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  1. Adult Life-Span Patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Performance: Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Age Gradients and Relations to Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aging patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Test (BDT) were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One sample (35-80 years, n=1000) was assessed in 1988-1990 and five years later (836 returned). An independent cohort-matched sample (n=974) was assessed at Time 2 to control for practice effects. Relations between BDT, gender, and education were…

  2. Why are there different age relations in cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of cognitive functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for researchers interested in investigating relations between aging and cognitive functioning is distinguishing influences of aging from other determinants of cognitive performance. For example, cross-sectional comparisons may be distorted because people of different ages were born and grew up in different time periods, and longitudinal comparisons may be distorted because performance on a second occasion is influenced by the experience of performing the tests on the first occasion. One way in which these different types of influences might be investigated is with research designs involving comparisons of people of different ages from the same birth cohorts who are all tested for the first time in different years. Results from several recent studies using these types of designs suggest that the age trends in some cognitive abilities more closely resemble those from cross-sectional comparisons than those from longitudinal comparisons. These findings imply that a major reason for different age trends in longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons of cognitive functioning is that the prior experience with the tests inflates scores on the second occasion in longitudinal studies. PMID:25382943

  3. Activation Cross Sections Improvements needed for IFE Power Reactors Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A; Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; FalQuina, R; Latkowski, J; Reyes, S

    2003-10-02

    Uncertainties in the prediction of the neutron induced long-lived activity in the natural elements from H to Bi due to activation cross section uncertainties are estimated assuming as neutron environment those of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero vessel structures. The latest available activation cross section data are employed. The random variables used in the uncertainty analysis have been the concentration limits (CL's) corresponding to hands-on recycling, remote recycling and shallow land burial, quantities typically considered in ranking elements under waste management considerations. The CL standard value (CL{sub nom}), i.e. without uncertainties, is compared with the 95th percentile CL value (CL95). The results of the analysis are very helpful in assessing the quality of the current activation data for IFE applications, providing a rational basis for programmatic priority assignments for new cross sections measurements or evaluations. The HYLIFE-II results shown that a significant error is estimated in predicting the activation of several elements. The estimated errors in the Sombrero case are much less important.

  4. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  5. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  6. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are cross-sectionally associated with insulin secretion in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Josephine M; Sourris, Karly C; de Courten, Maximilian P J; Dougherty, Sonia L; Chand, Vibhasha; Lyons, Jasmine G; Bertovic, David; Coughlan, Melinda T; Schlaich, Markus P; Soldatos, Georgia; Cooper, Mark E; Straznicky, Nora E; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; de Courten, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    It has been postulated that chronic exposure to high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), in particular from dietary sources, can impair insulin secretion. In the present study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between AGEs and acute insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy humans. We report the cross-sectional association between circulating AGE concentrations and insulin secretory function in healthy humans (17 F: 27 M, aged 30 ± 10 years) with a wide range of BMI (24.6-31.0 kg/m(2)). Higher circulating concentrations of AGEs were related to increased first phase insulin secretion during IVGTT (r = 0.43; p < 0.05) and lower 2-h glucose concentrations during OGTT (r = -0.31; p < 0.05). In addition, fasting (r = -0.36; p < 0.05) and 2-h glucose concentrations were negatively related to circulating levels of soluble receptor for AGE (RAGE) isoforms (r = -0.39; p < 0.01). In conclusion, in healthy humans, we show a cross-sectional association between advanced glycation end products and acute insulin secretion during glucose tolerance testing.

  7. A probabilistic methodology for radar cross section prediction in conceptual aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Nathan Robert

    System effectiveness has increasingly become the prime metric for the evaluation of military aircraft. As such, it is the decision maker's/designer's goal to maximize system effectiveness. Industry and government research documents indicate that all future military aircraft will incorporate signature reduction as an attempt to improve system effectiveness and reduce the cost of attrition. Today's operating environments demand low observable aircraft which are able to reliably take out valuable, time critical targets. Thus it is desirable to be able to design vehicles that are balanced for increased effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that shaping of the vehicle is one of the most important contributors to radar cross section, a measure of radar signature, and must be considered from the very beginning of the design process. Radar cross section estimation should be incorporated into conceptual design to develop more capable systems. This research strives to meet these needs by developing a conceptual design tool that predicts radar cross section for parametric geometries. This tool predicts the absolute radar cross section of the vehicle as well as the impact of geometry changes, allowing for the simultaneous tradeoff of the aerodynamic, performance, and cost characteristics of the vehicle with the radar cross section. Furthermore, this tool can be linked to a campaign theater analysis code to demonstrate the changes in system and system of system effectiveness due to changes in aircraft geometry. A general methodology was developed and implemented and sample computer codes applied to prototype the proposed process. Studies utilizing this radar cross section tool were subsequently performed to demonstrate the capabilities of this method and show the impact that various inputs have on the outputs of these models. The F/A-18 aircraft configuration was chosen as a case study vehicle to perform a design space exercise and to investigate the relative impact of

  8. Age and Gender Differences in Ability Emotional Intelligence in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A.; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the…

  9. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection. PMID:27656219

  10. Optimal hydraulic design of earth dam cross section using saturated-unsaturated seepage flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.-Q.; Unami, K.; Kawachi, T.

    An optimal hydraulic design problem regarding an earth dam cross section is formulated as an inverse problem for the steady model of saturated-unsaturated seepage flows in porous media. In the problem formulation, the choice of soil material to be used in each point of the dam cross sectional domain is considered as the control variable to be identified. The performance index used to evaluate the appropriateness of the design is defined as the sum of two square integral norms, which represent reducing the saturated zone and minimizing material costs. It is also shown that the first norm bounds the total seepage discharge through the earth dam. Since the governing variational boundary value problem as well as the adjoint problem is well-posed, a deterministic approach is taken. A numerical scheme including pseudo-unsteady terms is developed to calculate the optimal solution in an ideal earth dam cross section to be designed utilizing two different types of soil material. The results show that an inclined clay core of less hydraulic conductivity should be located on the upstream side of the cross section. The unsaturated zone turns out to play an important role in the flow field and the optimal design.

  11. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiandong; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe's characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude's sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement.

  12. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jiandong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-12-15

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe’s characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude’s sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement.

  13. Age-related differences in emotion recognition ability: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mill, Aire; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Valk, Raivo

    2009-10-01

    Experimental studies indicate that recognition of emotions, particularly negative emotions, decreases with age. However, there is no consensus at which age the decrease in emotion recognition begins, how selective this is to negative emotions, and whether this applies to both facial and vocal expression. In the current cross-sectional study, 607 participants ranging in age from 18 to 84 years (mean age = 32.6 +/- 14.9 years) were asked to recognize emotions expressed either facially or vocally. In general, older participants were found to be less accurate at recognizing emotions, with the most distinctive age difference pertaining to a certain group of negative emotions. Both modalities revealed an age-related decline in the recognition of sadness and -- to a lesser degree -- anger, starting at about 30 years of age. Although age-related differences in the recognition of expression of emotion were not mediated by personality traits, 2 of the Big 5 traits, openness and conscientiousness, made an independent contribution to emotion-recognition performance. Implications of age-related differences in facial and vocal emotion expression and early onset of the selective decrease in emotion recognition are discussed in terms of previous findings and relevant theoretical models.

  14. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  15. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  16. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. SENSIT: a cross-section and design sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code. [In FORTRAN for CDC-7600, IBM 360

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE.

  18. Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16 years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents. PMID:24056481

  19. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P < 0.01 considered significant. Results Male (n = 49, 1.5–28.5 years) and female (n = 60, 1.8–24.6 years) baboons were included in the study. Age was significantly correlated with systolic (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001), with blood pressure increasing with age. Age was also highly correlated with core augmentation index (R2 = 0.17, P < 0.001) and core pulse pressure (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). Creatinine and urea were significantly higher in older animals compared to young animals (P < 0.001 for both). Older animals (>12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  1. Association between age and knee structural change: a cross sectional MRI based study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, C; Cicuttini, F; Scott, F; Cooley, H; Jones, G

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the associations between age, knee cartilage morphology, and bone size in adults. Methods: A cross sectional convenience sample of 372 male and female subjects (mean age 45 years, range 26–61) was studied. Knee measures included a cartilage defect five site score (0–4 respectively) and prevalence (defect score of ⩾2 at any site), cartilage volume and thickness, and bone surface area and/or volume. These were determined at the patellar, medial, and lateral tibial and femoral sites using T1 weighted fat saturation MRI. Height, weight, and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) were measured by standard protocols. Results: In multivariate analysis, age was significantly associated with knee cartilage defect scores (ß = +0.016 to +0.073/year, all p<0.01) and prevalence (OR = 1.05–1.10/year, all p<0.05) in all compartments. Additionally, age was negatively associated with knee cartilage thickness at all sites (ß = –0.013 to –0.035 mm/year, all p<0.05), and with patellar (ß = –11.5 µl/year, p<0.01) but not tibial cartilage volume. Lastly, age was significantly positively associated with medial and lateral tibial surface bone area (ß = +3.0 to +4.7 mm2/year, all p<0.05) and patellar bone volume (ß = +34.4 µl/year, p<0.05). Associations between age and tibiofemoral cartilage defect score, cartilage thickness, and bone size decreased in magnitude after adjustment for ROA, suggesting these changes are directly relevant to OA. Conclusion: The most consistent knee structural changes with increasing age are increase in cartilage defect severity and prevalence, cartilage thinning, and increase in bone size with inconsistent change in cartilage volume. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine which of these changes are primary and confirm their relevance to knee OA. PMID:15769915

  2. Health promotion behavior in middle-aged Koreans: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Baek, Sunsook; Kim, Heejeong

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to verify self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support as characteristics of health promotion behavior in middle-aged Koreans, and the influence of social support on self-efficacy and self-esteem with respect to health promotion behavior. Data were collected from 310 subjects in South Korea using a self-administered questionnaire. We found a significant finding that self-efficacy positively influences health promotion behavior, focusing on the moderating effect of social support. Self-efficacy affected health promotion behavior (P < 0.01) as did social support. Mean self-efficacy, self-esteem, health promotion behavior, and social support scores were 50.27, 29.35, 124.39, and 76.51, respectively. This finding provides strong evidence that social support can be used as a model to understand health promotion behavior. Individualized nursing interventions based on social support and self-efficacy theory should be utilized in high-risk middle-aged patients so as to assist and improve health promotion behavior. Also, in community practice settings, nurses should consider that increased social support and self-efficacy are required to improve health promotion behaviors.

  3. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  4. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  5. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  6. The role of integral experiments and nuclear cross section evaluations in space nuclear reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, David L.; McKnight, Richard D.

    The importance of the nuclear and neutronic properties of candidate space reactor materials to the design process has been acknowledged as has been the use of benchmark reactor physics experiments to verify and qualify analytical tools used in design, safety, and performance evaluation. Since June 1966, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has acted as an interagency forum for the assessment and evaluation of nuclear reaction data used in the nuclear design process. CSEWG data testing has involved the specification and calculation of benchmark experiments which are used widely for commercial reactor design and safety analysis. These benchmark experiments preceded the issuance of the industry standards for acceptance, but the benchmarks exceed the minimum acceptance criteria for such data. Thus, a starting place has been provided in assuring the accuracy and uncertainty of nuclear data important to space reactor applications.

  7. Estimation of gestational age, using neonatal anthropometry: a cross-sectional study in India.

    PubMed

    Thawani, Rajat; Dewan, Pooja; Faridi, M M A; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-12-01

    Prematurity is a significant contributor to neonatal mortality in India. Conventionally, assessment of gestational age of newborns is based on New Ballard Technique, for which a paediatric specialist is needed. Anthropometry of the newborn, especially birthweight, has been used in the past to predict the gestational age of the neonate in peripheral health facilities where a trained paediatrician is often not available. We aimed to determine if neonatal anthropometric parameters, viz. birthweight, crown heel-length, head-circumference, mid-upper arm-circumference, lower segment-length, foot-length, umbilical nipple distance, calf-circumference, intermammary distance, and hand-length, can reliably predict the gestational age. The study also aimed to derive an equation for the same. We also assessed if these neonatal anthropometric parameters had a better prediction of gestational age when used in combination compared to individual parameters. We evaluated 1,000 newborns in a cross-sectional study conducted in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital in Delhi. Detailed anthropometric estimation of the neonates was done within 48 hours after birth, using standard techniques. Gestational age was estimated using New Ballard Scoring. Out of 1,250 consecutive neonates, 1,000 were included in the study. Of them, 800 randomly-selected newborns were used in devising the model, and the remaining 200 newborns were used in validating the final model. Quadratic regression analysis using stepwise selection was used in building the predictive model. Birthweight (R=0.72), head-circumference (R = 0.60), and mid-upper arm-circumference (R = 0.67) were found highly correlated with gestation. The final equation to assess gestational age was as follows: Gestational age (weeks) = 5.437 x W-0.781 x W(2) + 2.815 x HC-0.041 x HC(2) + 0.285 x MUAC-22.745 where W=Weight, HC=Head-circumference and MUAC=Mid-upper arm-circumference; Adjusted R = 0.76. On validation, the predictability of this equation is 46

  8. Design, Response Rates, and Population Characteristics of a Cross-Sectional Study in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nyangasa, Maria Adam; Kelm, Soerge; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, “Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population,” data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. Objective The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project. Methods A cross-sectional study across 80 randomly selected Shehias (wards) was conducted in 2013 in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Examinations included all members living in 1 household, face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist and hip circumference, and body composition) were assessed for all household members, blood pressure was taken from participants older than 2 years, and biosamples (urine and blood) from eligible household members were collected. Data collected from the core sample included sociodemographic data, nutritional status, and medical history (hypertension). Physical activity data was collected from a subsample of children between 3 and 16 years of age. Results A total of 1314 participants (mean age 23.6 ± 18.9 years, 54.54% female) completed all anthropometric measurements and were included in the analysis. Out of which, 98.40% (1293/1314) completed the household member’s questionnaire, 93.32% (1229/1314) participants older than 2 years completed blood pressure measurements, and 64.31% (845/1314) blood samples were collected from participants older than 5 years. Underweight prevalence for the total study population was 36.53% (480/1314) with the highest prevalence in children under 14 years. Overweight and obesity was highest among females with the prevalence of 7

  9. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data.

  10. Age differences in the monitoring of learning: cross-sectional evidence of spared resolution across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Christopher; Sinclair, Starlette M; Dunlosky, John

    2010-07-01

    Researchers of metacognitive development in adulthood have exclusively used extreme-age-groups designs. We used a full cross-sectional sample (N = 285, age range: 18-80) to evaluate how associative relatedness and encoding strategies influence judgments of learning (JOLs) in adulthood. Participants studied related and unrelated word pairs and made JOLs. After a cued-recall test, retrospective item strategy reports were collected. Results revealed developmental patterns not available from previous studies (e.g., a linear age-related increase in aggregate JOL resolution across the life span). They also demonstrated the value of investigating multiple cues' influences on JOLs. Multilevel regression models showed that both relatedness and effective strategy use positively and independently influenced JOLs. Furthermore, effective strategy use was responsible for higher resolution of JOLs for unrelated items (relative to related items). The effects of relatedness and strategy use with JOLs did not interact with age. The monitoring of learning is spared by adult development despite age differences in learning itself.

  11. Kidney function changes with aging in adults: comparison between cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses in renal function assessment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang M; Lee, David J; Hand, Austin; Young, Philip; Vaidyanathan, Jayabharathi; Sahajwalla, Chandrahas

    2015-12-01

    The study evaluated whether the renal function decline rate per year with age in adults varies based on two primary statistical analyses: cross-section (CS), using one observation per subject, and longitudinal (LT), using multiple observations per subject over time. A total of 16628 records (3946 subjects; age range 30-92 years) of creatinine clearance and relevant demographic data were used. On average, four samples per subject were collected for up to 2364 days (mean: 793 days). A simple linear regression and random coefficient models were selected for CS and LT analyses, respectively. The renal function decline rates per year were 1.33 and 0.95 ml/min/year for CS and LT analyses, respectively, and were slower when the repeated individual measurements were considered. The study confirms that rates are different based on statistical analyses, and that a statistically robust longitudinal model with a proper sampling design provides reliable individual as well as population estimates of the renal function decline rates per year with age in adults. In conclusion, our findings indicated that one should be cautious in interpreting the renal function decline rate with aging information because its estimation was highly dependent on the statistical analyses. From our analyses, a population longitudinal analysis (e.g. random coefficient model) is recommended if individualization is critical, such as a dose adjustment based on renal function during a chronic therapy.

  12. Burden of multimorbidity in relation to age, gender and immigrant status: a cross-sectional study based on administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Avaldi, Vera Maria; Pieri, Giulia; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. Design Cross-sectional study based on administrative data. Setting Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with ∼4.4 million inhabitants, of which almost one-fourth are aged ≥65 years. Participants All adults residing in Emilia-Romagna on 31 December 2012. Hospitalisations, drug prescriptions and contacts with community mental health services from 2003 to 2012 were traced to identify the presence of 17 physical and 9 mental health disorders. Primary and secondary outcome measures Descriptive analysis of differences in the prevalence of multimorbidity in relation to age, gender and citizenship. The correlations of diseases were analysed using exploratory factor analysis. Results The study population included 622 026 men and 751 011women, with a mean age of 66.4 years. Patients with multimorbidity were 33.5% in 75 years and >60% among patients aged ≥90 years; among patients aged ≥65 years, the proportion of multimorbidity was 39.9%. After standardisation by age and gender, multimorbidity was significantly more frequent among Italian citizens than among immigrants. Factor analysis identified 5 multimorbidity patterns: (1) psychiatric disorders, (2) cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary and cerebrovascular diseases, (3) neurological diseases, (4) liver diseases, AIDS/HIV and substance abuse and (5) tumours. Conclusions Multimorbidity was highly prevalent in Emilia-Romagna and strongly associated with age. This finding highlights the need for healthcare providers to adopt

  13. Hearing Loss as a Function of Aging and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon; Kim, MyungGu; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hearing loss may be caused by various factors, it is also a natural phenomenon associated with the aging process. This study was designed to assess the contributions of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, both chronic diseases associated with aging, as well as aging itself, to hearing loss in health screening examinees. Methods This study included 37,773 individuals who underwent health screening examinations from 2009 to 2012. The relationships between hearing threshold and subject age, hearing threshold at each frequency based on age group, the degree of hearing loss and the presence or absence of hypertension and DM were evaluated. Results The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being 1.6%, 1.8%, 4.6%, 14.0%, 30.8%, and 49.2% in subjects in their twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, and seventies, respectively (p<0.05). Hearing value per frequency showed aging-based changes, in the order of 6000, 4000, 2000, 1000 and 500 Hz, indicating greater hearing losses at high frequencies. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to severe. Aging and DM were correlated with the prevalence of hearing loss (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant association between hearing loss and hypertension after adjusting for age and DM. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age and the presence of DM. Hearing loss was greatest at high frequencies. In all age groups, mild hearing loss was the most common form of hearing loss. PMID:25549095

  14. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  15. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  16. Where science meets policy: comparing longitudinal and cross-sectional designs to address diarrhoeal disease burden in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Amanda R; Goldstick, Jason E; Levy, Karen; Cevallos, William; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Trostle, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies are considered preferable to cross-sectional studies for informing public health policy. However, when resources are limited, the trade-off between an accurate cross-section of the population and an understanding of the temporal variation should be optimized. When risk factors vary more across space at a fixed moment in time than at a fixed location across time, cross-sectional studies will tend to give more precise estimates of risk factor effects and thus may be a better source of data for policy judgments. Methods We conducted a diarrhoeal disease surveillance of 5616 individuals within 19 Ecuadorian villages. This data set was used to mimic cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by restricting focus to a single week and a single village, respectively. We compared the variability in risk factor effect estimates produced from each type of study. Results For household risk factors, the effect estimates produced by the longitudinal studies were more variable than their cross-sectional counterparts, which can be explained by greater spatial than temporal variability in the risk factor distribution. For example, the effect estimate of improved sanitation was almost twice as variable in longitudinal studies. Conclusions In our study, cross-sectional designs yielded more consistent evaluations of diarrhoea disease risk factors when those factors varied more between villages than over time. Cross-sectional studies can provide information that is representative across large geographic regions and therefore can provide insight for local, regional and national policy decisions. The value of the cross-sectional study should be reconsidered in the public health community. PMID:22253314

  17. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  18. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  19. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants 7228 from fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), the survey's short form and year: ‘KLoSA 2012’. Main outcome measures BMI. Results BMI among the employed was higher than among the unemployed for those under 60. In terms of gender, employed men reported higher BMI than their unemployed counterparts, whereas employed women reported lower BMI than did unemployed women. Conclusions Employment status showed varying impacts on obesity by age and gender. Both unemployment at or after 60, as well as unemployment among women, is associated with increased BMI compared with unemployment among younger individuals or men, respectively. PMID:27852710

  20. Parental perceptions of children's modesty: a cross-sectional survey of ages two to ten years.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, A; Siegel-Gorelick, B; Haavik, D; Duryea, M; Wenegrat, A; Martin, J; Bailey, R

    1984-11-01

    Modesty has been defined as decorum in relation to physical nakedness, and sexual and eliminative behavior (Newson and Newson 1968). The connection between nakedness, sexuality, and modesty with respect to family members dates back millennia. Leviticus prohibited incest with the phrase, "Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of ..." and then specified a lengthy list of forbidden relatives. We will review contemporary theories and research projects concerning modesty and then discuss the results of a study we designed in order to investigate age trends in the development of modesty.

  1. Age estimation using annulations in root cementum of human teeth: A comparison between longitudinal and cross sections

    PubMed Central

    Mallar, Kavya B; Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay; Kumar, BN Yathindra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age estimation is an important factor in the identification of an individual in forensic science. Research indicates that cemental annulations may be used more reliably than other morphological or histological traits of human skeleton for age estimation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five teeth were sectioned longitudinally, and twenty-five teeth were cross-sectioned at the mid portion of the root. Sections were ground, mounted and viewed under a bright light microscope. The area selected for counting was photographed under ×10 objective, magnified 5 times; cemental lines were counted and added to the eruption age of that patient, to obtain the chronological age. The statistical software SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, MedCalc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used for the analysis of the data. Results: The P value comparing actual age and calculated age using longitudinal sections is moderately significant and the P value comparing actual age and calculated age in the age group of <30 years is significant. Interpretation and Conclusion: The middle third of tooth root was most suitable to count annulations. The cross sections are easier to count but longitudinal sections give more appropriate results on age estimation. Though the procedure predicts under assessment of age in the younger age group and over assessment of age in the older age group, it provides a close estimate of the actual age of an individual. It can be correlated with other age estimation methods for better reliability. PMID:26980973

  2. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    PubMed

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  3. Age dependency of peripheral and central systolic blood pressures: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Staessen, Jan A; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; O'Rourke, Michael; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have described the age-related changes in both peripheral and central systolic blood pressures (SBPs) in populations. We addressed this issue in 1066 women and 978 men, all untreated (mean age, 45.1 years; 27.2% hypertensive) and randomly selected from a Chinese population, of whom 369 and 330 underwent a repeat examination after 3.6 years (median). In cross-sectional analyses, central SBP increased more with age than peripheral SBP in women below age 50 (1.21 vs. 1.01 mm Hg per year; P<0.001) and in men below age 60 (0.73 vs. 0.48 mm Hg per year; P<0.001), whereas in older women (0.64 vs. 0.58 mm Hg per year; P=0.27) and older men (0.45 vs. 0.44 mm Hg per year; P=0.79), the slopes of central and peripheral SBPs on age were similar. Compared with men, women had steeper (P<0.001) age-related increases in peripheral and central SBPs. Systolic augmentation pressure increased with age, but this increase was substantially smaller (P<0.0001) for peripheral than central augmentation (women, 0.086 vs. 0.45 mm Hg per year; men, 0.083 vs. 0.39 mm Hg per year). In multivariable-adjusted regression, age contributed ≥89.7% of the explained variance in peripheral and central SBPs. In longitudinal analyses, the annual percentage increases from baseline to follow-up in peripheral and central SBP were similar (P≥0.76) in both women (2.14% vs. 2.16 % per year) and men (1.33% vs. 1.34 % per year; P-values for sex difference ≤0.044). In conclusion, in younger subjects assessed cross-sectionally, the age-related increase was larger for central than peripheral SBP, whereas the corresponding cross-sectional estimates in older subjects and the longitudinal estimates in all subjects showed similar age-related increases in central and peripheral SBP.

  4. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence.

  5. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes.

  6. The Effects of Age on Divergent Thinking and Creative Objects Production: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massimiliano, Palmiero

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in divergent thinking and creative objects production were investigated in 150 native Italian speakers, divided into six age groups, each one comprised 25 participants: young (20-29), young adult (30-39), middle aged (40-49), adult-old (50-59), old (60-69), and old-old (70-80). Two tasks were used: the alternative uses task,…

  7. Health literacy in old age: results of a German cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dominique; Schaeffer, Doris; Messer, Melanie; Berens, Eva-Maria; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2017-03-22

    Health literacy is especially important for older people to maintain or enhance remaining health resources and self-management skills. The aim of the study was to determine the level of health literacy and the association between health literacy, demographic and socio-economic factors in German older adults aged 65 years and above stratified by age group. Health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using HLS-EU-Q47 on a representative sample of the German-speaking population. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression modelling stratified by age group were conducted to assess health literacy of 475 respondents aged 65 years and above. Overall, 66.3% of all respondents aged 65 years and above had limited health literacy. Limited health literacy was especially prevalent among respondents above 76 years of age (80.6%). Limited health literacy was associated with financial deprivation (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.99-4.67) and limited functional health literacy (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.29-3.61). Financial deprivation was strongest predictor for limited health literacy in the total sample and stratified by age group. Limited health literacy is a frequent phenomenon in German adults aged 65 years and above. Research on health literacy in old age and the role in health disparities is urgently needed.

  8. REM Dreaming and Cognitive Skills at Ages 5-8: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes laboratory research on REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in children ages five to eight. Image quality, self-representation, and narrative complexity of dreams all develop as age progresses. Children's representational intelligence predicts their rate of dream production, but language skills do not. (GH)

  9. Principle and Uncertainty Quantification of an Experiment Designed to Infer Actinide Neutron Capture Cross-Sections

    SciTech Connect

    G. Youinou; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatorre; G. Imel; R. Pardo; F. Kondev; M. Paul

    2010-01-01

    An integral reactor physics experiment devoted to infer higher actinide (Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) neutron cross sections will take place in the US. This report presents the principle of the planned experiment as well as a first exercise aiming at quantifying the uncertainties related to the inferred quantities. It has been funded in part by the DOE Office of Science in the framework of the Recovery Act and has been given the name MANTRA for Measurement of Actinides Neutron TRAnsmutation. The principle is to irradiate different pure actinide samples in a test reactor like INL’s Advanced Test Reactor, and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation allows the energy integrated neutron cross-sections to be inferred since the relation between the two are the well-known neutron-induced transmutation equations. This approach has been used in the past and the principal novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined with the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) facility located at ANL. While AMS facilities traditionally have been limited to the assay of low-to-medium atomic mass materials, i.e., A < 100, there has been recent progress in extending AMS to heavier isotopes – even to A > 200. The detection limit of AMS being orders of magnitude lower than that of standard mass spectroscopy techniques, more transmutation products could be measured and, potentially, more cross-sections could be inferred from the irradiation of a single sample. Furthermore, measurements will be carried out at the INL using more standard methods in order to have another set of totally uncorrelated information.

  10. Design and simulation of MEMS vector hydrophone with reduced cross section based meander beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Dutta, S.; Pal, Ramjay; Jain, K. K.; Gupta, Sudha; Bhan, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    MEMS based vector hydrophone is being one of the key device in the underwater communications. In this paper, we presented a bio-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone. The hydrophone structure consists of a proof mass suspended by four meander type beams with reduced cross-section. Modal patterns of the structure were studied. First three modal frequencies of the hydrophone structure were found to be 420 Hz, 420 Hz and 1646 Hz respectively. The deflection and stress of the hydrophone is found have linear behavior in the 1 µPa - 1Pa pressure range.

  11. RAGE and AGEs in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs; RAGE) binds to both AGEs and amyloid-beta peptides. RAGE is involved in chronic complications of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to investigate the roles of RAGE, AGEs and the Gly82Ser polymorphism of RAGE in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Of the 167 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients recruited, 82 satisfied the diagnostic criteria for MCI, and 85 matched control individuals were classified as non-MCI. Demographic data were collected, and the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) concentrations, serum AGE-peptide (AGE-P) levels, RAGE Gly82Ser genotype and neuropsychological test results were examined. Results The MCI group exhibited a decreased sRAGE level (0.87±0.35 vs. 1.05±0.52 ng/ml, p<0.01) and an increased serum AGE-P level (3.54±1.27 vs. 2.71±1.18 U/ml, p<0.01) compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each unit reduction in the sRAGE concentration increased the MCI risk by 54% (OR 0.46[95% CI 0.22–0.96], p = 0.04) and that each unit increase in the AGE-P level increased the MCI risk by 72% in the type 2 diabetes patients (OR 1.72[95% CI 1.31–2.28], p<0.01). The serum sRAGE level was negatively correlated with the score on the trail making test-B (TMT-B) (r = -0.344, p = 0.002), which indicates early cognitive deficits related to diabetes. Moreover, the AGE-P level was positively correlated with multiple cognitive domains (all p<0.05). No significant differences in the neuropsychological test results or serum RAGE concentrations between the different RAGE genotypes or in the RAGE genotype frequencies between the MCI and control groups were identified (all p>0.05). Conclusions The RAGE pathway partially mediates AGE-induced MCI in diabetic patients. The serum AGE-P level may serve as a serum biomarker of MCI in these individuals, and sRAGE represents a predictor and even a potential intervention target of

  12. Age and Environment Determined Children’s Preference Towards Dentist Attire - A Cross - Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Karthikeyan, Shanmugaavel; Subbramanian, EMG; Samuel, Victor A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The attire of the dentist has an influence on child’s behaviour in dental setup. Recent research has shown that the children have preferences towards the outfit worn by the dentist. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the preference of children towards dentists’ attire based on various age groups and environment. Materials and Methods A total of 534 children aged between 6-11 years participated in the study. Children were divided into three groups based on their age as younger, middle and older age groups. Photographs of the dentist in different attires such as white coat, surgical scrubs and regular outfit were shown to children and the questionnaire was evaluated by a single, qualified Paediatric dentist in two different environmental set ups, namely school and dental environment. The anxiety level was evaluated by using Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Data was collected and tabulated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Results A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards dentist attire (p-value= 0.002). There was a positive correlation in the preference level of children towards dentist attire in different age groups. A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards the dentist attire in school and dental environment (p-value <0.001). Conclusion Younger age group children preferred regular outfit and middle and older age group preferred white coat and surgical scrubs respectively. Children preferred white coat in school environment and surgical scrubs in dental environment. PMID:27891450

  13. Hair elements and healthy aging: a cross-sectional study in Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhe; Li, Yonghua; Liu, Yuan; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi; Yu, Jiangping

    2016-06-01

    Healthy aging is considered as the core issue of aging population. Centenarians are a symbol of healthy aging. Concentration of elements in hair is an indicator of micronutrient status, which can affect the human health. In the present study, we investigated element concentrations in the scalp hair of 255 healthy centenarians from Hainan Island, China. The pattern of intergenerational transmission of elements and the effects of confounders such as sex, age, education level, smoking habits, alcohol intake, and frequency of hospitalization on hair element concentrations were assessed. For most elements, the load in hair increased significantly through intergenerational transmission (i.e., centenarians < children < grandchildren). Our results also demonstrated that female centenarians had significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Se, and Sr but lower levels of Cr and P. The Mn level was statistically significantly lower in the primary studies group. Alcohol intake was positively associated with Cd and Na levels, whereas smoking habits showed no significant effect on all the elements. Furthermore, the frequency of hospitalization was significantly positively associated with Cd, Cu, and Pb concentration. Moreover, our analysis suggested that adequate concentrations of Fe and Se might increase the life span of centenarians, whereas excessive concentrations of P and Pb were harmful to health and reduced life span. These results imply that element concentrations could be manipulated as a therapeutic modality in geriatric disease. They might also provide reference values for diseased subjects, allowing improved diagnoses and more effective therapies, which might support effective policies on health and aging.

