may provide useful information for programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use. Different paths leading to unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners call for different approaches to reduce sexual risk behaviors among this population. PMID:21800183

  5. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system. PMID:26710335

  6. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system. PMID:26710335

  7. In vitro chromatin templates to study nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqi

    2015-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA associates with histones and exists in the form of a chromatin hierarchy. Thus, it is generally believed that many eukaryotic cellular DNA processing events such as replication, transcription, recombination and DNA repair are influenced by the packaging of DNA into chromatin. This mini-review covers the current knowledge of DNA damage and repair in chromatin based on in vitro studies. Specifically, nucleosome assembly affects DNA damage formation in both random sequences and sequences with strong nucleosome-positioning signals such as 5S rDNA. At least three systems have been used to analyze the effect of nucleosome folding on nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro: (a) human cell extracts that have to rely on labeling of repair synthesis to monitor DNA repair, due to very low repair efficacy; (b) Xenopus oocyte nuclear extracts, that have very robust DNA repair efficacy, have been utilized to follow direct removal of DNA damage; (c) six purified human DNA repair factors (RPA, XPA, XPC, TFIIH, XPG, and XPF-ERCC1) that have been used to reconstitute excision repair in vitro. In general, the results have shown that nucleosome folding inhibits NER and, therefore, its activity must be enhanced by chromatin remodeling factors like SWI/SNF. In addition, binding of transcription factors such as TFIIIA to the 5S rDNA promoter also modulates NER efficacy. PMID:26531320

  8. Chromatin modifications and DNA repair: beyond double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    House, Nealia C. M.; Koch, Melissa R.; Freudenreich, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    DNA repair must take place in the context of chromatin, and chromatin modifications and DNA repair are intimately linked. The study of double-strand break repair has revealed numerous histone modifications that occur after induction of a DSB, and modification of the repair factors themselves can also occur. In some cases the function of the modification is at least partially understood, but in many cases it is not yet clear. Although DSB repair is a crucial activity for cell survival, DSBs account for only a small percentage of the DNA lesions that occur over the lifetime of a cell. Repair of single-strand gaps, nicks, stalled forks, alternative DNA structures, and base lesions must also occur in a chromatin context. There is increasing evidence that these repair pathways are also regulated by histone modifications and chromatin remodeling. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of chromatin modifications that occur during non-DSB repair, highlighting similarities and differences to DSB repair as well as remaining questions. PMID:25250043

  9. Induced pluripotent stem cells in cartilage repair

    PubMed Central

    Lietman, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage repair techniques are challenging. Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) theoretically provide an unlimited number of specialized cells which could be used in articular cartilage repair. However thus far chondrocytes from iPSCs have been created primarily by viral transfection and with the use of cocultured feeder cells. In addition chondrocytes derived from iPSCs have usually been formed in condensed cell bodies (resembling embryoid bodies) that then require dissolution with consequent substantial loss of cell viability and phenotype. All of these current techniques used to derive chondrocytes from iPSCs are problematic but solutions to these problems are on the horizon. These solutions will make iPSCs a viable alternative for articular cartilage repair in the near future. PMID:27004161

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cells in cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Lietman, Steven A

    2016-03-18

    Articular cartilage repair techniques are challenging. Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) theoretically provide an unlimited number of specialized cells which could be used in articular cartilage repair. However thus far chondrocytes from iPSCs have been created primarily by viral transfection and with the use of cocultured feeder cells. In addition chondrocytes derived from iPSCs have usually been formed in condensed cell bodies (resembling embryoid bodies) that then require dissolution with consequent substantial loss of cell viability and phenotype. All of these current techniques used to derive chondrocytes from iPSCs are problematic but solutions to these problems are on the horizon. These solutions will make iPSCs a viable alternative for articular cartilage repair in the near future. PMID:27004161

  11. Age- and gender-related differences in GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chudomel, O; Herman, H; Nair, K; Moshé, S L; Galanopoulou, A S

    2009-09-29

    The responsiveness of the rat anterior substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) GABAergic neurons to GABA(A)ergic drugs changes with age and gender, altering its role in seizure control. To determine whether maturational and gender-specific differences in the properties of spontaneous GABA(A)Rs-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) underlie these events, we studied sIPSCs at baseline and after application of the alpha1 GABA(A)Rs subunit selective agonist zolpidem, at postnatal days (PN) 5-9, PN12-15, and PN28-32. Results were correlated with the alpha1 and alpha 3 GABA(A)Rs subunit immunoreactivity (-ir) at PN5, PN15, and PN30, using immunochemistry. The mean frequency, amplitude and charge transfer increased whereas the 10-90% rise time and decay time accelerated with age in both genders. The faster sIPSC kinetics in older rats were paralleled by increased alpha1-ir and decreased alpha 3-ir. At PN5-9, males had more robust sIPSCs (frequency, amplitude, charge carried per event and charge transfer) than females. At PN28-32, males exhibited higher amplitudes and faster kinetics than females. The zolpidem-induced increase of decay times, amplitude and charge transfer and alpha1-ir expression were the lowest in PN5-9 males but increased with age, in both genders. Our findings demonstrate that alterations in GABA(A)Rs subunit expression partially underlie age- and gender-specific sIPSC changes in SNR neurons. However, the observation of gender differences in sIPSC kinetics that cannot be attributed to changes in perisomatic alpha1 expression suggests the existence of additional gender-specific factors that control the sIPSC kinetics in rat SNR. PMID:19531372

  12. Arthroscopic hip labral repair.

    PubMed

    Philippon, Marc J; Faucet, Scott C; Briggs, Karen K

    2013-05-01

    Labral tears in the hip may cause painful clicking or locking of the hip, reduced range of motion, and disruption to sports and daily activities. The acetabular labrum aids stabilization of the hip joint, particularly during hip motion. The fibrocartilaginous structure extends the acetabular rim and provides a suction seal around the femoroacetabular interface. Treatment options for labral tears include debridement, repair, and reconstruction. Repair of the labrum has been shown to have better results than debridement. Labral refixation is achieved with sutures anchored into the acetabular rim. The acetabular rim is trimmed either to correct pincer impingement or to provide a bleeding bed to improve healing. Labral repair has shown excellent short-term to midterm outcomes and allows patients to return to activities and sports. Arthroscopic rim trimming and labral refixation comprise an effective treatment for labral tears with an underlying diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement and are supported by the peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23875153

  13. Repair of UV damage in Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    McCready, S; Marcello, L

    2003-06-01

    Halobacterium is one of the few known Archaea that tolerates high levels of sunlight in its natural environment. Photoreactivation is probably its most important strategy for surviving UV irradiation and we have shown that both of the major UV photoproducts, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts, can be very efficiently repaired by photoreactivation in this organism. There are two putative photolyase gene homologues in the published genome sequence of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. We have made a mutant deleted in one of these, phr2, and confirmed that this gene codes for a CPD photolyase. (6-4) photoproducts are still photoreactivated in the mutant so we are currently establishing whether the other homologue, phr1, codes for a (6-4) photolyase. We have also demonstrated an excision repair capacity that operates in the absence of visible light but the nature of this pathway is not yet known. There is probably a bacteria-type excision-repair mechanism, since homologues of uvrA, uvrB, uvrC and uvrD have been identified in the Halobacterium genome. However, there are also homologues of eukaryotic nucleotide-excision-repair genes ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD3, RAD25 and RAD2 ) so there may be multiple repair mechanisms for UV damage in Halobacterium. PMID:12773185

  14. Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Martin; Lukasova, Emilie; Kozubek, Stanislav

    The genetic information of cells continuously undergoes damage induced by intracellular processes including energy metabolism, DNA replication and transcription, and by environmental factors such as mutagenic chemicals and UV and ionizing radiation. This causes numerous DNA lesions, including double strand breaks (DSBs). Since cells cannot escape this damage or normally function with a damaged genome, several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved. Although most "single-stranded" DNA lesions are rapidly removed from DNA without permanent damage, DSBs completely break the DNA molecule, presenting a real challenge for repair mechanisms, with the highest risk among DNA lesions of incorrect repair. Hence, DSBs can have serious consequences for human health. Therefore, in this chapter, we will refer only to this type of DNA damage. In addition to the biochemical aspects of DSB repair, which have been extensively studied over a long period of time, the spatio-temporal organization of DSB induction and repair, the importance of which was recognized only recently, will be considered in terms of current knowledge and remaining questions.

  15. Repairing Peripheral Nerves: Is there a Role for Carbon Nanotubes?

    PubMed

    Oprych, Karen M; Whitby, Raymond L D; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Tomlins, Paul; Adu, Jimi

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major global health problem that can result in debilitating neurological deficits and neuropathic pain. Current state-of-the-art treatment involves reforming the damaged nerve pathway using a nerve autograft. Engineered nerve repair conduits can provide an alternative to the nerve autograft avoiding the inevitable tissue damage caused at the graft donor site. Commercially available nerve repair conduits are currently only considered suitable for repairing small nerve lesions; the design and performance of engineered conduits requires significant improvements to enable their use for repairing larger nerve defects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an emerging novel material for biomedical applications currently being developed for a range of therapeutic technologies including scaffolds for engineering and interfacing with neurological tissues. CNTs possess a unique set of physicochemical properties that could be useful within nerve repair conduits. This progress report aims to evaluate and consolidate the current literature pertinent to CNTs as a biomaterial for supporting peripheral nerve regeneration. The report is presented in the context of the state-of-the-art in nerve repair conduit design; outlining how CNTs may enhance the performance of next generation peripheral nerve repair conduits. PMID:27027923

  16. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  17. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, and produce modified schedules quickly. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  18. Performance of GFIS mask repair system for various mask materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Fumio; Kozakai, Tomokazu; Matsuda, Osamu; Yasaka, Anto; Yoshikawa, Shingo; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Naoya

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a new focused ion beam (FIB) technology using a gas field ion source (GFIS) for mask repair. Meanwhile, since current high-end photomasks do not have high durability in exposure nor cleaning, some new photomask materials are proposed. In 2012, we reported that our GFIS system had repaired a representative new material "A6L2". It is currently expected to extend the application range of GFIS technology for various new materials and various defect shapes. In this study, we repaired a single bridge, a triple bridge and a missing hole on a phase shift mask (PSM) of "A6L2", and also repaired single bridges on a binary mask of molybdenum silicide (MoSi) material "W4G" and a PSM of high transmittance material "SDC1". The etching selectivity between those new materials and quartz were over 4:1. There were no significant differences of pattern shapes on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images between repair and non-repair regions. All the critical dimensions (CD) at repair regions were less than +/-3% of those at normal ones on an aerial image metrology system (AIMS). Those results demonstrated that GFIS technology is a reliable solution of repairing new material photomasks that are candidates for 1X nm generation.

  19. Recurrence rate of repaired hard palate oronasal fistula with conchal cartilage graft

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Hosein; Hadilou, Mansour; Feizi, Awat; Omranifard, Mahmood; Ardakani, Mehdi Rasti; Emami, Abolhasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: After cleft palate repair, oronasal fistula (ONF) formation is one of the considerable and troublesome complications. Conchal cartilage graft is one option that can be used in recurrent fistula correction. The aim of the current study is investigating the recurrence rate of the hard palate ONF or ONF at the junction of hard and soft palate after utilizing conchal cartilage graft and comparing this rate with other methods. Materials and Methods: In this observational prospective study, 29 patients suffering from ONF with small, medium and large sizes who were referring to Alzahra university hospital, Isfahan, Iran and Fateme Zahra university hospital, Tehran, Iran between November 2011 and November 2012 were enrolled. All patients had midline cleft palate, 29.6% of them had cleft lip too that was repaired previously. All patients were followed-up for 2 years (every 2 months) after repair. Results: The mean (range) age of studied samples was 10.7 (2-23) years. 16 patients (55.7%) were female, and reminders were male. During 2 years followup, we detected recurrence of ONF in 6 patients (20.68%) and the success rate was 79.32%. The recurrence rate, after applying the current approach, among who experienced the several times of recurrence was significantly higher than among those who experienced first time of recurrence (33.3% vs. 7.1%; P < 0.001). The mean [±SD] age of failed and successfully repaired patients were 11.3 (±4.5) and 8.4 (±5.25) years, respectively (P > 0.1). Conclusion: Using of conchal cartilage graft for recurrent ONF with ≤1 cm was safe and efficacious, in ONF >1 cm conchal cartilage graft can be used as a primary method and if recurrence occurred chooses other complex procedure. PMID:25538779

  20. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Althumali, Ahmad; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian M.; Dawson, Martin D.; Liu, Ran

    2016-04-01

    The aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) with different sizes have been studied at an extremely high current density 3.5 kA cm-2 for emerging micro-LED applications including visible light communication (VLC), micro-LED pumped organic lasers and optogenetics. The light output power of micro-LEDs first increases and then decreases due to the competition of Mg activation in p-GaN layer and defect generation in the active region. The smaller micro-LEDs show less light output power degradation compared with larger micro-LEDs, which is attributed to the lower junction temperature of smaller micro-LEDs. It is found that the high current density without additional junction temperature cannot induce significant micro-LED degradation at room temperature but the combination of the high current density and high junction temperature leads to strong degradation. Furthermore, the cluster LEDs, composed of a micro-LED array, have been developed with both high light output power and less light output degradation for micro-LED applications in solid state lighting and VLC.

  1. Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Erminia; Pulsatelli, Lia; Facchini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In adult healthy cartilage, chondrocytes are in a quiescent phase characterized by a fine balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. In ageing, degenerative joint diseases and traumatic injuries of cartilage, a loss of homeostatic conditions and an up-regulation of catabolic pathways occur. Since cartilage differentiation and maintenance of homeostasis are finely tuned by a complex network of signaling molecules and biophysical factors, shedding light on these mechanisms appears to be extremely relevant for both the identification of pathogenic key factors, as specific therapeutic targets, and the development of biological approaches for cartilage regeneration. This review will focus on the main signaling pathways that can activate cellular and molecular processes, regulating the functional behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological conditions. These networks may be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and increased knowledge in this field may lead to the development of more effective strategies for inducing cartilage repair. PMID:24837833

  2. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts. PMID:27540471

  3. Circadian clock regulation of skeletal muscle growth and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Somik; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the circadian clock, a transcriptional/translational feedback circuit that generates ~24-hour oscillations in behavior and physiology, is a key temporal regulatory mechanism involved in many important aspects of muscle physiology. Given the clock as an evolutionarily-conserved time-keeping mechanism that synchronizes internal physiology to environmental cues, locomotor activities initiated by skeletal muscle enable entrainment to the light-dark cycles on earth, thus ensuring organismal survival and fitness. Despite the current understanding of the role of molecular clock in preventing age-related sarcopenia, investigations into the underlying molecular pathways that transmit clock signals to the maintenance of skeletal muscle growth and function are only emerging. In the current review, the importance of the muscle clock in maintaining muscle mass during development, repair and aging, together with its contribution to muscle metabolism, will be discussed. Based on our current understandings of how tissue-intrinsic muscle clock functions in the key aspects muscle physiology, interventions targeting the myogenic-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for prevention and treatment of muscular diseases. Studies of mechanisms underlying circadian clock function and regulation in skeletal muscle warrant continued efforts. PMID:27540471

  4. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a surgery to repair the fracture-frequently, metal rods, screws or plates are used to repair the bone, and remain ...

  5. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  6. New Materials for the Repair of Polyimide Electrical Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Two viable polyimide backbone materials have been identified that will allow the repair of polyimide electrical wire insulation found on the Space Shuttle and other aging aircraft. This identification is the outcome of ongoing efforts to assess the viability of using such polyimides and polyimide precursors (polyamic acids [PAAs]) as repair materials for aging polyimide electrical wire insulation. These repair materials were selected because they match the chemical makeup of the underlying wire insulation as closely as possible. This similarity allows for maximum compatibility, coupled with the outstanding physical properties of polyimides. The two polyimide backbone materials allow the polymer to be extremely flexible and to melt at low temperatures. A polymer chain end capping group that allows the polymer to crosslink into a nonflowable repair upon curing at around 200 C was also identified.

  7. Base excision repair: A critical player in many games

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective reviews the many dimensions of base excision repair from a 10,000 foot vantage point and provides one person’s view on where the field is headed. Enzyme function is considered under the lens of X-ray diffraction and single molecule studies. Base excision repair in chromatin and telomeres, regulation of expression and the role of posttranslational modifications are also discussed in the context of enzyme activities, cellular localization and interacting partners. The specialized roles that base excision repair play in transcriptional activation by active demethylation and targeted oxidation as well as how base excision repair functions in the immune processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination and its possible involvement in retroviral infection are also discussed. Finally the complexities of oxidative damage and its repair and its link to neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the role of base excision repair as a tumor suppressor are examined in the context of damage, repair and aging. By outlining the many base excision repair-related mysteries that have yet to be unraveled, hopefully this perspective will stimulate further interest in the field. PMID:24780558

  8. The Adult With Repaired Coarctation: Need for Lifelong Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Vonder Muhll, Isabelle F; Sehgal, Tarun; Paterson, D Ian

    2016-08-01

    Because surgical repair for coarctation of the aorta has been performed since 1945, growing numbers of patients with repaired coarctation are reaching adulthood. Primary transcatheter intervention for coarctation emerged as an alternative to surgery after 1983, and it provides comparable relief of the aortic gradient with few complications at a cost of an increased need for reintervention and a higher risk of aneurysm after repair. Although short-term outcomes are good after coarctation repair, alterations of vascular form and function persist. Mortality is increased after coarctation repair compared with that in the general population, which is related to several predictable complications. Hypertension mediates much of the late morbidity with increased rates of stroke, coronary artery disease, and heart failure after coarctation repair. Prevalence of hypertension in patients with coarctation increases over time, with a majority of patients being affected by middle age. Other late complications include recoarctation, which can usually be addressed with percutaneous balloon dilation and stenting with covered stents. Aneurysms at the coarctation repair site and the ascending aorta require surveillance with imaging and timely treatment. Intracranial aneurysms occur 5 times more commonly in patients with coarctation than in the general population. Finally, bicuspid aortic valve disease, which is present in at least half of these patients, requires surveillance and ultimately becomes the most common reason for reoperation. Awareness, identification, and appropriate treatment of long-term complications after coarctation repair are paramount to reducing long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:27084076

  9. Getting Ready To Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stryker, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Successful camp repairs require careful planning. Prioritize projects by program needs first, then by cost. Determine the cause of deterioration and address it. Build goodwill with suppliers by knowing what you want and giving them ample time to prepare estimates. Include labor costs, even for staff labor. A cost-estimate table for a sample…

  10. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  11. Repairing cracked glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    Filing procedure consisting of machined lightweight fused-silica tiles coated with thin-layer of borosilicate glass produces homogeneous seal in thin glass. Procedure is useful in repairing glass envelopes, X-ray tub windows, Dewar flasks, and similar thin glass objects.

  12. Automotive Body Repair Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Armond, Jack; And Others

    Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

  13. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  14. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  15. Repairing damaged platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.E.; Kwok, P.H.; Wang, S.S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper introduces a unique method for strengthening of platforms and replacing damaged members. Extending the life of existing infrastructure is approved means of decreasing cash expenditures for new platforms and facilities. Platforms can be affected by corrosion, overloading and fatigue. The renovation and repair of existing offshore installations is an important part of offshore engineering. The basis behind this paper is an April, 1993 incident in the Arabian Gulf. A vessel broke loose from its moorings in a severe storm and collided with a wellhead platform. The collision severely damaged the platform buckling seven major support members and cracking joints throughout the structure. In view of the significant damage, there was an urgent need to repair the structure to avoid any further damage from potentially sever winter storm conditions. Various means of repair and their associated costs were evaluated: traditional dry hyperbaric welding, adjacent platforms, grouted clamped connections, and mechanical pipe connectors. The repair was completed using an innovative combination of clamps and wet welding to attach external braces to the structure.

  16. Proteoglycans and brain repair.

    PubMed

    Properzi, Francesca; Fawcett, James W

    2004-02-01

    Proteoglycans are complex molecules composed of long, unbranched sugar chains attached to a protein core. In the mammalian central nervous system, they are a major component of the extracellular matrix and of the cellular surface. After a central nervous system injury, their expression in the lesion area changes strongly and contributes to the inhibition of axon regrowth and brain repair. PMID:14739401

  17. Targeting Nuclear Envelope Repair.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Migrating cancer cells undergo repeated rupture of the protective nuclear envelope as they squeeze through small spaces in the surrounding tissue, compromising genomic integrity. Inhibiting both general DNA repair and the mechanism that seals these tears may enhance cell death and curb metastasis. PMID:27130435

  18. Auto Repair Gets Technical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiger, Jim; Shoemaker, Byrl

    1989-01-01

    Rapid advances in automotive technology and the growth of the automotive service industry have created opportunities in car repair, parts supply, and body work. Certification is the best way for vocational educators to ensure that their programs prepare students for work in the automotive industry. (JOW)

  19. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  20. Achilles tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/007643.htm Achilles tendon repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your Achilles tendon joins your calf muscle to your heel. You can tear your Achilles tendon if you land hard on your heel during sports, from a ...

  1. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  2. Femoral hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... bulges out of a weak spot in the groin. Usually this tissue is part of the intestine. ... Your surgeon makes a cut (incision) in your groin area. The hernia is ... wall. This repairs the weakness in the wall. At the end ...

  3. Single cell wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Verboon, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    Cell wounding is a common event in the life of many cell types, and the capacity of the cell to repair day-to-day wear-and-tear injuries, as well as traumatic ones, is fundamental for maintaining tissue integrity. Cell wounding is most frequent in tissues exposed to high levels of stress. Survival of such plasma membrane disruptions requires rapid resealing to prevent the loss of cytosolic components, to block Ca2+ influx and to avoid cell death. In addition to patching the torn membrane, plasma membrane and cortical cytoskeleton remodeling are required to restore cell function. Although a general understanding of the cell wound repair process is in place, the underlying mechanisms of each step of this response are not yet known. We have developed a model to study single cell wound repair using the early Drosophila embryo. Our system combines genetics and live imaging tools, allowing us to dissect in vivo the dynamics of the single cell wound response. We have shown that cell wound repair in Drosophila requires the coordinated activities of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton components. Furthermore, we identified an unexpected role for E-cadherin as a link between the contractile actomyosin ring and the newly formed plasma membrane plug. PMID:21922041

  4. Management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: current state-of-the-art care for optimizing visual outcomes and therapies in development

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Rhoades, William R; Hanout, Mostafa; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Sarwar, Salman; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has evolved significantly over the last few years. The goal of treatment is shifting from merely salvaging vision to maintaining a high quality of life. There have been significant breakthroughs in the identification of viable drug targets and gene therapies. Imaging tools with near-histological precision have enhanced our knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms that play a role in vision loss due to AMD. Visual, social, and vocational rehabilitation are all important treatment goals. In this review, evidence from landmark clinical trials is summarized to elucidate the optimum modern-day management of neovascular AMD. Therapeutic strategies currently under development, such as gene therapy and personalized medicine, are also described. PMID:26089632

  5. Management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: current state-of-the-art care for optimizing visual outcomes and therapies in development.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Rhoades, William R; Hanout, Mostafa; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Sarwar, Salman; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Sepah, Yasir Jamal; Do, Diana V; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has evolved significantly over the last few years. The goal of treatment is shifting from merely salvaging vision to maintaining a high quality of life. There have been significant breakthroughs in the identification of viable drug targets and gene therapies. Imaging tools with near-histological precision have enhanced our knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms that play a role in vision loss due to AMD. Visual, social, and vocational rehabilitation are all important treatment goals. In this review, evidence from landmark clinical trials is summarized to elucidate the optimum modern-day management of neovascular AMD. Therapeutic strategies currently under development, such as gene therapy and personalized medicine, are also described. PMID:26089632

  6. Image quality and age-specific dose estimation in head and chest CT examinations with organ-based tube-current modulation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Yamauchi, M; Imai, K; Ikeda, M; Aoyama, T

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an organ-based tube-current modulation (OBTCM) system on image quality and age-specific dose in head and chest CT examinations. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image entropy were assessed using statistical and entropy analyses. Radiation doses for newborn, 6-y-old child and adult phantoms were measured with in-phantom dosimetry systems. The quality of CT images obtained with OBTCM was not different from that obtained without OBTCM. In head CT scans, the eye lens dose decreased by 20-33 % using OBTCM. In chest CT scans, breast dose decreased by 5-32 % using OBTCM. Posterior skin dose, however, increased by 11-20 % using OBTCM in head and chest CT scans. The reduction of effective dose using OBTCM was negligibly small. Detailed image quality and dose information provided in this study can be effectively used for OBTCM application. PMID:23734058

  7. Changes in glycolytic enzyme activities in aging erythrocytes fractionated by counter-current distribution in aqueous polymer two-phase systems.