  14. Does lifelong training temper age-related decline in sport performance? Interpreting differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Young, Bradley W; Weir, Patricia L; Starkes, Janet L; Medic, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In the face of remarkable aging trends in North American society, organized sport/physical activity is an important vehicle for promoting physical health, and a domain in which long-term participation might mitigate pessimistic trends for age decline. This investigation examined patterns of age-related decline in performance for 45 Masters runners who rigorously trained continuously for at least a decade. Longitudinal data for age and performance were collected for 200 m, 1500 m, and 10 km events retrospectively across participants' careers. Cross-sectional (CS) data representing normal patterns of aging were derived from online archives. Longitudinal data reflected within-participant training effects whereas CS data did not. Second-order regression analyses were performed separately for each data type and quadratic beta coefficients, indicative of accelerated age decline, were compared for CS and longitudinal samples on a within-event basis. Results showed evidence of accelerated decline with advancing age for both samples, although rates for longitudinal samples were moderated for the 200 m and 1500 m events. Findings for the long-distance event were anomalous. Results provide evidence for moderated age-decline in physical performance measures for individuals who sustain engagement in organized sport for lengthy periods. Discussion focuses on methodological considerations for advancing future research that contrasts CS and longitudinal samples, and the importance of encouraging sport involvement opportunities to aging individuals.

  15. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  16. ORIGEN-ARP Cross-Section Libraries for Magnox, Advanced Gas-Cooled, and VVER Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, BD

    2004-03-10

    Cross-section libraries for the ORIGEN-ARP system were extended to include four non-U.S. reactor types: the Magnox reactor, the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, the VVER-440, and the VVER-1000. Typical design and operational parameters for these four reactor types were determined by an examination of a variety of published information sources. Burnup simulation models of the reactors were then developed using the SAS2H sequence from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system. In turn, these models were used to prepare the burnup-dependent cross-section libraries suitable for use with ORIGEN-ARP. The reactor designs together with the development of the SAS2H models are described, and a small number of validation results using spent-fuel assay data are reported.

  17. Condoning Aggressive Behaviour in Sport: A Cross-Sectional Research in a Few Consecutive Age Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruchart, Eric; Rulence-Pâques, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the way in which 216 young handball players ("Mage" = 12.79, SD = 2.20) of different ages (nine- to 10-years-old, 11- to 12-years-old, 13- to 14-years-old, and 15- to 16-years-old) combined and integrated five different information cues (the consequences of the aggression, the current score, the time…

  18. Migration, age, and education: a cross-sectional analysis of geographic labor mobility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoki, T; Suruga, T

    1981-11-01

    "This paper presents some new empirical evidence on the determinants of prefecture-to-city migration in Japan, using a model based on the human capital-search theoretic approach." Several hypotheses relating the rate of migration to age, education, distance moved, and earnings are tested, and the applicability of the theoretical framework to the analysis of labor migration in Japan is evaluated. Data are from the 1970 census and the 1968 Employment Status Survey.

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency in Reproductive Age Mongolian Women: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N.; Troisi, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20 ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D = 20–29 ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18–44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20–29 ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30 ng/ml or 75 nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should

  20. Vitamin D deficiency in reproductive age Mongolian women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, Lindsay A; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D=20-29ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18-44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D<20ng/ml (50nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20-29ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30ng/ml or 75nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered

  1. Potentially inappropriate medications use in community-based aged patients: a cross-sectional study using 2012 Beers criteria

    PubMed Central

    Zeenny, Rony; Wakim, Samira; Kuyumjian, Yara-Mary

    2017-01-01

    Background Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) should be avoided by the aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of PIMs among Lebanese aged outpatients using Beers criteria of 2012. The secondary objectives were to identify the correlates of the PIMs use and to compare the PIMs prevalence rates as per Beers criteria of 2003 and 2012. Methods This cross-sectional observational study was conducted among aged outpatients of different accredited community pharmacies across Lebanon. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire. The Beers criteria of 2012 were used to evaluate PIMs. The association between PIMs used and independent variables were analyzed by logistic regression. The differences between PIMs use according to Beers criteria 2003 and 2012 were calculated using chi-squared and McNemar’s tests. Results A total of 248 outpatients were analyzed. We identified 112 (45.2%) out of 248 patients taking PIMs. The leading classes of medications identified to cause PIMs were those acting on the central nervous system (71.4%). The factors associated with PIMs use were age, osteoporosis, Alzheimer/dementia, diabetes, and alcohol consumption. PIMs use increased significantly between Beers criteria 2003 and 2012 (Chi-squared test, P<0.001; McNemar’s test, P<0.001). Conclusion Our study showed a high prevalence of PIMs use in Lebanon, which is associated with various correlates. Education of health care providers and medication review should be considered to improve medication safety of older adults. PMID:28115835

  2. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Choueiry, Nour; Salamoun, Tracy; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sleep disorders (SDs) are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013–2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7). Results The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8–13.4%), more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76). 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively). Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006) and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003). 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (p<0.0001). Conclusions The magnitude of SDs in this sample of Lebanese university students demonstrate the importance of examining sleep health in this population. Moreover, the link between SD and anxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems. PMID:26900686

  3. ARE HEALTH VISITORS' OBSERVATIONS OF EARLY PARENT-INFANT INTERACTIONS RELIABLE? A CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Ingeborg H; Trillingsgaard, Tea; Simonsen, Marianne; Kronborg, Hanne

    2017-03-01

    Health visitors need competences to promote healthy early parent-infant relationships. The aims of this study were to explore whether there are differences between groups of health visitors with and without additional parenting program education in terms of their knowledge of infant-parent interaction and their observation and assessment skills of such interactions. The cross-sectional study included 36 health visitors' certified Marte Meo therapists and 85 health visitors without additional parenting program education. Health visitors' observation skills were measured assessing five video-recorded mother-infant interactions. A questionnaire was used to measure their intention, self-efficacy, and knowledge. More certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a significantly higher mean level of knowledge of the early relationship, 6.42 (95% CI; 6.18-6.66) versus 5.05 (95% CI; 4.86-6.10), p = .04; and more certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a higher mean level of knowledge of infant self-regulation, 2.44 (95% CI; 2.18-2.71) versus 1.83 (95% CI; 1.62-2.03), p < .001. In the latter group, 54% (95% CI; 0.43-0.64) reported a significantly higher need for further education versus 22% (95% CI; 0.11-0.39), p = .001. Compared to health visitors without any parenting program education, health visitors certified as Marte Meo therapists reported a significantly higher frequency of correct assessment of mothers' sensitivity in two of five video-recordings, with 77.78% (95% CI; 0.61-0.87) compared to 45.88% (95% CI; 0.35-0.57) in Video 3, p = .001, and 69.44% (95% CI; 0.52-0.82) compared to 49.41% (95% CI; 0.39-0.60) in Video 4, p = .04, respectively. The results of the present study support the use of video-based education of health visitors to increase their knowledge of and skills in assessing parent-infant interactions. Randomized controlled

  4. Knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination among women of childbearing age: a cross-sectional study from a rural district of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Noreen, N; Kumar, R; Shaikh, B T

    2015-04-02

    Pakistan is considered as an intermediate zone of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with an estimated population prevalence of 2-7%. This study assessed knowledge about HBV and vaccination among women of childbearing age in a rural setting of Punjab province, Pakistan. In 2012 a cross-sectional, community-based survey of 430 women was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Less than half of the women (43%) surveyed had correct knowledge about HBV vaccination, and knowledge was especially poor among the low socioeconomic groups. Age, level of education and obstetric history of the respondents were significantly associated with knowledge about HBV and its vaccination. The main sources of information regarding HBV vaccination were lady health workers (53%) and traditional birth attendants (22%). Health promotion and behaviour change campaigns highlighting the importance of hepatitis B vaccine need to be designed to meet the needs of rural areas where women have little exposure to the mass media.

  5. Reference and working memory deficits in the 3xTg-AD mouse between 2 and 15-months of age: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Leanne M; Brown, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Impairments in working memory (WM) can predict the shift from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the rate at which AD progresses with age. The 3xTg-AD mouse model develops both Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the neuro-pathological hallmarks of AD, by 6 months of age, but no research has investigated the age-related changes in WM in these mice. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested male and female 3xTg-AD and wildtype control (B6129SF2/J) mice between 2 and 15 months of age for reference and working memory errors in the 8-arm radial maze. The 3xTg-AD mice had deficits in both working and reference memory across the ages tested, rather than showing the predicted age-related memory deficits. Male 3xTg-AD mice showed more working and reference memory errors than females, but there were no sex differences in wildtype control mice. These results indicate that the 3xTg-AD mouse replicates the impairments in WM found in patients with AD. However, these mice show memory deficits as early as two months of age, suggesting that the genes underlying reference and working memory in these mice cause deficits from an early age. The finding that males were affected more than females suggests that more attention should be paid to sex differences in transgenic AD mice.

  6. Overweight and television and computer habits in Swedish school-age children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

  7. Associations Between Biomarkers and Age in the Presenilin 1 E280A Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease Kindred A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Jakimovich, Laura J.; Gomez, Madelyn Gutierrez; Langois, Carolyn M.; Langbaum, Jessica B. S.; Roontiva, Auttawut; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Lee, Wendy; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Lopez, Liliana; Moreno, Sonia; Muñoz, Claudia; Tirado, Victoria; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Fagan, Anne M.; Giraldo, Margarita; Garcia, Gloria; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (AD) kindred. OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers in PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional measures of 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography, 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarkers of AD were assessed from 54 PSEN1 E280A kindred members (age range, 20-59 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We used brain mapping algorithms to compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and gray matter volumes in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers and noncarriers. We used regression analyses to characterize associations between age and the mean cortical to pontine 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, hippocampal gray matter volume, CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and plasma Aβ measurements. Age at onset of progressive biomarker changes that distinguish carriers from noncarriers was estimated using best-fitting regression models. RESULTS Compared with noncarriers, cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers had significantly lower precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, smaller hippocampal volume, lower CSF Aβ1-42, higher CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and higher plasma Aβ1-42 measurements. Sequential changes in biomarkers were seen at age 20 years (95% CI, 14-24 years) for CSF Aβ1-42, age 16 years (95% CI, 11-24 years) for the mean cortical 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratio, age 15 years (95% CI, 10-24 years) for precuneus cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, age 15 years (95% CI, 7-20 years) for CSF total tau

  8. Who has undiagnosed dementia? A cross-sectional analysis of participants of the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Savva, George M.; Arthur, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Background: delays in diagnosing dementia may lead to suboptimal care, yet around half of those with dementia are undiagnosed. Any strategy for case finding should be informed by understanding the characteristics of the undiagnosed population. We used cross-sectional data from a population-based sample with dementia aged 71 years and older in the United States to describe the undiagnosed population and identify factors associated with non-diagnosis. Methods: the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study (ADAMS) Wave A participants (N = 856) each underwent a detailed neuropsychiatric investigation. Informants were asked whether the participant had ever received a doctor's diagnosis of dementia. We used multiple logistic regression to identify factors associated with informant report of a prior dementia diagnosis among those with a study diagnosis of dementia. Results: of those with a study diagnosis of dementia (n = 307), a prior diagnosis of dementia was reported by 121 informants (weighted proportion = 42%). Prior diagnosis was associated with greater clinical dementia rating (CDR), from 26% (CDR = 1) to 83% (CDR = 5). In multivariate analysis, those aged 90 years or older were less likely to be diagnosed (P = 0.008), but prior diagnosis was more common among married women (P = 0.038) and those who had spent more than 9 years in full-time education (P = 0.043). Conclusions: people with dementia who are undiagnosed are older, have fewer years in education, are more likely to be unmarried, male and have less severe dementia than those with a diagnosis. Policymakers and clinicians should be mindful of the variation in diagnosis rates among subgroups of the population with dementia. PMID:25758406

  9. Lung Transfer Factor in Middle Aged Asymptomatic Male Smokers of a City from West India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically. PMID:27134864

  10. Gender differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability in old age: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Onadja, Yentéma; Atchessi, Nicole; Soura, Bassiahi Abdramane; Rossier, Clémentine; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability between older men and women in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and to assess the extent to which these differences could be attributable to gender inequalities in life course social and health conditions. Data were collected on 981 men and women aged 50 and older in a 2010 cross-sectional health survey conducted in the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Leganés cognitive test. Mobility disability was self-reported as having any difficulty walking 400 m without assistance. We used logistic regression to assess gender differences in cognitive impairment and mobility disability. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 27.6% in women and 7.7% in men, and mobility disability was present in 51.7% of women and 26.5% of men. The women to men odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for cognitive impairment and mobility disability was 3.52 (1.98-6.28) and 3.79 (2.47-5.85), respectively, after adjusting for the observed life course social and health conditions. The female excess was only partially explained by gender inequalities in nutritional status, marital status and, to a lesser extent, education. Among men and women, age, childhood hunger, lack of education, absence of a partner and being underweight were independent risk factors for cognitive impairment, while age, childhood poor health, food insecurity and being overweight were risk factors for mobility disability. Enhancing nutritional status and education opportunities throughout life span could prevent cognitive impairment and mobility disability and partly reduce the female excess in these disabilities.

  11. A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie; Olorunju, Steve A S; Kock, Marleen M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age. Design Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. Setting Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa. Participants 220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs. Primary and secondary outcomes BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status. Results The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF. Conclusions The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:26482771

  12. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  13. Relation between Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Arterial Stiffness: A Cross-Sectional Study of Middle-Aged Japanese Civil Servants

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kita, Toshiko; Okada, Eisaku; Satoh, Hiroki; Kawaharada, Mariko; Kishi, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and arterial stiffness in a large-scale Japanese study. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sapporo City, Hokkaido, Japan. Participants: Local government employees aged 35-62 years, who underwent annual health checkups from April 2003 to March 2004. After excluding those with incomplete data, data from 4,268 employees (males: 3,410) participants were analyzed. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) was investigated as an indicator of arterial stiffness. We used a self-administered questionnaire, which included items on daily sleep duration, lifestyle factors, and occupational factors. Sleep duration was classified into 5 categories; “ ≤ 5 h,” “6 h,” “7 h,” “8 h,” and “ ≥ 9 h.” Results of multiple linear regression analysis after fully adjusting the model revealed that subjects with ≥ 9 h of daily sleep had significantly elevated baPWV values compared with the reference group with 7 h of sleep. Stratified analyses by sex showed that there was a significant association among male subjects only. Conclusions: Daily sleep duration ≥ 9 h was found to be associated with elevated values of baPWV. This suggests that there is an association between long sleep duration and arterial stiffness. Citation: Yoshioka E; Saijo Y; Kita T; Okada E; Satoh H; Kawaharada M; Kishi R. Relation between self-reported sleep duration and arterial stiffness: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged Japanese civil servants. SLEEP 2011;34(12):1681-1686. PMID:22131605

  14. Musculoskeletal profile of middle-aged Ving Tsun Chinese martial art practitioners: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chan, Jessie S M; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Kuisma, Raija

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners.Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ± standard deviation = 51.8 ± 17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ± standard deviation = 58.7 ± 11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively.VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P < 0.001), a 60.8% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of knee flexors (P < 0.001), and a 31.4% shorter time to reach peak torque in the knee flexors (P = 0.001) than the active controls. No significant differences were found in any of the other musculoskeletal outcomes between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults.

  15. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents Aged 12-18: A Cross-Sectional Survey of 18,104 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Okazaki, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620…

  16. Only Time Will Tell: Cross-Sectional Studies Offer No Solution to the Age-Brain-Cognition Triangle--Comment on Salthouse (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Naftali; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Salthouse (2011) critically reviewed cross-sectional and longitudinal relations among adult age, brain structure, and cognition (ABC) and identified problems in interpretation of the extant literature. His review, however, missed several important points. First, there is enough disparity among the measures of brain structure and cognitive…

  17. Use of iron supplements in children aged 1-2 years with iron deficiency anemia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sezik, Handan Atsiz; Can, Huseyin; Kurnaz, Mehmet Ali; Tuna, Mine; Ay, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutritional problem in the world and is the most common cause of childhood anemia. In this study, our aim was to find out about the state of usage of iron preparation, which is distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Health, for the infants between 4-12 months in our country, as well as detecting the awareness degree of families those who are informed about iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), prophylaxis of the drug and to determine the drug’s effectiveness. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey. The laboratory values from the files of the children aged 1-2 those who visited our hospital’s department of pediatrics, between January 2010 to August 2013, were collected. The survey included families who have children diagnosed with IDA. Questions included about families’ sociodemographic characteristics, the state of the usage of the iron drug, how much information received in terms of the side effects- consumption period and dosage. Results: A total of 139 children were enrolled in our study. While 77.7% of the families who participated stated that (n = 108) iron medicine was prescribed other 43.2% of families stated (n = 60) was prescribed and they were informed about iron pills and IDA. 25.9% of families had received information about drug’s side effects, 74.8% of them had information about period of consumption and 77.7% said they were given information about the drug dose. The average duration of use of iron medicine was 6.98±4.52 (min: 1, max: 24) months. It has been noted that; parent’s education level, mother’s occupation, child’s gender, how the child was born and receiving information about how to use the medicine had no effects on usage of the drug in children. Nevertheless, it has been noticed that, when the families were given proper information the drug use increased and the patients compliance with medications also increased. Conclusion: We believe that, due to frequent diagnosis of

  18. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal

  19. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  20. A cross-sectional study of age-related changes in plantar pressure distribution between 4 and 7 years: a comparison of regional and pixel-level analyses.

    PubMed

    Phethean, Jill; Pataky, Todd C; Nester, Christopher J; Findlow, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying morphological and functional development in children's feet, and thereby establishing development norms is difficult. In addition to practical challenges of experimentation on children, measurement equipment like plantar pressure (PP) platforms are almost exclusively geared towards adult-sized feet. These PP quantification problems may be exacerbated by typical regional data analysis techniques, which further reduce spatial resolution. The goal of this study was to quantify PP distributions in developing children, and also to compare the results obtained from typical (regional) techniques with those obtained from a higher-resolution (pixel-level) technique. Ninety-eight children between four and seven years of age were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Maximum PP distributions were collected for each child, and these pressures were linearly regressed against age. Present results agree with previous investigations in that maximum pressures and maximum pressure changes occurred in the forefoot. However, results from the present pixel-level technique suggest that these changes are limited to the central metatarsals, and that regional methods can suggest significance where none exists in the actual raw (pixel-level) data, due to signal aliasing and, in particular, to conflation of regional boundaries. We postulate that increased central metatarsal pressures are reflective of the coupling between generalised joint laxity decreases and relatively increasingly inclined central metatarsal bones with age.

  1. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  2. MMPI-2 Profile of French Transsexuals: The Role of Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors. A cross-sectional design

    PubMed Central

    Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual’s sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability. PMID:27068099

  3. Mental health clinicians' attitudes about consumer and consumer consultant participation in Australia: A cross-sectional survey design.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen; Baird, John; Lu, Sai

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mental health clinicians' attitudes about mental health consumer participation in inpatient psychiatric units. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a non-probability sample of 47 clinicians in the psychiatric units of a large Australian hospital. The results showed that gender, length of time as a clinician, and how long the staff worked in the units influenced their attitudes about consumer involvement. Females were more likely than males to support consumer participation in management and consumer consultants. Less experienced staff showed greater support than more experienced staff for mental health consumer involvement in treatment-related matters and consumer consultants in units. New staff members were more likely to register agreement-to-uncertainty regarding consumer involvement in treatment-related issues, whereas established staff members were more likely to record uncertainty about this issue. The findings showed that although reports and policies promoted participation, some clinicians were reluctant to accept consumer and consultant involvement.

  4. Intraclass correlation and design effect in BMI, physical activity and diet: a cross-sectional study of 56 countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and design effect (DE) may help to modify the public health interventions for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and diet according to geographic targeting of interventions in different countries. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of clustering and DE in BMI, physical activity and diet in 56 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Multicountry national survey data. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS), 2003, data were used to examine clustering in BMI, physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and diet in fruits and vegetables intake (FVI) from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Multistage sampling in the WHS used geographical clusters as primary sampling units (PSU). These PSUs were used as a clustering or grouping variable in this analysis. Multilevel intercept only regression models were used to calculate the ICC and DE for each country. Results The median ICC (0.039) and median DE (1.82) for BMI were low; however, FVI had a higher median ICC (0.189) and median DE (4.16). For MET, the median ICC was 0.141 and median DE was 4.59. In some countries, however, the ICC and DE for BMI were large. For instance, South Africa had the highest ICC (0.39) and DE (11.9) for BMI, whereas Uruguay had the highest ICC (0.434) for MET and Ethiopia had the highest ICC (0.471) for FVI. Conclusions This study shows that across a wide range of countries, there was low area level clustering for BMI, whereas MET and FVI showed high area level clustering. These results suggested that the country level clustering effect should be considered in developing preventive approaches for BMI, as well as improving physical activity and healthy diets for each country. PMID:26743697

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  6. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  7. Age-related variation in mobility independence among wheelchair users with spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichs, Timo; Lay, Veronika; Arnet, Ursina; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Koch, Hans Georg; Rantanen, Taina; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate age-related variation in mobility independence among community-living wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Community Survey (2011–2013) as part of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Setting Community. Participants Individuals aged 16 years or older with traumatic or non-traumatic SCI permanently residing in Switzerland and using a wheelchair for moving around moderate distances (10–100 m). Interventions Not applicable. Outcome Measures Mobility-related items of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure-Self Report were matched to the three principal domains “changing basic body position,” “transferring oneself” and “moving around.” Binary outcomes (“independence” vs. “no independence”) were created for every domain and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression (adjusted for sex, socioeconomic factors, SCI characteristics, and health conditions). Results Regression analyses (N = 949; 27% women; median age 51, interquartile range 41–61) showed a decline in the odds of independence (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) with increasing age for “changing basic body position” (age 16–30 (reference), 31–45 (0.99; 0.53–1.83), 46–60 (0.64; 0.33–1.21), 61–75 (0.45; 0.22–0.92), 76+ (0.18; 0.07–0.44); P < 0.001), “transferring oneself” (age 16–30 (reference), 31–45 (0.77; 0.37–1.61), 46–60 (0.39; 0.18–0.84), 61+ (0.05; 0.02–0.14); P < 0.001), and “moving around” (age 16–30 (reference), 31–45 (0.79; 0.42–1.48), 46–60 (0.49; 0.26–0.94), 61–75 (0.49; 0.24–1.01), 75+ (0.11; 0.04–0.30); P < 0.001). Conclusions Mobility independence was negatively associated with age in wheelchair users with SCI. Future longitudinal analyses are required to gain further insights into the causal factors for the age-related decline. PMID:25832471

  8. Hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the Republic of Ivory Coast: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Asse Kouadio, Vincent; Yao Atteby, Jean Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) among children aged less than 5 years who had been diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and admitted to hospitals and emergency rooms (ERs). The seasonal distribution of RVGE and most prevalent rotavirus (RV) strains was also assessed. Design A cross-sectional hospital-based surveillance study. Setting 5 reference paediatric hospitals across Abidjan. Participants Children aged less than 5 years, who were hospitalised/visiting ERs for WHO-defined AGE, were enrolled. Written informed consent was obtained from parents/guardians before enrolment. Children who acquired nosocomial infection were excluded from the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The proportion of RVGE among AGE hospitalisations and ER visits was expressed with 95% exact CI. Stool samples were collected from all enrolled children and were tested for the presence of RV using an enzyme immunoassay. RV-positive samples were serotyped using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Results Of 357 enrolled children (mean age 13.6±11.14 months), 332 were included in the final analyses; 56.3% (187/332) were hospitalised and 43.7% (145/332) were admitted to ERs. The proportion of RVGE hospitalisations and ER visits among all AGE cases was 30.1% (95% CI 23.6% to 37.3%) and 26.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 34.9%), respectively. Ninety-five children (28.6%) were RV positive; the highest number of RVGE cases was observed in children aged 6–11 months. The number of GE cases peaked in July and August 2008; the highest percentage of RV-positive cases was observed in January 2008. G1P[8] wild-type and G8P[6] were the most commonly detected strains. Conclusions RVGE causes substantial morbidity among children under 5 years of age and remains a health concern in the Republic of Ivory Coast, where implementation of prevention strategies such as vaccination might help to reduce disease burden. PMID:24486676

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Static and Dynamic Vertical Scaling from Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Design Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Jiang, Yanming

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic vertical scaling (DVS) from longitudinal point of view has been proposed as comparing to traditional vertical scaling or static vertical scaling (SVS) from cross-sectional perspective. The effects of differences between DVS and SVS on large-scale student achievements have been investigated. The potential application of DVS…

  10. Link between healthy lifestyle and psychological well-being in Lithuanian adults aged 45–72: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Luksiene, Dalia; Virviciute, Dalia; Bobak, Martin; Tamosiunas, Abdonas

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study uses a cross-sectional study design to analyse the connection between psychological well-being (PWB) and components of a healthy lifestyle in the Lithuanian population aged 45–72. The purpose of our study is to establish the links between PWB and lifestyle factors such as physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns in people above the age of 44. Participants A stratified sample of 10 940 urban citizens aged 45–72 years were randomly selected from the National Population Register. The response rate was 65%. Methods PWB was evaluated by using a Control Autonomy Self-realization and Pleasure (CASP-12) questionnaire. The standard questionnaire included questions regarding the respondent's sociodemographic, socioeconomic and social status. The lifestyle questionnaire evaluated behavioural factors as smoking status, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits and physical activity. Objective measurements of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were taken. Results Adjusted for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, social and biological CVD risk factors, the probability of higher PWB increased for physically active men and women and male former smokers. Higher PWB was directly associated with consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits. Responders who consumed potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs less frequently than average were more likely to have higher PWB. A direct association was ascertained between PWB and consumption of chicken and fish, as well as an inverse association between PWB and consumption of sweets in women. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle education efforts should focus on increasing physical activity, controlling smoking and improving diversity in healthy food consumption including the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, particularly among older adults with lower PWB. PMID:28373254

  11. Tremor severity and age: a cross-sectional, population-based study of 2,524 young and midlife normal adults.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Hafeman, Danella; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Xinhua; Alcalay, Roy N; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Levy, Diane; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-07-01

    Mild action tremor occurs in most normal people. Yet this tremor mainly has been studied within the context of advanced age rather than among the vast bulk of adults who are not elderly. Whether this tremor worsens during young and middle age is unknown. Using cross-sectional data from a large population-based study of young and midlife normal adults (age range, 18-60 years), we assessed whether increasing age is associated with more severe action tremor. Two thousand five hundred and twenty-four adults in Araihazar, Bangladesh, drew an Archimedes spiral with each hand. Tremor in spirals was rated (0-3) by a blinded neurologist, and a spiral score (range, 0-6) was assigned. Spiral score was correlated with age (r = 0.06, P = .004). With each advancing decade, the spiral score increased (P = .002) so that the spiral score in participants in the highest age group (age 60) was approximately twice that of participants in the youngest age group (age 18-19); P = .003. In the regression model that adjusted for potential confounders (sex, cigarettes, medications, asthma inhalers, and tea and betel nut use), spiral score was associated with age (P = .0045). In this cross-sectional, population-based study of more than 2500 young and midlife normal adults, there was a clear association between age and tremor severity. Although the magnitude of the correlation coefficient was modest, tremor severity was higher with each passing decade. These data suggest that age-dependent increase in tremor amplitude is not restricted to older people but occurs in all adult age groups.

  12. Performance on tasks of visuospatial memory and ability: A cross-sectional study in 330 adolescents aged 11 to 20.

    PubMed

    Burggraaf, Rudolf; Frens, Maarten A; Hooge, Ignace T C; van der Geest, Jos N

    2017-01-11

    Cognitive functions mature at different points in time between birth and adulthood. Of these functions, visuospatial skills, such as spatial memory and part-to-whole organization, have often been tested in children and adults but have been less frequently evaluated during adolescence. We studied visuospatial memory and ability during this critical developmental period, as well as the correlation between these abilities, in a large group of 330 participants (aged 11 to 20 years, 55% male). To assess visuospatial memory, the participants were asked to memorize and reproduce sequences of random locations within a grid using a computer. Visuospatial ability was tested using a variation of the Design Organization Test (DOT). In this paper-and-pencil test, the participants had one minute to reproduce as many visual patterns as possible using a numerical code. On the memory task, compared with younger participants, older participants correctly reproduced more locations overall and longer sequences of locations, made fewer mistakes and needed less time to reproduce the sequences. In the visuospatial ability task, the number of correctly reproduced patterns increased with age. We show that both visuospatial memory and ability improve significantly throughout adolescence and that performance on both tasks is significantly correlated.

  13. Impact of lifetime opioid exposure on arterial stiffness and vascular age: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterise and compare the potentiation of arterial stiffness and vascular ageing by opioids in men and women. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of 576 clinical controls and 687 opioid-dependent patients (ODP) on 710 and 1305 occasions, respectively, over a total of 2382 days (6.52 years), 2006–2011. Methodology Radial pulse wave analysis with Atcor SphygmoCor system (Sydney). Setting Primary care. Participants Controls: General practice patients with non-cardiovascular disorders, and university student controls. ODP: Patients undergoing clinical management of their opioid dependence. Controls had lower chronological ages (CAs) than ODP (30.0±0.5 vs 34.5±0.3, mean±SEM, p<0.0001). 69.6% and 67.7% participants were men, and 16% and 92.3% were smokers (p<0.0001) for controls and ODP, respectively. 86.3%, 10.3% and 3.4% of ODP were treated with buprenorphine (6.98±0.21 mg), methadone (63.04±4.01 mg) or implant naltrexone, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was depressed in ODP. Interventions Nil. Primary outcome measures Vascular Reference Age (RA) and the ratio of vascular age to chronological age (RA/CA). Secondary outcome measures Arterial stiffness including Augmentation Index. Results After BMI adjustment, RA in ODP was higher as a function of CA and of time (both p<0.05). Modelled mean RA in control and ODP was 35.6 and 36.3 years (+1.97%) in men, and 34.5 and 39.2 years (+13.43%) in women, respectively. Changes in RA and major arterial stiffness indices were worse in women both as a factor (p = 0.0036) and in interaction with CA (p = 0.0040). Quadratic, cubic and quartic functions of opioid exposure duration outperformed linear models with RA/CA over CA and over time. The opioid dose–response relationship persisted longitudinally after multiple adjustments from p=0.0013 in men and p=0.0073 in women. Conclusions Data show that lifetime opioid exposure, an interactive cardiovascular risk factor

  14. A cross-sectional analysis of HIV and hepatitis C clinical trials 2007 to 2010: the relationship between industry sponsorship and randomized study design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of clinical research sponsored by industry will likely continue to expand as federal funds for academic research decreases, particularly in the fields of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C (HCV). While HIV and HCV continue to burden the US population, insufficient data exists as to how industry sponsorship affects clinical trials involving these infectious diseases. Debate exists about whether pharmaceutical companies undertake more market-driven research practices to promote therapeutics, or instead conduct more rigorous trials than their non-industry counterparts because of increased resources and scrutiny. The ClinicalTrials.gov registry, which allows investigators to fulfill a federal mandate for public trial registration, provides an opportunity for critical evaluation of study designs for industry-sponsored trials, independent of publication status. As part of a large public policy effort, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) recently transformed the ClinicalTrials.gov registry into a searchable dataset to facilitate research on clinical trials themselves. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 477 HIV and HCV drug treatment trials, registered with ClinicalTrials.gov from 1 October 2007 to 27 September 2010, to study the relationship of study sponsorship with randomized study design. The likelihood of using randomization given industry (versus non-industry) sponsorship was reported with prevalence ratios (PR). PRs were estimated using crude and stratified tabular analysis and Poisson regression adjusting for presence of a data monitoring committee, enrollment size, study phase, number of study sites, inclusion of foreign study sites, exclusion of persons older than age 65, and disease condition. Results The crude PR was 1.17 (95% CI 0.94, 1.45). Adjusted Poisson models produced a PR of 1.13 (95% CI 0.82, 1.56). There was a trend toward mild effect measure modification by study phase, but this was not statistically

  15. Parental separation and behaviours that influence the health of infants aged 7–11 months: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kacenelenbogen, Nadine; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Schetgen, M; Roland, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyse the parental behaviours that are recognised as influencing the health of very young children based on family structure (parents separated or not). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Free preventive medicine consultations in the French Community of Belgium. Participants Examination of 79 701 infants aged 7–11 months as part of a free preventive medicine consultation. The data came from an assessment conducted 7–11 months after birth during which information was collected, namely about the parents’ use of tobacco, the infant’s type of nutrition and adherence to vaccination schedules. Main outcome measures Parental behaviours: smoking, nutrition and compliance with vaccination schedule. Results The percentage of infants whose parents were separated was 6.6%. After adjusting for the cultural and socioeconomic environment as well as for other potential confounders, in the event of separation as compared with non-separated parents, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were as follows: 1.5 (1.3 to 1.7) for the infant’s exposure to tobacco; 1.3 (1.2 to 1.4) for total lack of exclusive breast feeding; 1.3 (1.1 to 1.4) and 1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) for breast feeding for a duration of less than 3 and 6 months, respectively; 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) for non-compliance with the vaccination schedule against rotavirus. The duration of exclusive breast feeding was shorter when parents were separated (p<0.001; median 10 vs 13 weeks). Conclusions This study reinforces the possibility that parental separation is independently associated with certain parental at-risk behaviours regarding the children's health. This observation should be verified because this could result in major consequences for the work of family doctors, in particular in terms of parent information and targeted prevention. PMID:25052169

  16. Co-occurrence and clustering of health conditions at age 11: cross-sectional findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Kathryn R; Fagg, James; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Law, Catherine; Hope, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify patterns of co-occurrence and clustering of 6 common adverse health conditions in 11-year-old children and explore differences by sociodemographic factors. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born in the UK between 2000 and 2002. Participants 11 399 11-year-old singleton children for whom data on all 6 health conditions and sociodemographic information were available (complete cases). Main outcome measures Prevalence, co-occurrence and clustering of 6 common health conditions: wheeze; eczema; long-standing illness (excluding wheeze and eczema); injury; socioemotional difficulties (measured using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and unfavourable weight (thin/overweight/obese vs normal). Results 42.4% of children had 2 or more adverse health conditions (co-occurrence). Co-occurrence was more common in boys and children from lower income households. Latent class analysis identified 6 classes: ‘normative’ (57.4%): ‘atopic burdened’ (14.0%); ‘socioemotional burdened’ (11.0%); ‘unfavourable weight/injury’ (7.7%); ‘eczema/injury’ (6.0%) and ‘eczema/unfavourable weight’ (3.9%). As with co-occurrence, class membership differed by sociodemographic factors: boys, children of mothers with lower educational attainment and children from lower income households were more likely to be in the ‘socioemotional burdened’ class. Children of mothers with higher educational attainment were more likely to be in the ‘normative’ and ‘eczema/unfavourable weight’ classes. Conclusions Co-occurrence of adverse health conditions at age 11 is common and is associated with adverse socioeconomic circumstances. Holistic, child focused care, particularly in boys and those in lower income groups, may help to prevent and reduce co-occurrence in later childhood and adolescence. PMID:27881529

  17. Associations of age with serum insulin, proinsulin and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratio: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin responses and insulin levels seem to decline with age. However, the question of beta cell impairment attributable to ageing has been sparsely addressed in population-based studies. Non-fasting insulin levels are determined by the ambient degree of insulin resistance together with the capacity of beta cells to compensate by insulin secretion to prevent hyperglycaemia. A raised proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (proinsulin/insulin) due to impaired processing of proinsulin is an early marker of beta cell dysfunction. We hypothesised that in a general population, signs of beta cell failure with advancing age manifest not only by decreases in random insulin, but also with a corresponding increase in its precursor proinsulin. Methods In the Tromsø Study 1994-95 we measured insulin and proinsulin concentrations in random blood samples from 6212 persons without self-reported diabetes mellitus and plotted the levels as percentiles according to age. In regression analyses we assessed the relationships between age and insulin, proinsulin, and proinsulin/insulin, while adjusting for the concomitant measurements of glucose and other metabolic variables, and the time since the last meal. Results Median insulin concentrations declined significantly with advancing age group in men, but not in women. Proinsulin levels and proinsulin/insulin increased across age groups in both genders. After adjustment, greater age was associated with lower log10(insulin) and higher log10(proinsulin) and log10(proinsulin/insulin) (p = 0.0001 for all). Conclusions Negative associations of age with random insulin levels, together with positive associations of age with proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin, point towards a loss of beta cell function inherent in the ageing process. PMID:21162746

  18. Variation in general practitioners’ information-seeking behaviour – a cross-sectional study on the influence of gender, age and practice form

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jette V.; Pedersen, Line B.; Riisgaard, Helle; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Nexøe, Jørgen; Lemmergaard, Jeanette; Søndergaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess general practitioners’ (GPs’) information-seeking behaviour and perceived importance of sources of scientific medical information and to investigate associations with GP characteristics. Design A national cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically in December 2013. Setting Danish general practice. Subjects A population of 3440 GPs (corresponding to approximately 96% of all Danish GPs). Main outcome measures GPs’ use and perceived importance of information sources. Multilevel mixed-effects logit models were used to investigate associations with GP characteristics after adjusting for relevant covariates. Results A total of 1580 GPs (46.4%) responded to the questionnaire. GPs’ information-seeking behaviour is associated with gender, age and practice form. Single-handed GPs use their colleagues as an information source significantly less than GPs working in partnership practices and they do not use other sources more frequently. Compared with their younger colleagues, GPs aged above 44 years are less likely to seek information from colleagues, guidelines and websites, but more likely to seek information from medical journals. Male and female GPs seek information equally frequently. However, whereas male GPs are more likely than female GPs to find that pharmaceutical sales representative and non-refundable CME meetings are important, they are less likely to find that colleagues, refundable CME meetings, guidelines and websites are important. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that GP characteristics should be taken into consideration when disseminating scientific medical information, to ensure that patients receive medically updated, high-quality care. KEY POINTSResearch indicates that information-seeking behaviour is associated with GP characteristics. Further insights could provide opportunities for targeting information dissemination strategies.Single-handed GPs seek information from colleagues less frequently than GPs

  19. Measurement of the argon-38(n,2n)argon-37 and calcium- 40(n,alpha)argon-37 cross sections, and National Ignition Facility concrete activation using the rotating target neutron source. The design of an experiment to measure the beryllium-9(n,gamma)beryllium-10 cross section at 14 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belian, Anthony Paul

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS) was used in experiments to measure neutron induced cross sections at 14 MeV, and the activation properties of a specific mix of concrete. The RTNS is an accelerator based DT fusion neutron source located at the University of California, Berkeley. Two of the experiments performed for this thesis were specifically of interest for the construction and operation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), they were the 38Ar(n,2n)37Ar cross section measurement, and the concrete activation measurement. The NIF is a large multi-beam laser facility that will study the effects of age on the nation's stockpile of nuclear weapons. The NIF, when fully operational, will focus the energy of 192 Neodymium glass lasers onto a 1 mm diameter pellet filled with deuterium and tritium fuel. This pellet is compressed by the laser energy giving some of the individual atoms of deuterium and tritium enough kinetic energy to overcome the coulomb barrier and fuse. The energy output from these pellet implosions will be in the range of tens of mega-joules (MJ). The 38Ar(n,2n)37Ar reaction will be useful to NIF scientists to measure important parameters such as target energy yield and areal density. In order to make these measurements precise, an accurate 38Ar(n,2n)37Ar cross section was necessary. The cross sections measured were: 74.9 +/- 3.8 millibarns (mb) at 13.3 +/- 0.01 MeV, 89.2 +/- 4.0 mb at 14.0 +/- 0.03 MeV, and 123.57 +/- 6.4 mb at 15.0 +/- 0.06 MeV. With anticipated energy yields in the tens of mega-joules per pellet implosion, the number of neutrons released is in the range of 1019 to 1020 neutrons per implosion. With such a large number of neutrons, minimizing the activation of the surrounding structure is very much of interest for the sake of personnel radiation safety. To benchmark the computer codes used to calculate the anticipated neutron activation of target bay concrete, samples were irradiated at the RTNS. Dose rates from each sample

  20. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; García, Juan Manuel Fernández; Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Molina, Jose Antonio Moreno; Cosano, Carlos Ruiz; Ortiz, Antonio Jurado

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys). They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years) and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men) were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men) were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197) in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys) refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5%) were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97) and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97) are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is the first study in

  1. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  2. Dental age estimation using Demirjian and Willems methods: cross sectional study on children from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Ambarkova, Vesna; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Biočina-Lukenda, Dolores; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate applicability of Demirjian and Willems methods for calculating dental age of children in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia we analyzed panoramic radiographs of 966 children (485 female and 481 male, aged 6-13 years) treated at the University and Community Dental Clinics in Skopje using four Demirjian methods and a Willems method for determining dental ages. Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement of mineralization stages were 0.86 and 0.82, respectively. All methods significantly overestimated dental age when compared to the chronological age (p<0.001). In males, the lowest overestimation was shown using Willems method (0.52±0.87 years), followed by Demirjian methods from 1976 using PM1, PM2, M1, M2 teeth (0.69±0.92 years) and using I2, PM1, PM2, M2 teeth (0.80±0.98 years). The greatest overestimation were shown using Demirjian methods using 7 teeth from 1976 (0.92±0.99 years) and method from 1973 (1.06±1.07 years). In females, the lowest overestimation was shown using Willems method (0.33±0.83 years) than the Demirjian method using PM1, PM2, M1, M2 teeth (1.00±1.01 years), following methods from 1976 using 7 teeth (1.03±1.01 years) and I2, PM1, PM2, M2 teeth (1.12±0.96 years). The greatest overestimation was for method from 1973 using 7 teeth (1.17±0.98 years). Willems method was the most accurate while Demirjian's methods for dental age calculation are not suitable on children from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

  3. Tea and Risk of Age-Related Cataracts: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yan; He, Fan; Lin, Jun-Fen; Shen, Wei; Qiu, Yin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The antioxidant properties of tea extracts are considered to be effective in protecting against cataracts. However, there is still insufficient epidemiological knowledge about the protective effects of different types of tea on age-related cataracts. Methods The data was derived from the Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance (ZJMPHS) Program on health and related factors in the elderly. The relationships between consumption of different types of tea and risk of age-related cataracts were assessed after adjusting for related covariates. Results The prevalence of age-related cataracts in this study population was 4.4% (409/9343). After adjustment for potential confounders, tea drinking was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.91). Compared to nondrinkers, green tea drinkers had a significantly reduced risk of cataracts (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40–0.85). Average tea consumption of 14–27 cups (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33–0.93) and over 28 cups (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34–0.99) per week had a protective effect against cataracts in comparison to no consumption. In addition, ingesting a moderate concentration of tea significantly decreased the risk of cataract compared to no consumption (adjusted OR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27–0.71). Conclusions Tea ingestion was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts. In light of these findings, we suggest that reasonable tea consumption (ie, favoring green tea and consuming an average of over 500 mL per day at moderate concentration) should offer protection against age-related cataracts. PMID:27180932

  4. Gender Difference in Arterial Stiffness in a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study: The Korean Arterial Aging Study (KAAS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang-Young; Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Kee Sik; Jeong, Jin Won; Park, Jong Chun; Oh, Byung Hee; Chung, Namsik

    2014-01-01

    Elevated arterial stiffness has emerged as an important risk factor for future cardiovascular (CV) events in men and women. However, gender-related differences in arterial stiffness have not been clearly demonstrated. We thus determine whether gender affects arterial stiffness in subjects with and without CV risk factors. We consecutively enrolled 1,588 subjects aged 17-87 years (mean age: 46.5; 51% women) from the Korean Arterial Aging Study (KAAS), which is a multicenter registry from 13 university hospitals in Korea for the evaluation of arterial stiffness. We compared markers of arterial stiffness – central augmentation index (AIx), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), and pulse pressure (PP) amplification – in apparently healthy men and women without risk factors with those in high-risk subjects with a smoking habit, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia but without drug treatment. Aortic PWV and PP amplification were significantly higher in men than in women (7.78 ± 1.16 vs. 7.64 ± 1.15 m/s, p = 0.015, and 1.39 ± 0.22 vs. 1.30 ± 0.18, p < 0.001, respectively). However, women had a significantly higher central AIx than men (23.5 ± 11.9 vs. 16.1 ± 12.6%, p < 0.001). The central AIx and aortic PWV values were significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the healthy group for both men and women. In men, central AIx and aortic PWV were associated positively with age and blood pressure, and negatively with body mass index. In women, central AIx was positively related to age, diastolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol levels. Aortic PWV was positively related to age, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and heart rate. PP amplification was associated negatively with age and blood pressure and positively with heart rate in both men and women. In conclusion, arterial stiffness is mainly determined by sex, age, and blood pressure. Markers of arterial stiffness differ between men and women. Dyslipidemia and glucose contribute to a modest

  5. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60–84 years) and eighteen younger (19–24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity. PMID:24137141

  6. Association between floating toe and toe grip strength in school age children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tasaka, Seishiro; Matsubara, Keisuke; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Matsushita, Tomofumi; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the association between floating toe and toe grip strength. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 635 Japanese children aged 9–11 years participated in this study. Floating toe was evaluated using footprint images, while toe grip strength was measured using a toe grip dynamometer. All 1,270 feet were classified into a floating toe group and a normal toe group according to visual evaluation of the footprint images. Intergroup differences in toe grip strength were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and Rohrer Index. [Results] There were 512 feet (40.3%) in the floating toe group. Mean toe grip strength of the feet with floating toe was significantly lower than that of normal feet (floating toe group, 12.9 ± 3.7 kg; normal toe group, 13.6 ± 4.1 kg). In addition, lower toe grip strength was associated with floating toe on logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, gender, and Rohrer Index (odds ratio, 0.954; 95% confidence interval, 0.925–0.984). [Conclusion] This study revealed that lower toe grip strength was significantly associated with floating toe. Therefore, increasing toe grip strength may play a role in preventing floating toe in school age children. PMID:27630423

  7. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  8. Serum high-density lipoprotein is associated with better cognitive function in a cross-sectional study of aging women.

    PubMed

    Bates, Kristyn A; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rodrigues, Mark; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Frank L; Gandy, Samuel E; Martins, Ralph N

    2017-03-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study: Poor cardiovascular health, including obesity and altered lipid profiles at mid-life, are linked to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological mechanisms linking cardiovascular health and cognitive function are unclear though are likely to be multifactorial. This study examined the association between various lipoproteins and cognitive functioning in ageing women.

  9. Vitamin D Status among Young Children Aged 1–3 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study in Wuxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Jianping; Liao, Xiangpeng; Cai, Liyi; Xu, Fei; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Fang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasingly recognized importance of vitamin D has been discussed and vitamin D status among young children has attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, study on vitamin D status in young children aged 1–3 y is limited in China. Objective To evaluate the nutritional vitamin D status of young children aged 1–3 y in Wuxi, southeastern China. Methods A large cohort of 5,571 young children aged 1–3 y were recruited in this study who visited the child health clinics at the Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital (latitude 31.57°N) during January 2014 to January 2015. Wuxi was located in southeastern China at a latitude of 31.57°N. Finger-stick blood sampling was conducted in all the subjects and serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured to evaluate their vitamin D status. Results In this study, serum 25(OH)D levels of young children at the age of 1–3 years ranged from 20.6–132.9 nmol/L (Median: 71.5 nmol/L). 16.1% of the population had vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), while 38.8% of the subjects had a sufficient (50–74.9 nmol/L) vitamin D level. An optimal vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L) was found in 45.1% of the young children. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in autumn (19.5%) than in summer (12.1%). There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between genders. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed that child age was strongly associated with vitamin D deficiency (adjusted OR: 1.173; 95%CI: 1.053–1.308; P = 0.004). Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 16.1% among young children aged 1–3 y in Wuxi. Season and child age were associated with their vitamin D status. It is implied that young children should receive adequate amounts of vitamin D supplementation and spend more time outdoors to prolong the sunlight exposure when they grow older. PMID:26505743

  10. Antioxidant state and mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuanian and Swedish men: concomitant cross sectional study of men aged 50.

    PubMed Central

    Kristenson, M.; Ziedén, B.; Kucinskienë, Z.; Elinder, L. S.; Bergdahl, B.; Elwing, B.; Abaravicius, A.; Razinkovienë, L.; Calkauskas, H.; Olsson, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible risk factors and mechanisms behind the four times higher and diverging mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuanian compared with Swedish middle aged men. DESIGN: Concomitant cross sectional comparison of randomly selected 50 year old men without serious acute or chronic disease. Methods and equipment were identical or highly standardised between the centres. SETTING: Linköping (Sweden) and Vilnius (Lithuania). SUBJECTS: 101 and 109 men aged 50 in Linköping and Vilnius respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric data, blood pressure, smoking, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidation, and plasma concentrations of fat soluble antioxidant vitamins. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure was higher (141 v 133 mm Hg, P < 0.01), smoking habits were similar, and plasma total cholesterol (5.10 v 5.49 mmol/l, P < 0.01) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.30 v 3.68 mmol/l, P < 0.01) lower in men from Vilnius compared with those from Linköping. Triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations did not differ between the two groups. The resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidation was lower in the men from Vilnius; lag phase was 67.6 v 79.5 minutes (P < 0.001). Also lower in the men from Vilnius were mean plasma concentrations of lipid soluble antioxidant vitamins (beta carotene 377 v 510 nmol/l, P < 0.01; lycopene 327 v 615 nmol/l, P < 0.001; and lipid adjusted gamma tocopherol 0.25 v 0.46 mumol/mmol, P < 0.001. alpha Tocopherol concentration did not differ). Regression analysis showed that the lag phase was still significantly shorter by 10 minutes in men from Vilnius when the influence of other known factors was taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuania is not caused by traditional risk factors alone. Mechanisms related to antioxidant state may be important. PMID

  11. Phosphorus as predictive factor for erectile dysfunction in middle aged men: A cross sectional study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seung Ki; Choi, Kwibok; Kim, Soon Ki; Lee, Gyeong In

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High serum inorganic phosphorus level is related with atherosclerosis and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. At the same time, the association of phosphorus with erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well reported. We studied the effect of serum phosphorus on ED and the relationship with other clinical variables. Materials and Methods From March to September 2013, 1,899 police men aged 40 to 59 years who entered in a prostate health screening were targeted. All subjects underwent a clinical checking using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire translated into Korean. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), testosterone, inorganic phosphorus, body mass index, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and prostate ultrasound were also examined. Results Serum inorganic phosphorus (r=–0.108, p<0.001) had the highest correlation coefficient with IIEF-5 score other than age, followed by prostate volume (PV) (r=–0.065, P<0.001). Using logistic regression analysis, age, phosphorus, and MetS were predictive factors for moderate to severe ED in univariate analysis. PSA, testosterone, body mass index, and PV could not predict ED. Age, MetS, and phosphorus were independent predictive factors of moderate to severe ED (p<0.001; odds ratio [OR], 1.119; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.086–1.153; p=0.048; OR, 1.283; 95% CI, 1.003–1.641; and p=0.048; OR, 1.101; 95% CI, 1.076–1.131) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions In our study, phosphorus level is related with ED. Phosphorus is a significant predictor of ED and a strong factor that can be modified in the middle-age. Controlling phosphorus in men may have a particular meaning of preventing the occurrence of ED. PMID:27847919

  12. Design and producing of fine-group cross section library HENDL3.0/FG for subcritical system

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, J.; Zeng, Q.; Xu, D.; Hu, L.; Long, P.

    2012-07-01

    To improve the accuracy of the neutron analyses for subcritical system with thermal fission blanket, a coupled neutron and photon (315 n + 42{gamma}) fine-group cross section library HENDL3.0/FG based on ENDF/B-VII, JEFF3.1 and JENDL3.3 was produced by FDS team. In order to test the availability and reliability of the HENDL3.0/FG data library, shielding and critical safety benchmarks were performed with VisualBUS code. The testing results indicated that the discrepancy between calculation and experimental values of nuclear parameters fell in a reasonable range. It showed that the nuclear data library had accuracy and availability. (authors)

  13. Geology, tephrochronology, radiometric ages, and cross sections of the Mark West Springs 7.5 degree quadrangle, Sonoma and Napa counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.; Wright, W.H.; Levin, V.R.G.; Valin, Z.C.

    2004-01-01

    This geologic map database and cross sections presents new geologic mapping by the authors in addition to new radiometric ages and tephrochronology of volcanic rock units. The map database depicts the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area and provides a context for interpreting the evolution of active faults in the region. Together with the accompanying PDF file (SIM2858-pamphlet.pdf), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  14. A cross-sectional study of cryptorchidism in children: testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Cives, R.; Méndez-Gallart, R.; Estevez-Martínez, E.; Rodríguez-Barca, P.; Bautista-Casasnovas, A.; Pombo-Arias, M.; Tojo-Sierra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood. Materials and Methods Testicular volume, LH, FSH, and testosterone were evaluated in 143 young men at 18 years treated in childhood for unilateral (n=103) or bilateral (n=40) cryptorchidism. Results Unilateral cryptorchidism: Location of testis was prescrotal in 36 patients, inguinal in 52 and non-palpable in 15. The mean volume was 9.7 mL compared to 16.2 mL. for the spontaneously descended testicle in unilateral cryptorchidism. However, 22 patients who received HCG had a significantly bigger testis (11.8 mL.) than those treated with primary surgery (9.2 mL). The results showed a significant positive correlation between testicular volume and patient age at treatment. Bilateral cryptorchidism Location of testis was prescrotal in 34 cases, inguinal in 40 and 6 patients with non-palpable testicles. Mean volume at 18 years was 12.9 mL, greater than unilateral cryptorchid testis (9.7 mL) but smaller than healthy contralateral in unilateral cases (16.2 mL). There were significant differences in the testicular growth for bilateral patients with testicular descent after being treated with HCG (14.4 mL) in respect with those untreated (11.1 mL) or those who underwent primary surgery (11.4 mL). There was a significant positive correlation between the testicular volume and palpable (12.4 mL) or non-palpable testis (10.4 mL). There was a correlation between unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and levels of FSH. Conclusions Testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years for patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood are strongly influenced by whether the undescended testis was unilateral or bilateral. Location of the testes at diagnosis or age of initial treatment exerts

  15. The role of age, working memory, and response inhibition in deviance distraction: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Alicia; Andrés, Pilar; Servera, Mateu; Verbruggen, Frederick; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-09-01

    Sounds deviating from an otherwise repeated or structured sequence capture attention and affect performance in an ongoing visual task negatively, testament to the balance between selective attention and change detection. Although deviance distraction has been the object of much research, its modulation across the life span has been more scarcely addressed. Recent findings suggest possible connections with working memory and response inhibition. In this study we measured the performance of children and young and older adults in a cross-modal oddball task (deviance distraction), a working memory task (working memory capacity), and a response inhibition task (ability to voluntarily inhibit an already planned action) with the aim to establish the contribution of the latter 2 to the first. Older adults exhibited significantly more deviance distraction than children and young adults (who did not differ from each other). Working memory capacity mediated deviance distraction in children and older adults (though in opposite directions) but not in young adults. Response inhibition capacities did not mediate deviance distraction in any of the age groups. Altogether the results suggest that although the increase in deviance distraction observed in old age may partly reflect the relative impairment of working memory mechanisms, there is no straightforward and stable relation between working memory capacity and deviance distraction across the life span. Furthermore, our results indicate that deviance distraction is unlikely to reflect the temporary inhibition of responses. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  17. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = -0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = -0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = −0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = −0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools. PMID:27610383

  19. [Effort-reward imbalance at work and depressive symptoms--a cross-sectional investigation of middle-aged employees].

    PubMed

    Larisch, Marianne; Joksimovic, Ljiljana; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Starke, Dagmar; Siegrist, Johannes

    2003-05-01

    This study explored associations of psychosocial stress at work with depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged employees. Psychosocial stress at work was conceptualized in terms of the model of effort-reward imbalance. This model is measured by a psychometric scale containing 23 Likert-scaled items. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the German version of the CES-D scale. The sample consisted of 316 (44.6 +/- 7.5 years) men and women employed in an urban transport enterprise. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant confounders indicated an odds ratio of 5.9 (95 % CI 2.4 - 14.3) for depressive symptoms among employees defined by imbalance of high effort and low reward at work. An association of similar strength was found among employees characterized by a high level of work-related over-commitment. Findings reported for the first time in Germany are in line with two international investigations.

  20. Association Between Renal Function and Cognitive Ability Domains in the Einstein Aging Study: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mindy J.; Lai, Jennifer Y.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bitzer, Markus; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The relationships between renal function and specific domains of cognitive function have rarely been explored in representative, community-based samples of older adults. We assessed the association between renal and cognitive function based on an extensive battery of neurocognitive tests. Methods. In a sample of Einstein Aging Study participants (n = 649, age = 70+ years) we calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. We predefined three groups based on eGFR units of mL/min/1.73 m2 as low (<45), medium (45–59), and high (≥60). Thirteen neurocognitive tests were subjected to principle component analysis revealing three components: a global component, an episodic memory component, and a frontal-executive component. We first examined the relationship of eGFR group to cognitive performance in each domain and then examined subtests for the domains which proved to be statistically significant. Results. The sample (mean = 79.2, 61% = female) was distributed among eGFR categories as follows: low (n = 67), medium (n = 151), and high (n = 431). The frontal-executive domain was significantly associated with poor cognitive performance in the low eGFR group (p <.001). When we examined the neuropsychological test components for frontal-executive domain, performance was lower on two of four contributing tests (Trail Making Test Part B and the Digit Symbol Substitution test). Other domains of cognitive function were not associated with eGFR. Conclusions. Low eGFR is associated with reduced performance on executive function. Individuals with poor renal function should be assessed for cognitive impairment. Potential mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25394616

  1. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school.

  2. Age-Related Cataract Is Associated with Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in the South Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated events lead to several chronic diseases. We investigated the association between allergic conditions and age-related cataracts in the South Korean adult population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from 1,170 participants aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age-related cataracts and allergic conditions, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific serum IgE levels, after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, sun exposure, blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as histories of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis). Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related cataract was greater in participants with higher total serum IgE levels (OR = 1.37; P = 0.044). In particular, increased IgE levels were significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR = 1.42; P = 0.032). However, allergen-specific serum IgE levels did not differ significantly between groups. In the trend analysis, no significant relationship was observed between serum IgE and any type of age-related cataract. Conclusion Increased total serum IgE level is independently associated with age-related cataracts after adjustment for confounding factors. PMID:27861567

  3. Tremor in School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study of Tremor in 819 Boys and Girls in Burgos, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Cubo, Esther; Trejo-Gabriel-Galán, José M.; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Vicente, Jesús Macarrón; Guevara, José Cordero; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-01-01

    Background Mild hand tremor occurs in most normal adults. There are no surveys of the prevalence or clinical correlates of such tremor among children. Methods A cross-sectional study of tics, tremor and other neurological disorders was conducted in Spanish children; thus, 819 schoolchildren in Burgos, Spain, drew Archimedes spirals with each hand. Tremor in spirals was rated (0–2) by a blinded neurologist and an overall tremor rating (0–4) was assigned. Results The mean age was 10.9 ± 3.1 years. A tremor rating of 1 (mild tremor) was present in either hand in 424 (51.7%) children, and in both hands in 88 (10.7%) children. Higher tremor ratings were very uncommon. The overall tremor rating was higher in boys than girls (1.31 ± 0.41 vs. 1.22 ± 0.34, p = 0.002) and correlated weakly yet significantly with age (ρ = 0.09, p = 0.01). Within subjects, the left hand spiral rating was greater than the right (p < 0.001). Conclusions In this cross-sectional study of 819 Spanish schoolchildren, mild tremor was commonly observed. As in adults, males had more tremor than females, tremor scores increased with age, and tremor scores were higher in the left than right arm, demonstrating that these clinical correlations seem to be more broadly generalizable to children. The functional significance of tremor in children, particularly as it relates to handwriting proficiency, deserves additional scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:21894047

  4. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. PMID:27706032

  5. Impact of visual acuity on developing literacy at age 4–5 years: a cohort-nested cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alison; Fairley, Lesley; Chambers, Bette; Wright, John; Sheldon, Trevor A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of poor vision in children aged 4–5 years and determine the impact of visual acuity on literacy. Design Cross-sectional study linking clinical, epidemiological and education data. Setting Schools located in the city of Bradford, UK. Participants Prevalence was determined for 11 186 children participating in the Bradford school vision screening programme. Data linkage was undertaken for 5836 Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort study children participating both in the Bradford vision screening programme and the BiB Starting Schools Programme. 2025 children had complete data and were included in the multivariable analyses. Main outcome measures Visual acuity was measured using a logMAR Crowded Test (higher scores=poorer visual acuity). Literacy measured by Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R) subtest: letter identification (standardised). Results The mean (SD) presenting visual acuity was 0.14 (0.09) logMAR (range 0.0–1.0). 9% of children had a presenting visual acuity worse than 0.2logMAR (failed vision screening), 4% worse than 0.3logMAR (poor visual acuity) and 2% worse than 0.4logMAR (visually impaired). Unadjusted analysis showed that the literacy score was associated with presenting visual acuity, reducing by 2.4 points for every 1 line (0.10logMAR) reduction in vision (95% CI −3.0 to −1.9). The association of presenting visual acuity with the literacy score remained significant after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors reducing by 1.7 points (95% CI −2.2 to −1.1) for every 1 line reduction in vision. Conclusions Prevalence of decreased visual acuity was high compared with other population-based studies. Decreased visual acuity at school entry is associated with reduced literacy. This may have important implications for the children's future educational, health and social outcomes. PMID:26883240

  6. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p<0.01). More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p<0.05). A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (p<0.05 for trend). This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p<0.05 for trend) but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5) times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image

  7. Healthcare experiences of patients with age-related macular degeneration: have things improved? Cross-sectional survey responses of Macular Society members in 2013 compared with 1999

    PubMed Central

    Amoaku, Winfried M; Bradley, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate healthcare experiences of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and determine whether a previous survey and Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) management guidelines brought improvements. Design Cross-sectional survey of Macular Society members in 2013 compared with previous 1999 survey. Setting UK Postal Questionnaires. Participants 1169 respondents in 2013 (1187 in 1999). Intervention Publication of 1999 survey results (2002), and RCOphth AMD guidelines (2009). Main outcome measures Respondents answered questions about experiences at diagnosis. Five questions were replicated from the 1999 survey for direct comparison in the 2013 survey which included additional questions based on 2009 RCOphth recommendations for information and support provision for patients with AMD. Results Most 2013 survey respondents were given the name of their macular condition (91%), felt the healthcare professional was interested in them (71%) and were satisfied overall with the diagnostic consultation (76%). These outcomes show significant improvement since 1999. Within the 2013 sample, multivariable analyses showed gradual trends of improvement over time in: provision of written information, Macular Society information and receiving appropriate help, support and advice at diagnosis. Only overall satisfaction with the diagnostic consultation (but not the other nine areas of information and support provision studied) significantly improved in the time after publication of the RCOphth 2009 guidelines. There were no significant improvements associated with the publication of the 1999 survey results. Low information and support provision remained, for example, 44% of respondents diagnosed after the RCOphth 2009 guidelines reported not receiving information on what to do if vision deteriorated. Lack of such information at diagnosis was significantly associated with registration as sight impaired (p<0.01). Reports of general practitioner (GP

  8. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. Design A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). Setting 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. Participants A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Outcome measures Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Results Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. Conclusions The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. PMID

  9. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  10. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P < 0.05). Compared to high CRF, the odds ratios for having ≥3 main CVD risk factors (overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in low and moderate CRF were 2.09 (95% CI: 1.48-2.94) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.29-2.62), respectively. The proportion of participants with clinical ST segment depression and prolonged QTC interval during cycle ergometer testing was significantly higher in women with low CRF. Conclusions Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors. PMID:24885417

  11. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  12. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women. PMID:24555831

  13. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Acevedo, Mónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge; Navarrete, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0-1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92-3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender.