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno, P; Garcia-Perez, A I; Luque, J; Pinilla, M

    1991-01-01

    Human and rat erythrocytes were fractionated by counter-current distribution in charge-sensitive dextran/poly(ethylene glycol) two-phase systems. The specific activities of the key glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) declined along the distribution profiles, although the relative positions of the activity profiles were reversed in the two species. These enzymes maintained their normal response to specific regulatory effectors in all cell fractions. No variations were observed for phosphoglycerate kinase and bisphosphoglycerate mutase activities. Some correlations between enzyme activities (pyruvate kinase/hexokinase, pyruvate kinase/phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase/pyruvate kinase plus phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase/bisphosphoglycerate mutase and phosphoglycerate kinase/bisphosphoglycerate mutase ratios) were studied in whole erythrocyte populations as well as in cell fractions. These results strongly support the fractionation of human erythrocytes according to cell age, as occurs with rat erythrocytes. PMID:1656939

  8. The current status of community-acquired pneumonia management and prevention in children under 5 years of age in India: a review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Awasthi, Shally

    2016-01-01

    India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia. Fast breathing with or without chest in-drawing is categorized as pneumonia and fast breathing with any of danger signs as severe pneumonia. Because effective vaccines against two of the common organisms causing community-acquired pneumonia, namely Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, are available, there should be urgent and phased introduction into the Indian Universal Immunization Programme. Several preventable risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia such as lack of exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months of life, inappropriate complimentary feeding, iron deficiency anemia, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution should be adequately addressed. The community should be aware about the signs and symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia and its danger signs so that delay in qualified care seeking can be avoided. To achieve the sustainable development goal of ⩽25 under five deaths per 1000 live births by 2030, a multipronged approach is the need of the hour. PMID:27536353

  9. Predictive factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients under 21 years of age and a meta-analysis of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Ji, Qing-Hai; Yang, Shu-Wen; Wei, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The influence of predictors for recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival was analyzed retrospectively in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients under 21 years of age who underwent primary surgical treatment and who had a pathological diagnosis of DTC between 1983 and 2012 at Fudan University Cancer Hospital. Recurrences were retrospectively analyzed using a Cox regression model for the hazard ratio (HR) according to the clinicopathological features. A meta-analysis was performed with respect to the potential predictors for recurrence from current related studies. In the present study, there were 146 young patients aged from 7 to 20 years, with a female/male ratio of 2.65/1. Female gender was the only factor significantly associated with recurrence according to univariate (HR = 2.812, P = 0.037) and multivariate (HR = 4.107, P = 0.024) Cox regression analyses. Meta-analyses revealed that multifocality (HR = 1.91, P < 0.05) and presentation at diagnosis (HR = 1.39, P < 0.05) were highly associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. However, female gender and other factors, such as age (≤10 vs. 11-20 years), PTC (PTC vs. FTC), extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis, total thyroidectomy (total vs. less than total), radioiodine therapy, and radiation history, were not associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. In conclusion, multifocality and presentation at diagnosis are strong predictive factors of recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival. We recommend studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up to verify the influence of predictors for disease recurrence in young patients. PMID:26695148

  10. The current status of community-acquired pneumonia management and prevention in children under 5 years of age in India: a review.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Awasthi, Shally

    2016-06-01

    India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia. Fast breathing with or without chest in-drawing is categorized as pneumonia and fast breathing with any of danger signs as severe pneumonia. Because effective vaccines against two of the common organisms causing community-acquired pneumonia, namely Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, are available, there should be urgent and phased introduction into the Indian Universal Immunization Programme. Several preventable risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia such as lack of exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months of life, inappropriate complimentary feeding, iron deficiency anemia, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution should be adequately addressed. The community should be aware about the signs and symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia and its danger signs so that delay in qualified care seeking can be avoided. To achieve the sustainable development goal of ⩽25 under five deaths per 1000 live births by 2030, a multipronged approach is the need of the hour. PMID:27536353

  11. Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack; And Others

    This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

  12. Cleft lip repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of the ... Cleft lip repair and cleft palate repair are indicated for: Repair of physical deformity Nursing, feeding, or speech problems resulting from cleft lip or palate

  13. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  14. Repair Behaviors of Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scudder, Rosalind R.; Tremain, Deborah Hobbs

    1992-01-01

    Communication repair behaviors of 10 children with mental retardation (ages 11-13) and 10 mental age-matched children without mental retardation were examined. The children with mental retardation did not respond as often and rarely used details to expand their utterances. Results have implications for the development of conversational skills in…

  15. Mechanisms of transcription-repair coupling and mutation frequency decline.

    PubMed Central

    Selby, C P; Sancar, A

    1994-01-01

    Mutation frequency decline is the rapid and irreversible decline in the suppressor mutation frequency of Escherichia coli cells if the cells are kept in nongrowth media immediately following the mutagenic treatment. The gene mfd, which is necessary for mutation frequency decline, encodes a protein of 130 kDa which couples transcription to excision repair by binding to RNA polymerase and to UvrA, which is the damage recognition subunit of the excision repair enzyme. Although current evidence suggests that transcription-repair coupling is the cause of the preferential repair of the transcribed strand of mRNA encoding genes as well as of suppressor tRNA genes, the decline occurs under stringent response conditions in which the tRNA genes are not efficiently transcribed. Thus, the mechanism of strand-specific repair is well understood, but some questions remain regarding the precise mechanism of mutation frequency decline. PMID:7968917

  16. Treatment of the degenerated intervertebral disc; closure, repair and regeneration of the annulus fibrosus.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Grijpma, Dirk W; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-10-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) and disc herniation are two causes of low back pain. The aetiology of these disorders is unknown, but tissue weakening, which primarily occurs due to inherited genetic factors, ageing, nutritional compromise and loading history, is the basic factor causing disc degeneration. Symptomatic disc herniation mainly causes radicular pain. Current treatments of intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain are based on alleviating the symptoms and comprise administration of painkillers or surgical methods such as spinal fusion. None of these methods is completely successful. Current research focuses on regeneration of the IVD and particularly on regeneration of the nucleus pulposus. Less attention has been directed to the repair or regeneration of the annulus fibrosus, although this is the key to successful nucleus pulposus, and therewith IVD, repair. This review focuses on the importance of restoring the function of the annulus fibrosus, as well as on the repair, replacement or regeneration of the annulus fibrosus in combination with restoration of the function of the nucleus pulposus, to treat low back pain. PMID:24616324

  17. Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula: Basics of technique and its nuances

    PubMed Central

    Kanojia, Ravi Prakash; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Dwivedi, Deepak; Kumar, Raj; Joshi, Saajan; Samujh, Ram; Rao, K. L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To review the technique of thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (TREAT) and results reported in literature and with authors’ experience. Patients and Methods: The technique of TREAT was reviewed in detail with evaluation in patients treated at authors’ institution. The patients were selected based on selection criteria and were followed postoperatively. The results available in literature were also reviewed. Results: A total of 29 patients (8 females) were operated by TREAT. Mean age was 2.8 days (range 2-6 days). Mean weight was 2.6 kg (range 1.8-3.2 kg). There was a leak in four patients, and two patients had to be diverted. They are now awaiting definitive repair. Twenty-one patients have completed a mean follow-up of 1.5 years and are doing well except for two patients who had a stricture and underwent serial esophageal dilatations. The results from current literature are provided in tabulated form. Conclusions: TREAT is now a well-established procedure and currently is the preferred approach wherever feasible. The avoidance of thoracotomy is a major advantage to the newborn and is proven to benefit the recovery in the postoperative patient. The technique demonstrated, and the tweaks reported make the procedure easy and is helpful to beginners. The outcome is very much comparable to the open repair as proven by various series. Various parameters like leak rate, anastomotic stricture are the same. The outcome is comparable if you TREAT these babies well. PMID:27365905

  18. Heterochronic parabiosis for the study of the effects of aging on stem cells and their niches.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Irina M; Rando, Thomas A

    2012-06-15

    Aging is unmistakable and undeniable in mammals. Interestingly, mice develop cataracts, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes and cognitive deficits after just 2-3 postnatal years, while it takes seven or more decades for the same age-specific phenotypes to develop in humans. Thus, chronological age corresponds differently with biological age in metazoan species and although many theories exist, we do not understand what controls the rate of mammalian aging. One interesting idea is that species-specific rate of aging represents a ratio of tissue attrition to tissue regeneration. Furthermore, current findings suggest that the age-imposed biochemical changes in the niches of tissue stem cells inhibit performance of this regenerative pool, which leads to the decline of tissue maintenance and repair. If true, slowing down stem cell and niche aging, thereby promoting tissue regeneration, could slow down the process of tissue and organismal aging. In this regard, recent studies of heterochronic parabiosis provide important clues as to the mechanisms of stem cell aging and suggest novel strategies for enhancing tissue repair in the old. Here we review current literature on the relationship between the vigor of tissue stem cells and the process of aging, with an emphasis on the rejuvenation of old tissues by the extrinsic modifications of stem cell niches. PMID:22617385

  19. Heterochronic parabiosis for the study of the effects of aging on stem cells and their niches

    PubMed Central

    Conboy, Irina M.; Rando, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is unmistakable and undeniable in mammals. Interestingly, mice develop cataracts, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes and cognitive deficits after just 2–3 postnatal years, while it takes seven or more decades for the same age-specific phenotypes to develop in humans. Thus, chronological age corresponds differently with biological age in metazoan species and although many theories exist, we do not understand what controls the rate of mammalian aging. One interesting idea is that species-specific rate of aging represents a ratio of tissue attrition to tissue regeneration. Furthermore, current findings suggest that the age-imposed biochemical changes in the niches of tissue stem cells inhibit performance of this regenerative pool, which leads to the decline of tissue maintenance and repair. If true, slowing down stem cell and niche aging, thereby promoting tissue regeneration, could slow down the process of tissue and organismal aging. In this regard, recent studies of heterochronic parabiosis provide important clues as to the mechanisms of stem cell aging and suggest novel strategies for enhancing tissue repair in the old. Here we review current literature on the relationship between the vigor of tissue stem cells and the process of aging, with an emphasis on the rejuvenation of old tissues by the extrinsic modifications of stem cell niches. PMID:22617385

  20. Speech and Speech-Related Quality of Life After Late Palate Repair: A Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Schönmeyr, Björn; Wendby, Lisa; Sharma, Mitali; Jacobson, Lia; Restrepo, Carolina; Campbell, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with cleft palate deformities worldwide receive treatment at a later age than is recommended for normal speech to develop. The outcomes after late palate repairs in terms of speech and quality of life (QOL) still remain largely unstudied. In the current study, questionnaires were used to assess the patients' perception of speech and QOL before and after primary palate repair. All of the patients were operated at a cleft center in northeast India and had a cleft palate with a normal lip or with a cleft lip that had been previously repaired. A total of 134 patients (7-35 years) were interviewed preoperatively and 46 patients (7-32 years) were assessed in the postoperative survey. The survey showed that scores based on the speech handicap index, concerning speech and speech-related QOL, did not improve postoperatively. In fact, the questionnaires indicated that the speech became more unpredictable (P < 0.01) and that nasal regurgitation became worse (P < 0.01) for some patients after surgery. A total of 78% of the patients were still satisfied with the surgery and all of the patients reported that their self-confidence had improved after the operation. Thus, the majority of interviewed patients who underwent late primary palate repair were satisfied with the surgery. At the same time, speech and speech-related QOL did not improve according to the speech handicap index-based survey. Speech predictability may even become worse and nasal regurgitation may increase after late palate repair, according to these results. PMID:26114520

  1. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  2. Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using gene transfer strategies for cartilage repair originates from the idea of transferring genes encoding therapeutic factors into the repair tissue, resulting in a temporarily and spatially defined delivery of therapeutic molecules to sites of cartilage damage. This review focuses on the potential benefits of using gene therapy approaches for the repair of articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage, including articular cartilage defects resulting from acute trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Possible applications for meniscal repair comprise meniscal lesions, meniscal sutures, and meniscal transplantation. Recent studies in both small and large animal models have demonstrated the applicability of gene-based approaches for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic pathways were stimulated in the repair tissue and in osteoarthritic cartilage using genes for polypeptide growth factors and transcription factors. Although encouraging data have been generated, a successful translation of gene therapy for cartilage repair will require an ongoing combined effort of orthopedic surgeons and of basic scientists. PMID:26069580

  3. Prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-03-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

  4. Aging of distribution and other lifeline systems due to corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Isenberg, J. )

    1993-05-01

    Statistics derived from public works maintenance records for buried steel and cast iron pipelines indicate that aging may be seen in increasing rates of repairs. Maintenance increases with age due to cumulative traffic loads, ground settlement and, among the most important causes, corrosion. The tendency for repair rates gradually to increase and the opposing effects of corrosion control and planned replacement are punctuated by the rapid rise in leakage and required maintenance in the aftermath of an earthquake. These data were uncovered as a byproduct of studying five western US earthquakes in which performance of steel pipelines under seismic conditions and under normal operating conditions appear to be correlated. Evidence also points to temporary and, sometimes, to permanent increase in the rate of leakage and failure in the aftermath of an earthquake. The underlying cause of this correlation is thinning of pipe walls due to corrosion, which is facilitated by stray current and conductive soil. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  6. Fanconi Anemia: A Signal Transduction and DNA Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a fascinating, rare genetic disorder marked by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. Research in recent years has led to the elucidation of FA as a DNA repair disorder and involved multiple pathways as well as having wide applicability to common cancers, including breast, ovarian, and head and neck. This review will describe the clinical aspects of FA as well as the current state of its molecular pathophysiology. In particular, work from the Kupfer laboratory will be described that demonstrates how the FA pathway interacts with multiple DNA repair pathways, including the mismatch repair system and signal transduction pathway of the DNA damage response. PMID:24348213

  7. Self sensing composites with emi shielding and self repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Emi shielding provided by metal coating on repair fibers and conductive repair chemical maintained overall emi resistance of structural panels as well as provided the basis for eddy current and ultrasonic sensing/monitoring of structural panels. The sensing/repair system was easily inserted into composite processing and survived the heat and pressure of VARTM, resin infusion /pressing and pultrusion processing. The panels were tested with a commercial emi test lab, a commercial non-destructive testing lab, and a structural testing lab, The results were positive and will be presented in the paper.