  14. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0‐1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92–3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender. PMID:28321254

  15. Does Fluoride Affect Serum Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein with Age-Specificity? A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Leizhen; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wang, Keyan; Zhou, Guoyu; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Hui; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that exposure to excess fluoride was associated with a variety of diseases. Little is known about the variation of testosterone (T) levels caused by fluoride exposure. The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels in male farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Henan Province, China, including high fluoride exposure from drinking water villages and control villages. Male farmers aged 18-55 years old who lived in these villages were recruited by cluster sampling and divided into a higher fluoride exposure group (HFG) and a lower fluoride exposure group (LFG) according to the level of urinary fluoride. Levels of T and ABP in serum were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Markedly lower T levels were observed in male farmers from the HFG than in those from the LFG (t = 2.496, P < 0.05). Furthermore, younger farmers, 18-29 and 30-39 years old, may be the most likely to have lower T levels when exposed to fluoride (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum ABP levels in all male farmers between the two groups with different fluoride exposure. These results supported that excess fluoride exposure decreased serum T levels of male farmers with age-specificity.

  16. European Cross-Sectional Survey of Current Care Practices for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Reveals Regional and Age-Dependent Differences

    PubMed Central

    Vry, Julia; Gramsch, Kathrin; Rodger, Sunil; Thompson, Rachel; Steffensen, Birgit F.; Rahbek, Jes; Doerken, Sam; Tassoni, Adrian; Beytía, María de los Angeles; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Chamova, Teodora; Tournev, Ivailo; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Kaminska, Anna; Lusakowska, Anna; Mrazova, Lenka; Pavlovska, Lenka; Strenkova, Jana; Vondráček, Petr; Garami, Marta; Karcagi, Veronika; Herczegfalvi, Ágnes; Bushby, Katherine; Lochmüller, Hanns; Kirschner, Janbernd

    2016-01-01

    Background: Publication of comprehensive clinical care guidelines for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in 2010 was a milestone for DMD patient management. Our CARE-NMD survey investigates the neuromuscular, medical, and psychosocial care of DMD patients in Europe, and compares it to the guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1677 patients contacted via the TREAT-NMD patient registries was conducted using self-report questionnaires in seven European countries. Results: Survey respondents were 861 children and 201 adults. Data describe a European DMD population with mean age of 13.0 years (range 0.8–46.2) of whom 53% had lost ambulation (at 10.3 years of age, median). Corticosteroid medication raised the median age for ambulatory loss from 10.1 years in patients never medicated to 11.4 years in patients who received steroids (p < 0.0001). The majority of patients reported receiving care in line with guidelines, although we identified significant differences between countries and important shortcomings in prevention and treatment. Summarised, 35% of patients aged≥ nine years received no corticosteroid medication, 24% of all patients received no regular physiotherapy, echocardiograms were not performed regularly in 22% of patients, pulmonary function was not regularly assessed in 71% of non-ambulatory patients. Patients with regular follow-up by neuromuscular specialists were more likely to receive care according to guidelines, were better satisfied, and experienced shorter unplanned hospitalization periods. PMID:27911335

  17. Cross-sectional comparison of executive attention function in normally aging long-term T'ai chi, meditation, and aerobic fitness practitioners versus sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Teresa D; Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2014-03-01

    This cross-sectional field study documented the effect of long-term t'ai chi, meditation, or aerobic exercise training versus a sedentary lifestyle on executive function. It was predicted that long-term training in t'ai chi and meditation plus exercise would produce greater benefits to executive function than aerobic exercise. T'ai chi and meditation plus exercise include mental and physical training. Fifty-four volunteers were tested: t'ai chi (n=10); meditation+exercise (n=16); aerobic exercisers (n=16); and sedentary controls (n=12). A one-factor (group), one-covariate (age) multivariate analysis of covariance was performed. Significant main effects of group and age were found (group, 67.9%, p<0.001; age, 76.3%, p=0.001). T'ai chi and meditation practitioners but not aerobic exercisers outperformed sedentary controls on percent switch costs (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), suggesting that there may be differential effects of training type on executive function.

  18. Association between objectively measured sleep quality and obesity in community-dwelling adults aged 80 years or older: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objective measures of sleep quality and obesity in older community-dwelling people. This cross-sectional study included 189 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 yr (83.4 ± 2.5 yr [age range, 80-95 yr]). Participants wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on their non-dominant wrist 24 hr per day for 7 consecutive nights. Sleep parameters measured included total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) during the night. Associations between sleep parameters and obesity were investigated by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate models, those with sleep efficiency lower than 85% had a 2.85-fold increased odds of obesity, compared with those with sleep efficiency of 85% or higher. Similarly, those with WASO of ≥ 60 min (compared with < 60 min) had a 3.13-fold increased odds of obesity. However, there were no significant associations between total sleep time or self-reported napping duration and obesity. We found that poor sleep quality was an independent risk factor for obesity in community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 80 yr, even after controlling for potential confounding factors, including daily physical activity.

  19. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  20. Clustering of geriatric deficits emerges to be an essential feature of ageing - results of a cross-sectional study in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Piotrowicz; Agnieszka, Pac; Barbara, Skalska Anna; Jerzy, Chudek; Alicja, Klich-Rączka; Aleksandra, Szybalska; Jean-Pierre, Michel; Tomasz, Grodzicki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of old people suffer from various clinical conditions that affect health, functioning and quality of life. This research is a part of a cross-sectional, nationwide PolSenior Study that provides a comprehensive assessment of eight geriatric impairments and their co-occurrence in a representative sample (3471 participant aged 65-104 years, mean age 78.3 years) of the old adults living in the community in Poland. The participants were recruited randomly from all administrative regions of Poland by a three-stage, proportional, stratified-by-age group selection process. Eight geriatric conditions were assessed: falls, incontinences, cognitive impairment, mood disorders, vision and hearing impairments, malnutrition, and functional dependence. We showed that the most common deficits causing disability were vision and hearing impairments, and mood disorders, with more than two thirds of the participants presented at least one geriatric deficit. We showed that presence any of the analyzed conditions significantly increased the risk for co-occurrence of other examined weaknesses. The highest prevalence odds ratios were for functional dependence and, respectively: malnutrition (8.61, 95%CI: 4.70-15.80), incontinences (8.0, 95%CI:5.93-10.70), and cognitive impairment (7.22; 95%CI:5.91-8.83). We concluded that the majority of the old people living in the community present various clinical conditions that prompt disability. PMID:27794563

  1. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Chillón, Palma

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  2. Age-associated differences in triceps surae muscle composition and strength – an MRI-based cross-sectional comparison of contractile, adipose and connective tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human skeletal muscles, the aging process causes a decrease of contractile and a concomitant increase of intramuscular adipose (IMAT) and connective (IMCT) tissues. The accumulation of non-contractile tissues may contribute to the significant loss of intrinsic muscle strength typically observed at older age but their in vivo quantification is challenging. The purpose of this study was to establish MR imaging-based methods to quantify the relative amounts of IMCT, IMAT and contractile tissues in young and older human cohorts, and investigate their roles in determining age-associated changes in skeletal muscle strength. Methods Five young (31.6 ± 7.0 yrs) and five older (83.4 ± 3.2 yrs) Japanese women were subject to a detailed MR imaging protocol, including Fast Gradient Echo, Quantitative Fat/Water (IDEAL) and Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) sequences, to determine contractile muscle tissue and IMAT within the entire Triceps Surae complex, and IMCT within both heads of the Gastrocnemius muscle. Specific force was calculated as the ratio of isometric plantarflexor force and the physiological cross-sectional area of the Triceps Surae complex. Results In the older cohort, total Triceps Surae volume was smaller by 17.5%, while the relative amounts of Triceps Surae IMAT and Gastrocnemius IMCT were larger by 55.1% and 48.9%, respectively. Differences of 38.6% and 42.1% in plantarflexor force and specific force were observed. After subtraction of IMAT and IMCT from total muscle volume, differences in intrinsic strength decreased to 29.6%. Conclusions Our data establishes that aging causes significant changes in skeletal muscle composition, with marked increases in non-contractile tissues. Such quantification of the remodeling process is likely to be of functional and clinical importance in elucidating the causes of the disproportionate age-associated decrease of force compared to that of muscle volume. PMID:24939372

  3. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  4. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health. PMID:28058102

  5. Association between different risk factors and vascular accelerated ageing (EVA study): study protocol for a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Ma; Sanchez-Fernandez, Pedro L; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. Trial registration number NCT02623894; Pre

  6. The Geography of Diabetes among the General Adults Aged 35 Years and Older in Bangladesh: Recent Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Gruebner, Oliver; Kraemer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report geographical variations of sex-specific diabetes by place of residence (large cities/city corporations, small towns/other urban areas, rural areas) and region of residence (divided into seven divisions) among general adults (35+ years of age) in Bangladesh. Methods The recent cross-sectional data, extracted from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, was used. A total of 3,720 men and 3,823 women aged 35+ years, who participated in the fasting blood sugar testing, were analysed. Any person with either fasting plasma glucose level (mmol/L) ≥7.0 or taking medication for diabetes was considered as a person with diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% in men and 11.3% in women. Bivariable analyses indicated significant variations of diabetes by both geographical variables. The prevalence was highest in city corporations (men 18.0%, women 22.3%), followed by small towns (men 13.6%, women 15.2%) and rural areas (men 9.3%, women 9.5%). Regional disparities in diabetes prevalence were also remarkable, with the highest prevalence in Chittagong division and lowest prevalence in Khulna division. Multivariable logistic regression analyses provided mixed patterns of geographical disparities (depending on the adjusted variables). Some other independent risk factors for diabetes were advancing age, higher level of education and wealth, having TV (a proxy indicator of physical activity), overweight/obesity and hypertension. Conclusions Over 10% of the general adults aged 35 years and older were having diabetes. Most of the persons with diabetes were unaware of this before testing fasting plasma glucose level. Although significant disparities in diabetes prevalence by geographical variables were observed, such disparities are very much influenced by the adjusted variables. Finally, we underscore the necessities of area-specific strategies including early diagnosis and health education programmes for changing

  7. Central corneal thickness of Iraqi population in relation to age, gender, refractive errors, and corneal curvature: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kadhim, Yasir Jawad; Farhood, Qasim K

    2016-01-01

    Background Central corneal thickness (CCT) is an important indicator of corneal status. Its measurement provides valid information about corneal physiological condition and possible changes associated with diseases, traumas, and hypoxia. It is an integral part for interpretation of intraocular pressure and glaucoma patient management and in prerefractive procedure assessment. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the mean CCT among a normal Iraqi population and to correlate between CCT and age, gender, refraction, and corneal curvature. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out at Ibn Al-Haitham Teaching Eye Hospital. A total of 418 eyes from 209 healthy individuals with an age range from 20 to 75 years were studied. CCT was measured by ultrasound pachymeter. Refraction was measured using an auto-refractor and confirmed by trial lenses and retinoscopy to calculate the spherical equivalent. Corneal curvature was measured using an auto-refracto-keratometer to calculate the average corneal curvature (AVK). Results The mean CCT was 543.95±32.58 μm with a range from 422 to 636 μm. CCT was not affected by gender. CCT significantly negatively correlated with age and AVK. CCT significantly positively correlated with the spherical equivalence. Conclusion and recommendation Among an Iraqi population, CCT significantly decreased with age. Myopics had significantly thinner corneas. There was weak but significant negative correlation between CCT and corneal curvature. We recommend further studies about the relationship between central corneal thickness and other ocular parameters in Iraqi population such as the axial length. PMID:27932859

  8. A gender-based dynamic multidimensional longitudinal analysis of resilience and mortality in the old-old in Israel: the cross-sectional and longitudinal aging study (CALAS).

    PubMed

    Walter-Ginzburg, Adrian; Shmotkin, Dov; Blumstein, Tzvia; Shorek, Aviva

    2005-04-01

    The objective was to examine gender differences and similarities in health, function, familial and non-familial social networks; longitudinal resilience in those factors; and their association with risk of mortality in Israeli men and women aged 75-94. We used the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS), a stratified random sample of 960 Israeli Jews aged 75-94, drawn on January 1, 1989 from National Population Registry, stratified by gender, age (75-79, 80-84, 85-89, 90-94), and place of birth (Europe/America, Middle East/North Africa, Israel), interviewed twice (Wave 1, 1989-1992; Wave 2, 1993-1995); Wave 1 values and longitudinal resilience predicted the 1999 mortality risk for those alive at both waves. Gender differences and similarities were found at Wave 1 in longitudinal resilience and in risk factors for mortality, partially supporting a gender paradox. Men were more physically active, had better cognition, gave more help to children, relied less on paid caretakers, and attended synagogue more than women, factors associated with better health and functioning. Women had poorer health and functional status and more help from children. More physical activity, synagogue attendance, and resilience in activities of daily living (ADL) were associated with lower risk of mortality for both genders. Women's risk of mortality was reduced by smoking reduction and higher cognitive vitality, and men's by emotional support and solitary leisure activity. Both men and women were resilient, yet there were differences. Gender-neutral mortality reduction programs would include physical activity, religious services, maintenance and improvement of ADL, and engaging in solitary leisure activities; for women, smoking cessation and cognitively challenging activities; and for men, maintaining or increasing emotional ties.

  9. Evaluating Computer Screen Time and Its Possible Link to Psychopathology in the Context of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sharon; Silman, Zmira; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested that high levels of computer use are linked to psychopathology. However, there is ambiguity about what should be considered normal or over-use of computers. Furthermore, the nature of the link between computer usage and psychopathology is controversial. The current study utilized the context of age to address these questions. Our hypothesis was that the context of age will be paramount for differentiating normal from excessive use, and that this context will allow a better understanding of the link to psychopathology. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 185 parents and children aged 3–18 years were recruited in clinical and community settings. They were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding demographics, functional and academic variables, computer use as well as psychiatric screening questionnaires. Using a regression model, we identified 3 groups of normal-use, over-use and under-use and examined known factors as putative differentiators between the over-users and the other groups. Results After modeling computer screen time according to age, factors linked to over-use were: decreased socialization (OR 3.24, Confidence interval [CI] 1.23–8.55, p = 0.018), difficulty to disengage from the computer (OR 1.56, CI 1.07–2.28, p = 0.022) and age, though borderline-significant (OR 1.1 each year, CI 0.99–1.22, p = 0.058). While psychopathology was not linked to over-use, post-hoc analysis revealed that the link between increased computer screen time and psychopathology was age-dependent and solidified as age progressed (p = 0.007). Unlike computer usage, the use of small-screens and smartphones was not associated with psychopathology. Conclusions The results suggest that computer screen time follows an age-based course. We conclude that differentiating normal from over-use as well as defining over-use as a possible marker for psychiatric difficulties must be performed within the context of age. If verified by

  10. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  11. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-07-27

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  12. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  13. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  14. Knowledge, sources and use of family planning methods among women aged 15-49 years in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alege, Stephen Galla; Matovu, Joseph KB; Ssensalire, Simon; Nabiwemba, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lack of knowledge of where to obtain correct family planning (FP) information and methods can be a critical barrier to eventual uptake of FP services. We assessed knowledge, sources and use of FP methods among women of reproductive age in rural Uganda. Methods This secondary analysis uses data from a larger cross-sectional study conducted to measure changes in perceptions towards long-term and reversible contraceptive use among 2,033 women of reproductive age (15-49years) resident in 34 districts of Uganda. Both users and non-users of FP methods were interviewed. Data were analyzed using STATA statistical software, version 12. Results Majority of the women were less than 30 years of age (64.3%). Nearly three-quarters were married (73.1%), 51.1% had primary education and more than half (57%) were engaged in employment. Knowledge of FP methods was universal (98.1%). Clinic providers (60.4%), friends (56.9%) and the media (51.3%) were the most trusted sources of contraceptive information. Government (27.6%) and private (21.1%) health facilities were the main sources of modern FP methods. Sixty two per cent of women reported current use of any FP method. Among non-users of FP, injectables (50.4%), implants (22.8%) and pills (20.2%) were the most preferred FP methods. Conclusion Our findings show that knowledge of FP methods is almost universal and that six in ten women use any FP method. Clinic providers, friends and the media are the most trusted sources of FP information. Government and private health facilities are the main sources of FP services. PMID:27583102

  15. Subjective and Clinically Assessed Hearing Loss; A Cross-Sectional Register-Based Study on a Swedish Population Aged 18 through 50 Years

    PubMed Central

    Videhult Pierre, Pernilla; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Fridberger, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Questionnaire studies suggest that hearing is declining among young adults. However, few studies have examined the reliability of hearing questionnaires among young adult subjects. This study examined the associations between pure tone audiometrically assessed (PTA) hearing loss and questionnaire responses in young to middle aged adults. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study using questionnaire and screening PTA (500 through 6000 Hz) data from 15322 Swedish subjects (62% women) aged 18 through 50 years. PTA hearing loss was defined as a hearing threshold above 20 dB in both ears at one or more frequencies. Data were analysed with chi-square tests, nonlinear regression, binary logistic regression, and the generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. Results The prevalence of PTA hearing loss was 6.0% in men and 2.9% in women (p < 0.001). Slight hearing impairment was reported by 18.5% of the men and 14.8% of the women (p < 0.001), whereas 0.5% of men and women reported very impaired hearing. Using multivariate GEE modelling, the odds ratio of PTA hearing loss was 30.4 (95% CI, 12.7-72.9) in men and 36.5 (17.2-77.3) in women reporting very impaired hearing. The corresponding figures in those reporting slightly impaired hearing were 7.06 (5.25-9.49) in men and 8.99 (6.38-12.7) in women. These values depended on the sound stimulus frequency (p = 0.001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.904 (0.892-0.915) in men and 0.886 (0.872-0.900) in women. Conclusions Subjective hearing impairment predicted clinically assessed hearing loss, suggesting that there is cause for concern as regards the future development of hearing in young to middle-aged people. PMID:25875116

  16. A national cross-sectional study among drug-users in France: epidemiology of HCV and highlight on practical and statistical aspects of the design

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiology of HCV infection among drug users (DUs) has been widely studied. Prevalence and sociobehavioural data among DUs are therefore available in most countries but no study has taken into account in the sampling weights one important aspect of the way of life of DUs, namely that they can use one or more specialized services during the study period. In 2004–2005, we conducted a national seroepidemiologic survey of DUs, based on a random sampling design using the Generalised Weight Share Method (GWSM) and on blood testing. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter survey was done among DUs having injected or snorted drugs at least once in their life. We conducted a two stage random survey of DUs selected to represent the diversity of drug use. The fact that DUs can use more than one structure during the study period has an impact on their inclusion probabilities. To calculate a correct sampling weight, we used the GWSM. A sociobehavioral questionnaire was administered by interviewers. Selected DUs were asked to self-collect a fingerprick blood sample on blotting paper. Results Of all DUs selected, 1462 (75%) accepted to participate. HCV seroprevalence was 59.8% [95% CI: 50.7–68.3]. Of DUs under 30 years, 28% were HCV seropositive. Of HCV-infected DUs, 27% were unaware of their status. In the month prior to interview, 13% of DUs shared a syringe, 38% other injection parapharnelia and 81% shared a crack pipe. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with HCV seropositivity were age over 30, HIV seropositivity, having ever injected drugs, opiate substitution treatment (OST), crack use, and precarious housing. Conclusion This is the first time that blood testing combined to GWSM is applied to a DUs population, which improve the estimate of HCV prevalence. HCV seroprevalence is high, indeed by the youngest DUs. And a large proportion of DUs are not aware of their status. Our multivariate analysis identifies risk factors such as crack

  17. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  18. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A

  19. Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

    2015-03-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points

  20. Cross-Sectional Study of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among School Aged Children in Rural and Urban Settings of Fogera and Libo Kemkem Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little information is available on malnutrition-related factors among school-aged children ≥5 years in Ethiopia. This study describes the prevalence of stunting and thinness and their related factors in Libo Kemkem and Fogera, Amhara Regional State and assesses differences between urban and rural areas. Methods In this cross-sectional study, anthropometrics and individual and household characteristics data were collected from 886 children. Height-for-age z-score for stunting and body-mass-index-for-age z-score for thinness were computed. Dietary data were collected through a 24-hour recall. Bivariate and backward stepwise multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malnutrition-associated factors in rural and urban communities. Results The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 42.7% in rural areas and 29.2% in urban areas, while the corresponding figures for thinness were 21.6% and 20.8%. Age differences were significant in both strata. In the rural setting, fever in the previous 2 weeks (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.23–2.32), consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29–0.91) and consumption of the family's own cattle products (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27–0.93), among others factors were significantly associated with stunting, while in the urban setting, only age (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.09–10.21) and years of schooling of the person in charge of food preparation were significant (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.97). Thinness was statistically associated with number of children living in the house (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03–1.60) and family rice cultivation (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41–0.99) in the rural setting, and with consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10–0.67) and literacy of head of household (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09–0.65) in the urban setting. Conclusion The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in rural areas, whereas no significant differences were observed for thinness

  1. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12–18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and Michigan using a web-based dietary questionnaire and physical development tool. Soy consumption (categorized as total soy, meat alternatives, tofu/traditional soy, and soy beverages) was estimated from the questionnaire, while AOM was self-reported. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazards ratios, Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results Mean (SD) intakes were: total soy,12.9 (14.4) servings/week; meat alternatives, 7.0 (8.9) servings/week; tofu/traditional soy foods, 2.1 (3.8) servings/week; soy beverages, 3.8 (6.3) servings/week. Mean AOM was 12.5 (1.4) y for those who reached menarche. Consumption of total soy and the 3 types of soy foods was not significantly associated with AOM and with the odds for early- or late-AOM. Adjustment for demographic and dietary factors did not change the results. Conclusion Soy intake is not associated with AOM in a population of adolescent girls who have a wide range of, and relatively higher, soy intake than the general US population. Our finding suggests that the increasing popularity of soy in the US may not be associated with AOM. PMID:24889551

  2. Effectiveness of Albendazole for Hookworm Varies Widely by Community and Correlates with Nutritional Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of School-Age Children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Nguyen, Sara; Kumar, Sunny; Quagraine, Josephine E; Otchere, Joseph; Harrison, Lisa M; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STHs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011. Among 140 school-age children residing in five contiguous communities, the hookworm prevalence was 59% (82/140). The overall cure rate following administration of single-dose albendazole (400 mg) was 35% (27/76), with a community-wide fecal egg reduction rate (ERR) of 61% (95% confidence interval: 51.8-71.1). Significant disparities were observed in albendazole effectiveness by community, with a cure rate as low as 0% (N = 24) in Jato Akuraa and ERRs ranging from 53% to 95% across the five study sites. Individual host factors associated with response to deworming treatment included time since last meal, pretreatment blood hemoglobin level, and mid-upper arm circumference. These data demonstrate significant community-level variation in the effectiveness of albendazole, even among populations living in close proximity. Identification of host factors that influence response to albendazole, most notably the timing of drug administration and nutritional factors, creates an opportunity to enhance the effectiveness of deworming through targeted interventions. These findings also demonstrate the importance of measuring anthelminthic response as part of the monitoring and evaluation of community-based deworming programs.

  3. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  4. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  5. The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Related Metabolic Comorbidities Was Associated with Age at Onset of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yunlu; Ding, Yangfeng

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been found to be highly prevalent in psoriatic patients. Adult onset psoriasis could be divided into either early or late onset psoriasis. The associations between NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities and age at onset of psoriasis have not yet been investigated. Our study was to evaluate the associations between prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic conditions and early, late, and childhood onset psoriasis. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Data on clinical characteristics of NAFLD and related metabolic diseases (diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome) were collected. The prevalence of NAFLD in 439 patients (mean: 51±14 years, range: 18–85 years) was 55.8%. NAFLD was frequently identified in early onset patients (74.2%), and this diagnosis was particularly common in patients currently younger than 40 (85.3%). Diabetes was the least prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in early onset patients with metabolic syndrome but the most often found component in late onset ones. Patients with childhood onset psoriasis had the lowest frequencies of all metabolic comorbidities except hyperuricemia among the three groups. In the multivariate analyses, early onset was independently and positively associated with NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and independently and negatively associated with diabetes among early and late onset patients. The results suggested prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities was associated with age at onset of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Early onset of psoriasis was independently associated with greater odds of NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia and smaller odds of diabetes compared to late onset. Early onset patients have metabolic syndrome mainly related to lipid disorders and abnormal glucose metabolism was not often involved. PMID:28099469

  6. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard; Herrmann, Johannes; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3–23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and retinol binding protein (RBP) were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI) was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored. Results Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%). Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF) significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin. Conclusion Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young

  7. Rheumatological disorder (RD) in Indian women above 40 years of age: A cross-sectional WHO-ILAR-COPCORD-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Kudial, Susheel; Tandon, Vishal R.; Mahajan, Annil

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To evaluate rheumatological profile among Indian women above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out for a period of one year using pre-validated questionnaire of COPCORD/WHO-ILAR. Those who complain of pain, tenderness, stiffness or swelling were subjected to clinical evaluation and diagnosis was established using the ACR's criteria for various RDs. Results: Mean age of the patients was 55.06 ± 6.82 years, mean age at menopause was 47.30 ± 2.50 years and the mean time since menopause was 9.077 ± 5.43 years. Among the total population evaluated (N = 130), 37.69% women presented with RD and 37.06% women among the menopausal women had RD with the most common being low backache (16.92%), followed by osteoarthritis (12.30%), fibromyalgia (3.84%) and rheumatoid arthritis (2.30%). The most common site involved was knee (9.23%) followed by lumbar spine (8.46%), hip (3.07%) and other sites (16.92%) such as neck, upper back, hand joints, shoulder, thighs, etc. Study failed to show any statistical correlation with any socio-demographic or other parameters of interest with RD. HAQ-DI (Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index) was found to be highly significant (P < 0.000) in 13.84% women when correlated with RD. Conclusion: The prevalence of RD is substantially high among Indian women above 40 years demanding attention of health care providers. PMID:26167058

  8. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  9. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  10. The AMEL study, a cross sectional population-based survey on aging and malnutrition in 1200 elderly Lebanese living in rural settings: protocol and sample characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lebanon is faced with a particular challenge because of large socioeconomic inequality and accelerated demographic transition. Rural residents seem more vulnerable because of limited access to transport, health and social services. No information is available regarding health, nutrition and living conditions of this specific population. The purpose of the AMEL (Aging and Malnutrition in Elderly Lebanese) study is to assess the nutritional status of community dwelling elderly people, aged 65 years and above, living in a rural settings in Lebanon, in line of socioeconomic factors, health and living conditions. The present paper will describe the gender specific characteristics of the study population. Methods AMEL is a cross-sectional population based study conducted between April 2011 and April 2012 including 1200 elderly individuals living in the 24 rural Caza (districts) of Lebanon. People aged greater than or equal to 65 y were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling. Subjects were interviewed at their homes by trained interviewers. The questionnaire included the following measures: socio-demographic factors, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA), health related characteristics, functional ability, cognitive status, mood and social network. Results The sample included 591 men (49.3%) and 609 women (50.8%). Mean age was 75.32 years and similar between genders. Malnutrition (MNA < 17) and risk of malnutrition (MNA between 17 and 23.5) were present in 8.0% (95%CI 4.9%-11.1%) and 29.1% (95%CI 24.0%-34.2%) respectively of the participants, and more frequent in women (9.1% and 35.3% respectively). Regarding socio-demographic status, among women the level of illiteracy and poor income was significantly higher than in men. Moreover, chronic diseases, poor self perceived health, frailty, functional disability, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment were particularly high and significantly more frequent in women than in

  11. Use of Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Bioidentical Hormone Therapy in Australian Women 50 to 69 Years of Age: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Banks, Emily; Sitas, Freddy; Salagame, Usha; Tan, Eng Hooi; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) use in Australia fell by 55% from 2001 to 2005, following the release of large-scale findings on its risks and benefits. Comprehensive national data, including information on overall prevalence of MHT use as well as information on duration of use in Australia have not been reported since the 2004-5 National Health Survey, when 11% of women aged 45+ years were estimated to be current MHT users. No national data are available on prevalence of use of "bioidentical" hormone therapy (BHT). The objective of this study was to determine recent prevalence of MHT and BHT use. A cross-sectional, national, age-stratified, population survey was conducted in 2013. Eligible women, aged 50-69 years, resident in Australia were randomly sampled in 5-year age groups from the Medicare enrolment database (Australia's universal health scheme). The response rate was 22% based on return of completed questionnaires, and analyses were restricted to 4,389 women within the specified age range. The estimated population-weighted prevalence of current use of MHT was 13% (95%CI 12-14), which was broadly similar to the previously reported national figures in 2004-5, suggesting that the use of MHT in Australia has largely stabilised over the past decade. A total of 39% and 20% of current-users with an intact uterus reported use of oestrogen-progestagen MHT and oestrogen-only MHT, respectively, whereas 77% of hysterectomised current-users used oestrogen-only MHT. Almost three-quarters of current-users [population-weighted prevalence 9% (95%CI 8-10)] had used MHT for ≥5 years. In regard to BHT, estimated population-weighted prevalence of ever use was 6% (95%CI 6-7) and 2% (95%CI 2-3) for current use. The population-weighted prevalence of MHT and BHT combined, in current users in their fifties and sixties was 15% (95%CI 14-16). These data provide a recent national "snapshot" of Australian women's use of both conventional MHT and of BHT.

  12. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study

  13. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Related Factors in School-Aged Children in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Amhara Regional State

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Buño, Antonio; Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel; de Armas, Lisset Fernandez; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Moreno, Javier; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia), assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May–December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess micronutrient deficiencies (MD), anaemia, and their association with different factors. Results More than two thirds of the school-aged children (79.5%) had at least one MD and 40.5% had two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. The most prevalent deficiencies were of zinc (12.5%), folate (13.9%), vit A (29.3%) and vit D (49%). Anaemia occurred in 30.9% of the children. Children living in rural areas were more likely to have vit D insufficiency [OR: 5.9 (3.7–9.5)] but less likely to have folate deficiency [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.4)] and anaemia [OR: 0.58 (0.35–0.97)]. Splenomegaly was positively associated with folate deficiency and anaemia [OR: 2.77 (1.19–6.48) and 4.91 (2.47–9.75)]. Meat and fish consumption were inversely correlated with zinc and ferritin deficiencies [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.8) and 0.2 (0.1–0.9)], while oil consumption showed a negative association with anaemia and deficiencies of folate and vitamin A [0.58 (0.3–0.9), OR: 0.5 (0.3–0.9) and 0.6 (0.4–0.9)]. Serum ferritin levels were inversely correlated to the presence of anaemia (p<0.005). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency and a moderate prevalence of zinc and folate deficiencies in school-aged children in this area. The inverse association of anaemia and serum ferritin levels may be due to the presence of infectious diseases in the area. To effectively tackle malnutrition

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  15. Allergen sensitization linked to climate and age, not to intermittent-persistent rhinitis in a cross-sectional cohort study in the (sub)tropics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure leads to allergen sensitization in susceptible individuals and this might influence allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype expression. We investigated whether sensitization patterns vary in a country with subtropical and tropical regions and if sensitization patterns relate to AR phenotypes or age. Methods In a national, cross-sectional study AR patients (2-70 y) seen by allergists underwent blinded skin prick testing with a panel of 18 allergens and completed a validated questionnaire on AR phenotypes. Results 628 patients were recruited. The major sensitizing allergen was house dust mite (HDM) (56%), followed by Bermuda grass (26%), ash (24%), oak (23%) and mesquite (21%) pollen, cat (22%) and cockroach (21%). Patients living in the tropical region were almost exclusively sensitized to HDM (87%). In the central agricultural zones sensitization is primarily to grass and tree pollen. Nationwide, most study subjects had perennial (82.2%), intermittent (56.5%) and moderate-severe (84.7%) AR. Sensitization was not related to the intermittent-persistent AR classification or to AR severity; seasonal AR was associated with tree (p < 0.05) and grass pollen sensitization (p < 0.01). HDM sensitization was more frequent in children (0-11 y) and adolescents (12-17 y) (subtropical region: p < 0.0005; tropical region p < 0.05), but pollen sensitization becomes more important in the adult patients visiting allergists (Adults vs children + adolescents for tree pollen: p < 0.0001, weeds: p < 0.0005). Conclusions In a country with (sub)tropical climate zones SPT sensitization patterns varied according to climatological zones; they were different from those found in Europe, HDM sensitization far outweighing pollen allergies and Bermuda grass and Ash pollen being the main grass and tree allergens, respectively. Pollen sensitization was related to SAR, but no relation between sensitization and intermittent-persistent AR or AR severity

  16. Association between environmental factors and current asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province – Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema symptoms in childhood has considerably increased in developing countries including Bolivia, possibly due to changes in lifestyle, environmental and domestic factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors and asthma, rhinoconjuctivitis and eczema symptoms in school-aged children from Oropeza Province in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 2340 children attending the fifth grade in 36 randomly selected elementary schools in Oropeza province. The prevalence of symptoms was determined using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Environmental factors were assessed by the ISAAC environmental questionnaire including questions related to exposure to pets, farm animals, indoor and outdoor pollution, presence of disease vectors at home and precarious household conditions. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were adjusted for age, sex and place of living. Results Thirty seven percent of children reported that at least one of their parents smoked at home. Wood or coal was used as cooking fuel in 19% of the homes and 29% reported intense truck traffic on the street where they lived. With respect to hygiene conditions, 86% reported exposure to dogs, 59% exposure to cats and 36% regular contact to farm animals. More than one precarious household condition was reported by 8% of children. In the adjusted model exposure to dog (adjusted OR 1.4; CI 95% 1.0-1.9), cat (1.2; 1.0-1.5), farm animals (1.5; 1.2-1.8); intense truck traffic (1.3; 1.0-1.6), parents smoking at home (1.2; 1.0-1.5), presence of disease vectors at home (fourth quartile vs. first quartile: 1.6; 1.2-2.3) and two or more precarious household conditions (1.5; 1.0-2.2) were significantly associated with rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. The associations were similar for asthma and eczema symptoms; however it did not reach

  17. Awareness of physical activity in healthy middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional study of associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. One reason may be that inactive adults are unaware that their level of physical activity is inadequate and do not perceive a need to change their behaviour. We aimed to assess awareness of physical activity, defined as the agreement between self-rated and objective physical activity, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic, biological, behavioural, and psychological factors. Methods We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of awareness of physical activity using baseline data collected from 453 participants of the Feedback, Awareness and Behaviour study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Self-rated physical activity was measured dichotomously by asking participants if they believed they were achieving the recommended level of physical activity. Responses were compared to objective physical activity, measured using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart®). Four awareness groups were created: overestimators, realistic inactives, underestimators, and realistic actives. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between awareness group and potential correlates. Results The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 47.0 (6.9) years, 44.4% were male, and 65.1% were overweight (body mass index ≥ 25). Of the 258 (57.0%) who were objectively classified as inactive, 130 (50.4%) misperceived their physical activity by incorrectly stating that they were meeting the guidelines (overestimators). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex, those with a lower body mass index (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.90 to 1.00), higher physical activity energy expenditure (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.06) and self-reported physical activity (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.19), and lower intention to increase physical activity (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99) and

  18. The Mini Mental State Examination at the Time of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Diagnosis, According to Age, Education, Gender and Place of Residence: A Cross-Sectional Study among the French National Alzheimer Database

    PubMed Central

    Pradier, Christian; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Le Duff, Franck; Layese, Richard; Metelkina, Asya; Anthony, Sabine; Tifratene, Karim; Robert, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to describe the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) score upon initial diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders among the French population, according to age. Secondly, education, gender and place of residence were studied as factors potentially associated with delayed Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Design we conducted a cross sectional analysis of the French National Alzheimer database (BNA). Data from 2008 to 2012 were extracted. Patients were selected at the moment of their first diagnosis of AD (n = 39,451). Results The MMSE score at initial diagnosis dropped significantly with increasing age. The test score increased with the degree of educational background regardless of age. Gender and place of residence were significantly related to the MMSE score, women and persons living in medical institutions having lower MMSE scores under the age of 90 years and at all educational levels. Conclusions Health care professionals should be aware of these risk factors in order to maximize chances of earliest possible diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. PMID:25093735

  19. Sex- and age-related differences in femoral neck cross-sectional structural changes in mainland Chinese men and women measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Tang, Min; Guo, Bin; Shang, JingJie; Tang, Yongjin; Xu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We investigated age-related changes in estimated bone strength and cross-sectional structure of the femoral neck (FN) in mainland Chinese men and women (according to age and sex) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 3855 healthy adults (2713 women, 1142 men; ages 25-91years) were analyzed by FN bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and hip structural/strength analysis (HSA), including cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus (Z), periosteal diameter (PD), endocortical diameter (ED), and cortical thickness (CT) using DXA. HSA differences between age and sex groups were adjusted for body weight, height and FN BMD. Trends according to age were estimated by linear regression analysis. There was no inverse correlation between HSA parameters and age in young adults. Some HSA parameters (CSMI, CSA, Z, CT) decreased significantly with age, whereas PD and ED increased significantly. Older adults had less estimated bone strength and CT and higher PD and ED (p<0.05) than young adults. Men had greater increases in PD and ED than women across all ages. FN strength decreases with age in both sexes, caused by FN cross-sectional structural deterioration. Indirect comparison of our data with those from other populations showed less age-related FN periosteal apposition in Chinese than Caucasian men, but similar amounts in women. This may partly explain different male/female hip fracture rates among ethnic groups. Chinese men have more structural disadvantages regarding FN geometry during aging than Caucasian men, possibly conferring added susceptibility to hip fracture.

  20. Assessment of factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months: a cross-sectional study in Nouna district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Simboro, Seraphin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Dugas, Marylène; Graham, Janice; Bibeau, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is still in need of improvement. In Burkina Faso in 2003, for example, the Nouna health district had an immunization coverage rate of 31.5%, compared to the national rate of 52%. This study identifies specific factors associated with immunization status in Nouna health district in order to advance improved intervention strategies in this district and in those with similar environmental and social contexts. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 41 rural communities and one semi-urban area (urban in the text). Data on 476 children aged 12 to 23 months were analyzed from a representative sample of 489, drawn from the Nouna Health Research Centre's Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) database. The vaccination history of these children was examined. The relationships between their immunization status and social, economic and various contextual variables associated with their parents and households were assessed using Chi square test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression. Results The total immunization coverage was 50.2% (CI, 45.71; 54.69). Parental knowledge of the preventive value of immunization was positively related to complete immunization status (p = 0.03) in rural areas. Children of parents who reported a perception of communication problems surrounding immunization had a lower immunization coverage rate (p < 0.001). No distance related difference exists in terms of complete immunization coverage within villages and between villages outside the site of the health centres. Children of non-educated fathers in rural areas have higher rates of complete immunization coverage than those in the urban area (p = 0.028). Good communication about immunization and the importance of availability of immunization booklets, as well as economic and religious factors appear to positively affect children's immunization status. Conclusion Vaccination sites in remote areas are intended to provide a greater

  1. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  2. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  3. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  4. The Israeli kibbutz as a venue for reduced disability in old age: lessons from the Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS).

    PubMed

    Walter-Ginzburg, Adrian; Blumstein, Tzvia; Guralnik, Jack M

    2004-07-01

    It is important to identify ways to moderate disability in old age. We assessed whether the kibbutz way of life results in reduced disability by examining risk factors for disability in three comparable populations: kibbutz members (lifetime kibbutz exposure); parents of kibbutz members who came to live on the kibbutz in old age due to health and social needs (old age exposure); and comparable Israelis in the general population (no exposure). Kibbutz members were less disabled, defined as needing help with at least one of five activities of daily living, than the other groups. Kibbutz members had 30% lower risk of disability, after controlling for sociodemographics and social networks, health and health behaviors, and life history and background. Introducing length of residence in current home and death of a child to the analysis reduced this finding to non-significance. Overall, risk of disability was significantly higher for older age groups, women, homemakers, people with more comorbid conditions, those with more children, and those with a child that had died, while risk of disability was significantly lower for those with larger social networks, those who had engaged in physical activity at midlife, and those who had lived in their homes longer. Since occupations on the kibbutz (primarily agricultural and blue collar) have equal pay, and kibbutz members have complete economic security, our results suggest that it is not such occupations themselves but their association with low incomes that have contributed to previous associations of blue collar and agricultural occupations with poor health and high disability. Lower disability among kibbutz members may be due to the social, economic, and instrumental support provided on the kibbutz, as well as to an active life style, suggesting features of kibbutz life that can be replicated elsewhere to reduce disability.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study on Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV: Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew N; Lampe, Fiona C; Miltz, Ada; Gilson, Richard; Asboe, David; Nwokolo, Nneka; Scott, Christopher; Day, Sara; Clarke, Amanda; Anderson, Jane; O'Connell, Rebecca; Apea, Vanessa; Dhairyawan, Rageshri; Gompels, Mark; Farazmand, Paymaneh; Allan, Sris; Mann, Susan; Dhar, Jyoti; Tang, Alan; Sadiq, S Tariq; Taylor, Stephen; Collins, Simon; Sherr, Lorraine; Hart, Graham; Johnson, Anne M; Miners, Alec; Elford, Jonathan; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Background The annual number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United Kingdom among men who have sex with men (MSM) has risen, and remains high among heterosexuals. Increasing HIV transmission among MSM is consistent with evidence of ongoing sexual risk behavior in this group, and targeted prevention strategies are needed for those at risk of acquiring HIV. Objective The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) study was designed to collect information on HIV negative adults at risk of HIV infection in the United Kingdom, based on the following parameters: physical and mental health, lifestyle, patterns of sexual behaviour, and attitudes to sexual risk. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study of HIV negative or undiagnosed sexual health clinic attendees in the United Kingdom from 2013-2014. Results Of 2630 participants in the AURAH study, 2064 (78%) were in the key subgroups of interest; 580 were black Africans (325 females and 255 males) and 1484 were MSM, with 27 participants belonging to both categories. Conclusions The results from AURAH will be a significant resource to understand the attitudes and sexual behaviour of those at risk of acquiring HIV within the United Kingdom. AURAH will inform future prevention efforts and targeted health promotion initiatives in the HIV negative population. PMID:27091769

  6. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  7. Estimating population prevalence of potential airflow obstruction using different spirometric criteria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis of persons aged 40–95 years in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Moody, Alison; Mindell, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Consistent estimation of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been hindered by differences in methods, including different spirometric cut-offs for impaired lung function. The impact of different definitions on the prevalence of potential airflow obstruction, and its associations with key risk factors, is evaluated using cross-sectional data from two nationally representative population surveys. Design Pooled cross-sectional analysis of Wave 2 of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey and the Health Survey for England 2010, including 7879 participants, aged 40–95 years, who lived in England and Wales, without diagnosed asthma and with good-quality spirometry data. Potential airflow obstruction was defined using self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD; a fixed threshold (FT) forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio <0.7 and an age-specific, sex-specific, height-specific and ethnic-specific lower limit of normal (LLN). Standardised questions elicited self-reported information on demography, smoking history, ethnicity, occupation, respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular disease. Results Consistent across definitions, participants classed with obstructed airflow were more likely to be older, currently smoke, have higher pack-years of smoking and be engaged in routine occupations. The prevalence of airflow obstruction was 2.8% (95% CI 2.3% to 3.2%), 22.2% (21.2% to 23.2%) and 13.1% (12.2% to 13.9%) according to diagnosed COPD, FT and LLN, respectively. The gap in prevalence between FT and LLN increased in older age groups. Sex differences in the risk of obstruction, after adjustment for key risk factors, was sensitive to the choice of spirometric cut-off, being significantly higher in men when using FT, compared with no significant difference using LLN. Conclusions Applying FT or LLN spirometric cut-offs gives a different picture of the size and distribution of the disease burden. Longitudinal studies

  8. Validation of two age dependent D-dimer cut-off values for exclusion of deep vein thrombosis in suspected elderly patients in primary care: retrospective, cross sectional, diagnostic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koek, H L (Dineke); Oudega, Ruud; Geersing, Geert-Jan; Janssen, Kristel J M; van Delden, Johannes J M; Moons, Karel G M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the use of age adapted D-dimer cut-off values can be translated to primary care patients who are suspected of deep vein thrombosis. Design Retrospective, cross sectional diagnostic study. Setting 110 primary care doctors affiliated with three hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 1374 consecutive patients (936 (68.1%) aged >50 years) with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis. Main outcome measures Proportion of patients with D-dimer values below two proposed age adapted cut-off levels (age in years×10 μg/L in patients aged >50 years, or 750 μg/L in patients aged ≥60 years), in whom deep vein thrombosis could be excluded; and the number of false negative results. Results Using the Wells score, 647 patients had an unlikely clinical probability of deep vein thrombosis. In these patients (at all ages), deep vein thrombosis could be excluded in 309 (47.8%) using the age dependent cut-off value compared with 272 (42.0%) using the conventional cut-off value of 500 μg/L (increase 5.7%, 95% confidence interval 4.1% to 7.8%). This exclusion rate resulted in 0.5% and 0.3% false negative cases, respectively (increase 0.2%, 0.004% to 8.6%).The increase in exclusion rate by using the age dependent cut-off value was highest in the oldest patients. In patients older than 80 years, deep vein thrombosis could be safely excluded in 22 (35.5%) patients using the age dependent cut-off value compared with 13 (21.0%) using the conventional cut-off value (increase 14.5%, 6.8% to 25.8%). Compared with the age dependent cut-off value, the cut-off value of 750 μg/L had a similar exclusion rate (307 (47.4%) patients) and false negative rate (0.3%). Conclusions Combined with a low clinical probability of deep vein thrombosis, use of the age dependent D-dimer cut-off value for patients older than 50 years or the cut-off value of 750 μg/L for patients aged 60 years and older resulted in a considerable increase in the proportion of patients in

  9. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  10. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  11. Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children.

  12. Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children. PMID:28210613

  13. Rationale and cross-sectional study design of the Research on Obesity and type 2 Diabetes among African Migrants: the RODAM study

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Dodoo, Francis; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Amoah, Stephen K; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Nicolaou, Mary; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Burr, Tom; Henneman, Peter; Mannens, Marcel M; van Straalen, Jan P; Bahendeka, Silver; Zwinderman, A H; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene–environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D, but has not yet been investigated. The overall aim of the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) project is to understand the reasons for the high prevalence of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan Africans in diaspora by (1) studying the complex interplay between environment (eg, lifestyle), healthcare, biochemical and (epi)genetic factors, and their relative contributions to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D; (2) to identify specific risk factors within these broad categories to guide intervention programmes and (3) to provide a basic knowledge for improving diagnosis and treatment. Methods and analysis RODAM is a multicentre cross-sectional study among homogenous sub-Saharan African participants (ie, Ghanaians) aged >25 years living in rural and urban Ghana, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK (http://rod-am.eu/). Standardised data on the main outcomes, genetic and non-genetic factors are collected in all locations. The aim is to recruit 6250 individuals comprising five subgroups of 1250 individuals from each site. In Ghana, Kumasi and Obuasi (urban stratum) and villages in the Ashanti region (rural stratum) are served as recruitment sites. In Europe, Ghanaian migrants are selected through the municipality or Ghanaian organisations registers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained in all sites. This paper gives an overview of the rationale, conceptual framework and methods of the study. The differences across locations will allow us to gain insight into genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to the occurrence of obesity and T2D and will inform targeted intervention and prevention programmes, and

  14. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  15. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  16. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4-13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-09-08

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9-13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4-8 years old (92%-98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life.

  17. Indexes of Insulin Resistance in Hyperinsulinemic Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Macedonian Cohort of Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovska-Mishevska, Sasha; Atanasova-Boshku, Aleksandra; Bitoska, Iskra; Ahmeti, Irfan; Todorova, Biljana; Pemovska, Gordana; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Krstevska, Brankica

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex hormonal, metabolic and reproductive disorder and is a leading cause of female infertility. Hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance plays important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of different indices of insulin resistance and their relevance in a clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 43 patients with PCOS and 29 noromo ovulatory women as a control group was conducted. Standard clinical, anthropometrical and hormonal testing for hyperandrogenism was conducted, as well as oral glucose tolerance test with determination of basal and stimulated glucose and insulin values. RESULTS: The dynamic I/G index showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, but the static indexes HOMA-IR and QUICKI, although based on only basal glycemic and insulinemic values, showed good sensitivity, 90.38% and 94.01% respectively. HOMA-IR showed significant positive correlation with the stimulated insulin values. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of static indexes in the evaluation of insulin resistance in women with PCOS in a clinical setting, offering a simple assessment of insulin resistance in PCOS, which holds great prognostic and treatment implications. PMID:28028399

  18. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  19. Geographical Differences in the Population-Based Cross-Sectional Growth Curve and Age at Peak Height Velocity with respect to the Prevalence Rate of Overweight in Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Yokoya, Masana; Higuchi, Yukito

    2014-01-01

    The School Health Examination Survey is a nationwide examination carried out annually in Japan, and the results are entered into a prefectural-level physical measurement database. We used this database to determine the geographical differences in a population-based cross-sectional growth curve and investigated the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV) and the prevalence rate of overweight in children among Japanese prefectures. Mean prefectural-level age at PHV was estimated by the cubic spline-fitting procedure using cross-sectional whole-year prefectural mean height data (5-17 years, 2006-2013), and 8-year (2006-2013) means of the standardized prevalence rates of overweight children and other anatomical data (8-year standardized weight and height) were recalculated. Mean prefectural age at PHV was more strongly correlated with the mean prefectural prevalence rate of overweight (age 5-8 years) than with other weights or heights in both sexes. On the basis of these findings and their confirmation by multiple regression analysis, the prevalence rate of overweight was selected as a primary factor to explain the geographical difference in age at PHV. These findings suggest that childhood overweight is a dominant factor responsible for the observed geographical differences in onset of puberty in Japan.

  20. Association between low-grade albuminuria and frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people: a cross-sectional analysis from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chin; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Ting-Yung; Huang, Po-Hsun; Liu, Li-Kuo; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is characterized by decreased physiological reserve and increased vulnerability to atherosclerosis and subsequent mortality. Recently, low-grade albuminuria has been proposed as an atherosclerotic risk factor. We aimed to investigate the relationship between low-grade albuminuria and frailty by using cross-sectional data among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people. Totally, 1,441 inhabitants of I-Lan County with normal urinary albumin excretion (urine albumin to urine creatinine ratio [UACR] <30 mg/g) were enrolled (677 men; mean age 63 ± 9 years, range from 50 to 91 years old). Assessment of frailty was based on the ‘Fried frailty phenotype’ criteria, including weight loss, grip strength, exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity. The study population was stratified into quartiles according to UACR levels. Age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, fasting glucose and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were increased with the increment of UACR (P for trend <0.05). The prevalence of prefrailty/frailty and its components increased across the UACR quartiles. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that UACR was independently associated with the likelihood of prefrailty/frailty (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.27). In conclusion, low-grade albuminuria is associated with the increased prevalence of prefrailty/frailty. PMID:28000719

  1. Cross-Sectional Study of Polybrominated Flame Retardants and Self-Reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in US Youth Aged 12-15 (NHANES 2003-2004).

    PubMed

    Przybyla, Jennifer; Kile, Molly L; Smit, Ellen; Houseman, E Andres

    2016-01-01

    Background. Animal toxicity tests and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to PBDEs can alter attention behavior, yet few studies have examined their association with diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. Methods. Logistic regression was used to examine the cross-sectional association between ADHD and lipid and non-lipid adjusted blood serum concentrations of 2',4-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), serum PBDEs, above/below the 75th percentile of serum PBDEs, and tertiles of serum PBDE in 12-15-year-olds (N = 292) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Results. The ADHD weighted prevalence was 13.57%. The weighted adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between ADHD diagnosis and lipid adjusted BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, serum total PBDE, serum PBDE concentrations above the 75th percentile, and serum PBDE concentrations in the second or third tertile were 1.16 (95% CI: 0.51, 2.67), 1.36 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.56), 1.51 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.25), 1.53 (95% CI: 0.73, 3.23), 1.43 (95% CI: 0.57, 3.56), 1.41 (0.71, 2.83), 0.59 (0.10, 3.56), 6.16 (1.19, 31.90), and 0.99 (0.23, 4.29). Conclusions. We observed no association between serum PBDE concentrations and ADHD in US youths.

  2. Cross-Sectional Study of Polybrominated Flame Retardants and Self-Reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in US Youth Aged 12–15 (NHANES 2003-2004)

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Ellen; Houseman, E. Andres

    2016-01-01

    Background. Animal toxicity tests and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to PBDEs can alter attention behavior, yet few studies have examined their association with diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. Methods. Logistic regression was used to examine the cross-sectional association between ADHD and lipid and non-lipid adjusted blood serum concentrations of 2′,4-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE-47), 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), serum PBDEs, above/below the 75th percentile of serum PBDEs, and tertiles of serum PBDE in 12–15-year-olds (N = 292) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Results. The ADHD weighted prevalence was 13.57%. The weighted adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between ADHD diagnosis and lipid adjusted BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, serum total PBDE, serum PBDE concentrations above the 75th percentile, and serum PBDE concentrations in the second or third tertile were 1.16 (95% CI: 0.51, 2.67), 1.36 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.56), 1.51 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.25), 1.53 (95% CI: 0.73, 3.23), 1.43 (95% CI: 0.57, 3.56), 1.41 (0.71, 2.83), 0.59 (0.10, 3.56), 6.16 (1.19, 31.90), and 0.99 (0.23, 4.29). Conclusions. We observed no association between serum PBDE concentrations and ADHD in US youths. PMID:27471519

  3. The prevalence of skin eruptions and mycoses of the buttocks and feet in aged care facility residents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Kanazawa, Toshiki; Miura, Yuka; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of skin mycoses in the elderly remains unclear. The proportion of people with skin eruptions who are positive for mycoses using direct microscopy is not known. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of skin eruptions and skin mycoses (e.g. candidiasis and tinea) in the buttocks and feet, which are common sites of skin mycoses in residents of long-term care facilities. This multi-site cross-sectional study used visual inspection and direct microscopy to diagnose the type of skin eruption. Subjects were residents of facilities covered by long-term care insurance schemes in Japan. Of the 171 residents enrolled in this study, 72.5% had a skin eruption. Only 4.8% of participants had tinea in the buttocks; 2.4% had buttock candidiasis. In those with a nail abnormality, 58.3% of residents had tinea unguium. For tinea pedis, residents who had any form of interdigital or plantar region skin eruption, 22.5% and 31.4% of residents were positive, respectively. The prevalence of observed skin mycoses was: buttock candidiasis 1.8%; buttock tinea 3.5%; tinea unguium 56.2%; interdigital tinea pedis 20.5%; and plantar tinea pedis 22.5%. The very low proportion of residents with mycoses in the buttocks suggests that anti-inflammatory agents, such as steroids, should be used as first choice. Our observation that not all residents with skin eruptions on the feet had tinea, should remind clinicians to perform direct microscopy before initiating antifungal treatments.

  4. The Relationships between Anabolic Hormones and Body Composition in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men with Prediabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The influence of anabolic hormones and body composition in men with prediabetes (PD) is unknown. In a cross-sectional study we investigated the relationships between total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and body composition assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method in 84 patients with PD (40–80 years) and 56 men in control group. Patients with PD had lower TT, cFT, and DHEAS levels but similar IGF-1 levels in both groups. Patients with PD presented the higher total and abdominal fat as well as the lower total and abdominal lean than control (p < 0.02, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.02, resp.). We observed negative relationship between TT and total fat (p = 0.014) and positive with abdominal lean mass (p = 0.034), while cFT was negatively associated with abdominal (p = 0.02), trunk (p = 0.024), and leg fat (p = 0.037) and positively associated with total (p = 0.022) and trunk lean (p = 0.024). DHEAS were negatively associated with total fat (p = 0.045), and IGF-1 were positively associated with abdominal (p = 0.003) and leg lean (p = 0.015). In conclusion, the lowered anabolic hormones are involved in body composition rearrangement in men with PD. Further studies are needed to establish whether the androgen replacement therapy would be beneficial in men with PD. PMID:27274996

  5. Association of markers of chronic viral hepatitis and blood mercury levels in US reproductive-age women from NHANES 2001–2008: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin primarily found in seafood; exposures in reproductive-age women are of concern due to vulnerability of the developing fetus. MeHg is mainly eliminated via an enterohepatic cycle involving the liver and gallbladder. Dysfunction in these organs has been associated with slower MeHg elimination in laboratory animals. We hypothesized that women testing positive for chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV), both associated with risk of longer-term liver and gallbladder impairment, would have higher total blood mercury (TBHg) concentrations than those negative for the viruses, reflecting slower MeHg elimination. Methods Geometric mean (GM) TBHg levels from a representative sample of over 5,000 seafood-consuming, reproductive-age women from eight years (2001–2008) of the US NHANES survey were compared by viral hepatitis status (as determined by serological assay) using multiple linear regression. Adjustment was made for estimated MeHg intake from seafood consumption, social and demographic variables and other predictors. Results Women with chronic HBV had 1.52 (95% CI 1.13, 2.05, p < 0.01) times the GM TBHg of women who had not come into contact with the virus. The positive association was strongest in those with most severe disease. A modest negative association was found with HCV markers. Conclusions While study design prevents inferences on causality, the finding that MeHg biomarkers differ by hepatitis status in this population suggests viral hepatitis may alter the pace of MeHg elimination. Offspring of HBV-infected seafood-consuming women may be at higher risk of MeHg-induced developmental delays than offspring of those uninfected. Possible reasons for the unanticipated negative association with HCV are explored. PMID:22970929

  6. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  7. Older Australian's Motivation for University Enrollment and Their Perception of the Role of Tertiary Education in Promoting Healthy Aging: A National Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownie, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of older Australian university students (aged 60+ years); to identify the factors that motivate late-life, tertiary-level learning; and to capture older students' views about the role of tertiary-level learning in promoting healthy aging. In 2012, an invitation to participate in the study…

  8. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  9. Non- and semi-parametric estimation of age and time heterogeneity in repeated cross-sections: an application to self-reported morbidity and general practitioner utilization.

    PubMed

    Parkin, D; Rice, N; Sutton, M

    1999-08-01

    Patterns of self-reported morbidity and general practitioner (GP) utilization exhibit complex age, sex and time heterogeneity. Underlying patterns are often obscured by data which are overly 'rough' because of noise associated with adjacent year fluctuations. In this paper we describe methods to obtain smoothed estimates of age, time and birth-cohort effects using data from the General Household Survey (GHS), covering the period 1984-1995/6 inclusive. The methods outlined offer powerful analytic tools to research complex profiles or trends, particularly over age or time. The relationships of the morbidity and GP utilization measures with age, sex and survey year characteristics are estimated non-parametrically using roughness penalized least squares (RPLS). A semi-parametric extension of this model is used to estimate the effect of the morbidity variables on GP utilization. Tests are employed for various forms of age and time heterogeneity including birth-cohort effects. Linear age specifications are rejected for all variables and evidence is found of time heterogeneity in one of the morbidity measures--limiting long-standing illness (LS)--and GP utilization. The advantages of employing non- and semi-parametric estimations in the presence of complex relationships such as those observed for age and time profiles are discussed. Adoption of these techniques by applied econometricians working in health economics is encouraged.

  10. Ageing and mental health: changes in self-reported health due to physical illness and mental health status with consecutive cross-sectional analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lorem, Geir Fagerjord; Schirmer, Henrik; Wang, Catharina E A; Emaus, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Objectives It is known that self-reported health (SRH) declines with increasing age and that comorbidity increases with age. We wished to examine how age transfers its effect to SRH through comorbid disease and mental illness and whether these processes remained stable from 1994 until 2008. The hypothesis is that ageing and/or the increased age-related burden of pathology explains the declining SRH. Setting The Tromsø Study (TS) is a cohort study using a survey approach with repeated physical examinations. It was conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway, from 1974 to 2008. Participants A total of 21 199 women and 19 229 men participated. Primary and secondary outcome measures SRH is the outcome of interest. We calculated and compared the effect sizes of age, comorbidity and mental health symptoms using multimediator analysis based on OLS regression. Results Ageing had a negative impact on SRH, but the total effect of age decreased from 1994 to 2007. We assessed the direct effect of age and then the proportion of indirect age-related effects through physical illness and mental health symptoms on the total effect. The direct effect of age represented 79.3% of the total effect in 1994 and decreased to 58.8% in 2007. Physical illness emerged as an increasingly important factor and increased its influence from 15.7% to 41.2% of the total effect. Age alone had a protective effect on mental health symptoms and this increased (2.5% to 17.3%), but we found a stronger association between mental health symptoms and physical disease in the later waves of the study (increasing from 3.7% to 14.8%). Conclusions The results suggest that the effect on SRH of mental health symptoms caused by physical illness is an increasing public health problem. Treatment and care for specific medical conditions must therefore focus more strongly on how these conditions affect the patient's mental health and address these concerns accordingly. PMID:28100564

  11. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  12. The effect of education on age-related changes in three cognitive domains: a cross-sectional study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Maruta, Carolina; Silva, Cláudia; Rodrigues, Pedro; Chester, Catarina; Ginó, Sandra; Freitas, Vanda; Freitas, Sara; Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of formal education on age-related changes in different cognitive domains with the hypothesis that it may attenuate the rate of decline. Individuals aged 50 years or older attending primary care physicians without known brain disease (431 participants, mostly [60.3%] female with 66.3 [±9.1] years of age and 7.7 [±4.1] years of education, on average), were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery including 28 cognitive measures. Cognitive domains identified by factor analysis were subject to repeated multiple regression analyses to determine the variance explained by age and education controlling for gender, depressive symptoms, and vascular risk factors. The slope of the regression equation was compared between two educational groups with an average of 4 years and 11 years of education, respectively. Factors identified corresponded to processing ability (Factor 1), memory (Factor 2), and acquired knowledge (Factor 3). Although education improved performance in Factors 1 and 3, it did not change the slope of age-related decline in any factor. This study suggests that in culturally heterogeneous groups, small increments in education enhance cognition but do not modify the rate of decline of executive functioning with age. These results contradict some clinical findings and need to be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  13. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  15. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  16. Loneliness Predicts Reduced Physical Activity: Cross-Sectional & Longitudinal Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine cross-sectional and prospective associations between loneliness and physical activity, and to evaluate the roles of social control and emotion regulation as mediators of these associations. Design A population-based sample of 229 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women, age 50 to 68 years at study onset, were tested annually for each of 3 years. Main Outcome Measures Physical activity probability, and changes in physical activity probability over a 3-year period. Results Replicating and extending prior cross-sectional research, loneliness was associated with a significantly reduced odds of physical activity (OR = 0.65 per SD of loneliness) net of sociodemographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education, income), psychosocial variables (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, hostility, social support), and self-rated health. This association was mediated by hedonic emotion regulation, but not by social control as indexed by measures of social network size, marital status, contact with close ties, group membership, or religious group affiliation. Longitudinal analyses revealed that loneliness predicted diminished odds of physical activity in the next two years (OR = 0.61), and greater likelihood of transitioning from physical activity to inactivity (OR = 1.58). Conclusion Loneliness among middle and older age adults is an independent risk factor for physical inactivity and increases the likelihood that physical activity will be discontinued over time. PMID:19450042

  17. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood). Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences. For verbal fluencies, musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset (childhood vs. adulthood) was associated with phonemic, but not semantic, fluency performances (musicians who had started to practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency than non-musicians). Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation. PMID:25346684

  18. Decreasing age at first anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in China: a multicentre cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Xu, Junjie; Hu, Qinghai; Yu, Yanqiu; Fu, Gengfeng; Wang, Zhe; Lu, Lin; Zhuang, Minghua; Chen, Xi; Fu, Jihua; Zhou, Zhenhai; Geng, Wenqing; Jiang, Yongjun; Shang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Literature on the age at first anal intercourse (AFAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is limited. We aimed to elucidate the evolution of AFAI and the factors associated with early AFAI, based on a large sample of MSM in China. Methods We collected information on the demographics and sexual behaviours of MSM from seven large cities in China from 2012 to 2013. Blood samples were collected for HIV serology. AFAI was calculated for MSM born in different time periods. Linear regression models were used to explore factors associated with younger AFAI. Results A total of 4491 MSM (median age: 27 years, median AFAI: 21 years) were recruited. Median AFAI decreased steadily from 33 years of age among MSM born from 1940 to 1959 to 18 years of age among MSM born from 1990 to 1996. Factors significantly associated with younger AFAI included more recent birth cohort, being unmarried or living with a male partner, being a student or industry worker, the gender of the first partner being male, and using Rush or Ecstasy in the past six months (p for all <0.05). Conclusions AFAI among MSM in China has considerably decreased over the past few decades. The decreasing AFAI and factors associated with younger AFAI point to the necessity of early sex education and control of recreational drug use among MSM in China. PMID:27515018