  8. Nerve repair: toward a sutureless approach.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Stoodley, Marcus A; Lauto, Antonio; Mahns, David A

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral nerve repair for complete section injuries employ reconstructive techniques that invariably require sutures in their application. Sutures are unable to seal the nerve, thus incapable of preventing leakage of important intraneural fluids from the regenerating nerve. Furthermore, sutures are technically demanding to apply for direct repairs and often induce detrimental scarring that impedes healing and functional recovery. To overcome these limitations, biocompatible and biodegradable glues have been used to seal and repair peripheral nerves. Although creating a sufficient seal, they can lack flexibility and present infection risks or cytotoxicity. Other adhesive biomaterials have recently emerged into practice that are usually based on proteins such as albumin and collagen or polysaccharides like chitosan. These adhesives form their union to nerve tissue by either photothermal (tissue welding) or photochemical (tissue bonding) activation with laser light. These biomaterial adhesives offer significant advantages over sutures, such as their capacity to unite and seal the epineurium, ease of application, reduced invasiveness and add the potential for drug delivery in situ to facilitate regeneration. This paper reviews a number of different peripheral nerve repair (or reconstructive) techniques currently used clinically and in experimental procedures for nerve injuries with or without tissue deficit. PMID:25015388

  9. Endovascular Repair of Blunt Popliteal Arterial Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Peng; Sun, Yequan; Zhu, Wei; Pan, Xiaolin; Qi, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endovascular repair for blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of seven patients with clinical suspicion of popliteal arterial injuries that were confirmed by arteriography was performed from September 2009 to July 2014. Clinical data included demographics, mechanism of injury, type of injury, location of injury, concomitant injuries, time of endovascular procedures, time interval from trauma to blood flow restoration, instrument utilized, and follow-up. All patients were male (mean age of 35.9 ± 10.3 years). The type of lesion involved intimal injury (n = 1), partial transection (n = 2), complete transection (n = 2), arteriovenous fistula (n = 1), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). All patients underwent endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Results Technical success rate was 100%. Intimal injury was treated with a bare-metal stent. Pseudoaneurysm and popliteal artery transections were treated with bare-metal stents. Arteriovenous fistula was treated with bare-metal stent and coils. No perioperative death and procedure-related complication occurred. The average follow-up was 20.9 ± 2.3 months (range 18–24 months). One patient underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis due to stent thrombosis at 18 months after the procedure. All limbs were salvaged. Stent migration, deformation, or fracture was not found during the follow-up. Conclusion Endovascular repair seems to be a viable approach for patients with blunt popliteal arterial injuries, especially on an emergency basis. Endovascular repair may be effective in the short-term. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair. PMID:27587969

  10. Considerations on repeated repairing of weldments in Inconel 718 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E. O.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcilwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of repeated weld repairs on the metallurgical characteristics, high cycle fatigue (HCF), and tensile properties of Inconel 718 butt weld joints were determined. A 1/4 in thick plate and a 1/2 in thick plate were used as well as tungsten inert gas welding, and Inconel 718 filler wire. Weld panels were subjected to 2, 6, and 12 repeated repairs and were made in a highly restrained condition. Post weld heat treatments were also conducted with the welded panel in the highly restrained condition. Results indicate that no significant metallurgical anomaly is evident as a result of up to twelve repeated weld repairs. No degradation in fatigue life is noted for up to twelve repeated repairs. Tensile results from specimens which contained up to twelve repeated weld repairs revealed no significant degradation in UTS and YS. However, a significant decrease in elongation is evident with specimens (solution treated and age hardened after welding) which contained twelve repeated repairs. The elongation loss is attributed to the presence of a severe notch on each side (fusion line) of the repair weld bead reinforcement.

  11. Strengths of balloon films with flaws and repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of manufacture flaws and repairs in high altitude scientific balloons was examined. A right circular cylinder was used to induce a biaxial tension-tension stress field in the polyethlene film used to manufacture these balloons. A preliminary investigation of the effect that cylinder geometry has on stress rate as a function of inflation rate was conducted. The ultimate goal was to rank, by order of degrading effects, the flaws and repairs commonly found in current high altitude balloons.

  12. Balanitis xerotica obliterans complicating hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M V; Harris, D L

    1999-01-01

    We review the literature and report a series of eight cases of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) developing in patients following primary hypospadias repair. The ages of these patients ranged from 8 to 25 years with BXO developing from 1 to 16 years postoperatively. Six patients were treated by excision of the BXO tissue and two-stage urethroplasties with full-thickness grafts. Three of these patients had further recurrence of BXO and had re-do urethroplasty using a combination of bladder and buccal mucosa. The last two patients in this series had re-do urethroplasty using bladder mucosa only and bladder-buccal mucosa technique, respectively, as first choice for BXO complicating their hypospadias repair. PMID:10343594

  13. Flexor tendon repair in zone III.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of the literature on the outcome of zone III flexor tendon injuries. In this paper, we report on the results of zone III flexor tendon repair in 35 consecutive adult patients with clean cut lacerations of both flexor tendons in 42 fingers. There were 25 men and 10 women with an average age of 32 years. Repair of both flexor tendons was performed using 'figure of eight' core sutures and a continuous epitendinous suture. Postoperatively, an immediate active range of motion protocol was applied to ensure full active extension of the interphalangeal joints. The results were assessed using the Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures. One patient with two injured fingers developed complex regional pain syndrome and the final outcome was fair in both fingers. In the remaining 34 patients (40 fingers), 33 patients (38 fingers) had an excellent outcome and the remaining patient (two fingers) had a good outcome. PMID:20807720

  14. Current barriers to treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD): findings from the wAMD patient and caregiver survey

    PubMed Central

    Varano, Monica; Eter, Nicole; Winyard, Steve; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Navarro, Rafael; Heraghty, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A cross-sectional survey to evaluate the current management of wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) and to identify barriers to treatment from a patient and caregiver perspective. Methods An ophthalmologist-devised questionnaire was given to a global cohort of patients who were receiving (or had previously received) antivascular endothelial growth factor injections and to caregivers (paid and unpaid) to evaluate the impact of wAMD on their lives. Results Responders included 910 patients and 890 caregivers; wAMD was diagnosed in both eyes in 45% of patients, and 64% had been receiving injections for > 1 year. Many caregivers were a child/grandchild (47%) or partner (23%) of the patient; only 7% were professional caregivers. Most (73%) patients visited a health care professional within 1 month of experiencing vision changes and 54% began treatment immediately. Most patients and caregivers reported a number of obstacles in managing wAMD, including the treatment itself (35% and 39%, respectively). Sixteen percent of patients also missed a clinic visit. Conclusion Most patients seek medical assistance promptly for a change in vision; however, about a quarter of them do not. This highlights a lack of awareness surrounding eye health and the impact of a delayed diagnosis. Most patients and caregivers identified a number of obstacles in managing wAMD. PMID:26664038

  15. Impact of Diluted Pyroclastic Density Currents on Distal Settlements: A Case Study From the Bronze Age Eruption of Avellino, Somma-Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vito, M. A.; Zanella, E.; Gurioli, L.; Lanza, R.; Sulpizio, R.; Evdokia, T.; Laforgia, E.

    2006-12-01

    During the ancient Bronze Age (Palma Campania Facies) a violent plinian eruption, known as the Avellino eruption, occurred at the Somma-Vesuvius, Italy. The eruption was characterised by two main phases: plinian and phreatomagmatic, respectively. The plinian phase dispersed fallout products across the Italian peninsula in a NE direction, while the phreatomagmatic one generated dilute, turbulent pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). The latter phase impacted the plain NNW of Vesuvius, from Naples to Nola, extending tens of kilometers from the volcano. This territory was densely occupied by human settlements. These currents emplaced dune-bedded and thinly stratified deposits that reached a maximum thickness of 8-10 m in the vent area located in the western sector of the edifice. These deposits thin with distance downstream across the northwestern plain, reaching a maximum runout of up to 25 km. The onset of the phreatomagmatic phase of the eruption, during which highly efficient magma-water interaction triggered highly energetic PDCs is marked by lithic rich, fine grained ash deposits. Across the northwestern and northeastern sectors several human settlements were covered by these deposits. Volcanological field investigations integrated with a detailed facies analysis revealed that the presence of village huts (of wood and straw) affected the distribution and accumulation of these dilute PDCs. A multidisciplinary approach was applied to constrain a number of parameters for the PDCs cropping out in the excavated villages. These include PDC temperature (from the Thermal Remnant Magnetization of the lithics and pottery fragments found within the deposits) and the flow directions (from the magnetic fabric of the fine matrix). These data show that the currents, even if diluted and distal, were still hot, with temperatures of at-least 240-280 °C. The first PDC was able to engulf the village, entering huts, as well as to being locally diverted by these structures. Small

  16. Proceedings: Spring Conferences 1977; Current Issues in Bi-Lingual, Compensatory, Remedial Education; Nontraditional Students in Nontraditional Occupations; Aging in America. Occasional Paper No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitan, Henry M., Ed.; Sadowski, Bernard S., Ed.

    The papers presented at three conferences dealing with nontraditional students at community colleges comprise this report. Papers included are: "Aging in America" by Francis Scott; "Aging in Oregon: A Look at Clackamas Community College" by Larry Forsythe; "Community Needs Assessment: Some Reflections" by Alice Kethley; "Education for Aging: A…

  17. DNA repair: a changing geography? (1964-2008).

    PubMed

    Maisonobe, Marion; Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Eckert, Denis

    2013-07-01

    This article aims to explain the current state of DNA Repair studies' global geography by focusing on the genesis of the community. Bibliometric data is used to localize scientific activities related to DNA Repair at the city level. The keyword "DNA Repair" was introduced first by American scientists. It started to spread after 1964 that is to say, after P. Howard-Flanders (Yale University), P. Hanawalt (Stanford University) and R. Setlow (Oak Ridge Laboratories) found evidence for Excision Repair mechanisms. It was the first stage in the emergence of an autonomous scientific community. In this article, we will try to assess to what extent the geo-history of this scientific field is determinant in understanding its current geography. In order to do so, we will localize the places where the first "DNA Repair" publications were signed fifty years ago and the following spatial diffusion process, which led to the current geography of the field. Then, we will focus on the evolution of the research activity of "early entrants" in relation to the activity of "latecomers". This article is an opportunity to share with DNA Repair scientists some research results of a dynamic field in Science studies: spatial scientometrics. PMID:23669398

  18. Myocardial histopathology in late-repaired and unrepaired adults with tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Pradegan, Nicola; Vida, Vladimiro L; Geva, Tal; Stellin, Giovanni; White, Matthew T; Sanders, Stephen P; Padera, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Survival of patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is worse than for the general population. We aimed to assess the time-related effects of surgical repair on right (RV) and left ventricle (LV) myocardium by quantifying hypertrophy and fibrosis. Cardiomyocyte transverse diameter and percent of fibrosis were measured in 8 adult heart specimens with late-repaired TOF, 6 with unrepaired TOF, and 11 normal hearts (controls). The RV and LV mean and median cardiomyocyte diameter and percent of fibrosis were significantly greater than controls in both repaired and unrepaired hearts. The mean RV inferior wall myocyte diameter in unrepaired hearts was significantly greater at average age at death than in repaired hearts (24.9±2.5 vs. 16.4±1.3μm, P=.015), but not the mean RV anterior wall myocyte diameter (21.5±2.2 vs. 17±1.2μm, P=.09) or the mean LV myocyte diameter (19.7±1.5 vs. 16.7±0.8μm, P=.10). Of the RV myocyte diameter measurements, only the RV anterior wall myocyte diameter for repaired hearts correlated with age at death, while LV myocyte diameter for both repaired and unrepaired hearts correlated with age at death. None of the measures of myocyte diameter correlated with age at repair. The mean RV anterior wall, inferior wall, and LV percent fibrosis were all significantly greater in unrepaired hearts at average age at death compared with repaired hearts (16.3±1.3 vs. 13.0±0.7%, P=.04; 18.1±1.9 vs. 12.7±1.0%, P=.03; 15.7±0.8 vs. 11.6±0.4%, P=.004, respectively). There was a significant correlation between RV percent fibrosis (both locations) and age at death for repaired hearts but not for unrepaired hearts, while LV wall percent fibrosis correlated significantly with age at death for both groups. RV percent fibrosis was not significantly correlated with age at repair, while LV percent fibrosis was negatively correlated with age at repair. Hypertrophy and fibrosis in RV and LV of late-repaired TOF hearts progress during follow-up despite

  19. Intraoral repair of cosmetic restorations.

    PubMed

    Denehy, G; Bouschlicher, M; Vargas, M

    1998-10-01

    The longevity of porcelain and composite resin restorations can often be prolonged by using sound principles, up-to-date materials, and judicious attention to repair when fracture problems arise. Careful case selection and correct usage of surface treatment agents, followed by the use of a quality bonding system and restorative materials, can result in a repair that exhibits excellent retention and natural color blending. This article outlines procedures and materials to repair both resin composite and porcelain intraorally. PMID:9891653

  20. 76 FR 21425 - Rocky Mountain Railcar and Repair, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Rocky Mountain Railcar and Repair, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Line of Railroad in Tooele County, UT Rocky Mountain Railcar and Repair, Inc. (Rocky Mountain), a... line. \\1\\ Rocky Mountain states that it currently operates a railcar repair facility, but that it...