  19. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Renoux, Céline; Romana, Marc; Joly, Philippe; Ferdinand, Séverine; Faes, Camille; Lemonne, Nathalie; Skinner, Sarah; Garnier, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Bertrand, Yves; Petras, Marie; Cannas, Giovanna; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Nader, Elie; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Lamarre, Yann; Gauthier, Alexandra; Waltz, Xavier; Kebaili, Kamila; Martin, Cyril; Hot, Arnaud; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Pialoux, Vincent; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS) and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC), but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown. Materials and Methods Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF) and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA), 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults) and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults) patients. Results Our results showed that 1) RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2) during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3) blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4) haematocrit decreases as SS patients age. Conclusion The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders. PMID:27355589

  20. The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Second-Language Experience on Segments and Prosody: A Cross-Sectional Study of Korean Bilinguals' English and Korean Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Grace Eunhae

    2011-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated segmental and prosodic aspects of first- (L1) and second-language (L2) speech production. Forty Korean-speaking adults and children varying in L2 experience (6 months-inexperienced vs. 6 years-experienced) as well as twenty age-matched native English speaking adults and children participated. Experienced…

  1. High Coverage and Utilization of Fortified Take-Home Rations among Children 6–35 Months of Age Provided through the Integrated Child Development Services Program: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Telangana, India

    PubMed Central

    Leyvraz, Magali; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Sankar, Rajan; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in the State of Telangana, India, freely provides a fortified complementary food product, Bal Amrutham, as a take-home ration to children 6–35 months of age. In order to understand the potential for impact of any intervention, it is essential to assess coverage and utilization of the program and to address the barriers to its coverage and utilization. A two-stage, stratified cross-sectional cluster survey was conducted to estimate the coverage and utilization of Bal Amrutham and to identify their barriers and drivers. In randomly selected catchment areas of ICDS centers, children under 36 months of age were randomly selected. A questionnaire, constructed from different validated and standard modules and designed to collect coverage data on nutrition programs, was administered to caregivers. A total of 1,077 children were enrolled in the survey. The coverage of the fortified take-home ration was found to be high among the target population. Nearly all caregivers (93.7%) had heard of Bal Amrutham and 86.8% had already received the product for the target child. Among the children surveyed, 57.2% consumed the product regularly. The ICDS program’s services were not found to be a barrier to product coverage. In fact, the ICDS program was found to be widely available, accessible, accepted, and utilized by the population in both urban and rural catchment areas, as well as among poor and non-poor households. However, two barriers to optimal coverage were found: the irregular supply of the product to the beneficiaries and the intra-household sharing of the product. Although sharing was common, the product was estimated to provide the target children with significant proportions of the daily requirements of macro- and micronutrients. Bal Amrutham is widely available, accepted, and consumed among the target population in the catchment areas of ICDS centers. The coverage of the product could be further increased by improving

  2. Age-related and sex-related changes in the normal soft tissue profile of native Northern Sudanese subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dolci, Claudia; Gibelli, Daniele M; Codari, Marina; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Elamin, Fadil

    2016-02-01

    Information about age-related and sex-related normative measurements of the nasolabial region in native Northern Sudanese subjects is scanty. We have therefore used a hand-held laser scanner to measure nasolabial angles and distances, and collected the 3-dimensional coordinates of seven landmarks on the facial soft tissues from 654 healthy native Northern Sudanese subjects (327 male and 327 female, aged 4-30 years). From these we calculated five angles and two linear distances and took the mean (SD) for age and sex, and compared them using factorial analysis of variance. All measurements analysed were significantly modified by age in both sexes (p < 0.01) except for the distance from the lower lip to Ricketts' E-line. Sex had a significant effect on the mentolabial and maxillary prominence angles and both distances (p < 0.005). Nasal convexity and the interlabial angle became more obtuse with growth, while the nasolabial and mentolabial angles reduced progressively with female subjects having significantly more obtuse mentolabial angles (p < 0.001). The maxillary prominence angle progressively decreased during childhood, and increased after adolescence, with larger values in male subjects. The upper and lower lip distances from Ricketts' E-line were also significantly larger in male subjects (p < 0.003), but the difference reduced with age. Overall, there were several differences when we compared our data with published data for African and white subjects, which points to the need for ethnic-specific data. Measurements collected in the current study could be used for the quantitative description of facial morphology in native Northern Sudanese children, adolescents, and young adults.

  3. Clinical, physical and lifestyle variables and relationship with cognition and mood in aging: a cross-sectional analysis of distinct educational groups

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nadine C.; Costa, Patrício S.; Cunha, Pedro; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Amorim, Liliana; Cotter, Jorge; Cerqueira, João J.; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function). Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: “less than 4,” “4, completed primary education,” and “more than 4.” Participants (n = 1051) were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal) relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging. PMID:24605100

  4. The protective role of long-term meditation on the decline of the executive component of attention in aging: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing. However, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, even normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive functions. It has been proposed that a central mechanism that could contribute to this widespread cognitive decline is an ineffective inhibitory attentional control. Meditation, to the other hand, has been associated, in young adults, to enhancement of several attentional processes. Nevertheless, attention is not a unitary construct. An influent model proposed the distinction of three subsystems: the alerting (the ability to reach and maintain a vigilance state), the orienting (the capacity of focusing attention on a subset of stimuli), and the conflict resolution or executive component (the ability to resolve conflict or allocate limited resources between competing stimuli). Here, we investigated, employing the Attentional Network Task (ANT), the specific impact of age on these three subcomponents, and the protective role of long-term meditation testing a group of older adults naïve to meditation, a group of age-matched adults with long-term practice of meditation, and a group of young adults with no previous meditation experience. We reported a specific decline of the efficiency of the executive component in elderly that was not observed in age-matched meditators. Our results are encouraging for the investigation of the potential beneficial impact of meditation on other cognitive processes that decline in aging such as memory. Moreover, they could inform geriatric healthcare prevention and intervention strategies, proposing a new approach for cognitive remediation in elderly populations.

  5. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. Methods It included 2459 adults (range 20–92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. Results In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. Conclusions The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women. PMID:24131857

  6. Cross-Sectional and 35-Year Longitudinal Assessment of Salivary Cortisol and Cognitive Functioning: The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; O’Brien, Robert C.; Hauger, Richard L.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J.; Jacobson, Kristen; Lyons, Michael J.; Lupien, Sonia; Hellhammer, Dirk; Xian, Hong; Kremen, William S.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of cortisol, a sign of potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, have been associated with poor cognitive outcomes in older adults. Most cortisol research has focused on hippocampal-related abilities such as episodic memory; however, the presence of glucocorticoid receptors in the human prefrontal cortex suggests that cortisol regulation is likely to be associated with prefrontally-mediated executive function abilities. We hypothesized that elevated cortisol levels would be associated with poorer frontal-executive function in addition to episodic memory. We assessed cortisol from 15 saliva samples paralleling individual diurnal rhythms across three non-consecutive days in a group of 778 middle-aged twin men ages 51 to 60. Cognitive domains created from 24 standard measures included: general cognitive ability, verbal and visual-spatial ability, verbal and visual-spatial memory, short-term/immediate memory, working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, abstract reasoning, and psychomotor processing speed. Adjusting for general cognitive ability at age 20, age, race, and multiple health and lifestyle indicators, higher levels of average area-under-the-curve cortisol output across three days were significantly associated with poorer performance in three domains: executive (primarily set-shifting) measures, processing speed, and visual-spatial memory. In a 35-year longitudinal component of the study, we also found that general cognitive ability at age 20 was a significant predictor of midlife cortisol levels. These results possibly support the notion that glucocorticoid exposure is associated with cognitive functions that are mediated by frontal-striatal systems, and is not specific to hippocampal-dependent memory. The results also suggest that the direction of effect is complex. PMID:21295410

  7. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p < 0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: -0.332, 0.036; p = 0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: -0.533, -0.237; p < 0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: -0.563, -0.203; p < 0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth.

  8. Energy expenditure through physical activity in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: cross-sectional evidences from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Firmo, Josélia O A; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (< 450 MET.min/week) was 31.2%. Unhurried walking accounted for about 1/3 of total energy expenditure. Multivariate analysis based on ordinal logistic regression showed inverse associations between energy expenditure and age and hospitalizations in both sexes. Among men, inverse associations were observed with smoking, number of chronic diseases and number of medical appointments. These results emphasize the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity in older elderly, and underscore the high prevalence of walking in this group.

  9. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  10. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  11. Change of the age and performance of swimmers across World Championships and Olympic Games finals from 1992 to 2013 - a cross-sectional data analysis.

    PubMed

    König, Stefan; Valeri, Fabio; Wild, Stefanie; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in the age and in swimming performance of finalists in World Championships (1994-2013) and Olympic Games (1992-2012) competing in all events/races (stroke and distance). Data of 3,295 performances from 1,615 women and 1,680 men were analysed using correlation analyses and magnitudes of effect sizes. In the World Championships, the age of the finalists increased for all strokes and distances with exception of 200 m backstroke in women, and 400 m freestyle and 200 m breaststroke in men where the age of the finalists decreased. The magnitudes of the effects were small to very large (mean ± SD 2.8 ± 2.7), but extremely large (13.38) for 1,500 m freestyle in women. In the Olympic Games, the age of the finalists increased for all strokes and distances with exception of 800 m freestyle in women and 400 m individual medley in men. The magnitudes of the effects were small to very large (mean ± SD 4.1 ± 7.1), but extremely large for 50 m freestyle in women (10.5) and 200 m butterfly in men (38.0). Swimming performance increased across years in both women and men for all strokes and distances in both the World Championships and the Olympic Games. The magnitudes of the effects were all extremely large in World Championships (mean ± SD 20.1 ± 8.4) and Olympic Games (mean ± SD 52.1 ± 47.6); especially for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke (198) in women in the Olympic Games. To summarize, in the last ~20 years the age of the finalists increased in both the World Championships and the Olympic Games with some minor exceptions (200 m backstroke in women, 400 m freestyle and 200 m breaststroke in men in World Championships and 800 m freestyle in women and 400 m individual medley in men in Olympic Games) and performance of the finalists improved.

  12. 25-year trends in gender disparity for obesity and overweight by using WHO and IOTF definitions among Chinese school-aged children: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Dong, Bin; Ma, Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to explore 25-year trends of gender disparity in the prevalence of obesity and overweight both in urban and rural areas among Chinese children from 1985 to 2010. Methods Data included 1 280 239 children aged 7–18 years enrolled in the Chinese National Survey on Students's Constitution and Health (CNSSCH), which is the largest nationally representative sample of school-aged children in China. Obesity and overweight were defined according to both WHO and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definitions. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence OR (POR) of gender for obesity and overweight prevalence in different surveys. Results The prevalence of obesity increased (WHO definition: from 0.10% to 4.3%; IOTF definition: from 0.03% to 2.2%) over the past 25 years in urban and rural areas among Chinese children and it was much higher among boys than girls at each survey point (p<0.01). The increasing trend was significant in all age subgroups (p<0.01). Although the prevalence of obesity continuously increased in boys and girls, the changing pace was more rapid in boys than in girls. PORs of boys versus girls for obesity also increased over time, and the estimates of PORs were higher in urban areas than in rural areas at each survey point. Conclusions The gradually increasing gender disparity in urban and rural areas suggests that the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys, and especially in urban boys, contributes to a large and growing proportion of obese and overweight children. PMID:27660318

  13. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Shujin; Retnakaran, Ravi; Smith, Graeme N.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Trasler, Jacquetta; Walker, Mark C.; Wen, Shi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP). The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women. Methods We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis. Results A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L). Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors. Conclusions Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency. PMID:27182603

  14. Trend in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children in context of social inequality: three cross-sectional surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intermittent monitoring of food intake at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of national dietary intervention programs. Social-economic changes in Lithuania have likely affected dietary habits, but only a limited number of temporal studies on food intake trends among young population groups have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children from 2002 to 2010, and to explore the association of these changes with the respondents' reported socio-economic status (SES). Methods We used Lithuanian data from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from children aged 11, 13 and 15 (total n = 17,189) from a random sample of schools. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate frequencies of food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the affects of changing social variables on reported diet trends. Results In Lithuania, school-aged children have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Only 21.1% of boys and 27.1% of girls reported daily fruit consumption. Similarly, 24.9% of boys and 29.6% of girls disclosed vegetable intake at least once daily. Comparing 2010 to 2002, the proportion of girls who consumed fruits daily increased from 24.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.001) but the proportion of boys who consumed vegetables daily decreased from 29.3% to 23.1% (p < 0.001). In 2006, for both sexes, there were observed increases in regular (at least five days a week) intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries, and soft drinks; however, in the next survey (2010) these figures decreased. In addition, between 2006 and 2010, a substantial decrease in regular consumption of chips and fast food was also detected. Fruit and vegetable consumption as well as intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries and soft

  15. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. Methods: We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40–79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Results: Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86–7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13–16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke. PMID:27025681

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Age and Alarm Symptoms for Upper GI Malignancy in Patients with Dyspepsia in a GI Clinic: A 7-Year Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Hooman; Radmard, Amir-Reza; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Kamangar, Farin; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Johansson, Mattias; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether using demographic characteristics and alarm symptoms can accurately predict cancer in patients with dyspepsia in Iran, where upper GI cancers and H. pylori infection are common. Methods All consecutive patients referred to a tertiary gastroenterology clinic in Tehran, Iran, from 2002 to 2009 were invited to participate in this study. Each patient completed a standard questionnaire and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Alarm symptoms included in the questionnaire were weight loss, dysphagia, GI bleeding, and persistent vomiting. We used logistic regression models to estimate the diagnostic value of each variable in combination with other ones, and to develop a risk-prediction model. Results A total of 2,847 patients with dyspepsia participated in this study, of whom 87 (3.1%) had upper GI malignancy. Patients reporting at least one of the alarm symptoms constituted 66.7% of cancer patients compared to 38.9% in patients without cancer (p<0.001). Esophageal or gastric cancers in patients with dyspepsia was associated with older age, being male, and symptoms of weight loss and vomiting. Each single predictor had low sensitivity and specificity. Using a combination of age, alarm symptoms, and smoking, we built a risk-prediction model that distinguished between high-risk and low-risk individuals with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85 and acceptable calibration. Conclusions None of the predictors demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy. While our risk-prediction model had reasonable accuracy, some cancer cases would have remained undiagnosed. Therefore, where available, low cost endoscopy may be preferable for dyspeptic older patient or those with history of weight loss. PMID:22720064

  17. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  18. Age-Related Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Reduced Macular Ganglion Cell Complex: A Cross-Sectional High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Uro, Mathieu; Beauchet, Olivier; Cherif, Mehdi; Graffe, Alix; Milea, Dan; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with smaller volume of optic chiasm in older adults, indicating a possible loss of the visual axons and their cellular bodies. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency in older adults is associated with reduced thickness of the ganglion cell complex(GCC) and of the retinal nerve fibre layer(RNFL), as measured with high-definition optical coherence tomography(HD-OCT). Methods Eighty-five French older community-dwellers without open-angle glaucoma and patent age-related macular degeneration(mean, 71.1±4.7years; 45.9%female) from the GAIT study were separated into 2 groups according to serum 25OHD level(i.e., deficient≤25nmol/L or sufficient>25nmol/L). Measurements of GCC and RNFL thickness were performed using HD-OCT. Age, gender, body mass index, number of comorbidities, dementia, functional autonomy, intracranial volume, visual acuity, serum calcium concentration and season of testing were considered as potential confounders. Results Mean serum 25OHD concentration was 58.4±26.8nmol/L. Mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.03±0.06. Mean visual field mean deviation was -1.25±2.29dB. Patients with vitamin D deficiency(n=11) had a reduced mean GCC thickness compared to those without vitamin D deficiency(72.1±7.4μm versus 77.5±7.5μm, P=0.028). There was no difference of the mean RNFL thickness in these two groups(P=0.133). After adjustment for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was associated with reduced GCC thickness(ß=-5.12, P=0.048) but not RNFL thickness(ß=-9.98, P=0.061). Specifically, vitamin D deficiency correlated with the superior medial GCC area(P=0.017) and superior temporal GCC area(P=0.010). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency in older patients is associated with reduced mean GCC thickness, which can represent an early stage of optic nerve damage, prior to RNFL loss. PMID:26090872

  19. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  20. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Zarin Keihani; Shariat, Mamak; Zabandan, Neda; Tabrizi, Aidin; Tehrani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood masturbation (CM) is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. Methods: A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation of seizure or movement disorders were studied between 2008 and 2011. Totally, 359 children were found to have masturbatory behaviors (Group A) and the rest (264) were assigned to Group B. CM was diagnosed by direct observation. Collected data comprised demographic characteristics, clinical and neurodevelopmental examinations, laboratory findings (particularly urine analysis), and electrocardiography. Results: The age of the children with CM was below 12 years old, and the girl-to-boy ratio was 7:1. Mucus in urine was positive in 357 (99.44%) children in Group A and 22 (8.3%) in Group B (P<0.001). A significant correlation was found between the presence of mucus in urine and masturbatory behaviors (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of mucus in urine can be used as an alternative laboratory test in children with CM below 12 years old and even in infants (≤24 months old). Further studies are needed to confirm the results. PMID:27365549

  1. The Other Side: How does Informed Choice Affect Induced Abortions among Reproductive-Age Immigrant Women in China—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanning; Wu, Junqing; Li, Yuyan; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Honglei; Li, Yi-Ran; Han, Ying; Tong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence rate (spells) of induced abortions was 0.46 (1500/3230) among the participants. The sequence from the highest score to the lowest was long-term, short-term and natural contraceptive methods (p < 0.0001). Significant differences of rates in induced abortions were found in region, occupation, length of the first immigration up to now (year), purpose for immigration, number of children, marital status, sex preference, contraceptive methods, deciders of contraceptive methods and side effects. In the zero-inflated negative binomial model, the joint impacts showed when a participant with one child employed condoms or family planning service providers as the deciders of contraceptive methods introduced intrauterine devices, the occurrence of induced abortions was more likely to be reduced. Women who underwent side effects using pills were more likely to have had induced abortions. PMID:27783059

  2. Eating out is different from eating at home among individuals who occasionally eat out. A cross-sectional study among middle-aged adults from eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Naska, Androniki; Katsoulis, Michail; Orfanos, Philippos; Lachat, Carl; Gedrich, Kurt; Rodrigues, Sara S P; Freisling, Heinz; Kolsteren, Patrick; Engeset, Dagrun; Lopes, Carla; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Wendt, Andrea; Knüppel, Sven; Turrini, Aida; Tumino, Rosario; Ocké, Marga C; Sekula, Wlodzimierz; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Key, Tim; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2015-06-28

    Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14,277 women aged 35-64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.

  3. A ‘High Risk’ Lifestyle Pattern Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Haj Bakri, Ahmad; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lifestyle patterns, as a combination of diet, physical activity and smoking, on Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among Qatari women of childbearing age (n = 418), a population group particularly vulnerable to the health sequela of this syndrome. Using data from the National WHO STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in 2012, Principal Component Factor Analysis was performed to derive lifestyle patterns with survey variables related to the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity levels, and smoking status. MetS was diagnosed using ATPIII criteria. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: ‘High Risk’ pattern, characterized by intakes of fast foods, sweets and sugar sweetened beverages, in addition to lower levels of physical activity and higher smoking prevalence; ‘Prudent’ pattern, driven mainly by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains; and ‘Traditional’ pattern which included beans, meat, dairy products, and a low prevalence of smoking. Among these three lifestyle patterns, only the ‘High Risk’ was associated with MetS, whereby subjects belonging to the third tertile of this pattern’s score had 2.5 times the odds of MetS compared to those belonging to the first tertile. The findings of this study demonstrated the synergy among high risk behaviors among Qatari women in increasing the odds of MetS; the latter being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27271596

  4. Amount and environmental predictors of outdoor playtime at home and school: a cross-sectional analysis of a national sample of preschool-aged children attending Head Start.

    PubMed

    Marino, Alexis J; Fletcher, Erica N; Whitaker, Robert C; Anderson, Sarah E

    2012-11-01

    Outdoor play is an important contributor to children's physical activity and the prevalence, correlates, and environmental predictors of it among young children are not well characterized. This study aims to estimate the amount of time preschool-aged children attending Head Start spend playing outdoors at home and school, and whether aspects of the home and school environment are associated with greater outdoor play. We analyzed data (n=2529) collected in spring 2007 in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES). Overall, 37.5% of children played outside at home >2h per weekday. Children who had a yard near home to play in or who had visited a park or playground or gone on a picnic with a family member in the last month were more likely to have >2h per weekday outdoor play at home, but having a playground within walking distance of the home was not related to home outdoor playtime. On average children played outdoors at Head Start for 36 min per day. The amount of time children played outdoors at home was not related to school outdoor time.

  5. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  6. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Methods Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Results The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81–19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001); ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA. Conclusions Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem. PMID:27618306

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Diet and Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Zambézia Province, Mozambique (the ZANE Study): Design, Methods, and Population Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Freese, Riitta; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Selvester, Kerry; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background There is very little published work on dietary intake and nutritional status of Mozambicans. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study on the diet and nutritional status of adolescent girls in different types of communities in Zambézia Province, Central Mozambique, in two distinct seasons. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and study population characteristics of the Estudo do Estado Nutricional e da Dieta em Raparigas Adolescentes na Zambézia (the ZANE Study). Methods Data was collected in January-February 2010 ("hunger season") and in May-June 2010 ("harvest season"). A total of 551 girls in the age group 14-19 years old were recruited from one urban area and two districts (district towns and rural villages). The study protocol included a background interview, a 24-hour dietary recall interview, a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, hemoglobin measurement, and venous blood, urine, buccal cell, and fecal sampling. Results Adolescent motherhood was common in all study regions. Stunting prevalence for the total study population as a weighted percentage was 17.8% (95/549; 95% CI 14.3-22.0) with no regional differences. Overweight was found mainly in the urban area where the prevalence was 12.6% (20/159; 95% CI 7.5-17.6), thinness was rare. There were regional differences in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia and intestinal helminth infestation, but not human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusions The fully analyzed data from the ZANE Study will yield results useful for setting priorities in nutrition policy and further research on the diet and nutritional status in Mozambique and other countries with similar nutritional problems. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01944891; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944891 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6L9OUrsq8). PMID:24598035

  8. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  9. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  10. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  11. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  12. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  13. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  14. Current situation of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) in Chinese patients older than 40 years with airflow limitation: rationale and design for a multicenter, cross-sectional trial (study protocol)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wanzhen; Cai, Baiqiang; Chen, Ping; Ling, Xia; Shang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the frequently occurring chronic airway diseases, and the overlapping syndrome observed in the majority of patients has been recently defined as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung (GOLD, 2014) and Global initiative for Asthma (GINA, 2015). The proportion, features, and clinical practice of ACOS still remain elusive in China. We are conducting this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study (NCT02600221) to investigate the distributions of chronic obstructive diseases in patients >40 years of age with chronic airflow limitation in China along with determination of the main clinical practice and features of these diseases. The study will also explore the factors that may influence the exacerbations and severity of ACOS in Chinese patients (>40 years of age). Methods A total of 2,000 patients (age, ≥40 years; either sex) who are clinically diagnosed as having asthma, COPD/chronic bronchitis/emphysema, or ACOS for at least 12 months with airflow limitation [post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC): <0.7] will be enrolled from approximately 20 sites in China between December 2015 and December 2016. The proportion of ACOS among patients older than 40 years based on GINA 2015 and GOLD 2014 definitions is the primary variable. Following were the secondary variables: the proportions of COPD and asthma among the patients, distributions of the severity of airflow limitation, distribution of groups according to GOLD 2011 group definition (A, B, C, D), and the distribution of medication by drug class in patients with ACOS, asthma, and COPD. Acute exacerbation history, hospitalization, and severity of ACOS as evaluated using COPD Assessment Test, Asthma Control Questionnaire-5, and Modified British Medical Research Council in patients with ACOS were also assessed. Implications This will be the

  15. Association Between Grading of Oral Submucous Fibrosis With Frequency and Consumption of Areca Nut and Its Derivatives in a Wide Age Group: A Multi-centric Cross Sectional Study From Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, Mervyn; Mohiuddin, Sidra; Fatima, Nazish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, premalignant condition of the oral mucosa and one of the commonest potentially malignant disorders amongst the Asian population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of etiologic factors with: age, frequency, duration of consumption of areca nut and its derivatives, and the severity of clinical manifestations. Methods: A cross-sectional, multi centric study was conducted over 8 years on clinically diagnosed OSMF cases (n = 765) from both public and private tertiary care centers. Sample size was determined by World Health Organization sample size calculator. Consumption of areca nut in different forms, frequency of daily usage, years of chewing, degree of mouth opening and duration of the condition were recorded. Level of significance was kept at P ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 765 patients of OSMF were examined, of whom 396 (51.8%) were male and 369 (48.2%) female with a mean age of 29.17 years. Mild OSMF was seen in 61 cases (8.0%), moderate OSMF in 353 (46.1%) and severe OSMF in 417 (54.5%) subjects. Areca nut and other derivatives were most frequently consumed and showed significant risk in the severity of OSMF (P ≤ 0.0001). Age of the sample and duration of chewing years were also significant (P = 0.012). Conclusions: The relative risk of OSMF increased with duration and frequency of areca nut consumption especially from an early age of onset. PMID:26473161

  16. Dietary phosphorus intake is negatively associated with bone formation among women and positively associated with some bone traits among men-a cross-sectional study in middle-aged Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Rita, Hannu J; Saarnio, Elisa M; Kemi, Virpi E; Karp, Heini J; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Pekkinen, Minna H; Laitinen, E Kalevi; Risteli, Juha; Koivula, Marja-Kaisa; Sievänen, Harri; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2017-01-01

    High dietary phosphorus (P) intake has acute negative effects on calcium (Ca) and bone metabolism, but long-term clinical data are contradictory. We hypothesized that high P intake is associated with impaired bone health as suggested by earlier short-term studies on bone metabolism. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated associations between dietary P intake, bone traits in the radius and tibia, and bone turnover in a population-based sample of 37- to 47-year-old Caucasian premenopausal women (n=333) and men (n=179) living in Southern Finland (60°N). We used various regression models in an "elaboration approach" to elucidate the role of P intake in bone traits and turnover. The addition of relevant covariates to the models mainly removed the significance of P intake as a determinant of bone traits. In the final regression model (P intake, weight, height, age, Ca intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, physical activity, smoking, contraceptive use in women), P intake was slightly positively associated only with bone mineral content and cross-sectional cortical bone area in the tibia of men. Among women, inclusion of Ca removed all existing significance in the crude models for any bone trait. In women P intake was negatively associated with the bone formation marker serum intact pro-collagen type I amino-terminal propeptide, whereas no association was present between P intake and bone turnover in men. In conclusion, these findings disagree with the hypothesis; P intake was not deleteriously associated with bone traits; however, P intake may negatively contribute to bone formation among women.

  17. The relationship between age of menarche and mental distress in Norwegian adolescent girls and girls from different immigrant groups in Norway: results from an urban city cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-07-01

    Lower age of menarche has been associated with increased mental distress among adolescent girls. The association might be mediated via body image, as girls with early menarche tend to have higher weight than those with late onset menarche. Many of the existing studies of menarche and mental distress are based on samples of white, western girls. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between age of menarche and mental distress among Norwegian girls and girls from different immigrant groups, and to study the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the difference between current and desired weight, on the relationship between age of menarche and mental distress. The study was a cross-sectional population-based self-report survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 3694 girls (91%) participated, one quarter of which were first or second generation immigrants. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to measure mental distress. An inverse, linear association between age of menarche and mental distress was found for both Norwegian girls and girls from all the immigrant groups. Regardless of immigrant status, girls with early onset menarche had higher BMI and higher difference in current and desired weight than those with late onset menarche. In linear regression, the difference in current and desired weight was more strongly associated with mental distress both among the Norwegian girls and girls from immigrant groups than age of menarche and BMI when controlling for social and behavioral factors. Early age of menarche might serve as a predictor for psychopathology in Norwegians girls as well as in girls from different immigrant groups. The association between age of menarche and mental distress might be mediated via differences in current and desired weight.

  18. Lower insulin sensitivity is related to lower relative muscle cross-sectional area, lower muscle density and lower handgrip force in young and middle aged non-diabetic men

    PubMed Central

    Gysel, T.; Tonoli, C.; Pardaens, S.; Cambier, D.; Kaufman, J-M.; Zmierczak, H-G.; Goemaere, S.; Lapauw, B.; Calders, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated whether an association between insulin resistance (IR) and muscle parameters is appreciable in young healthy men, independent of obesity. Furthermore, markers of muscle metabolism and hormones/possible determinants, were explored. Methods: 358 healthy young men were divided into a less and more insulin sensitive (LIS [age=33.2±5.4, BMI=23.4±2.3] and MIS [age=35.5±5.3, BMI=28.1±3.7]) group based on upper and lower quartile of HOMA-IR. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), -density, handgrip force, serum testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, Vitamin 25(OH)D, creatinine, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels were compared between these groups, correcting for differences in age, physical activity and fat mass. Correlations between HOMA-IR and these parameters, and between muscle measures and biochemical parameters, were calculated. Results: LIS is related to lower relative muscle CSA, muscle density, muscle/fat CSA ratio, relative handgrip force and level of physical activity. Furthermore, lower levels in SHBG, testosterone, Vitamin 25(OH)D and higher leptin, IGF-1 & IGFBP-3 levels were observed in LIS. Bio available T, FT, TE2, FE2, bioavailable E2, serum and urinary creatinine levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Differences in muscle performance are already present in healthy men with lower insulin sensitivity and could be possibly modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27973382

  19. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  20. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  1. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the active vitamin D metabolite (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) and haemoglobin levels in older Australian men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia and low 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels are common in older people and may adversely affect morbidity and mortality. While there is some evidence for an association between low serum 25D levels and anaemia, there are limited studies among community-dwelling older people. In addition, the relationship between anaemia and the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25D, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between serum 25D and 1,25D with anaemia in community-living men aged ≥70 years. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of the baseline phase and longitudinal analysis of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney among men aged 70 years and older, were performed; 1666 men were seen at baseline (2005-2007), 1314 men at a 2-year follow-up (2007-2009) and 917 at a 5-year follow-up (2012-2013). The main outcome measurement was haemoglobin levels as a continuous measure. Covariates included 25D and 1,25D, estimated glomerular filtration rate, demographic information, lifestyle measures, health conditions and medication information. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 13.0 g/dL, WHO definition) was 14.6 %. In cross-sectional analysis, serum 25D concentrations were positively associated with haemoglobin levels in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.004; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.0009, 0.007; p = 0.01), but the associations were no longer significant after multivariate adjustment. The association between 1,25D levels and haemoglobin levels was significant in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002, 0.004; p < 0.0001) and remained significant in adjusted analysis (β value 0.001; 95 % CI 0.004, 0.003; p = 0.01). Serum 1,25D (but not 25D) levels at baseline were significantly associated with changes in haemoglobin over 2 and 5 years in unadjusted (β value 0.002; 95 % CI 0.0009, 0.003; p < 0

  2. Measured data used in the Watusi cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, M; Nethaway, D R

    1999-02-09

    In this document we list the experimental data that were used to make up the major cross- section sets that we use in the Watusi code to calculate the amount of detector activation in device tests. In order to use experimental data to make up a cross-section set, it is often necessary to extrapolate the cross sections down to either the threshold energy or to 0.01 keV, and to extrapolate up to 20 MeV. We then fit the data to a function so that we can get a smoothed set of interpolated values at up to 321 energy points. The combined data are then processed with the Hiroshima code into flux-weighted, group-averaged cross sections for use with the output from the different physics design codes. We typically use the standard 53 or 175 energy group structures. In a recent companion memo 1 we described the make up of all of the cross-section sets in detail, giving references to both the experimental data and the theoretical calculations that were used. The following sections have the experimental data, in the form of energy-cross section pairs, for the titanium, chromium, bromine, krypton, yttrium, zirconium, iodine, europium, lutetium, and bismuth sets. The other cross-section sets are not directly based on enough experimental data to warrant their listing here. Many of the reactions used in these sets are based on calculated cross sections. In making these calculations certain parameters are sometimes adjusted so that the calculated cross sections match experimental data. In some of these cases we have made a further normalization to give a closer agreement to selected experimental data, and such normalizations are noted in this document. In other cases no further normalization was made. In Table 1 we summarize the reactions for which we present the experimental data given in Tables 2-46. In Figs. 1-35 we show plots of the experimental data together with the actual excitation functions used in the cross-section sets. Some reactions in the current sets are based on

  3. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    Background Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. Objective To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. Materials and methods This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Results Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Conclusion Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse. PMID:26811695

  4. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  5. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  6. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  7. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  8. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  9. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  10. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  11. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  12. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  14. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  16. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  17. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  18. Determinants of undernutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Results of two population-based serial cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Elizabeth S.; Blevins, Meridith; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Green, Ann F.; Lopez, Melanie; Olupona, Omo; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background While many countries are transitioning from epidemics of undernutrition to overnutrition, Mozambique’s very high 44% prevalence of stunting in children under age 5 years is cause for serious concern. Methods We conducted two population-based cross-sectional surveys of ~4000 female heads of households each in Zambézia Province, Mozambique from August–September 2010 (Baseline) and April–May 2014 (Endline) as part of the USAID funded Strengthening Communities through Integrated Programs (SCIP) grant. Anthropometric measurements were collected on 560 children aged 6–59 months at Baseline and 912 children at Endline and classified as: “stunted,” a height-for-age z-score less than -2; “wasted,” weight-for-height z-score less than -2; and “underweight,” weight-for-age z-score less than -2. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using Stata 13.1 were used to examine factors associated with undernutrition. Results Of children under age five years, 43% were undernourished in 2010 and 55% in 2014. The most common form of undernutrition was stunting (39% in 2010, 51% in 2014), followed by underweight (13% in both 2010 and 2014), and wasting (7% in 2010, 5% in 2014). Child’s age was found to have a non-linear association with stunting. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a 31% (p=0.04) decreased odds of stunting. Children who were exclusively breastfed for at least six months had an 80% (p=0.02) lower odds of wasting in 2014 and 57% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight in 2014. Introducing other foods after age six months was associated with a five-fold increased odds of wasting in 2014 (p=0.02); household food insecurity was associated with wasting (OR=2.08; p=0.03) and underweight in 2010 (OR=2.31; p=0.05). Children whose mother washed her hands with a cleaning agent had a 40% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight. Surprisingly, per point increase in household dietary diversity score, children had 12% greater

  19. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Becker, ANL

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and to modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.

  20. Is There an Association of Physical Activity with Brain Volume, Behavior, and Day-to-day Functioning? A Cross Sectional Design in Prodromal and Early Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, McKenzie; Downing, Nancy; Lourens, Spencer; Mills, James; Kim, Ji-in; Long, Jeffrey; Paulsen, Jane; PREDICT-HD Investigators and Coordinators of the Huntington Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Background: Huntington disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive motor, cognitive, and behavioral decline. Subtle changes in these domains are detectable up to 15 years before a definitive motor diagnosis is made. This period, called prodromal HD, provides an opportunity to examine lifestyle behaviors that may impact disease progression. Theoretical Framework: Physical activity relates to decreased rates of brain atrophy and improved cognitive and day-to-day functioning in Alzheimer disease and healthy aging populations. Previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impact of physical activity on disease progression in HD and paid little attention to the prodromal phase. Methods: We conducted analyses of associations among current physical activity level, current and retrospective rate of change for hippocampus and striatum volume, and cognitive, motor, and day-to-day functioning variables. Participants were 48 gene-expanded cases with prodromal and early-diagnosed HD and 27 nongene-expanded control participants. Participants wore Fitbit Ultra activity monitors for three days and completed the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Hippocampal and striatal white matter volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive tests included the Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Motor function was assessed using the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale total motor score (TMS). Day-to-day functioning was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) version 2.0. Results: Higher Fitbit activity scores were significantly related to better scores on the SDMT and WHODAS in case participants but not in controls. Fitbit activity scores tracked better with TMS scores in the group as a whole, though the association did not reach statistical significance in the case participants. Higher Fitbit activity scores

  1. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Puertes-Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a total of 765 children aged 12 and 15 years at 39 schools. Results: The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the DAI was 21.7% at 12 years of age and 14.1% at 15 years. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the IOTN DHC was 20.9% at 12 years of age and 12.7% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the DAI and the modified IOTN was moderate, with Kappa scores of 0.426 at 12 years of age and 0.415 for the 15-year-old group. Conclusions: Approximately 20% of the children needed orthodontic treatment. Neither gender nor social class appeared to exert a significant influence on orthodontic treatment need. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, children, malocclusion. PMID:23986013

  2. Situation-specific factors predicting nonadherence to methadone maintenance treatment: a cross-sectional study using the case-crossover design in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Lau, Joseph T F; Chen, Long; Wang, Zixin; Hao, Chun; Hao, Yuantao

    2014-01-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a key risk reduction measure for controlling HIV transmission among drug users. Studies using traditional methods exist to distinguish between drop outs and nondrop outs. However, many nondrop outs use MMT discontinuously and no study has identified situation-specific factors predicting their showing or not showing up. This study used a case-crossover design comparing situation-specific factors appearing on the last episode of attendance versus those of the last episode of nonattendance. A total of 133 participants were recruited from two MMT clinics in Guangzhou, China. Participants were asked separately whether various situation-specific factors existed in the last episodes of nonattendance and attendance of MMT. Matched odds ratios (ORs) based on conditional logistic regression analysis were presented. The results showed that the participants attended the MMT clinics on average for 25 days in the last month. Situation-specific factors significantly predicting nonattendance included: (1) physical and mental health status: in illness (OR = 33.0, P < 0.001), in a bad mood (OR = 7.5, P < 0.001), and occurrence of an unhappy event (OR = 18.0, P < 0.001); (2) other engagement: work engagement (OR = 40.0, P < 0.001), trip to other places (OR = 83.0, P < 0.001), and social activities (OR = 10.0, P = 0.012); (3) interpersonal relationship: conflicts with family (OR = 19.0, P = 0.004); and (4) structural situational factors: financial difficulty (OR = 19.0, P = 0.004) and worrying about police arrest (OR = 12.0, P = 0.003). Other factors such as interaction with drug users and heroin use were marginally significant, while reduced methadone dosage was nonsignificant. Interventions to improve MMT adherence need to consider situation-specific factors. Ancillary psychosocial services should be integrated with current MMT; MMT should also provide more flexible services to the clients. Furthermore, efforts should be taken to build up

  3. Age- and time-dependent prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in drug users in France, 2004-2011: model-based estimation from two national cross-sectional serosurveys.

    PubMed

    Leon, L; Kasereka, S; Barin, F; Larsen, C; Weill-Barillet, L; Pascal, X; Chevaliez, S; Pillonel, J; Jauffret-Roustide, M; LE Strat, Y

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health issue worldwide. Injecting drug use remains the major mode of transmission in developed countries. Monitoring the HCV transmission dynamic over time is crucial, especially to assess the effect of harm reduction measures in drug users (DU). Our objective was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of HCV infection in DU in France using data from a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 and 2011. Age- and time-dependent HCV prevalence was estimated through logistic regression models adjusted for HIV serostatus or injecting practices. HCV incidence was estimated from a mathematical model linking prevalence and incidence. HCV prevalence decreased from 58·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49·7-66·8] in 2004 to 43·2% (95% CI 38·8-47·7) in 2011. HCV incidence decreased from 7·9/100 person-years (95% CI 6·4-9·4) in 2004 to 4·4/100 person-years (95% CI 3·3-5·9) in 2011. HCV prevalence and incidence were significantly associated with age, calendar time, HIV serostatus and injecting practices. In 2011, the highest estimated incidence was in active injecting DU (11·2/100 person-years). Given the forthcoming objective of generalizing access to new direct antiviral agents for HCV infection, our results contribute to decision-making and policy development regarding treatment scale-up and disease prevention in the DU population.

  4. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, Johan

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  5. Gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a cross-sectional study from CHARLS 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Fei, Yue; Li, Junqin; Zhang, Lisan; Luo, Qiong; Chen, Guangdi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The impact of gender and age on the association between sleep duration and hypertension is not well known in Asians. The objective of this study was to analyse gender- and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Design Secondary analysis of a cohort sample. Setting This study used data from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011–2012), covering 150 counties/districts and 450 villages/resident committees from 28 provinces in China. Participants Community-based subjects were drawn from the CHARLS through multistage probability sampling. Overall, this study included 9086 eligible subjects aged 45 years or above. Outcome measures Self-reported sleep duration was obtained using a structured questionnaire. The mean of three measures of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was calculated. By gender and age groups (45–60 years, middle-aged; ≥60 years, elderly), relationships between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent hypertension were examined using logistic regression models to estimate OR and 95% CIs. Results Compared with the reference group (≥7 and <8 hours/night), the group who had less sleep (<6 hours/night) had a higher likelihood of hypertension in the whole sample (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.52). Significant ORs (95% CIs) of hypertension were 1.68 (1.17 to 2.42), 1.69 (1.11 to 2.59) and 2.21 (1.29 to 3.80) for <6, 6–7 (≥6 and <7) and 8–9 (≥8 and <9) hours/night, respectively, in middle-aged men but not women. Interestingly, a significant association was observed between long sleep duration (≥9 hours/night) and hypertension in middle-aged women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.35) but not in men. Conclusions Extremes of sleep duration increased the likelihood of prevalent hypertension in middle-aged Chinese depending on gender, suggesting that appropriate strategies for

  6. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  7. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  8. Cross-sectional observations on the natural history of asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, R G; McCowan, C; Hoskins, G; Thomas, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a major health care problem that affects all ages. It is uncertain whether asthma is a single clinical entity or a grouping of separate clinical syndromes that share a common set of treatment guidelines. AIM: To observe the symptoms, treatment step, and health service utilisation of a population of patients throughout the United Kingdom (UK) listed on an asthma register. DESIGN OF STUDY: A cross-sectional study and clinical assessment of asthma patients. SETTING: A total of 12,203 patients from 393 general practices throughout the UK. METHOD: A database was used to observe the symptoms, treatment step, and health service utilisation of the asthma patients. RESULTS: Children aged up to four years had a distinctive profile of symptoms, including night time cough. They also experienced increased health service utilisation including a high hospital admission rate. Symptoms in adults became more common with increasing age. The pattern of symptoms in patients aged 45 years and over suggest many patients on asthma registers may have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients aged 16 to 30 years showed a different pattern of health service usage to those aged 5 to 15 years and 31 to 45 years, relying more on unscheduled use of health services rather than a review-based management plan. Patients aged 16 to 30 years used less anti-asthma medication than those aged 5 to 15 years and 31 to 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: Databases may be a useful tool with which to study the natural history of asthma, but there are problems with bias. Several clinical subgroups exist within the broad diagnosis label of asthma. Knowledge of how these subgroups of doctor-diagnosed asthma use health services may help clinicians to create individual care plans for groups of patients. PMID:11360699

  9. Simultaneous evaluation of interrelated cross sections by generalized least-squares and related data file requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.

    1984-10-25

    Though several cross sections have been designated as standards, they are not basic units and are interrelated by ratio measurements. Moreover, as such interactions as /sup 6/Li + n and /sup 10/B + n involve only two and three cross sections respectively, total cross section data become useful for the evaluation process. The problem can be resolved by a simultaneous evaluation of the available absolute and shape data for cross sections, ratios, sums, and average cross sections by generalized least-squares. A data file is required for such evaluation which contains the originally measured quantities and their uncertainty components. Establishing such a file is a substantial task because data were frequently reported as absolute cross sections where ratios were measured without sufficient information on which reference cross section and which normalization were utilized. Reporting of uncertainties is often missing or incomplete. The requirements for data reporting will be discussed.

  10. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.

  11. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  12. Association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" (Staple food, main dish, and side dish) and intake of nutrients and food groups among Japanese young adults aged 18-24 years: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kakutani, Yuya; Kamiya, Saori; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai" are staple food, main dish, and side dish, respectively. The recommended meal in Japan is a combination of "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai"; however, it remains unclear whether there is an association between the frequency of these meals and intake of nutrients and food groups. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" and intake of nutrients and food groups among 664 Japanese young adults aged 18-24 y. The dietary habits of the subjects during the preceding month were assessed using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" was self-reported according to four categories: "less than 1 d or 1 d/wk," "2 or 3 d/wk," "4 or 5 d/wk," and "every day." In both women and men, there was an association between the higher frequency of these meals and higher intake of the following food groups: pulses, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fish and shellfish, and eggs. Moreover, there was an association with higher intake of protein, polyunsaturated fat, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fat, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, and lower intake of carbohydrate in both women and men. Our findings support the hypothesis that the meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" may be associated with intake of many food groups and nutrients among Japanese young adults.

  13. Adequacy Assessment of a Universal Salt Iodization Program Two Decades after Its Implementation: A National Cross-Sectional Study of Iodine Status among School-Age Children in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Traissac, Pierre; Lahmar, Lilia; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of a worldwide policy to eliminate iodine deficiency (ID) disorders, universal salt iodization was adopted in Tunisia two decades ago. The present study aims to evaluate this strategy, using both performance and impact indicators. A total of 1560 children, aged 6–12 years, were randomly sampled using a national, two-stage, stratified, cross-sectional cluster survey in 2012. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the subjects, and household salt iodine content, were analyzed. The national median UIC was 220 µg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 199–241), indicating an acceptable iodine status at the population level. Only 11.4% (95% CI: 8.6–14.9) of the children had UIC <100 µg/L, but with large regional disparities (4.3% to 25.5%, p < 0.01); however, more than a quarter of the subjects were at risk of adverse health consequences due to iodine excess. Children from households of low socio-economic levels were more prone to inadequate UIC. The national median iodine concentration of household salt was 22 mg/kg (95% CI: 21–23). Only half of the households used adequately iodized salt (15–25 ppm), with large regional disparities. National ID rates are now well below the target criteria of WHO (World Health Organization) certification (<20% of children with UIC <50 µg/L and <50% with UIC <100 µg/L). The coverage of adequately iodized salt fell short in meeting the goals of USI (Universal Salt Iodization), i.e., >90% of households. Regular monitoring of iodized salt production lines must be strengthened with involvement by producers. PMID:28029137

  14. Adequacy Assessment of a Universal Salt Iodization Program Two Decades after Its Implementation: A National Cross-Sectional Study of Iodine Status among School-Age Children in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Traissac, Pierre; Lahmar, Lilia; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-12-25

    In the framework of a worldwide policy to eliminate iodine deficiency (ID) disorders, universal salt iodization was adopted in Tunisia two decades ago. The present study aims to evaluate this strategy, using both performance and impact indicators. A total of 1560 children, aged 6-12 years, were randomly sampled using a national, two-stage, stratified, cross-sectional cluster survey in 2012. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the subjects, and household salt iodine content, were analyzed. The national median UIC was 220 µg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 199-241), indicating an acceptable iodine status at the population level. Only 11.4% (95% CI: 8.6-14.9) of the children had UIC <100 µg/L, but with large regional disparities (4.3% to 25.5%, p < 0.01); however, more than a quarter of the subjects were at risk of adverse health consequences due to iodine excess. Children from households of low socio-economic levels were more prone to inadequate UIC. The national median iodine concentration of household salt was 22 mg/kg (95% CI: 21-23). Only half of the households used adequately iodized salt (15-25 ppm), with large regional disparities. National ID rates are now well below the target criteria of WHO (World Health Organization) certification (<20% of children with UIC <50 µg/L and <50% with UIC <100 µg/L). The coverage of adequately iodized salt fell short in meeting the goals of USI (Universal Salt Iodization), i.e., >90% of households. Regular monitoring of iodized salt production lines must be strengthened with involvement by producers.

  15. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age – Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G.; Esso, Lasme J. C. E.; Wirth, James P.; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d’Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6–23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d’Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6–23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  16. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  17. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  18. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  19. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  20. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  1. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  2. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  3. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  4. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  5. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  6. Second Cross-Sectional Study of Attainment of the Concepts "Equilateral Triangle,""Cutting Tool,""Noun," and "Tree" by Children Age 6 to 16 of City B. Technical Report No. 347.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    For this study, the second in the cross sectional series, based on the Conceptual Learning and Development (CLD) model, assessment batteries were developed to determine each child's level of attainment and related use of the concepts "equilateral triangle,""cutting tool,""noun," and "tree." Batteries were…

  7. Second Cross-Sectional Study of Attainment of the Concepts "Equilateral Triangle,""Cutting Tool,""Noun," and "Tree" by Children Age 6 to 16 of City A. Technical Report No. 367.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    For this study, the second in the cross sectional series, based on the Conceptual Learning and Development (CLD) model, assessment batteries were developed to determine each child's level of concept attainment and also the related use of the concepts "equilateral triangle,""cutting tool,""noun," and "tree."…

  8. Third Cross-Sectional Study of Attainment of the Concepts "Equilateral Triangle,""Cutting Tool,""Noun," and "Tree" By Children Age 7 to 17. Technical Report No. 427. Reprinted December 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    The Conceptual Learning and Development (CLD) Model specifies four levels of concept attainment (concrete, identity, classificatory, and formal) and three uses of concepts (problem solving, subordinate-supraordinate, and principles). Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of concept attainment may be conducted. The results of this study of 300…

  9. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  10. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  11. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  12. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  13. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  14. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  15. Plasma Lycopene Is Associated with Pizza and Pasta Consumption in Middle-Aged and Older African American and White Adults in the Southeastern USA in a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan E.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Liu, Jianguo; Schlundt, David G.; Ukoli, Flora A. M.; Blot, William J.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of dietary lycopene in chronic disease prevention is not well known. Methods This study examined intake of lycopene and other antioxidants from lycopene-rich foods (e.g., pizza and pasta) simultaneously with plasma levels of lycopene and other antioxidants in a representative cross-sectional sample (187 Blacks, 182 Whites, 40–79 years old) from the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). The SCCS is an ongoing study conducted in populations at high risk for chronic diseases living in Southeastern United States. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and plasma levels of lycopene and other antioxidants were measured at baseline (2002–2005). The participants were classified into tertiles according to consumption of pizza and pasta food groups. Results Lycopene dietary intake and plasma lycopene concentrations were significantly higher in the highest (tertile 3) compared to tertiles 1 and 2 (both P < 0.01). Total energy intake ranged from 1964.3 ± 117.1 kcal/day (tertile 1) to 3277.7 ± 115.8 kcal/day (tertile 3) (P<0.0001). After adjusting for age and energy intake, total dietary fat, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, and sodium intakes were significantly higher in tertile 3 than tertiles 2 and 1 (all P <0.01). Vitamin C intake was significantly lower in tertile 3 than tertiles 1 and 2 (P = 0.003). Except for γ-tocopherol being higher in tertile 3 than tertiles 1 and 2 (P = 0.015), the plasma concentrations of antioxidants were lower in tertile 3 than tertiles 1 and 2 (β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, all P<0.05). Conclusions In the SCCS population, pizza and pasta were the main sources of dietary lycopene and their intake was associated with plasma lycopene concentration. Diets with frequent pizza and pasta consumption were high in energy, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, sodium and low in other antioxidants. Future studies of lycopene as a protective dietary factor

  16. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  17. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  18. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  19. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  20. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  1. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  2. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  3. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  4. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  5. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  6. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  7. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  8. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Sex Hormones, and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 at 6–9 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Analysis within the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Mondal, Debapriya; Armstrong, Ben G.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Fletcher, Tony

    2016-01-01

    -Espinosa MJ, Mondal D, Armstrong BG, Eskenazi B, Fletcher T. 2016. Perfluoroalkyl substances, sex hormones, and insulin-like growth factor-1 at 6–9 years of age: a cross-sectional analysis within the C8 Health Project. Environ Health Perspect 124:1269–1275; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509869 PMID:26794451

  10. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  11. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  12. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  13. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey): survey design and characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents

    PubMed Central

    Brochmann, Nana; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Christensen, Anne Illemann; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Juel, Knud; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark, and the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, created the first nationwide, population-based, and the most comprehensive cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HRQoL) survey of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In Denmark, all MPN patients are treated in public hospitals and treatments received are free of charge for these patients. Therefore, MPN patients receive the best available treatment to the extent of its suitability for them and if they wish to receive the treatment. The aims of this article are to describe the survey design and the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents. Material and methods Individuals with MPN diagnoses registered in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR) were invited to participate. The registers of the Danish Civil Registration System and Statistics Denmark provided information regarding demographics. The survey contained 120 questions: validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires and additional questions addressing lifestyle. Results A total of 4,704 individuals were registered with MPN diagnoses in the NPR of whom 4,236 were eligible for participation and 2,613 (62%) responded. Overall, the respondents covered the broad spectrum of MPN patients, but patients 70–79 years old, living with someone, of a Danish/Western ethnicity, and with a higher level of education exhibited the highest response rate. Conclusion A nationwide, population-based, and comprehensive HRQoL survey of MPN patients in Denmark was undertaken (MPNhealthSurvey). We believe that the respondents broadly represent the MPN population in Denmark. However, the differences between respondents and nonrespondents have to be taken into consideration when examining PROs from the respondents. The results of the investigation of the respondents’ HRQoL in this survey will follow in future articles. PMID:28280390

  14. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  15. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Jones, D. T. L.; Arendse, G. J.; Cowley, A. A.; Richter, W. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Newman, R. T.; Pilcher, J. V.; Smit, F. D.; Steyn, G. F.; Koen, JW; Stander, JA

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  16. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  17. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1988-11-01

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Origami tubes with reconfigurable polygonal cross-sections

    PubMed Central

    Filipov, E. T.; Paulino, G. H.; Tachi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Thin sheets can be assembled into origami tubes to create a variety of deployable, reconfigurable and mechanistically unique three-dimensional structures. We introduce and explore origami tubes with polygonal, translational symmetric cross-sections that can reconfigure into numerous geometries. The tubular structures satisfy the mathematical definitions for flat and rigid foldability, meaning that they can fully unfold from a flattened state with deformations occurring only at the fold lines. The tubes do not need to be straight and can be constructed to follow a non-linear curved line when deployed. The cross-section and kinematics of the tubular structures can be reprogrammed by changing the direction of folding at some folds. We discuss the variety of tubular structures that can be conceived and we show limitations that govern the geometric design. We quantify the global stiffness of the origami tubes through eigenvalue and structural analyses and highlight the mechanical characteristics of these systems. The two-scale nature of this work indicates that, from a local viewpoint, the cross-sections of the polygonal tubes are reconfigurable while, from a global viewpoint, deployable tubes of desired shapes are achieved. This class of tubes has potential applications ranging from pipes and micro-robotics to deployable architecture in buildings. PMID:26997894

  19. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-01-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  20. Origami tubes with reconfigurable polygonal cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Filipov, E T; Paulino, G H; Tachi, T

    2016-01-01

    Thin sheets can be assembled into origami tubes to create a variety of deployable, reconfigurable and mechanistically unique three-dimensional structures. We introduce and explore origami tubes with polygonal, translational symmetric cross-sections that can reconfigure into numerous geometries. The tubular structures satisfy the mathematical definitions for flat and rigid foldability, meaning that they can fully unfold from a flattened state with deformations occurring only at the fold lines. The tubes do not need to be straight and can be constructed to follow a non-linear curved line when deployed. The cross-section and kinematics of the tubular structures can be reprogrammed by changing the direction of folding at some folds. We discuss the variety of tubular structures that can be conceived and we show limitations that govern the geometric design. We quantify the global stiffness of the origami tubes through eigenvalue and structural analyses and highlight the mechanical characteristics of these systems. The two-scale nature of this work indicates that, from a local viewpoint, the cross-sections of the polygonal tubes are reconfigurable while, from a global viewpoint, deployable tubes of desired shapes are achieved. This class of tubes has potential applications ranging from pipes and micro-robotics to deployable architecture in buildings.

  1. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  2. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  3. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  4. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  5. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  6. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  7. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  8. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  9. Design for the Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Given the differences in social, emotional, and physiological development among elementary, middle, and high school students, it should come as no surprise that collaborative spaces should be designed differently for each age group. The needs of younger students do not necessarily mirror those of their older peers. Architect and educator Peter…

  10. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  11. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  12. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  13. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  14. Magnetic cloud models with bent and oblate cross-section boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Démoulin, P.; Dasso, S.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Magnetic clouds (MCs) are formed by magnetic flux ropes that are ejected from the Sun as coronal mass ejections. These structures generally have low plasma beta and travel through the interplanetary medium interacting with the surrounding solar wind. Thus, the dynamical evolution of the internal magnetic structure of a MC is a consequence of both the conditions of its environment and of its own dynamical laws, which are mainly dominated by magnetic forces. Aims: With in-situ observations the magnetic field is only measured along the trajectory of the spacecraft across the MC. Therefore, a magnetic model is needed to reconstruct the magnetic configuration of the encountered MC. The main aim of the present work is to extend the widely used cylindrical model to arbitrary cross-section shapes. Methods: The flux rope boundary is parametrized to account for a broad range of shapes. Then, the internal structure of the flux rope is computed by expressing the magnetic field as a series of modes of a linear force-free field. Results: We analyze the magnetic field profile along straight cuts through the flux rope, in order to simulate the spacecraft crossing through a MC. We find that the magnetic field orientation is only weakly affected by the shape of the MC boundary. Therefore, the MC axis can approximately be found by the typical methods previously used (e.g., minimum variance). The boundary shape affects the magnetic field strength most. The measurement of how much the field strength peaks along the crossing provides an estimation of the aspect ratio of the flux-rope cross-section. The asymmetry of the field strength between the front and the back of the MC, after correcting for the time evolution (i.e., its aging during the observation of the MC), provides an estimation of the cross-section global bending. A flat or/and bent cross-section requires a large anisotropy of the total pressure imposed at the MC boundary by the surrounding medium. Conclusions: The

  15. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  16. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hathout, A M; Westfall, R M; Dodds, Jr, H L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.

  17. A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of matrix completion: comparing short-term and long-term change.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija

    2002-01-01

    A design that included both microgenetic and cross-sectional components was used to examine 135 Slovenian children's acquisition of matrix completion proficiency and compare microgenetic and age-related changes on the task. The microgenetic analyses indicated that children's errors became increasingly variable shortly before they discovered the correct strategy, that the correct strategy became dominant quite quickly following its initial use, that improvements in matrix completion performance generalized to conservation, and that amount of learning correlated positively with IQ. The microgenetic/cross-sectional comparison, which involved contrasting the changes that occurred over seven experimental sessions with the changes that occurred between ages 6 and 7 years, indicated that the two patterns of change were highly similar.

  18. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  19. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  20. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  1. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  2. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  3. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  4. Shape optimization of the total scattering cross section for cylindrical scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Per; Rylander, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    We propose and test a gradient-based shape optimization algorithm for the total scattering cross section of infinitely long cylinders, by means of changing the shape of the cylinder's cross section. On the basis of the optical theorem, we derive sensitivity expressions for both dielectric and metal cylinders given an incident plane wave, where the wave vector is perpendicular to the cylinder axis. Both the transverse electric (TE) case and the transverse magnetic case are considered. The sensitivity expressions are based on the continuum form of Maxwell's equations, and they provide the sensitivity with respect to an arbitrary number of shape parameters in terms of the field solution of the original scattering problem and an adjoint scattering problem. These results are used to construct a gradient-based optimization algorithm that we exploit for the reduction of the total scattering cross section in the TE case for metal cylinders, e.g., struts used in reflector antennas. We present optimized cross sections that are oblong in the direction of the incident wave vector, and some of these designs feature corrugations that are parallel to the cylinder axis. We show designs with asymmetric cross sections that yield a low monostatic scattering cross section for certain directions in combination with a low total scattering cross section, which can be used to reduce the noise temperature contributions from the upper strut in an inverted Y tripod reflector antenna.

  5. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  6. Cross-section generation methodology for three-dimensional transient reactor simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.; Ivanov, K.; Macian, R.; Baratta, A.

    1997-12-01

    An important aspect of three-dimensional transient reactor calculations is the cross-section modeling algorithm. Based on our experience in transient simulations of different accident scenarios with Pennsylvania State University`s coupled code TRAC-PF1/NEM, an original cross-section generation methodology was developed and tested. Well-known features were combined with new developments to achieve an accurate and efficient coupled three-dimensional kinetics/thermal-hydraulic system modeling. Our approach is designed to describe both initial steady state and the entire range of conditions expected during a transient. It differs from the existing cross-section generation procedures in both history and instantaneous models.

  7. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, Carolyn; Ilas, Germina

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  8. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (∼ 50 MeV to ∼ 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are available now. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results. Our current results indicate this is, in fact, the case.

  9. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    DOE PAGES

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used inmore » the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.« less

  10. Realizing the Opportunities of Neutron Cross Section Measurements at RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L; Hausmann, M; Reifarth, R; Roberts, K; Roeben, M; Rusnak, B; Vieira, D

    2004-10-13

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator will produce many isotopes at never before seen rates. This will allow for the first time measurements on isotopes very far from stability and new measurement opportunities for unstable nuclei near stability. In fact, the production rates are such that it should be possible to collect 10 micrograms of many isotopes with a half-life of 1 day or more. This ability to make targets of short-lived nuclei enables the possibility of making neutron cross-section measurements important to the astrophysics and the stockpile stewardship communities. But to fully realize this opportunity, the appropriate infrastructure must be included at the RIA facility. This includes isotope harvesting capabilities, radiochemical areas for processing collected material, and an intense, ''mono-energetic'', tunable neutron source. As such, we have been developing a design for neutron source facility to be included at the RIA site. This facility would produce neutrons via intense beams of deuterons and protons on a variety of targets. The facility would also include the necessary radiochemical facilities for target processing. These infrastructure needs will be discussed in addition to the methods that would be employed at RIA for measuring these neutron cross-sections.

  11. Effects of space-dependent cross sections on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum space power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lell, R. M.; Hanan, N. A.

    Effects of multigroup neutron cross section generation procedures on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum reactors were examined. Homogeneous and space dependent multigroup cross section set were generated in 11 and 27 groups for a representative fast reactor core. These cross sections were used to compute various reactor physics parameters for the reference core. Coarse group structure and neglect of space dependence in the generation procedure resulted in inaccurate computations of reactor flux and power distributions and in significant errors regarding estimates of core reactivity and control system worth. Delayed neutron fraction was insensitive to cross section treatment, and computed reactivity coefficients were only slightly sensitive. However, neutron lifetime was found to be very sensitive to cross section treatment. Deficiencies in multigroup cross sections are reflected in core nuclear design and, consequently, in system mechanical design.

  12. Damage accumulation in closed cross-section, laminated, composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    . Space structures typically have closed cross-sections, absent of free edges. As a result, composite material characterization data generated using finite width flat specimens does not accurately reflect the performance of the composite materials used in a closed cross-section structural configuration. Several investigators have recognized the need to develop characterization techniques for composite materials in closed cross-sectioned structures. In these investigations test methods were developed and cylindrical specimens were evaluated. The behavior of the cylindrical specimens were observed to depart from behavior typical of flat coupons. However, no attempts were made to identify and monitor the progression of damage in these cylindrical specimens during loading. The identification and monitoring of damage is fundamental to the characterization of composite materials in closed cross-section configurations. In the study reported here, a closed cross-sectioned test method was developed to monitor damage progression in 2 in. diameter cylindrical specimens and 1.5 in. finite width flat coupons subjected to quasi-static, tensile loading conditions. Damage in these specimen configurations was monitored using pulse echo ultrasonic, acoustic emission, and X-ray techniques.