  1. Arthroscopic Transosseous Rotator Cuff Repair: Technical Note, Outcomes, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Black, Eric M.; Lin, Albert; Srikumaran, Uma; Jain, Nitin; Freehill, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to review the authors’ initial experience with arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair. Thirty-one patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair over a 15-month period. Preoperatively, demographics and subjective scores were recorded. Postoperatively, pain levels, subjective shoulder values, satisfaction scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, complications, and reoperations were noted with a minimum 2-year follow-up. The relationships between pre- and intraoperative variables and outcome scores were determined with univariate analysis. Average patient age was 56 years, and 23 patients (74%) were men. Twenty patients (65%) underwent primary rotator cuff repair, and 11 patients (35%) underwent revision repair. Average time to follow-up was 26 months. Average preoperative pain level and subjective shoulder value were 5.1 of 10 and 35%, respectively. Average postoperative scores included pain level of 0.9 of 10, subjective shoulder value of 84%, satisfaction score of 90.6 of 100, and ASES score of 86.3 of 100. There were 3 (9.7%) major and 2 (6%) minor complications. Patients undergoing revision rotator cuff repair had significantly worse outcomes (pain level, subjective shoulder value, ASES score; P<.05) compared with those undergoing primary repair, and cortical augmentation did not significantly affect outcome. Overall, outcomes after arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair are good, although patients undergoing revision repair do not have the same outcomes as those undergoing primary cuff repair. The procedure is not without complications (9.7% major, 6% minor complications). Cortical augmentation may be used to supplement fixation, although it does not necessarily affect outcomes. Patients without such augmentation may be at increased risk for suture cutout through the bone. PMID:25970360

  2. Targeting base excision repair for chemosensitization.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Choudhury, Sujata; Mitra, Partha S; Dubash, Jerita J; Sajankila, Shyama P; Roy, Rabindra

    2008-05-01

    In both bacteria and eukaryotes the alkylated, oxidized, and deaminated bases and depurinated lesions are primarily repaired via an endogenous preventive pathway, i.e. base excision repair (BER). Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are two important modes of cancer treatment. Many of those therapeutic agents used in the clinic have the ability to induce the DNA damage; however, they may also be highly cytotoxic, causing peripheral toxicity and secondary cancer as adverse side effects. In addition, the damage produced by the therapeutic agents can often be repaired by the BER proteins, which in effect confers therapeutic resistance. Efficient inhibition of a particular BER protein(s) may increase the efficacy of current chemotherapeutic regimes, which minimizes resistance and ultimately decreases the possibility of the aforementioned negative side effects. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of DNA damage repair pathways may be explored as a useful strategy to enhance chemosensitivity. Various agents have shown excellent results in preclinical studies in combination chemotherapy. Early phase clinical trials are now being carried out using DNA repair inhibitors targeting enzymes such as PARP, DNA-PK or MGMT. In the case of BER proteins, elimination of N-Methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG) or inhibition of AP-endonuclease (APE) increased sensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating chemotherapeutics. MPG(-/-) embryonic stem cells and cells having MPG knock-down by siRNA are hypersensitive to alkylating agents, whereas inhibition of APE by small molecule inhibitors sensitized cancer cells to alkylating chemotherapeutics. Thus, MPG and other BER proteins could be potential targets for chemosensitization. PMID:18473720

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair: A Review.

    PubMed

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Welsch, Goetz H; Potter, Hollis G

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  4. Role of DNA repair in host immune response and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Fabrícia Lima; Pinheiro, Daniele Maria Lopes; Oliveira, Ana Helena Sales de; Oliveira, Rayssa Karla de Medeiros; Lajus, Tirzah Braz Petta; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the understanding of how DNA repair contributes to the development of innate and acquired immunity has emerged. The DNA damage incurred during the inflammatory response triggers the activation of DNA repair pathways, which are required for host-cell survival. Here, we reviewed current understanding of the mechanism by which DNA repair contributes to protection against the oxidized DNA damage generated during infectious and inflammatory diseases and its involvement in innate and adaptive immunity. We discussed the functional role of DNA repair enzymes in the immune activation and the relevance of these processes to: transcriptional regulation of cytokines and other genes involved in the inflammatory response; V(D)J recombination; class-switch recombination (CSR); and somatic hypermutation (SHM). These three last processes of DNA damage repair are required for effective humoral adaptive immunity, creating genetic diversity in developing T and B cells. Furthermore, viral replication is also dependent on host DNA repair mechanisms. Therefore, the elucidation of the pathways of DNA damage and its repair that activate innate and adaptive immunity will be important for a better understanding of the immune and inflammatory disorders and developing new therapeutic interventions for treatment of these diseases and for improving their outcome. PMID:25795123

  5. A Proposed Approach for Certification of Bonded Composite Repairs to Flight-Critical Airframe Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Alan A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper focuses on the difficult issue of the certification of adhesively bonded repairs in applications where credit has to be given to the patch for restoring residual strength in flight-critical structure. The scope of the paper includes both adhesively bonded composite repairs to composite components and composite repairs to metallic components. After discussing typical bonded repairs and, as a baseline, procedures currently used to certify new structure, a proposal is made which may constitute an acceptable basis for the structural certification of repairs. The key requirement is to demonstrate an acceptably low probability of patch disbonding during the remaining life of the structure. The focus is on one-off repairs where development of a comprehensive certification procedure based even on limited testing will be infeasible: Firstly, a decision process is undertaken to establish if there is indeed a certification issue. That is situations where flight safety depends on the structural integrity of the repair patch.

  6. We Are Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa D.; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Ageing and longevity is unquestioningly complex. Several thoughts and mechanisms of ageing such as pathways involved in oxidative stress, lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage and repair, growth hormone axis and insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF), and environmental exposure have been proposed. Also, some theories of ageing were introduced. To date, the most promising leads for longevity are caloric restriction, particularly target of rapamycin (TOR), sirtuins, hexarelin and hormetic responses. This review is an attempt to analyze the mechanisms and theories of ageing and achieving longevity. PMID:25045704

  7. Cardiac progenitor cells for heart repair

    PubMed Central

    Le, TYL; Chong, JJH

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is being investigated as an innovative and promising strategy to restore cardiac function in patients with heart failure. Several stem cell populations, including adult (multipotent) stem cells from developed organs and tissues, have been tested for cardiac repair with encouraging clinical and pre-clinical results. The heart has been traditionally considered a post-mitotic organ, however, this view has recently changed with the identification of stem/progenitor cells residing within the adult heart. Given their cardiac developmental origins, these endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) may represent better candidates for cardiac cell therapy compared with stem cells from other organs such as the bone marrow and adipose tissue. This brief review will outline current research into CPC populations and their cardiac repair/regenerative potential. PMID:27551540

  8. Welding for reactor vessel repair: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall, A.K.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1989-01-23

    Repair of intergranular stress corrosion cracking which may develop in SRP reactor vessels will be complicated by helium-induced weld cracking. The current leading candidate repair technique is a low heat input weld overlay which reduces the helium effect. Recent experiments show that low heat input Gas Metal Arc (GMA) weld overlays dramatically reduce helium-induced weld cracking in Type 304 stainless steel. The experiments indicate that helium-induced cracking is controlled by the heat input of the weld and the helium content of the material. Subsequent experiments may prove this type of weld overlay to be a suitable sealing technique for intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC) in irradiated stainless steel. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Revisiting the photosystem II repair cycle.

    PubMed

    Theis, Jasmine; Schroda, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The ability of photosystem (PS) II to catalyze the light-driven oxidation of water comes along with its vulnerability to oxidative damage, in particular of the D1 core subunit. Photodamaged PSII undergoes repair in a multi-step process involving (i) reversible phosphorylation of PSII core subunits; (ii) monomerization and lateral migration of the PSII core from grana to stroma thylakoids; (iii) partial disassembly of PSII; (iv) proteolytic degradation of damaged D1; (v) replacement of damaged D1 protein with a new copy; (vi) reassembly of PSII monomers and migration back to grana thylakoids for dimerization and supercomplex assembly. Here we review the current knowledge on the PSII repair cycle. PMID:27494214

  10. Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Ciuluvica, R; Dinu, I; Careba, I; Gradinaru, S

    2014-01-01

    The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life. The majority of cases require reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this is that the bony walls are comminuted and/or bone fragments are missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of missing bone is important rather than reducing bone fragments. This can be accomplished using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: nonresorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/allogenous/xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:27057250

  11. Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Ciuluvica, R; Dinu, I; Careba, I; Gradinaru, S

    2015-01-01

    The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from the total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life. The majority of cases required reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this was that the bony walls were comminuted and/ or bone fragments were missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of the missing bone was important rather than reducing the bone fragments. This could be accomplished by using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: non resorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/ allogeneic/ xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of the material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:25914737

  12. Reliability-based lifetime maintenance of aging highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, Michael P.; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2000-06-01

    As the nation's infrastructure continues to age, the cost of maintaining it at an acceptable safety level continues to increase. In the United States, about one of every three bridges is rated structurally deficient and/or functionally obsolete. It will require about 80 billion to eliminate the current backlog of bridge deficiencies and maintain repair levels. Unfortunately, the financial resources allocated for these activities fall extremely short of the demand. Although several existing and emerging NDT techniques are available to gather inspection data, current maintenance planning decisions for deficient bridges are based on data from subjective condition assessments and do not consider the reliability of bridge components and systems. Recently, reliability-based optimum maintenance planning strategies have been developed. They can be used to predict inspection and repair times to achieve minimum life-cycle cost of deteriorating structural systems. In this study, a reliability-based methodology which takes into account loading randomness and history, and randomness in strength and degradation resulting from aggressive environmental factors, is used to predict the time- dependent reliability of aging highway bridges. A methodology for incorporating inspection data into reliability predictions is also presented. Finally, optimal lifetime maintenance strategies are identified, in which optimal inspection/repair times are found based on minimum expected life-cycle cost under prescribed reliability constraints. The influence of discount rate on optimum solutions is evaluated.

  13. Combined epigastric hernia repair and mini-abdominoplasty. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Grella; Sergio, Razzano; Rossella, Lamberti; Biagio, Trojaniello; Francesco, D’Andrea; Francesco, Nicoletti Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of abdominal hernia repair are to restore the structural integrity of the abdominal wall. Current techniques include primary closure, staged repair and the use of prosthetic materials. Techniques for mini-abdominoplasty include the use of the transverse lower abdominal incision and the resection of excess skin. We report a case of epigastric hernia repair through a transverse lower abdominal incision with the resection of excess of skin. Our purpose is to evaluate the results of the procedure by incorporating these aspects into an epigastric hernia repair, we found out that the procedures are made safer and the results are improved. Proper indication and details of the technique are described. PMID:25667986

  14. Will our Current Data Rescue, Curation and Preservation Practices bring us out of the Digital Dark Ages and into the Renaissance of Multi-Source Science? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    evolutions of both hardware and software. The move to data intensive science has driven the realisation that we need to put more effort and resources into rescuing, curating and preserving data and properly preserved data sets are now being use to resolve the real world issues of today. However, as the capacity of computational systems increases relentlessly we need to question if our current efforts in data curation and preservation will scale to these ever growing systems. For Earth and Space Sciences to come out of the digital dark ages and into the renaissance of multi-source science, it is time to take stock and question our current data rescue, curation and preservation initiatives. Will the data store I am using be around in 50 years' time? What measures is this data store taking to avoid bit-rot and/or deal with software and hardware obsolescence. Is my data self-describing? Have I paid enough attention to cross domain data standards so my data can be reused and repurposed for the current decadal challenges? More importantly, as the capacity of computational systems scale beyond exascale to zettascale and yottascale, will my data sets that I have rescued, curated and preserved in my lifetime, no matter whether they are small or large, be able to contribute to addressing the decadal challenges that are as yet undefined.

  15. Laparoscopic paracolostomy hernia mesh repair.

    PubMed

    Virzí, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Virzí; Scaravilli, Francesco; Francesco, Scaravilli; Ragazzi, Salvatore; Salvatore, Ragazzi; Piazza, Diego; Diego, Piazza

    2007-12-01

    Paracolostomy hernia is a common occurrence, representing a late complication of stoma surgery. Different surgical techniques have been proposed to repair the wall defect, but the lowest recurrence rates are associated with the use of mesh. We present the case report of a patient in which laparoscopic paracolostomy hernia mesh repair has been successfully performed. PMID:18097321

  16. Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

  17. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  18. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  19. Membrane Repair: Mechanisms and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sandra T; McNeil, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells have been confronted throughout their evolution with potentially lethal plasma membrane injuries, including those caused by osmotic stress, by infection from bacterial toxins and parasites, and by mechanical and ischemic stress. The wounded cell can survive if a rapid repair response is mounted that restores boundary integrity. Calcium has been identified as the key trigger to activate an effective membrane repair response that utilizes exocytosis and endocytosis to repair a membrane tear, or remove a membrane pore. We here review what is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of membrane repair, with particular emphasis on the relevance of repair as it relates to disease pathologies. Collective evidence reveals membrane repair employs primitive yet robust molecular machinery, such as vesicle fusion and contractile rings, processes evolutionarily honed for simplicity and success. Yet to be fully understood is whether core membrane repair machinery exists in all cells, or whether evolutionary adaptation has resulted in multiple compensatory repair pathways that specialize in different tissues and cells within our body. PMID:26336031

  20. Final report on repair procedure of strong ground motion data from underground nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.

    1995-04-01

    Certain difficulties arise when recording close-in around motion from underground nuclear explosions. Data quality can be compromised by a variety of factors, including electromagnetic pulse, noise spikes, direct current effect, and gauge clipping and gauge tilt. From March 1988 through September 1994, EG&G Energy Measurements repaired strong round-motion data (acceleration data) from underground nuclear tests for the Los Alamos National Laboratory using, an automated repair procedure. The automated repair determined and implemented the required repairs based on user input and a consistent set of criteria. A log was kept of each repair so that the repair procedure could be duplicated. This relaxed the requirement to save the repaired data. Developed for the VAX system, the procedure allowed the user to stack up a large number of repairs, plot the repaired data, and obtain hard copies. The plotted data could then be reviewed for a given test to determine the consistency of repair for a given underground test. This feature released the user to perform other tasks while the data were being repaired.

  1. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25596348

  2. All-Endoscopic Single-Row Repair of Full-Thickness Gluteus Medius Tears

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S.; Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2016-01-01

    Abductor tendon tears typically develop insidiously in middle-aged women and can lead to debilitating lateral hip pain and a Trendelenburg limp. The gluteus medius tendon is most commonly torn and may show fatty degeneration over time, similar to the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder. Endoscopic repair offers a therapeutic alternative to traditional open techniques. This article describes the workup, examination, and endoscopic repair of a full-thickness gluteus medius tear presenting as lateral hip pain and weakness. The surgical repair for this case used a single-row suture anchor technique. In addition, the indications and technique for a double-row repair will be discussed. PMID:27073767

  3. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline M; Tanaka, Denise M; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valeria MC; Mazzer, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis) and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis) during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05). A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32). Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary. PMID:26770674

  4. Ventricular septal defect: early against late surgical repair

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Waqas J.; Iyer, Praneet; Amba, Samridhi; Muddassir, Salman; Cheboterav, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a rare complication of right ventricular infarction (RVI) which is associated with significant mortality, if not treated appropriately. It typically occurs within the first 10–14 days after myocardial infarction. Surgical repair has been shown to reduce in-hospital mortality from 90% to 33–45%. Early surgical VSD repair has also been associated with high 30-day operative mortality of 34–37%. Furthermore, after an acute MI the friable myocardium enhances the risk of recurrent VSD with early surgical repair. We present a case of a middle-aged woman who developed VSD after an RVI. Her surgical repair was delayed by 2 weeks due to development of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. During this period, she was managed medically and later on underwent percutaneous repair with an amplatzer VSD occluder device. Keeping this patient encounter in mind, we would like to emphasize on the limited recommendations available for early against late surgical repair of VSD. PMID:26908387

  5. Facilitation of base excision repair by chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hinz, John M; Czaja, Wioletta

    2015-12-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) is a conserved, intracellular DNA repair system that recognizes and removes chemically modified bases to insure genomic integrity and prevent mutagenesis. Aberrant BER has been tightly linked with a broad spectrum of human pathologies, such as several types of cancer, neurological degeneration, developmental abnormalities, immune dysfunction and aging. In the cell, BER must recognize and remove DNA lesions from the tightly condensed, protein-coated chromatin. Because chromatin is necessarily refractory to DNA metabolic processes, like transcription and replication, the compaction of the genomic material is also inhibitory to the repair systems necessary for its upkeep. Multiple ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling (ACR) complexes play essential roles in modulating the protein-DNA interactions within chromatin, regulating transcription and promoting activities of some DNA repair systems, including double-strand break repair and nucleotide excision repair. However, it remains unclear how BER operates in the context of chromatin, and if the chromatin remodelling processes that govern transcription and replication also actively regulate the efficiency of BER. In this review we highlight the emerging role of ACR in regulation of BER. PMID:26422134

  6. Total Percutaneous Aortic Repair: Midterm Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Clare L. Fotiadis, Nikolas; Renfrew, Ian; Walsh, Michael; Brohi, Karim; Kyriakides, Constantinos; Matson, Matthew

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate and midterm outcomes of percutaneous endovascular repair of thoracic and abdominal aortic pathology. Between December 2003 and June 2005, 21 patients (mean age: 60.4 {+-} 17.1 years; 15 males, 6 females) underwent endovascular stent-graft insertion for thoracic (n = 13) or abdominal aortic (n = 8) pathology. Preprocedural computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to assess the suitability of aorto-iliac and common femoral artery (CFA) anatomy, including the degree of CFA calcification, for total percutaneous aortic stent-graft repair. Percutaneous access was used for the introduction of 18- to 26-Fr delivery devices. A 'preclose' closure technique using two Perclose suture devices (Perclose A-T; Abbott Vascular) was used in all cases. Data were prospectively collected. Each CFA puncture site was assessed via clinical examination and CTA at 1, 6, and 12 months, followed by annual review thereafter. Minimum follow-up was 36 months. Outcome measures evaluated were rates of technical success, conversion to open surgical repair, complications, and late incidence of arterial stenosis at the site of Perclose suture deployment. A total of 58 Perclose devices were used to close 29 femoral arteriotomies. Outer diameters of stent-graft delivery devices used were 18 Fr (n = 5), 20 Fr (n = 3), 22 Fr (n = 4), 24 Fr (n = 15), and 26 Fr (n = 2). Percutaneous closure was successful in 96.6% (28/29) of arteriotomies. Conversion to surgical repair was required at one access site (3.4%). Mean follow-up was 50 {+-} 8 months. No late complications were observed. By CT criteria, no patient developed a >50% reduction in CFA caliber at the site of Perclose deployment during the study period. In conclusion, percutaneous aortic stent-graft insertion can be safely performed, with a low risk of both immediate and midterm access-related complications.

  7. TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

  8. Wound repair in Pocillopora.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals. PMID:27397755

  9. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  10. Potential Market for New Meniscus Repair Strategies: Evaluation of the MOON Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fetzer, Gary B.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Dunn, Warren R.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background An estimated 200,000 ACL reconstructions are performed each year in the United States. The presence of concomitant meniscus tears and subsequent treatment at the time of ACL reconstruction may determine long-term outcomes of these knees. The authors contend that a substantial number of these meniscal tears are treated in a fashion that reduces meniscal function and that new technologies are needed to treat meniscal tears in a fashion that preserves function. A large cohort of patients with meniscal tears is needed to demonstrate this need. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of meniscal tears, describe tear morphology, and selected treatment in the MOON prospective longitudinal cohort of ACL reconstruction. We also will demonstrate based on national statistics the large potential market that exists for future tissue engineering aimed at preserving meniscal function. Methods A multicenter cohort of 1014 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction between January 2002 and December 2003 were evaluated. All procedures were performed by nine fellowship trained sports medicine orthopaedic surgeons. Data on patient demographics, presence of a meniscus tear at time of ACL reconstruction, tear morphology, and meniscal treatment were collected prospectively. Meniscal tears were categorized into three potential tissue engineering treatment strategies: all-biologic repair, advanced repair, and scaffold replacement. Results 1014 ACL reconstructions were performed over the two year period. The median age at the time of surgery was 24 years. Thirty-six percent of the knees had medial meniscal tears and 44% of the knees had lateral meniscal tears. Longitudinal tears were the most common tear morphology. The most frequent treatment modality was partial meniscectomy (60%). Thirty percent of medial meniscal tears and 10% of lateral meniscal tears could be treated with all-biologic repair, 32% of medial meniscal tears and 28% of lateral meniscal tears could

  11. Exposure to a youthful circulaton rejuvenates bone repair through modulation of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Baht, Gurpreet S.; Silkstone, David; Vi, Linda; Nadesan, Puviindran; Amani, Yasha; Whetstone, Heather; Wei, Qingxia; Alman, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for tissues to repair and regenerate diminishes with age. We sought to determine the age-dependent contribution of native mesenchymal cells and circulating factors on in vivo bone repair. Here we show that exposure to youthful circulation by heterochronic parabiosis reverses the aged fracture repair phenotype and the diminished osteoblastic differentiation capacity of old animals. This rejuvenation effect is recapitulated by engraftment of young haematopoietic cells into old animals. During rejuvenation, β-catenin signalling, a pathway important in osteoblast differentiation, is modulated in the early repair process and required for rejuvenation of the aged phenotype. Temporal reduction of β-catenin signalling during early fracture repair improves bone healing in old mice. Our data indicate that young haematopoietic cells have the capacity to rejuvenate bone repair and this is mediated at least in part through β-catenin, raising the possibility that agents that modulate β-catenin can improve the pace or quality of fracture repair in the ageing population. PMID:25988592

  12. LWR Sustainability: Assessment of Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Concrete Strutures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves III, Herman; Naus, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience is presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are generally discussed.

  13. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option. PMID:25098825

  14. Inspection of aging aircraft: A manufacturer's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagemaier, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Douglas, in conjunction with operators and regulators, has established interrelated programs to identify and address issues regarding inspection of aging aircraft. These inspection programs consist of the following: Supplemental Inspection Documents; Corrosion Prevention and Control Documents; Repair Assessment Documents; and Service Bulletin Compliance Documents. In addition, airframe manufacturers perform extended airframe fatigue tests to deal with potential problems before they can develop in the fleet. Lastly, nondestructive inspection (NDI) plays a role in all these programs through the detection of cracks, corrosion, and disbonds. However, improved and more cost effective NDI methods are needed. Some methods such as magneto-optic imaging, electronic shearography, Diffractor-Sight, and multi-parameter eddy current testing appear viable for near-term improvements in NDI of aging aircraft.

  15. Active transcriptomic and proteomic reprogramming in the C. elegans nucleotide excision repair mutant xpa-1.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Henok; Nilsen, Hilde

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress promotes human aging and contributes to common neurodegenerative diseases. Endogenous DNA damage induced by oxidative stress is believed to be an important promoter of neurodegenerative diseases. Although a large amount of evidence correlates a reduced DNA repair capacity with aging and neurodegenerative disease, there is little direct evidence of causality. Moreover, the contribution of oxidative DNA damage to the aging process is poorly understood. We have used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to study the contribution of oxidative DNA damage and repair to aging. C. elegans is particularly well suited to tackle this problem because it has a minimum complexity DNA repair system, which enables us to circumvent the important limitation presented by the extensive redundancy of DNA repair enzymes in mammals. PMID:24744987

  16. Component Repair Experiment-1: An Experiment Evaluating Electronic Component-Level Repair During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The Component Repair Experiment-1 (CRE-1) examines the capability for astronauts to perform electronics repair tasks in space. The goal is to determine the current capabilities and limits for the crew, and to make recommendations to improve and expand the range of work that astronauts may perform. CRE-1 provided two-layer, functional circuit boards and replacement components, a small tool kit, written and video training materials, and 1 hr of hands on training for the crew slated to perform the experiment approximately 7 months prior to the mission. Astronauts Michael Fincke and Sandra Magnus performed the work aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in February and March 2009. The astronauts were able to remove and replace components successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of performing component-level electronics repairs within a spacecraft. Several unsuccessful tasks demonstrated areas in need of improvement. These include improved and longer training prior to a mission, an improved soldering iron with a higher operating temperature and steady power source, video training and practice boards for refresher work or practice before a repair, and improved and varied hand tools and containment system.

  17. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  18. Influence of calorie reduction on DNA repair capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Matt, Katja; Burger, Katharina; Gebhard, Daniel; Bergemann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restrictive feeding prolongs the lifespan of a variety of model organisms like rodents and invertebrates. It has been shown that caloric restriction reduces age-related as well as overall-mortality, reduces oxidative stress and influences DNA repair ability positively. There are numerous studies underlining this, but fewer studies involving humans exist. To contribute to a better understanding of the correlation of calorie reduction and DNA repair in humans, we adapted the host cell reactivation assay to an application with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, we used this reliable and reproducible assay to research the influence of a special kind of calorie reduction, namely F. X. Mayr therapy, on DNA repair capacity. We found a positive effect in all persons with low pre-existing DNA repair capacity. In individuals with normal pre-existing DNA repair capacity, no effect on DNA repair capacity was detectable. Decline of DNA repair, accumulation of oxidative DNA damages, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening as well as caloric intake are widely thought to contribute to aging. With regard to that, our results can be considered as a strong indication that calorie reduction may support DNA repair processes and thus contribute to a healthier aging. PMID:26879629

  19. How to repair an episiotomy.

    PubMed

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26884039

  20. Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity: a need for multi-pathway functional assays to promote translational DNA repair research.

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Zachary D.; Chaim, Isaac. A.; Samson, Leona D.

    2014-01-01

    Why does a constant barrage of DNA damage lead to disease in some individuals, while others remain healthy? This article surveys current work addressing the implications of inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity for human health, and discusses the status of DNA repair assays as potential clinical tools for personalized prevention or treatment of disease. In particular, we highlight research showing that there are significant inter-individual variations in DNA Repair Capacity (DRC), and that measuring these differences provides important biological insight regarding disease susceptibility and cancer treatment efficacy. We emphasize work showing that it is important to measure repair capacity in multiple pathways, and that functional assays are required to fill a gap left by genome wide association studies, global gene expression and proteomics. Finally, we discuss research that will be needed to overcome barriers that currently limit the use of DNA repair assays in the clinic. PMID:24780560

  1. Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity: a need for multi-pathway functional assays to promote translational DNA repair research.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Zachary D; Chaim, Isaac A; Samson, Leona D

    2014-07-01

    Why does a constant barrage of DNA damage lead to disease in some individuals, while others remain healthy? This article surveys current work addressing the implications of inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity for human health, and discusses the status of DNA repair assays as potential clinical tools for personalized prevention or treatment of disease. In particular, we highlight research showing that there are significant inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity (DRC), and that measuring these differences provides important biological insight regarding disease susceptibility and cancer treatment efficacy. We emphasize work showing that it is important to measure repair capacity in multiple pathways, and that functional assays are required to fill a gap left by genome wide association studies, global gene expression and proteomics. Finally, we discuss research that will be needed to overcome barriers that currently limit the use of DNA repair assays in the clinic. PMID:24780560

  2. The Laparoscopic Approach to Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.; Levy, Ryan M.; Witteman, Bart P.L.; Luketich, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair continues to be one of the most challenging procedures facing the minimally invasive surgeon. A thorough understanding of the tenets of the operation and advanced skills in minimally invasive laparoscopy are needed for long-term freedom from symptomatic and anatomic recurrence. These include complete reduction of the hernia sac from the mediastinum back into the abdomen with careful preservation of the integrity of muscle and peritoneal lining of the crura, aggressive and complete mobilization of the esophagus to the level of the inferior pulmonary vein, clear identification of the gastroesophageal junction to allow accurate assessment of the intraabdominal esophageal length and use of Collis gastroplasty when esophageal lengthening is required for a tension-free intraabdominal repair. Liberal mobilization of the phrenosplenic and phrenogastric attachments substantially increases the mobility of the left limb of the crura, allowing for a tension-free primary closure in a large percentage of patients. The following describes our current approach to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair following a decade of refinement in a high-volume center. PMID:22160778

  3. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Repair with Internal Brace Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Brian L.; Cain, E. Lyle; Emblom, Benton A.; Frantz, Jamie T.; Dugas, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Objective: Our purpose is to describe a novel surgical technique for Ulnar Collateral Ligament repair in the young adolescent, and present the clinical results of a retrospective cohort of patients. We hypothesized that using an internal brace to augment the repair of the native ulnar collateral ligament would allow for a more aggressive physical therapy protocol and ultimately facilitate both an expeditious return to sport and a high level of patient satisfaction. Methods: Methods: After obtaining IRB approval for this study, our institutional electronic database was utilized to identify all patients who had undergone our novel technique for UCL repair between the years 2013-2014. An orthopedic fellow conducted phone surveys and the KJOC questionnaire was administered. Primary outcome measures included KJOC scores at 6 and 12 months, time to initiation of a plyometrics regimen, an interval throwing program and return to sports. Secondary measures including patient satisfaction, level of competition achieved and percent return to normal were also collected. Results: Results: Twenty-two patients (19 male/3 female, average age 17.8 years) underwent surgery between 2013-2014. All patients were high school level athletes at the time of injury and included nineteen baseball players (13 pitchers), two football players, a javelin thrower and a cheerleader. Injury patterns included seven proximal tears, one mid substance, thirteen distal and four avulsions. Nine patients underwent ulnar transposition at the time of surgery, one had undergone prior transposition and the remainder of the patient’s ulnar nerves were left in situ. At six and twelve months the average KJOC scores respectively were 88.3 and 93. Patients that underwent transposition had KJOC scores of 78.3 at six months and 97.5 at twelve while patients that were left in-situ scored 82 and 91. These differences were not significant. The average number of weeks until initiation of plyometrics was

  4. Factors predicting sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries

    PubMed Central

    He, Bo; Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Qingtang; Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Canbin; Li, Pengliang; Zhu, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries. DATA SOURCES: The online PubMed database was searched for English articles describing outcomes after the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries in humans with a publication date between 1 January 1990 and 16 February 2011. STUDY SELECTION: The following types of article were selected: (1) clinical trials describing the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries published in English; and (2) studies that reported sufficient patient information, including age, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, and repair materials. SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and to investigate the patient and intervention factors associated with outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensory function was assessed using the Mackinnon-Dellon scale and motor function was assessed using the manual muscle test. Satisfactory motor recovery was defined as grade M4 or M5, and satisfactory sensory recovery was defined as grade S3+ or S4. RESULTS: Seventy-one articles were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that repair time, repair materials, and nerve injured were independent predictors of outcome after the repair of nerve injuries (P < 0.05), and that the nerve injured was the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery. CONCLUSION: Predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up. PMID:25206870

  5. Maintenance of Glare Structures and Glare as Riveted or Bonded Repair Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woerden, H. J. M.; Sinke, J.; Hooijmeijer, P. A.

    2003-07-01

    Aircraft structures constructed from new and advanced materials will become more common in the near future, starting with the use of the Fibre Metal Laminate Glare in large parts of the Airbus A-380 fuselage. These materials are primarily used because of their excellent damage tolerance properties. However, questions about maintenance and repair of such structures need to be answered before such new materials can be used. These questions include whether new and advanced materials can be repaired in a conventional way, which would not only be preferable from the operator's point of view (no change in tools, maintenance procedures, and personnel training), but also from the manufacturer's point of view (Structural Repair Manuals similar to aluminium structures). A Glare demonstrator panel has been designed and applied to an Airbus A-310 and research into the repairability of Glare has been performed to answer these questions. Apart from looking into the repairability of Glare structures, the material itself is also investigated as material for bonded repair patches. Bonded repair many times proves to be a more viable solution than conventional riveted repair due to its more efficient load transfer. Important aspects of bonded (Glare) repair are under investigation to show that bonded patch repair is not only working for the ageing aircraft of several Air Forces around the world, but is also a promising candidate for safe and cost-effective repairs to ageing and new (incidental damage) aircraft of commercial operators. This research is conducted cooperatively by Delft University of Technology and the United States Air Force Academy and has led to two real-life repairs on a C-5A ``Galaxy''.

  6. DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase. PMID:24148612

  7. Scalp repair using tissue expanders.

    PubMed

    Mangubat, E Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Repair of scalp defects is often challenging, because without careful planning, excision of the defect may leave unsatisfactory cosmesis. Contemporary techniques in hair restoration surgery allow creation of natural and undetectable results, but these techniques are often unsuitable for repairing large scarred areas of hair loss. However, by using older techniques of scalp reduction and tissue expansion, excision of many large scarring defects can be accomplished. Combining older methods with modern hair restoration surgery permits the satisfactory treatment of many previously untreatable conditions. This article focuses on tissue expansion as an adjunct to repairing large scalp defects. PMID:24017990

  8. Contemporary Concepts for the Bilateral Cleft Lip and Nasal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rohit K.; McGregor, Jyoti; Kelley, Patrick K.; Gruss, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    The bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity presents a complex challenge for repair. Surgical techniques continue to evolve and are focused on primary anatomic realignment of the tissues. This can be accomplished in a single-stage or two-stage repair early in infancy to provide a foundation for future growth of the lip and nasal tissue. Most cleft surgeons currently perform a single-stage repair for simplifying patient care. Certain institutions utilize presurgical orthopedics for alignment of the maxillary segments and nasal shaping. Methods for the bilateral cleft lip repair are combined with various open and closed rhinoplasty techniques to achieve improved correction of the primary nasal deformity. There is recent focus on shaping the nose for columellar and tip support, as well as alar contour and alar base position. The authors will present a new technique for closure of the nasal floor to prevent the alveolar cleft fistula. Although the alveolar fistula is closed, alveolar bone grafting is still required at the usual time in dental development to fuse the maxilla. It is paramount to try and minimize the stigmata of secondary deformities that historically have been characteristic of the repaired bilateral cleft lip. A properly planned and executed repair reduces the number of revisions and can spare a child from living with secondary deformities. PMID:24179448

  9. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  10. DNA repair in cancer: emerging targets for personalized therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abbotts, Rachel; Thompson, Nicola; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is under constant threat from endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. Mammalian cells have evolved highly conserved DNA repair machinery to process DNA damage and maintain genomic integrity. Impaired DNA repair is a major driver for carcinogenesis and could promote aggressive cancer biology. Interestingly, in established tumors, DNA repair activity is required to counteract oxidative DNA damage that is prevalent in the tumor microenvironment. Emerging clinical data provide compelling evidence that overexpression of DNA repair factors may have prognostic and predictive significance in patients. More recently, DNA repair inhibition has emerged as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Synthetic lethality exploits intergene relationships where the loss of function of either of two related genes is nonlethal, but loss of both causes cell death. Exploiting this approach by targeting DNA repair has emerged as a promising strategy for personalized cancer therapy. In the current review, we focus on recent advances with a particular focus on synthetic lethality targeting in cancer. PMID:24600246

  11. Potentials of endogenous neural stem cells in cortical repair

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bhaskar; Jaber, Mohamed; Gaillard, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades great thrust has been put in the area of regenerative neurobiology research to combat brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The recent discovery of neurogenic niches in the adult brain has led researchers to study how to mobilize these cells to orchestrate an endogenous repair mechanism. The brain can minimize injury-induced damage by means of an immediate glial response and by initiating repair mechanisms that involve the generation and mobilization of new neurons to the site of injury where they can integrate into the existing circuit. This review highlights the current status of research in this field. Here, we discuss the changes that take place in the neurogenic milieu following injury. We will focus, in particular, on the cellular and molecular controls that lead to increased proliferation in the Sub ventricular Zone (SVZ) as well as neurogenesis. We will also concentrate on how these cellular and molecular mechanisms influence the migration of new cells to the affected area and their differentiation into neuronal/glial lineage that initiate the repair mechanism. Next, we will discuss some of the different factors that limit/retard the repair process and highlight future lines of research that can help to overcome these limitations. A clear understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological changes following brain damage and the subsequent endogenous repair should help us develop better strategies to repair damaged brains. PMID:22509153

  12. Stalled transcription complexes promote DNA repair at a distance

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Nia M.; Kim, Young-In T.; Smith, Abigail J.; Savery, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TCR) accelerates the removal of noncoding lesions from the template strand of active genes, and hence contributes to genome-wide variations in mutation frequency. Current models for TCR suppose that a lesion must cause RNA polymerase (RNAP) to stall if it is to be a substrate for accelerated repair. We have examined the substrate requirements for TCR using a system in which transcription stalling and damage location can be uncoupled. We show that Mfd-dependent TCR in bacteria involves the formation of a damage search complex that can detect lesions downstream of a stalled RNAP, and that the strand specificity of the accelerated repair pathway is independent of the requirement for a lesion to stall RNAP. We also show that an ops (operon polarity suppressor) transcription pause site, which causes backtracking of RNAP, can promote the repair of downstream lesions when those lesions do not themselves cause the polymerase to stall. Our findings indicate that the transcription-repair coupling factor Mfd, which is an ATP-dependent superfamily 2 helicase that binds to RNAP, continues to translocate along DNA after RNAP has been displaced until a lesion in the template strand is located. The discovery that pause sites can promote the repair of nonstalling lesions suggests that TCR pathways may play a wider role in modulating mutation frequencies in different parts of the genome than has previously been suspected. PMID:24554077

  13. Is Surgical Repair of the Fallopian Tubes Ever Appropriate?

    PubMed Central

    Sotrel, Ginter

    2009-01-01

    The overall median prevalence of infertility, defined as no conception after more than 12 months of unprotected intercourse with the husband or cohabiting partner in women aged 15 to 44 years, is approximately 9%. About 25% to 33% of female infertility is the result of tubal disease and endometriosis. In view of very successful alternative treatment of tubal factor infertility, the surgical repair of the fallopian tubes is all but obsolete and has been replaced with assisted reproductive technology. This article reviews situations in which surgical repair of the fallopian tubes may facilitate conception. PMID:19826575

  14. The RecQ DNA helicases in DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kara A.; Gangloff, Serge; Rothstein, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    The RecQ helicases are conserved from bacteria to humans and play a critical role in genome stability. In humans, loss of RecQ gene function is associated with cancer predisposition and/or premature aging. Recent data have shown that the RecQ helicases function during two distinct steps during DNA repair; DNA end resection and resolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs). RecQ functions in these different processing steps has important implications for its role in repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) that occur during DNA replication, meiosis and at specific genomic loci such as telomeres. PMID:21047263

  15. Neural repair in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic injury to the adult brain often results in substantial loss of neural tissue and subsequent permanent functional impairment. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been developed to harness the regenerative potential of neural stem cells and the existing fate plasticity of neural cells in the nervous system to prevent tissue loss or to enhance structural and functional regeneration upon injury. Here, we review recent advances of stem cell-associated neural repair in the adult brain, discuss current challenges and limitations, and suggest potential directions to foster the translation of experimental stem cell therapies into the clinic. PMID:26918167

  16. Mesh plug repair and groin hernia surgery.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A W; Rutkow, I M

    1998-12-01

    Since the mid-1980s, dramatic progress has been made in the evolution of hernia surgery, highlighted by the increasing use of prosthetic mesh. Among the mesh-based "tension-free" hernioplasties, the use of mesh plugs has garnered a large number of spirited enthusiasts, and plug herniorrhaphy has become the fastest growing hernia repair currently employed by the American surgeon. To demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of mesh plugs, a 9-year experience with almost 3300 patients is reported. Technical details are discussed and presentation of a literature search serves to further emphasize the utilitarian nature of this elegantly unsophisticated surgical operation. PMID:9927981

  17. The potential of neural transplantation for brain repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major health problem worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment to improve neural structural repair and functional recovery of patients in the clinic. Cell transplantation is a potential strategy to repair and regenerate the injured brain. This review article summarized recent development in cell transplantation studies for post-traumatic brain injury brain repair with varying types of cell sources. It also discussed the potential of neural transplantation to repair/promote recovery of the injured brain following traumatic brain injury. PMID:26981070

  18. Repair of webbed fingers - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/presentations/100096.htm Repair of webbed fingers - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Finger Injuries and Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  19. Cleft lip and palate repair

    MedlinePlus

    Orofacial cleft; Craniofacial birth defect repair; Cheiloplasty; Cleft rhinoplasty; Palatoplasty; Tip rhinoplasty ... A cleft lip is a birth defect: A cleft lip may be just a small notch in the lip. It may also be a complete split in the ...

  20. Rotator cuff repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... shoulder and arm bones. The tendons can be torn from overuse or injury. ... Surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff is usually very successful at relieving pain in the shoulder. The procedure is less predictable at returning strength ...

  1. Nucleotide excision repair in humans.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process. PMID:26388429

  2. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  3. Anterior Repair with Processed Dermis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Anterior Repair with Axis® Tutoplast® Processed Dermis and Digitex® - Performed by Dr. Manish Patel Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  9. Machine Repairers and Operators. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on machine repairers and operators, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include appliance repairers,…

  10. Age to survive: DNA damage and aging.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Björn; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2008-02-01

    Aging represents the progressive functional decline and increased mortality risk common to nearly all metazoans. Recent findings experimentally link DNA damage and organismal aging: longevity-regulating genetic pathways respond to the accumulation of DNA damage and other stress conditions and conversely influence the rate of damage accumulation and its impact for cancer and aging. This novel insight has emerged from studies on human progeroid diseases and mouse models that have deficient DNA repair pathways. Here we discuss a unified concept of an evolutionarily conserved 'survival' response that shifts the organism's resources from growth to maintenance as an adaptation to stresses, such as starvation and DNA damage. This shift protects the organism from cancer and promotes healthy aging. PMID:18192065

  11. Endovascular repair or open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: a Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Badger, S A; Harkin, D W; Blair, P H; Ellis, P K; Kee, F; Forster, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) may improve outcomes for patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). The study aim was to compare the outcomes for eEVAR with conventional open surgical repair for the treatment of RAAA. Setting A systematic review of relevant publications was performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing eEVAR with open surgical repair for RAAA were included. Participants 3 RCTs were included, with a total of 761 patients with RAAA. Interventions Meta-analysis was performed with fixed-effects models with ORs and 95% CIs for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% CIs for continuous data. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was short-term mortality. Secondary outcome measures included aneurysm-specific and general complication rates, quality of life and economic analysis. Results Overall risk of bias was low. There was no difference between the 2 interventions on 30-day (or in-hospital) mortality, OR 0.91 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.22; p=0.52). 30-day complications included myocardial infarction, stroke, composite cardiac complications, renal complications, severe bowel ischaemia, spinal cord ischaemia, reoperation, amputation and respiratory failure. Reporting was incomplete, and no robust conclusion was drawn. For complication outcomes that did include at least 2 studies in the meta-analysis, there was no clear evidence to support a difference between eEVAR and open repair. Longer term outcomes and cost per patient were evaluated in only a single study, thus precluding definite conclusions. Conclusions Outcomes between eEVAR and open repair, specifically 30-day mortality, are similar. However, further high-quality trials are required, as the paucity of data currently limits the conclusions. PMID:26873043

  12. Mitral valve repair versus replacement

    PubMed Central

    Keshavamurthy, Suresh; Gillinov, A. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative, ischemic, rheumatic and infectious (endocarditis) processes are responsible for mitral valve disease in adults. Mitral valve repair has been widely regarded as the optimal surgical procedure to treat mitral valve dysfunction of all etiologies. The supporting evidence for repair over replacement is strongest in degenerative mitral regurgitation. The aim of the present review is to summarize the data in each category of mitral insufficiency and to provide recommendations based upon this data. PMID:26309824

  13. Effects of hyperthermia on DNA repair pathways: one treatment to inhibit them all.

    PubMed

    Oei, Arlene L; Vriend, Lianne E M; Crezee, Johannes; Franken, Nicolaas A P; Krawczyk, Przemek M

    2015-01-01

    The currently available arsenal of anticancer modalities includes many DNA damaging agents that can kill malignant cells. However, efficient DNA repair mechanisms protect both healthy and cancer cells against the effects of treatment and contribute to the development of drug resistance. Therefore, anti-cancer treatments based on inflicting DNA damage can benefit from inhibition of DNA repair. Hyperthermia - treatment at elevated temperature - considerably affects DNA repair, among other cellular processes, and can thus sensitize (cancer) cells to DNA damaging agents. This effect has been known and clinically applied for many decades, but how heat inhibits DNA repair and which pathways are targeted has not been fully elucidated. In this review we attempt to summarize the known effects of hyperthermia on DNA repair pathways relevant in clinical treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we outline the relationships between the effects of heat on DNA repair and sensitization of cells to various DNA damaging agents. PMID:26245485

  14. Repair Integrity and Clinical Outcomes Following Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ariel A.; Mark, P.; DiVenere, Jessica Megan; Klinge, Stephen Austin; Arciero, Robert A.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the effect of early versus delayed motion on repair integrity on 6-month postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans following rotator cuff repair, and to correlate repair integrity with clinical and functional outcomes. We hypothesized that repair integrity would differ between the early and delayed groups and that patients with repair failures would have worse clinical and functional outcomes. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, single blinded clinical trial comparing an early motion (post-op day 2-3) to a delayed motion (post-op day 28) rehabilitation protocol following arthroscopic repair of isolated supraspinatus tears. All patients underwent MRI at 6 months post-operatively as part of the study protocol. A blinded board-certified and fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon (not part of the surgical team) reviewed operative photos and video to confirm the presence of a full thickness supraspinatus tear and to ensure an adequate and consistent repair. The same surgeon along with a blinded sports medicine fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist independently reviewed all MRIs to determine whether the repair was intact at 6 months. Outcome measures were collected by independent evaluators who were also blinded to group assignment. These included the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) ratings, pain scores, sling use, and physical exam data. Enrolled patients were followed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Results: From October 2008 to April 2012, 73 patients met all inclusion criteria and were willing to participate. 36 patients were randomized to delayed motion and 37 were randomized to early motion. The final study group at 6 months consisted of 58 study participants. Postoperative MRIs were obtained on all of these patients at 6 months regardless of whether or not they were progressing as expected. These MRIs demonstrated an overall failure rate of

  15. Challenges and complexities in estimating both the functional impact and the disease risk associated with the extensive genetic variation in human DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Mohrenweiser, Harvey W; Wilson, David M; Jones, Irene M

    2003-05-15

    Individual risk and the population incidence of disease result from the interaction of genetic susceptibility and exposure. DNA repair is an example of a cellular process where genetic variation in families with extreme predisposition is documented to be associated with high disease likelihood, including syndromes of premature aging and cancer. Although the identification and characterization of new genes or variants in cancer families continues to be important, the focus of this paper is the current status of efforts to define the impact of polymorphic amino acid substitutions in DNA repair genes on individual and population cancer risk. There is increasing evidence that mild reductions in DNA repair capacity, assumed to be the consequence of common genetic variation, affect cancer predisposition. The extensive variation being found in the coding regions of DNA repair genes and the large number of genes in each of the major repair pathways results in complex genotypes with potential to impact cancer risk in the general population. The implications of this complexity for molecular epidemiology studies, as well as concepts that may make these challenges more manageable, are discussed. The concepts include both experimental and computational approaches that could be employed to develop predictors of disease susceptibility based on DNA repair genotype, focusing initially on studies to assess functional impact on individual proteins and pathways and then on molecular epidemiology studies to assess exposure-dependent health risk. In closing, we raise some of the non-technical challenges to the utilization of the full richness of the genetic variation to reduce disease occurrence and ultimately improve health care. PMID:12714187

  16. Comparative performance of current definitions of sarcopenia against the prospective incidence of falls among community dwelling seniors age 65 and older

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To compare the extent to which 7 available definitions of sarcopenia and 2 related definitions predict the prospective rate of falling. Methods: We studied a cohort of 445 seniors (mean age 71 years, 45% men) living in the community who were followed with a detailed fall assessment for 3 ...

  17. A Selective Intervention Program for Inhibited Preschool-Aged Children of Parents with an Anxiety Disorder: Effects on Current Anxiety Disorders and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Edwards, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of early intervention for preschool-aged children at risk of anxiety disorders is investigated. Brief early intervention delivered through parents can reduce anxiety and associated risk and may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety in some young children.

  18. Influence of Current Input-Output and Age of First Exposure on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current…

  19. Cartilage Repair in the Inflamed Joint: Considerations for Biological Augmentation Toward Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Celeste; Gobbi, Alberto; Karnatzikos, Georgios; Martin, Ivan; Shimomura, Kazunori; Lane, John G; Peretti, Giuseppe Michele; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2016-04-01

    Cartilage repair/regeneration procedures (e.g., microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation [ACI]) typically result in a satisfactory outcome in selected patients. However, the vast majority of patients with chronic symptoms and, in general, a more diseased joint, do not benefit from these surgical techniques. The aims of this work were to (1) review factors negatively influencing the joint environment; (2) review current adjuvant therapies that can be used to improve results of cartilage repair/regeneration procedures in patients with more diseased joints, (3) outline future lines of research and promising experimental approaches. Chronicity of symptoms and advancing patient age appear to be the most relevant factors negatively affecting clinical outcome of cartilage repair/regeneration. Preliminary experience with hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma, and mesenchymal stem cell has been positive but there is no strong evidence supporting the use of these products and this requires further assessment with high-quality, prospective clinical trials. The use of a Tissue Therapy strategy, based on more mature engineered tissues, holds promise to tackle limitations of standard ACI procedures. Current research has highlighted the need for more targeted therapies, and (1) induction of tolerance with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or by preventing IL-6 downregulation; (2) combined IL-4 and IL-10 local release; and (3) selective activation of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling appear to be the most promising innovative strategies. For older patients and for those with chronic symptoms, adjuvant therapies are needed in combination with microfracture and ACI. PMID:26467024

  20. Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.