  13. Coupled multigroup cross sections for hydrogen interactions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienke, B. R.; Morel, J. E.; Cayton, T. E.; Howell, R. B.

    1985-10-01

    Using analytical fits to the experimental cross sections for H 3 H 2, and H 2+ interactions in plasmas, developed by Gryzinski, Riviere, Jones, and Freeman, we obtain coupled multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients for hydrogen transport applications. Multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients, for specified energy group boundaries, plasma particle and temperature profiles, and cylindrical plasma confinement radius, are generated against a spatially dependent, local Maxwellian scattering background. Cross sections are formatted for direct use in production multigroup S n, Monte Carlo, or specific transport applications. Ten coupled hydrogen reactions are included and resulting cross sections for ionization, scattering, and production can be coupled or decoupled. Reactions treated include H, H 2 ionization by electrons and protons, H, H 2 charge exchange, and H 2, H 2+ dissociative mechanisms. We detail the formalism used to compute effective cross sections and rates and give practicle results for two fusion reactors.

  14. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  15. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  16. Crosstalk in rectangular cross-section heterogeneous multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Olga N.; Astapovich, Maxim S.; Semjonov, Sergey L.

    2016-09-01

    Using neighboring cores with different mode propagation constants (indexes) is a well-known way to reduce crosstalk in multicore fiber (MCF). However, in actual field-deployed fiber, random bends can cause a reduction in the difference between the mode indexes of neighboring cores, which consequently increases crosstalk. The level of crosstalk induced by bending in both rectangular cross-section and circular cross-section heterogeneous MCF with cores arranged in a line was investigated. The experimental results obtained indicate that in contrast to circular cross-section MCF, no bending-induced crosstalk occurs in rectangular cross-section MCF wound on the mandrel without special control of cross-section orientation. Thus, to eliminate undesirable bending-induced crosstalk in heterogeneous MCF a rectangular cross-section should be employed.

  17. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  18. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  19. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  20. Left atrial vascularised thrombus diagnosed by transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Taams, M A; Gussenhoven, E J; Lancée, C T

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a patient with a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis in whom transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography revealed a large vascularised mass within the left atrial appendage with smoke-like opacification of blood flow in the left atrium. Transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography gave a detailed image of the lesion which was unobtainable with precordial cross sectional echocardiography. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3426904

  1. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  2. Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Capote, R.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2011-09-01

    Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010.

  3. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  4. Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Marfatia, D; McKay, D W; Seckel, D

    2006-10-20

    We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as detector depth and cross section inelasticity, can influence rates. Numerical estimates of upward shower, muon, and tau event rates in the IceCube detector confirm these results.

  5. Error Assessment of Homogenized Cross Sections Generation for Whole Core Neutronic Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, Mathieu; Kochunas, Brendan; Downar, Thomas J.

    2007-10-26

    The objective of the work here was to assess the errors introduced by using 2D, few group homogenized cross sections to perform neutronic analysis of BWR problems with significant axial heterogeneities. The 3D method of characteristics code DeCART is used to generate 2-group assembly homogenized cross sections first using a conventional 2D lattice model and then using a full 3D solution of the assembly. A single BWR fuel assembly model based on an advanced BWR lattice design is used with a typical void distribution applied to the fuel channel coolant. This model is validated against an MCNP model. A comparison of the cross sections is performed for the assembly homogenized planar cross sections from the DeCART 3D and DeCART 2D solutions.

  6. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 102}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.; Krane, K.S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by {sup 102}Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the {gamma} rays emitted by 17.0-d {sup 103}Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be {sigma}=1.82{+-}0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23{+-}4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for {sup 108}Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the {sup 110}Pd cross sections.

  7. Inclusive Cross Section Production of J/ψ in LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osati, T.; Abubakri, B.

    2017-02-01

    Cross section production is one of the observable quantities in the hadronic systems. Inclusive cross section production J/ψ may be calculated through the use of the fragmentation c → J/ψ. In this paper we calculate the inclusive cross section production J/ψ about the pole of Z 0 in the e + e ‑ annihilation, through the lowest order regim of perturbative of QCD ananlyticaly. The obtained results arrive an excellent agreement with the exprimental data to produce the inclusive cross section production c → J/ψ.

  8. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  9. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of {sup 22}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2009-01-28

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important {sup 22}Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched {sup 22}Ne and CH{sub 4} were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7{+-}0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  10. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  11. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  12. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus: an estimate from cross-sectional claims data of 2.3 million people in the German statutory health insurance 2002

    PubMed Central

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Weber, Sergej; Fischer-Betz, Rebecca; Sander, Oliver; Richter, Jutta G; Chehab, Gamal; Schneider, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an estimate of age-specific incidence rate of physician-diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for German men and women. Methods The age-specific and sex-specific prevalence of diagnosed SLE in claims data is used to estimate the incidence in the German male and female population. The claims data set stems from a representative sample of the statutory health insurance in 2002 and comprises 2.3 million people. The statutory health insurance covers >85% of the German population. Results The estimated incidence rates are 0.9 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.1) per 100 000 person-years for men and 1.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.2) per 100 000 person-years for women. The age-specific incidence rate of SLE in the male population has a maximum of 2.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.4) per 100 000 person-years at the age of 65–70 years. In women, the incidence is peaking at the rate of 3.6 (95% CI 2.9 to 4.3) cases per 100 000 person-years at the age of 20–25 years, but has a second local maximum (2.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.8) at menopausal age. Conclusions For the first time, representative data on the incidence of SLE in Germany are provided. The estimated incidence rates of SLE for men and women in Germany are at the lower end of other estimates from comparable European countries. PMID:27933200

  13. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  14. SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    ganda, francesco

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the

  15. Characterization of radar cross section of carbon fiber composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Elliot J.; Lenzing, Erik H.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon fiber composite (CFC) materials have been used for many structural applications for decades. Their electromagnetic properties are also of great interest and are being quantified by recent research. This research explores shielding effectiveness, antenna design, conductivity, reflection, and absorption properties. The work in this paper specifically characterizes the radar cross section (RCS) of CFC structures. Various CFC planar samples were created using a wet layup method and vacuum bagging techniques. These samples were then placed in an anechoic chamber and their RCS values were measured at normal incidence. These measured values were compared to those of aluminum samples made into the same shape as the CFC samples. All of the measurements were made over 7 - 12 GHz frequency range. The RCS of the CFC samples show some interesting results. The fiber direction in the CFC samples had great influence on the RCS. Theories and reasoning for the results are presented and discussed.

  16. Gamma Efficiency Simulations towards Coincidence Measurements for Fusion Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, M.; Courtin, S.; Fruet, G.; Jenkins, D. G.; Montanari, D.; Morris, L.; Regan, P. H.; Rudigier, M.; Symochko, D.

    2016-10-01

    With the experimental station STELLA (STELlar LAboratory) we will measure fusion cross sections of astrophysical relevance making use of the coincident detection of charged particles and gamma rays for background reduction. For the measurement of gamma rays from the de-excitation of fusion products a compact array of 36 UK FATIMA LaBr3 detectors is designed based on efficiency studies with Geant4. The photo peak efficiency in the region of interest compares to other gamma detection systems used in this field. The features of the internal decay of 138La is used in a background study to obtain an online calibration of the gamma detectors. Background data are fit to the Monte Carlo model of the self activity assuming crude exponential behavior of external background. Accuracy in the region of interest is of the order of some keV in this first study.

  17. Radar cross section prediction and reduction for naval ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Jawad; Duan, Wenyang; Sherbaz, Salma

    2012-06-01

    Radar cross section (RCS) is the measurement of the reflective strength of a target. Reducing the RCS of a naval ship enables its late detection, which is useful for capitalizing on elements of surprise and initiative. Thus, the RCS of a naval ship has become a very important design factor for achieving surprise, initiative, and survivability. Consequently, accurate RCS determination and RCS reduction are of extreme importance for a naval ship. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the theoretical background and engineering approach to deal with RCS prediction and reduction for naval ships. The importance of RCS, radar fundamentals, RCS basics, RCS prediction methods, and RCS reduction methods for naval ships is also discussed.

  18. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  19. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  20. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  1. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  2. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  3. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  4. Cross sections for scattering of electrons on BF_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Varambhia, H. N.; Vranic, M.; Tennyson, J.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and electronic excitation of BF_3 molecules by low energy electrons. The R-Matrix code Quantemol-N has been used for calculations. The cross sections indicate the presence of a shape resonance of symmetry B_1 (A_2'' in D_3h) at around 4.5 eV.

  5. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  6. Adult Lifespan Cognitive Variability in the Cross-Sectional Cam-CAN Cohort.

    PubMed

    Green, Emma; Shafto, Meredith A; Matthews, Fiona E; White, Simon R

    2015-12-07

    This study examines variability across the age span in cognitive performance in a cross-sectional, population-based, adult lifespan cohort from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) study (n = 2680). A key question we highlight is whether using measures that are designed to detect age-related cognitive pathology may not be sensitive to, or reflective of, individual variability among younger adults. We present three issues that contribute to the debate for and against age-related increases in variability. Firstly, the need to formally define measures of central tendency and measures of variability. Secondly, in addition to the commonly addressed location-confounding (adjusting for covariates) there may exist changes in measures of variability due to confounder sub-groups. Finally, that increases in spread may be a result of floor or ceiling effects; where the measure is not sensitive enough at all ages. From the Cam-CAN study, a large population-based dataset, we demonstrate the existence of variability-confounding for the immediate episodic memory task; and show that increasing variance with age in our general cognitive measures is driven by a ceiling effect in younger age groups.

  7. Adult Lifespan Cognitive Variability in the Cross-Sectional Cam-CAN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Green, Emma; Shafto, Meredith A.; Matthews, Fiona E.; White, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines variability across the age span in cognitive performance in a cross-sectional, population-based, adult lifespan cohort from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) study (n = 2680). A key question we highlight is whether using measures that are designed to detect age-related cognitive pathology may not be sensitive to, or reflective of, individual variability among younger adults. We present three issues that contribute to the debate for and against age-related increases in variability. Firstly, the need to formally define measures of central tendency and measures of variability. Secondly, in addition to the commonly addressed location-confounding (adjusting for covariates) there may exist changes in measures of variability due to confounder sub-groups. Finally, that increases in spread may be a result of floor or ceiling effects; where the measure is not sensitive enough at all ages. From the Cam-CAN study, a large population-based dataset, we demonstrate the existence of variability-confounding for the immediate episodic memory task; and show that increasing variance with age in our general cognitive measures is driven by a ceiling effect in younger age groups. PMID:26690191

  8. Overweight among students aged 11–15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents’ education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global ‘epidemic’. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11–15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11–15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent’s low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of

  9. DPA Cross Section Library FermiDPA 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2013-06-05

    DPA cross section library FermiDPA 1.0 based on the industry standard NRT model calculations is described. The library contains DPA cross sections for neutrons in the energy range 10$^{-5}$ eV 20 (150) MeV. Calculations used neutron-induced reaction cross sections from ENDFB-VII database of evaluated nuclear data. The NJOY99 nuclear data processing system's module HEATR was applied to calculate NRT model radiation damage cross sections. The FermiDPA 1.0 library is a database of 395 text files (for 395 known isotopes) with DPA cross sections. It is code-independent and can be implemented in any transport code.

  10. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  11. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  12. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  13. Analytical approximations for X-ray cross sections 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Frank; Lighthill, Ruth

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energies greater than or equal to 10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically.

  14. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene-Related Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Urban School- and Preschool-Aged Children in Kibera, Nairobi

    PubMed Central

    Worrell, Caitlin M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Odero, Kennedy O.; Blackstock, Anna; Cuéllar, Victoria M.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Roy, Sharon L.; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect persons living in areas with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Preschool-aged children (PSAC) and school-aged children (SAC) are disproportionately affected by STH infections. We aimed to identify WASH factors associated with STH infection among PSAC and SAC in Kibera, Kenya. In 2012, households containing a PSAC or SAC were randomly selected from those enrolled in the International Emerging Infections Program, a population-based surveillance system. We administered a household questionnaire, conducted environmental assessments for WASH, and tested three stools from each child for STH eggs using the Kato-Katz method. WASH factors were evaluated for associations with STH infection using univariable and multivariable Poisson regression. Any-STH prevalence was 40.8% among 201 PSAC and 40.0% among 475 SAC enrolled. Using the Joint Monitoring Programme water and sanitation classifications, 1.5% of households reported piped water on premises versus 98.5% another improved water source; 1.3% reported improved sanitation facilities, while 81.7% used shared sanitation facilities, 13.9% had unimproved facilities, and 3.1% reported no facilities (open defecation). On univariable analysis, STH infection was significantly associated with a household toilet located off-premises (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.33; p = 0.047), while always treating water (PR = 0.81; p = 0.04), covering drinking water containers (PR = 0.75; p = 0.02), using clean towels during hand drying (PR = 0.58; p<0.01), having finished household floor material (PR = 0.76; p<0.01), having electricity (PR = 0.70; p<0.01), and increasing household elevation in 10-meter increments (PR = 0.89; p<0.01) were protective against STH infection. On multivariable analysis, usually versus always treating water was associated with increased STH prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.52; p<0.01), while having finished household floor material (aPR = 0.76; p = 0

  16. Does the use of passive or active consent affect consent or completion rates, or dietary data quality? Repeat cross-sectional survey among school children aged 11–12 years

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Suzanne; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J; Matthews, John N S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An expectation of research is that participants should give fully informed consent. However, there is also a need to maximise recruitment to ensure representativeness. We explored the impact of passive or active parental consent on consent, completion rates and on dietary data quality in a survey among children aged 11–12 years. Setting Six middle schools in North-East England. Participants All children aged 11–12 years attending the six middle schools were eligible to participate (n=1141). Main outcomes Primary outcomes: whether or not each eligible child's parent gave consent and provided a complete dietary diary; whether or not a child completed their dietary diary but only among children who agreed to participate, and whether or not children providing diaries were classified as an under-reporter or not. Results Parents were more likely to consent passively than actively. This difference was greater among the more deprived: OR 16.9 (95% CI 5.7 to 50.2) in the least and 129.6 (95% CI 39.9 to 420.6) in the most deprived quintile (test for interaction: method of consent by level of deprivation, p=0.02). For all children eligible, completion was more likely if passive consent was used (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.7). When only children who gave consent are considered, completion was less likely when passive rather than active consent was used (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9). Completion rate decreased as level of deprivation increased; we found no evidence that the OR for the method of consent varied by level of deprivation. There was no evidence that the quality of dietary data, as measured by an assessment of under-reporting, differed by method of consent (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.2). Conclusions Passive consent led to a higher participation rate and a more representative sample without compromising data quality. PMID:25586368

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene-Related Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Urban School- and Preschool-Aged Children in Kibera, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Davis, Stephanie M; Odero, Kennedy O; Blackstock, Anna; Cuéllar, Victoria M; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Roy, Sharon L; Fox, LeAnne M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect persons living in areas with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Preschool-aged children (PSAC) and school-aged children (SAC) are disproportionately affected by STH infections. We aimed to identify WASH factors associated with STH infection among PSAC and SAC in Kibera, Kenya. In 2012, households containing a PSAC or SAC were randomly selected from those enrolled in the International Emerging Infections Program, a population-based surveillance system. We administered a household questionnaire, conducted environmental assessments for WASH, and tested three stools from each child for STH eggs using the Kato-Katz method. WASH factors were evaluated for associations with STH infection using univariable and multivariable Poisson regression. Any-STH prevalence was 40.8% among 201 PSAC and 40.0% among 475 SAC enrolled. Using the Joint Monitoring Programme water and sanitation classifications, 1.5% of households reported piped water on premises versus 98.5% another improved water source; 1.3% reported improved sanitation facilities, while 81.7% used shared sanitation facilities, 13.9% had unimproved facilities, and 3.1% reported no facilities (open defecation). On univariable analysis, STH infection was significantly associated with a household toilet located off-premises (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.33; p = 0.047), while always treating water (PR = 0.81; p = 0.04), covering drinking water containers (PR = 0.75; p = 0.02), using clean towels during hand drying (PR = 0.58; p<0.01), having finished household floor material (PR = 0.76; p<0.01), having electricity (PR = 0.70; p<0.01), and increasing household elevation in 10-meter increments (PR = 0.89; p<0.01) were protective against STH infection. On multivariable analysis, usually versus always treating water was associated with increased STH prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.52; p<0.01), while having finished household floor material (aPR = 0.76; p = 0

  18. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has

  19. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  20. Comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution uncertainty analysis for a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; LaBauve, R.J.; Young, P.G.

    1980-05-01

    On the example of General Atomic's well-documented Power Generating Fusion Reactor (PGFR) design, this report exercises a comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution (SED) uncertainty analysis. The LASL sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code SENSIT is used to calculate reaction cross-section sensitivity profiles and integral SED sensitivity coefficients. These are then folded with covariance matrices and integral SED uncertainties to obtain the resulting uncertainties of three calculated neutronics design parameters: two critical radiation damage rates and a nuclear heating rate. The report documents the first sensitivity-based data uncertainty analysis, which incorporates a quantitative treatment of the effects of SED uncertainties. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ENDF/B-V cross-section data files for C, H, and O, including their SED data, are fully adequate for this design application, while the data for Fe and Ni are at best marginally adequate because they give rise to response uncertainties up to 25%. Much higher response uncertainties are caused by cross-section and SED data uncertainties in Cu (26 to 45%), tungsten (24 to 54%), and Cr (up to 98%). Specific recommendations are given for re-evaluations of certain reaction cross-sections, secondary energy distributions, and uncertainty estimates.

  1. Diffusion cross sections for potassium ? and ? levels in rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei-Moayyed, F.; Hickman, A. P.; Streater, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    We have used a light-induced drift (LID) experiment to determine ratios of cross sections for diffusion of potassium in the excited 0953-4075/29/3/011/img3, 0953-4075/29/3/011/img4 and the ground 0953-4075/29/3/011/img5 levels in five rare gases. The measured ratios are combined with the ground-state cross sections and statistically averaged excited cross sections, available from a previously reported light induced diffusive pulling experiment, to obtain the absolute cross sections for individual fine structure levels. We also report calculated cross sections based on available potential curves and a coupled-channel theory. Rough qualitative agreement is generally found between the absolute cross sections inferred from experiment and the theoretical values. The light-induced drift experiments, however, measure ratios of cross section differences that are highly sensitive to the potential curves. It is found that the available potential curves are not adequate for predicting these measured ratios.

  2. Prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients in adult age-group undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery and correlation of intensity of pain and satisfaction with analgesic management: A cross-sectional single institute-based study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Saikia, Priyam; Lahakar, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Considering the paucity of regional data, this study was designed to investigate the prevalence of post-operative pain and determine if there exists any correlation between the intensity of post-operative pain and patient's level of satisfaction with their pain management after inpatient abdominal surgery at an academic tertiary care government centre. Methods: Pain intensity was measured in 120 patients with numeric rating scale at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day. A questionnaire was used to measure the level of satisfaction with nurse's and doctor's response to their pain and overall pain management. Results: The prevalence of post-operative pain was 84.17%, 92.5% and 96.66% at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day, respectively. Less number of patients experienced severe intensity pain on the third post-operative day (P = 0.00046), whereas the number of patients experiencing mild pain increased (P < 0.000) compared to the fifth post-operative hour. The number of patients with complete analgesia decreased on the third post-operative day (P = 0.001 compared to fifth post-operative day). The Spearman correlation coefficient between pain score on the third post-operative day and level of satisfaction with nurse's response, doctor's response to pain and the overall pain management was − 0.0218 (P = 0.8107), 0.1307 (P = 0.1553) and 0.0743 (P = 0.4195), respectively. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery at our institute. There is a weak correlation between the intensity of pain and level of satisfaction with pain management. PMID:27761037

  3. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  4. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  5. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  6. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  7. Antinucleus-Nucleus Cross Sections Implemented in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhinsky, V.; Apostolakis, J.; Galoyan, A.; Folger, G.; Grichine, V.M.; Ivanchenko, V.N.; Wright, D.H.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    Cross sections of antinucleus ({bar p}, {bar d}, {bar t}, {sup 3}{ovr He}, {sup 4}{ovr He}) interactions with nuclei in the energy range 100 MeV/c to 1000 GeV/c per antinucleon are calculated in the Glauber approximation which provides good description of all known {bar p}Across sections. The results were obtained using a new parameterization of the total and elastic {bar p}p cross sections. Simple parameterizations of the antinucleus-nucleus cross sections are proposed for use in estimating the efficiency of antinucleus detection and tracking in cosmic rays and accelerator experiments. These parameterizations are implemented in the Geant4 toolkit.

  8. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  9. A Cross-sectional Anthropometric Study of Cranial Capacity among Ukwuani People of South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboh, Dennis Erhisenebe; Okoro, Ewaen Churchill; Iteire, Kingsley Afoke

    2016-01-01

    Background Cranial capacity is used as a measure of brain volume and has a relationship with age and gender. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data and population-, age- and gender-specific regression formulae related to cranial capacity using head dimensions among the Ukwuani people of Nigeria. Methods This study included 605 subjects grouped according to age as follows: 6–12 years, 13–19 years and ≥20 years. A cross-sectional study design using multistage sampling technique was adopted. Head length, head width, and auricular head height were measured in centimetres using a spreading caliper, and cranial capacity was calculated. The data were analysed using SPSS 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. A t-test was used to identify significant gender differences. Regression analyses were performed to derive age-, gender- and population-specific models. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results In all the parameters, males had significantly higher values than females (P < 0.05). The mean (SD) cranial capacity values at 6–12 years, 13–19 years and ≥20 years were 1176.95 (98.35) cc, 1288.59 (113.21) cc and 1408.90 (116.44) cc, respectively. Conclusions All the parameters exhibited sexual dimorphism. Cranial capacity was found to increase with age. The models derived in this work will be relevant to population and growth studies as well as forensic anthropology. PMID:27904428

  10. Bistatic and Multistatic Radar: Surveillance, Countermeasures, and Radar Cross Sections. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, testing, and evaluation of bistatic and multistatic radar used in surveillance and countermeasure technology. Citations discuss radar cross sections, target recognition and characteristics, ghost recognition, motion image compensation, and wavelet analysis. Stealth aircraft design, stealth target tracking, synthetic aperture radar, and space applications are examined.

  11. Bistatic and Multistatic Radar: Surveillance, Countermeasures, and Radar Cross Sections. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, testing, and evaluation of bistatic and multistatic radar used in surveillance and countermeasure technology. Citations discuss radar cross sections, target recognition and characteristics, ghost recognition, motion image compensation, and wavelet analysis. Stealth aircraft design, stealth target tracking, synthetic aperture radar, and space applications are examined.

  12. Surrogate Measurements of Actinide (n,2n) Cross Sections with NeutronSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Casperson, R. J.; Burke, J. T.; Hughes, R. O.; Akindele, O. A.; Koglin, J. D.; Wang, B.; Tamashiro, A.

    2016-09-27

    Directly measuring (n,2n) cross sections on short-lived actinides presents a number of experimental challenges. The surrogate reaction technique is an experimental method for measuring cross sections on short-­lived isotopes, and it provides a unique solution for measuring (n,2n) cross sections. This technique involves measuring a charged-­particle reaction cross section, where the reaction populates the same compound nucleus as the reaction of interest. To perform these surrogate (n,2n) cross section measurements, a silicon telescope array has been placed along a beam line at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute, which is surrounded by a large tank of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator, which acts as a neutron detector. The combination of the charge-particle and neutron-detector arrays is referred to as NeutronSTARS. In the analysis procedure for calculating the (n,2n) cross section, the neutron detection efficiency and time structure plays an important role. Due to the lack of availability of isotropic, mono-energetic neutron sources, modeling is an important component in establishing this efficiency and time structure. This report describes the NeutronSTARS array, which was designed and commissioned during this project. It also describes the surrogate reaction technique, specifically referencing a 235U(n,2n) commissioning measurement that was fielded during the past year. Advanced multiplicity analysis techniques have been developed for this work, which should allow for efficient analysis of 241Pu(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) cross section measurements

  13. XSECT: A computer code for generating fuselage cross sections - user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, XSECT, has been developed to generate fuselage cross sections from a given area distribution and wing definition. The cross sections are generated to match the wing definition while conforming to the area requirement. An iterative procedure is used to generate each cross section. Fuselage area balancing may be included in this procedure if desired. The code is intended as an aid for engineers who must first design a wing under certain aerodynamic constraints and then design a fuselage for the wing such that the contraints remain satisfied. This report contains the information necessary for accessing and executing the code, which is written in FORTRAN to execute on the Cyber 170 series computers (NOS operating system) and produces graphical output for a Tektronix 4014 CRT. The LRC graphics software is used in combination with the interface between this software and the PLOT 10 software.

  14. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  15. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  16. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  17. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  18. Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of house, front elevation, fire finder stand, hip roof cap, and shiplap roof sheathing. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  19. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  20. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  1. Theory in Evaluation of Actinide Fission and Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. Eric

    2005-05-24

    We discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections. We consider especially the target 235U as an example. We emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near-barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross section. We compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for 235U.

  2. Superstructure Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Superstructure - Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  4. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  5. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  6. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  9. Automating the Modeling of the SEE Cross Section's Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm that automates the application of the alpha law in any SEE analysis is presented. This automation is essential for the widespread acceptance of the sophisticated cross section angular dependence model.

  10. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  11. Methodology for safety optimization of highway cross-sections for horizontal curves with restricted sight distance.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shewkar E; Sayed, Tarek; Ismail, Karim

    2012-11-01

    Several earlier studies have noted the shortcomings with existing geometric design guides which provide deterministic standards. In these standards the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from the standards. To mitigate these shortcomings, probabilistic geometric design has been advocated where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a mechanism for risk measurement to evaluate the safety impact of deviations from design standards. This paper applies reliability analysis for optimizing the safety of highway cross-sections. The paper presents an original methodology to select a suitable combination of cross-section elements with restricted sight distance to result in reduced collisions and consistent risk levels. The purpose of this optimization method is to provide designers with a proactive approach to the design of cross-section elements in order to (i) minimize the risk associated with restricted sight distance, (ii) balance the risk across the two carriageways of the highway, and (iii) reduce the expected collision frequency. A case study involving nine cross-sections that are parts of two major highway developments in British Columbia, Canada, was presented. The results showed that an additional reduction in collisions can be realized by incorporating the reliability component, P(nc) (denoting the probability of non-compliance), in the optimization process. The proposed approach results in reduced and consistent risk levels for both travel directions in addition to further collision reductions.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prosodic Sensitivity and Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2012-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we explore the relationship between prosodic sensitivity (suprasegmental phonology) and phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and investigate whether a group of poor readers display significant suprasegmental phonological deficits in comparison to chronological age-matched controls and younger, reading…

  13. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  14. Hindlimb suspension diminishes femoral cross-sectional growth in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Meulen, M. C.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Carter, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Growth, functional adaptation, and torsional strength were examined in the femora of 39-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to hindlimb suspension for 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks and were compared with measurements for age-matched control animals. Our goal was to understand the effect of reduced loading on the normal age-related changes in femoral properties during growth. The control animals exhibited growth-related increases in all geometric and torsional properties of the femur. The mean body mass and femoral length of the hindlimb-suspended rats were similar to those of the controls throughout the experiment. Over 4 weeks, the femoral cross-sectional and torsional measurements from the hindlimb-suspended rats demonstrated increases in comparison with the basal values (+33% cross-sectional area, +64% polar moment of inertia, +67% ultimate torque, and +181% torsional rigidity), but the age-matched controls showed significantly greater growth-related increases (+71% cross-sectional area, +136% polar moment of inertia, +127% ultimate torque, and +367% torsional rigidity). The differences in femoral structural strength between the hindlimb-suspended animals and the age-matched controls were attributable to differences in altered cross-sectional geometry.

  15. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  16. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  17. Differential cross sections for positron-xenon elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, J. P.; Surko, C. M.; McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2006-06-15

    Absolute measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of positrons from xenon are made at 2, 5 and 8 eV using a trap-based beam and the technique of measuring scattering cross sections in a strong magnetic field. Calculations are carried out using the relativistic Dirac equations with a static plus polarization potential. Generally good absolute agreement is found between experiment and theory.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    that identifies the needs and characteristics of individuals in the Armys’ prime market , as well as their exposure to Army advertising . One way the Army...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences N Research Report 1578 A Cross-Sectional Comparison I of Army Advertising ...62785A 791 2105 H01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  19. Relativistic corrections in K-shell ionization cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, C.V.

    1984-03-01

    Relativistic effects on a modified version of Rutherford's scattering cross section are considered up to first-order in the Born approximation for relativistic velocities in the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). The predicted cross sections with protons as projectile are lower than the previous theoretical values at low energies and are seen to be in better agreement with measurements. An approximate relativistic correction factor which accounts for orbital electrons only is compared with exact Dirac corrections, within the BEA model.

  20. Enhancing the optical cross section of quantum antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Ying, Lei; Chen, Xuewen; Yu, Zongfu

    2017-01-01

    The classical radio-frequency antenna theory indicates that large cross sections can be realized through directional radiation. In this paper, a similar principle is applied in quantum systems, in which quantum antennas, constructed by a cluster of quantum two-level systems, explore the collective excitation of two-level systems to realize large directivity. Both the optical cross section and the coherent time can be dramatically enhanced in free space, far exceeding the case of a single two-level system.

  1. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  2. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  3. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  4. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  5. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  6. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  7. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  8. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  9. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  10. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  11. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  12. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion: The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  13. A cross-section plotting program (CSPP) for gridded (map) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Richard B.; Faust, Charles R.; Mercer, James W.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program that prepares the Calcomp plotter tape for drawing cross-sections from gridded map data is described and documented. The program accepts gridded data of the form Z(x,y), where Z is the value at the grid intersection, (x,y). Up to 10 sets of Z(x,y) data for a given grid may be drawn on the same section. The positions of the end points of the cross-section are arbitrary. A bilinear interpolation scheme is used to obtain the Z(x,y) values along the specified cross-section. The program was designed to provide a visual aid for interpreting input and output data for two-dimensional (areal) finite-difference models used in aquifer analysis and geothermal reservoir simulation. The program should, however, be useful for drawing cross-sections of any multiple Z(x,y) gridded data. The computer code is called CSPP standing for Cross-Section Plotting Program.

  14. Temperature- and pressure-dependent absorption cross sections of gaseous hydrocarbons at 3.39 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, A. E.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2006-07-01

    The pressure- and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of several neat hydrocarbons and multi-component fuels are measured using a 3.39 µm helium-neon laser. Absorption cross section measurements are reported for methane, ethylene, propane, n-heptane, iso-octane, n-decane, n-dodecane, JP-10, gasoline and jet-A with an estimated uncertainty of less than 3.5%. The experimental conditions range from 298 to 673 K and from 500 to 2000 Torr with nitrogen as the bath gas. An apparatus is designed to facilitate these measurements, and specific care is taken to ensure the compositional accuracy of the hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures. The absorption cross sections of the smallest hydrocarbons, methane and ethylene, vary with temperature and pressure. The cross sections of larger hydrocarbons show negligible dependence on pressure and only a weak dependence on temperature. The reported data increase the range of conditions and the number of hydrocarbons for which cross section measurements are available at the HeNe laser wavelength.

  15. Comparison of Performances of Scramjet-Driven Experimental DCW-MHD Generators with Different Cross-Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Toru; Fujino, Takayasu; Ishikawa, Motoo

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of shape of cross-section of scramjet engine driven experimental DCW-MHD generator on generator performance by three-dimensional numerical analyses. We have designed the MHD generators with symmetric square and circular cross-section, based on the experimental MHD generator with asymmetric square cross-section. Under the optimum load condition, the electric power output becomes 26.6kW for the asymmetric square cross-section, 24.6kW for the symmetric square cross-section, and 22.4kW for the circular cross-section. The highest output is obtained for the experimental generator with asymmetric square cross-section. The difference of electric power output is induced by the difference of flow velocity and boundary layer thickness. For the generator with asymmetric square cross-section, the average flow velocity becomes the highest and the boundary layer becomes the thinnest. The compression wave is generated depending on the channel shape. The difference of flow velocity and boundary layer thickness is induced by the superposition of compression wave.

  16. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition