Science.gov

Sample records for age determination methods

  1. [A new method of determining ages: chronological classification].

    PubMed

    Gubry, P

    1983-01-01

    Two methods of determining ages, the historical calendar method and the classification method, are compared using data for Chad from the UDEAC-TCHAD demographic survey. Complementary processing shows that the classification method is more accurate for those born in villages, while the historical method is more accurate for those born elsewhere. (summary in ENG)

  2. An independent method for determining the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, D. E.; Hansen, C. J.; Liebert, James; Van Horn, H. M.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-01-01

    An age of 9.3 + or - 2.0 Gyr is derived for the Galactic disk on the basis of comparisons between the sudden drop in the observed luminosity distribution and theoretical evolutionary white dwarf models and allowance for a mean prewhite-dwarf lifetime of 0.3 Gyr. To obtain the age of the universe, the time between the big bang and the first appearance of stars in the Galactic disk is added. The age of the universe is estimated to be 10.3 + or - 2.2 Gyr.

  3. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Steenkamp, Gerhard; Groom, Rosemary J.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i) counting cementum annuli (ii) pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height) (iv) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio) (v) tooth weight and (vi) skull measurements (length, width and height). A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6–24 months; 25–60 months and > 60 months), with a McFadden’s Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  4. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  5. Age determination of fish from scales; method and application to fish cultural problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    THE SCIENCE of "scale reading", or determination of the age of fish from the examination of their scales, is less than 40 years old. Yet today the publications on the subject are to be numbered by the hundreds, and there is scarcely any phase of fish and fishery work that has not been benefited by this powerful tool for investigation. Fish culture is no exception to this rule. It is because of the increasing interest of fish culturists in scale reading and their numerous requests for information on the subject, that I have been asked to prepare a brief discussion of the method of age determination in fishes.

  6. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification.

  7. Absolute age Determinations on Diamond by Radioisotopic Methods: NOT the way to Accurately Identify Diamond Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.

    2002-05-01

    Gem-quality diamond contains such low abundances of parent-daughter radionuclides that dating the diamond lattice directly by isotopic measurements has been and will be impossible. Absolute ages on diamonds typically are obtained through measurements of their syngenetic mineral inclusions: Rb-Sr in garnet; Sm-Nd in garnet and pyroxene; Re-Os and U-Th-Pb in sulfide; K-Ar in pyroxene; and U-Pb in zircon. The application of the first two isotope schemes in the list requires putting together many inclusions from many diamonds whereas the latter isotope schemes permit ages on single diamonds. The key limitations on the application of these decay pairs are the availability and size of the inclusions, the abundance levels of the radionuclides, and instrumental sensitivity. Practical complications of radioisotope dating of inclusions are fatal to the application of the technique for diamond provenance. In all mines, the ratio of gem-quality diamonds to stones with datable inclusions is very high. Thus there is no way to date the valuable, marketable stones that are part of the conflict diamond problem, just their rare, flawed cousins. Each analysis destroys the diamond host plus the inclusion and can only be carried out in research labs by highly trained scientists. Thus, these methods can not be automated or applied to the bulk of diamond production. The geological problems with age dating are equally fatal to its application to diamond provenance. From the geological perspective, for age determination to work as a tool for diamond provenance studies, diamond ages would have to be specific to particular kimberlites or kimberlite fields and different between fields. The southern African Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Mobile Belt is the only cratonic region where age determinations have been applied on a large enough scale to a number of kimberlites to illustrate the geological problems in age measurements for diamond provenance. However, this southern African example

  8. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  9. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

  10. CT evaluation of medial clavicular epiphysis as a method of bone age determination in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ufuk, Furkan; Agladioglu, Kadir; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) staging of the medial clavicular epiphysis ossification in forensic bone age determination, and find a CT criterion to determine whether an individual is adult or not. METHODS Chest CT and pulmonary CT angiography exams of 354 patients between 10 and 30 years of age (mean, 21.4 years) were retrospectively evaluated for epiphyseal ossification phase of the bilateral medial clavicles (708 clavicles) and compared with the sex and chronologic age of the individuals. The ossification phase of the medial clavicular epiphyses was classified from stage I to stage V using a modified staging system. RESULTS Epiphyseal ossification center appeared from 11 to 21 years of age. Partial fusion occurred between 16 and 23 years of age. Complete fusion was first achieved at the ages of 18 and 19 years for male and female individuals, respectively. The probability of an individual being ≥18 years old was 70.8% in stage III A and 100% in stages III B, IV, and V in females and males. CONCLUSION CT evaluation of the medial clavicular epiphysis is helpful in forensic age determination and stage III B can be used as a criterion to make the prediction that an individual is older than 18 years. PMID:27015321

  11. Determination of the age of hydrothermal fluids by the kinetic-geochemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Reznikov, A.N.

    1995-03-01

    An estimate of the age of hydrothermal fluids at rift zones of oceans and continents, island arc regions, as well as regions of mud volcanism and occurrences of condensation and solution waters of hydrocarbon accumulations is given on the basis of the chemical, gas, and isotopic compositions and geothermobaric conditions. Correlations between the degree of accumulation of trace elements in hydrothermal fluids and their age were established.

  12. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  13. Improved method for sectioning pectoral spines of catfish for age determination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blouin, Marc A.; Hall, Glenda R.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages of this method are: (1) spine sections are clear, with uniform thickness and little tissue damage; (2) no time-consuming procedures are necessary; (3) the original spine remains intact for future sectioning; and (4) the thick, single blade does not warp.

  14. Use of Brain MRI Atlases to Determine Boundaries of Age-Related Pathology: The Importance of Statistical Method

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Gonzalez, David Rodriguez; Shenkin, Susan D.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurodegenerative disease diagnoses may be supported by the comparison of an individual patient’s brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) with a voxel-based atlas of normal brain MRI. Most current brain MRI atlases are of young to middle-aged adults and parametric, e.g., mean ±standard deviation (SD); these atlases require data to be Gaussian. Brain MRI data, e.g., grey matter (GM) proportion images, from normal older subjects are apparently not Gaussian. We created a nonparametric and a parametric atlas of the normal limits of GM proportions in older subjects and compared their classifications of GM proportions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Methods Using publicly available brain MRI from 138 normal subjects and 138 subjects diagnosed with AD (all 55–90 years), we created: a mean ±SD atlas to estimate parametrically the percentile ranks and limits of normal ageing GM; and, separately, a nonparametric, rank order-based GM atlas from the same normal ageing subjects. GM images from AD patients were then classified with respect to each atlas to determine the effect statistical distributions had on classifications of proportions of GM in AD patients. Results The parametric atlas often defined the lower normal limit of the proportion of GM to be negative (which does not make sense physiologically as the lowest possible proportion is zero). Because of this, for approximately half of the AD subjects, 25–45% of voxels were classified as normal when compared to the parametric atlas; but were classified as abnormal when compared to the nonparametric atlas. These voxels were mainly concentrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. Discussion To our knowledge, we have presented the first nonparametric brain MRI atlas. In conditions where there is increasing variability in brain structure, such as in old age, nonparametric brain MRI atlases may represent the limits of normal brain structure more accurately than parametric approaches. Therefore, we

  15. Age compositions of flatfish stocks as determined by a new otolithometric method, its application in the estimation of growth, spawning potential and fisheries management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Gorie, Shigeaki

    2010-11-01

    We developed an ageing methodology and examined age composition of three flatfish stocks inhabiting the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Ages were difficult to determine for three-lined tongue sole ( Cynoglossus abbreviates) and ridged-eye flounder ( Pleuronichthys cornutus) because the first year annulus ring was often indistinct; therefore, we used directional change in otolith growth to distinguish it. Sectioning and etching methods were powerful tools for identifying annual checks for red tongue sole ( Cynoglossus joyneri). Using these ageing methods, we determined age-length relationships and growth curves. The age composition of the populations studied and of the landings showed that a large proportion of the latter consisted of individuals under the mean age of sexual maturity, thereby reducing the percent spawning potential ratio (%SPR) to ≈ 20% for all species. These findings suggest that fishing pressure on immature fish is leading to overfishing of these flatfish stocks.

  16. A comparison of chemical and electrophoretic methods of serum protein determinations in clinically normal domestic animals of various ages.

    PubMed

    Green, S A; Jenkins, S J; Clark, P A

    1982-10-01

    The biuret total protein method and a bromcresol green (BCG) albumin method were used on the Abbott ABA-100 chemistry analyzer to assay serum proteins in clinically normal cattle, sheep, ponies, pigs, and ducks. Total proteins were also read on a refractometer and mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoresis was performed. Globulins and A/G ratios were calculated from the chemical method and the results compared with the electrophoretic method. Total protein, albumin and A/G ratios in the ponies, sheep and older cattle were in agreement between the two methods. The younger cattle and all the pigs had higher albumin levels and A/G ratios with the chemical BCG method. Ducks had slightly higher albumin values and A/G ratios with the electrophoretic method and the presence of pre-albumin was detected. Typical mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoretic patterns are presented which show the excellent separation using these membranes. Means and range for normal animals are given and changes of proteins with age are discussed.

  17. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  18. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  19. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  20. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  1. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  2. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2012-03-10

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court.

  3. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  4. Is the use of the cervical vertebrae maturation method justified to determine skeletal age? A comparison of radiation dose of two strategies for skeletal age estimation.

    PubMed

    Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Peltomäki, Timo; Schätzle, Marc

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess effective doses of a lateral cephalogram radiograph with and without thyroid shield and compare the differences with the radiation dose of a hand-wrist radiograph. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed at 19 different sites in the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull (RANDO phantom). Analogue lateral cephalograms with and without thyroid shield (67 kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) and hand-wrist radiographs (40 kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) were obtained. The effective doses were calculated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. The effective dose for conventional lateral cephalogram without a thyroid shield was 5.03 microsieverts (µSv). By applying a thyroid shield to the RANDO phantom, a remarkable dose reduction of 1.73 µSv could be achieved. The effective dose of a conventional hand-wrist radiograph was calculated to be 0.16 µSv. Adding the effective dose of the hand-wrist radiograph to the effective dose of the lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield resulted in a cumulative effective dose of 3.46 µSv. Without thyroid shield, the effective dose of a lateral cephalogram was approximately 1.5-fold increased than the cumulative effective dose of a hand-wrist radiograph and a lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield. Thyroid is an organ that is very sensitive to radiation exposure. Its shielding will significantly reduce the effective dose. An additional hand-wrist radiograph, involving no vulnerable tissues, however, causes very little radiation risk. In accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, if an evaluation of skeletal age is indicated, an additional hand-wrist radiograph seems much more justifiable than removing the thyroid shield.

  5. Assessment of Preference and Its Determinant Factors to Ward Modern Contraceptive Methods among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Shire Indaselassie Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Tsehaye, Weyzer T; Mengistu, Daniel; Birhanu, Emebet; Berhe, Kalayou K

    2013-01-01

    Background. Women's preferences for various contraceptive methods attribute vary according to the type of relations and other aspects of their life. The discrepancy between fertility preferences and contraceptive practice is regarded as an indicator of unmet demand for family planning. Objective. To assess modern contraceptive methods preference and its determinant factors among women of reproductive age group in Shire Indaselassie town, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed on 367 sampled women. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. Then, data was collected using structured questionnaire. Result. In this study, the most commonly preferred modern contraceptive method was injectable contraceptive 202 (55%), the second 61 (16.6%) was oral contraceptives, and the third 47 (12.8%) was Norplant. Condom 31 (8.4%), IUD 14 (3.8%), female sterilization 7 (1.9%), and others were less commonly preferred methods. Some of the reasons for preference were effectiveness of the method, reversibility, fewer side effects, convenience, long duration of use, and no need to remember daily. Conclusion. This study clearly described that women preferences of modern contraceptive methods increased after they had higher number of children and less desire to limit family size.

  6. Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method for the determination of aging markers in tequila.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Ana Celia; Grenier, Adam Charles; Gutiérrez-Pulido, Humberto; Cervantes-Martínez, Jesús

    2008-12-12

    A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-vis photodiode array detection (DAD) is proposed to simultaneously determine 11 aging markers in tequila. The method showed good intraday (n=5) and interday (n=3) precision, RSD<1.6% in both cases, for each of the identified compounds. The calibration curves were linear at the tested ranges (R(2)>0.999). Good recoveries (84.2-108.5%) were obtained for 10 of the 11 compounds studied; and the LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.62 to 4.09 microg/mL and 1.9-12.4 microg/mL, respectively. The proposed methodology was applied to a set of 15 authentic tequila samples grouped by aging state (blanco, reposado and añejo). An ANOVA analysis combined with discriminant analysis with stepwise backward variable selection was used to differentiate between the various aging groups based on their oak related compounds content.

  7. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  8. The Determination of Predictive Construct of Physical Behavior Change on Osteoporosis Prevention Women Aged 30-50: A Trans-theoretical Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Farideh; Hidarnia, Alireza; Niknami, Shamseddin; Aminshokravi, Frakhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health priority in Iran and throughout the world. The prevention of osteoporosis has recently become the ultimate goal of many health professionals. Behavior change is one of the most powerful strategies to prevent osteoporosis. This study aimed to determine the predictive construct of physical preventive behavior of osteoporosis in women aged 30-50 in Khorramabad, west of Iran. This study included 269 women selected from all the health centers of Khorramabad city according to the inclusion criteria of the study and through random cluster and systematic sampling. The data gathering tools were valid and reliable questionnaires of demographic information, stages of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and physical activity. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean of the subjects’ age was 38.72±7.003, and the mean of light weekly physical activity was 38.83±56.400. The results showed that the construct of self-efficacy had the highest predictive power of the preventive behavior. The results also showed that self-efficacy among the constructs of the Trans-theoretical Model was the only predictive construct for osteoporosis prevention behavior. Therefore, the findings of this study can serve as a base for educational interventions in behavioral changes to prevent of osteoporosis by health authorities. PMID:26493413

  9. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  10. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  11. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  12. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  13. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  14. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  15. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  16. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  17. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  18. Method of determining glass durability

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne; Pickett, John Butler; Brown, Kevin George; Edwards, Thomas Barry

    1998-01-01

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  19. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), near infrared (1.51-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ˜0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  20. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOEpatents

    Maranas, Costas D.; Burgard, Anthony R.; Pharkya, Priti

    2011-09-27

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  1. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOEpatents

    Maranas, Costa D; Burgard, Anthony R; Pharkya, Priti

    2013-06-04

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  2. Method for determining astronomic azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alan G.; Stein, William L.

    1990-09-01

    An improved method is disclosed for fixing position of a land based target site with respect to a reference site in the natural coordinate frame comprising the steps of determining geodetic azimuth between the target site and the reference target using Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and relative positioning survey techniques; then calculating a relationship using gravity vertical deflections; and then converting the geodetic azimuth to astronomic azimuth. This method has several advantages over conventional methods of targeting, including speed, the ability to work in all weather conditions, and improved accuracy.

  3. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon A.; Girardi, Leo; APOGEE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local (d <400 pc) red giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the SDSS-III APOGEE spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the age distribution from the high-resolution spectroscopic stellar parameters and accurate distance measurements from Hipparcos. The high-resolution (R ~ 23,000), near infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of the stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 40 %. For red giants, the relatively rapid evolution of stars up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained based on the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the prior on the SFH, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of a model SFH from the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model shows a clear relation between age and [α/M] at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we construct a full age probability distribution function and determine ages for individual stars. The age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~ 0.5 dex spread in metallicity. For stars with ages > 1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. This method of estimating ages of red giants is developed with the intent of estimating ages for the much larger sample of APOGEE survey giants that will have parallax measurements from Gaia.

  4. 27 CFR 19.348 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... Spirits § 19.348 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot shall be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the lot. (Sec. 201, Pub. L....

  5. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  6. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  7. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  8. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  9. Age-dating of rockslides: Methods and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, M.; Sanders, D.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    Age-dating of deposits of catastrophic rockslides is prerequisite to unravel the potential relation between the frequency of mass-wasting events with climatic change or earthquakes. In the Alps, about 250 rockslides exceeding 106 m3 in volume are known, but the age as yet is determined only for a comparatively small number of events. For age determination of rockslide events, different methods are available (e. g. Lang et al., 1999). Radiocarbon Dating In the past few decades, rockslide deposits commonly were proxy-dated by 14C age determination of organic remnants preserved (a) in glacial, fluvio-glacial sediments overridden by the rockslide, (b) within the rockslide mass, or (c) in rockslide-dammed backwater deposits or lakes situated atop the rockslide mass. In each case, the 14C age provides a different constraint on the age of the rockslide event: in case (a), the 14C age represents a maximum age of the event; in case (b), which is quite rare, the 14C age is generally considered as a good proxy of the event age; in case (c) the 14C age represents a minimum age for the rockslide event. Unfortunately, radiocarbon dating often cannot be applied because of absence of suited deposits or exposures thereof, lack of organic remnants or of remnants suited for age-dating, and/or because determined 14C ages are substantially biased. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Proxy-dating of rockslide events by OSL can be applied to silt- to sand-sized quartzose sediments present (a) directly below, (b) within, or (c) above/laterally aside a rockslide mass. For each case (a) to (c), the determined ages are subject to the same constraints as outlined for radiocarbon dating. Unfortunately, situations allowing for application of OSL to rockslide event dating are comparatively rare, and the resulting ages tend to have a wide error range. Surface Exposure Dating with cosmogenic radionuclides Surface exposure ages can be determined for rock samples taken from the sliding planes at

  10. Theory and Methods of Research on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner, Ed.

    The document reports the proceedings of a conference on "Theory and Methods of Research on Aging" held under the auspices of the Division of Maturity and Old Age of the American Psychological Association, the Department of Psychology and the Human Resources Research Institute of West Virginia University, May 17-19, 1967. The summaries of four…

  11. DETERMINING AGES OF APOGEE GIANTS WITH KNOWN DISTANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Holtzman, Jon; Bovy, Jo; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-20

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ∼ 22,500), near infrared (1.51–1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass–age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age–[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age–metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ∼0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  12. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  13. Aging and endothelin: determinants of disease.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    Since the beginning of the 20th century human life expectancy has doubled to more than 80 years, and growth and aging of the world population now represent major challenges for healthcare providers, political decision makers, and societies. Cellular senescence is associated with a general, pro-inflammatory state, which represents the common denominator between aging and chronic diseases and their progression. Approaches to interfere with these changes and to allow healthy aging involve modulation of the cellular activity of modifiable molecular mediators (MMMs), such as signaling molecules and growth factors. ET-1 - the biologically predominant member of the endothelin peptide family - is an endothelial cell-derived peptide with a wide variety of developmental and physiological functions, which include embryogenesis, nociception, and natriuresis. In addition, ET-1 is a cytokine-like, multifunctional peptide with pro-inflammatory, mitogenic, and vasoconstrictor properties. If produced in excess amounts ET-1 promotes disease - mainly via activation of its ETA receptor. Because of its multiple disease-promoting functions ET-1 represents an ideal target MMM. Preclinical studies targeting either activity or production of ET-1 - utilizing ERAs, ARBs, or ACEIs, respectively - have demonstrated that partial regression of aging-associated changes in vasculature and kidney is possible. In this article I will review the molecular regulation of ET-1 and its role in the physiology of vascular homeostasis, aging, and cellular senescence. The clinical implications of activators of ET-1 overproduction, modalities for delaying or reversing aging-related cellular changes, as well as interventions to promote healthy aging and early disease prevention - particularly physical activity - are discussed.

  14. Determinants of muscle and bone aging

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, E; Litwic, A; Cooper, C; Dennison, E

    2015-01-01

    Loss of bone and muscle with advancing age represent a huge threat to loss of independence in later life. Osteoporosis represents a major public health problem through its association with fragility fractures, primarily of the hip, spine and distal forearm. Sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle mass and function, may add to fracture risk by increasing falls risk. In the context of muscle aging, it is important to remember that it is not just a decline in muscle mass which contributes to the deterioration of muscle function. Other factors underpinning muscle quality come into play, including muscle composition, aerobic capacity and metabolism, fatty infiltration, insulin resistance, fibrosis and neural activation. Genetic, developmental, endocrine and lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, smoking and poor diet have dual effects on both muscle and bone mass in later life and these will be reviewed here. These include poor nutrition, lack of physical activity and cigarette smoking, comorbidities or medication use. Recent work has highlighted a possible role for the early environment. Inflammaging is an exciting emerging research field that is likely to prove relevant to future work, including interventions designed to retard to reverse bone and muscle loss with age. PMID:25820482

  15. Foetal age determination and development in elephants

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Drews, Barbara; Gaeth, Ann P; Goeritz, Frank; Hermes, Robert; Schmitt, Dennis; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Streich, Wolf Juergen; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2006-01-01

    Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedures for elephants has now made it possible to monitor the growth and development of foetuses of known gestational age conceived in captivity from natural matings or artificial insemination. We have studied the early stages of pregnancy in 10 captive Asian and 9 African elephants by transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foetal crown–rump lengths have provided the first accurate growth curves, which differ significantly from the previous theoretical estimates based on the cube root of foetal mass. We have used these to age 22 African elephant foetuses collected during culling operations. Pregnancy can be first recognized ultrasonographically by day 50, the presumptive yolk sac by about day 75 and the zonary placenta by about day 85. The trunk is first recognizable by days 85–90 and is distinct by day 104, while the first heartbeats are evident from around day 80. By combining ultrasonography and morphology, we have been able to produce the first reliable criteria for estimating gestational age and ontological development of Asian and African elephant foetuses during the first third of gestation. PMID:17164195

  16. Cementum as an age determinant: A forensic view

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar; Keerthi, Muddana; Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Reddy, Dorankula Shyam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Context: Forensic age estimation (FAE) defines an expertise in forensic medicine, which aims to define in the most accurate way to determine the unknown chronological age of the person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. Dental cementum is a vital tissue which demonstrates continuous apposition throughout the life of the tooth. This appositional changes of cementum helps in approximation of age inforensic investigations. Aims: To correlate age by measuring the overlap or coronal migration of thecementum at thecementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the thickness of the cementum at the apical third of the root. Settings and Design: A hundred freshly extracted teethfrom patients ranging from ages 17-55were longitudinal buccolingually ground sectioned using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Materials and Methods: 100 freshly extracted teeth of age group ranging from 17-55 years were taken. These teeth were longitudinally ground sectioned to a thickness of 8-10μm using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Afterwards the teeth were examined under a light microscope using a micrometer eyepiece for measuring the overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of root. Statistical Analysis: Measurements of the overlap or the coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the root are correlated with age. Results: Results of the study indicated that the cementum at the CEJ migrated coronally during theaging process in case of the impacted teeth. There is also a significant increase in the thickness of the cementum at the apical onethird of rootin the case of both the impacted and erupted teeth. Conclusion: Approximation of age by measuring overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the rootsets new alleys in FAE. PMID:28123278

  17. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  18. Motives and methods of under-age casino gamblers.

    PubMed

    Giacopassi, David; Stitt, B Grant; Nichols, Mark

    2006-12-01

    Numerous studies have documented that under-age gambling is quite common. The present study employs interviews of 48 university students who gambled under-age to determine the motives and methods associated with casino gambling by minors. The information gathered in these interviews indicates that access to casinos is easily attained, that the risk of exposure once gambling is minimal, and the motivations of under-age gamblers differ in important ways from that of adults, as access to alcohol, accompanying parents, and the desire to experience the "forbidden fruit" of casino gambling are commonly mentioned motivations by under-age gamblers.

  19. A rapid method for determining arachidonic:eicosapentaenoic acid ratios in whole blood lipids: correlation with erythrocyte membrane ratios and validation in a large Italian population of various ages and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), are important for good health conditions. They are present in membrane phospholipids. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 LCPUFA and arachidonic acid:eicosapentaenoic acid (AA and EPA), should not exceed 5:1. Increased intake of n-6 and decreased consumption of n-3 has resulted in much higher, ca 10/15:1 ratio in RBC fatty acids with the possible appearance of a pathological "scenario". The determination of RBC phospholipid LCPUFA contents and ratios is the method of choice for assessing fatty acid status but it is labour intensive and time consuming. Aims of the study [i] To describe and validate a rapid method, suitable for large scale population studies, for total blood fatty acid assay; [ii] to verify a possible correlation between total n-6:n-3 ratio and AA:EPA ratios in RBC phospholipids and in whole-blood total lipids, [iii] to assess usefulness of these ratio as biomarkers of LCPUFA status. Methods [1] Healthy volunteers and patients with various pathologies were recruited. [2] Fatty acid analyses by GC of methyl esters from directly derivatized whole blood total lipids and from RBC phospholipids were performed on fasting blood samples from 1432 subjects categorised according to their age, sex and any existing pathologies. AA:EPA ratio and the total n-6:n-3 ratio were determined. Results AA:EPA ratio is a more sensitive and reliable index for determining changes in total blood fatty acid and it is correlated with the ratio derived from extracted RBC phospholipids. Conclusions The described AA:EPA ratio is a simple, rapid and reliable method for determining n-3 fatty acid status. PMID:20105293

  20. Lead-alpha age determinations of granitic rocks from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Jaffe, H.W.; Waring, C.L.

    1957-01-01

    Lead-alpha activity age determinations were made on zircon from seven granitic rocks of central and southeastern Alaska. The results of the age determinations indicate two periods of igneous intrusion, one about 95 million years ago, during the Cretaceous period, and another about 53 million years ago, during the early part of the Tertiary. The individual ages determined on zircon from 2 rocks from southeastern Alaska and 1 from east-central Alaska gave results of 90, 100, and 96 million years; those determined on 4 rocks from central Alaska gave results of 47, 56, 58, and 51 million years.

  1. Determination of gestational age by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Butt, Kimberly; Lim, Ken

    2014-02-01

    Objectif : Aider les cliniciens à attribuer un âge gestationnel en fonction des résultats de la biométrie échographique. Issues : Déterminer si la datation par échographie offre une évaluation plus précise de l’âge gestationnel que la datation en fonction des dernières règles avec ou sans recours à l’échographie. Offrir, aux praticiens et aux chercheurs du domaine des soins de maternité, des lignes directrices factuelles en matière d’attribution de l’âge gestationnel. Identifier les paramètres biométriques échographiques qui sont de fiabilité supérieure lorsque l’âge gestationnel est incertain. Déterminer la rentabilité de l’évaluation de l’âge gestationnel par échographie. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE et The Cochrane Library en 2013 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « gestational age », « ultrasound biometry » et « ultrasound dating »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles rédigés en anglais. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de dates. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’au 31 juillet 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé pr

  2. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    DOEpatents

    Bostick, William D.; Denton, Mark S.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.

    1982-01-01

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  3. Bioluminescence methods for enzymatic determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1982-11-02

    An enzymatic method for continuous, on-line and rapid detection of diagnostically useful biomarkers, which are symptomatic of disease or trauma-related tissue damage, is disclosed. The method is characterized by operability on authentic samples of complex biological fluids which contain the biomarkers.

  4. Age determination from central incisors of fetuses and infants.

    PubMed

    Aka, P Sema; Canturk, Nergis; Dagalp, Rukiye; Yagan, Murat

    2009-01-30

    Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of this study is to determine the age of deceased fetuses and infants by examining metric tooth development of central incisors in deceased fetuses and infants. Five dimensions of 76 maxillary and mandibular central incisors were measured: mesio-distal (MD), bucco-lingual (BL), crown height (CH), crown thickness (CT), and root height (RH). The results showed that 44.45+/-0-2 weeks is a sectional time for age calculations, which corresponds to 40 weeks from conception plus 4 to 5 weeks after birth. Four ATA entitled age formulas are derived to give the relation of age with tooth dimensions before and after 44.45 weeks [ATA is the special name given to the honor of the great Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)]. Age estimation can be calculated from these formulas with an accuracy of the age +/-0-2 weeks. Also, calcification time can be determined from ATA formulas. In conclusion, the age of fetuses and infants can be assessed by the measurements of a single central incisor. According to this research, when estimating age during identification studies, forensic researchers must take into consideration the period of embryonic human growth and development.

  5. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  6. Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Berkouk, K; Gergen, P; Antunes, J Pinto; Augé, P; Camuzat, T; Bringer, J; Mercier, J; Best, N; Bourret, R; Akdis, M; Arshad, S H; Bedbrook, A; Berr, C; Bush, A; Cavalli, G; Charles, M A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Gillman, M; Gold, D R; Goldberg, M; Holloway, J W; Iozzo, P; Jacquemin, S; Jeandel, C; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Koppelman, G H; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kuh, D; Lehmann, S; Carlsen, K C Lodrup; Maier, D; Méchali, M; Melén, E; Moatti, J P; Momas, I; Nérin, P; Postma, D S; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Samolinski, B; Siroux, V; Slagboom, P E; Smit, H A; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Van de Perre, P; Verdier, J M; Vrijheid, M; Wickman, M; Yiallouros, P; Zins, M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal and peri-natal events play a fundamental role in health, development of diseases and ageing (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)). Research on the determinants of active and healthy ageing is a priority to: (i) inform strategies for reducing societal and individual costs of an ageing population and (ii) develop effective novel prevention strategies. It is important to compare the trajectories of respiratory diseases with those of other chronic diseases.

  7. Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1974-01-01

    Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages are presented in the form of computer printouts. Decay constants, analytical expressions for the functions evaluated, and the precision of the calculations are briefly discussed.

  8. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  9. Age at first marriage in Nepal: differentials and determinants.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Tika Ram

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the differentials and determinants of female age at first marriage in rural Nepal. The life table technique was employed to calculate median age at marriage. The proportional hazard model was used to study the effect of various socioeconomic variables, and to identify the magnitude and significance of their effects on the timing of first marriage. The data were taken from a sample survey of Palpa and Rupandehi districts in rural Nepal. Both married and unmarried females of marriageable age were included in the survey. Median age at marriage was about 17 years for data from only married females, whereas it was about 18 years for data from married as well as unmarried females of marriageable age. Median age at marriage was about 16 years for uneducated females and 19 years for females educated up to intermediate or higher level. The analysis underestimates the median age at marriage for married females, probably due to right censoring. The risk of getting married early decreased gradually with increasing year-of-birth cohort. The risk of early marriage was higher among females of high socioeconomic status compared with those of low socioeconomic status. Females engaged in service married earlier than those engaged in household work. High socioeconomic status families are motivated, for religious and prestige reasons, to get their daughters married at an early age, preferably before menarche. Thus, education, occupation and age at menarche are the most powerful factors in deciding the timing of first marriage in Nepal.

  10. Development of Methods for Determination of Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lijuan; Chen, Min; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-09

    Aflatoxins can cause damage to the health of humans and animals. Several institutions around the world have established regulations to limit the levels of aflatoxins in food, and numerous analytical methods have been extensively developed for aflatoxin determination. This review covers the currently used analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in different food matrices, which includes sampling and sample preparation, sample pretreatment methods including extraction methods and purification methods of aflatoxin extracts, separation and determination methods. Validation for analysis of aflatoxins and safety considerations and precautions when doing the experiments are also discussed.

  11. Age at first marriage in Viet Nam: patterns and determinants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H M

    1997-06-01

    "Using data from the 1991 Viet Nam Life History Survey, this article examines the patterns and determinants of age at first marriage. It shows that socio-economic and political changes during the last few decades are associated with a shift to older ages of first marriage. It identifies regional variations and discusses the significant impact of warfare on the country's age patterns of marriage. It concludes by bringing out the implications of the study for policy purposes." The full text is of this article is available electronically through www.undp.org/popin.

  12. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar.

  13. Methods for threshold determination in multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2014-06-24

    Methods for determination of threshold values of signatures comprised in an assay are described. Each signature enables detection of a target. The methods determine a probability density function of negative samples and a corresponding false positive rate curve. A false positive criterion is established and a threshold for that signature is determined as a point at which the false positive rate curve intersects the false positive criterion. A method for quantitative analysis and interpretation of assay results together with a method for determination of a desired limit of detection of a signature in an assay are also described.

  14. Dithizone method for determination of lead in monazite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, R.A.; Kinser, C.A.

    1958-01-01

    In the determination of lead in monazite-to be used as the basis for geologic age measurements-it was necessary to eliminate interferences due to the presence of phosphates of thorium and the rare earth metals. The method involves attacking the monazite samples with hot, concentrated sulfuric acid, then taking them up with dilute nitric acid. Lead is extracted as the dithizonate and determined spectrophotometrically at 520 m??. Rapid determinations were made with good reproducibility on a series of monazite samples.

  15. Simple colorimetric method determines uranium in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, D.; Frigerio, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Simple colorimetric micromethod determines concentrations of uranium in tissue. The method involves dry ashing organic extraction, and colorimetric determination of uranyl ferrocyanide. This uranium determination technique could be used in agricultural research, tracer studies, testing of food products, or medical research.

  16. Age determination of asylum seekers and alleged people smugglers.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard; Ranson, David

    2012-12-01

    This column discusses the issues encountered when courts attempt to determine if an individual who has no reliable age at birth documentation has reached adulthood, or is still a legal minor. This issue has recently received a high level of public interest due to the wrongful imprisonment in Australian adult prisons of Indonesian minors accused of people smuggling following the determination, subsequently shown to be incorrect, that they were adults. The discussion explains current deficits existing in the science of age estimation with reference to the recent Australia Human Rights Commission "Inquiry into the Treatment of Individuals Suspected of People Smuggling Who Say That They are Children". Future research possibilities in the science of age estimation which may help to resolve many of the issues are explored.

  17. Impact of asteroseismology on improving stellar ages determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High precision photometry as performed by the CoRoT and Kepler satellites on-board instruments has allowed to detect stellar oscillations over the whole HR diagram. Oscillation frequencies are closely related to stellar interior properties via the density and sound speed profiles, themselves tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state of stars. Seismic diagnostics performed on stellar internal structure models allow to infer the age and mass of oscillating stars. The accuracy and precision of the age determination depend both on the goodness of the observational parameters (seismic and classical) and on our ability to model a given star properly. They therefore suffer from any misunderstanding of the physical processes at work inside stars (as microscopic physics, transport processes...). In this paper, we recall some seismic diagnostics of stellar age and we illustrate their efficiency in age-dating the CoRoT target HD 52265.

  18. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  19. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM), and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting), and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups. PMID:25050345

  20. Selectivity of catalytic methods of determination.

    PubMed

    Otto, M; Mueller, H; Werner, G

    1978-03-01

    By means of catalytic analytical methods, extremely low levels can be determined at low cost and with a high sensitivity that is equal to that of physical methods of trace analysis. The selectivity of the catalytic determinations, is, however, usually rather lower than that of other methods of trace analysis. The selectivity can sometimes be improved by modification of the indicator reaction through variation of the reagents and their concentrations, or by use of masking reagents or activators, or by combination with a separation method. Modification of the indicator reaction can be exemplified by the selective determination of osmium and ruthenium by their catalysis of the nitrate oxidation of 1-naphthylamine. By variation of the nitrate concentration and the use of 1,10-phenanthroline and 8-hydroxyquinoline as complexing agents it is possible to determine these two elements simultaneously. An especially significant increase in the selectivity is made possible by use of a preliminary separation step. If the ion to be determined is separated by solvent extraction and then catalytically determined directly in the extract, a very specific determination is possible; this technique has been called "extractive catalytic determination". This method has been used for determination of molybdenum (0.5 ng/ml) in sea-water, iron (5 ng/ml) in heavy metal salts, and copper (3 ng/ml) in the presence of numerous elements.

  1. The Ages of 55 Globular Clusters as Determined Using an Improved \\Delta V^HB_TO Method along with Color-Magnitude Diagram Constraints, and Their Implications for Broader Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R.; Casagrande, L.

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the "fitting" of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ~ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] <~ - 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] >~ -1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ~ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R G) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and M13, subtle variations have

  2. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  3. METHOD 544. DETERMINATION OF MICROCYSTINS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensitivity and ability to speciate the microcystins. This method development task establishes sample preservation techniques, sample concentration and analytical procedures, aqueous and extract holding time criteria and quality control procedures. Draft Method 544 undergone a multi-laboratory verification to ensure other laboratories can implement the method and achieve the quality control measures specified in the method. It is anticipated that Method 544 may be used in UCMR 4 to collect nationwide occurrence data for selected microcystins in drinking water. The purpose of this research project is to develop an accurate and precise analytical method to concentrate and determine selected MCs and nodularin in drinking water.

  4. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution.

  5. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2016-05-18

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  6. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K.; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Roks, Anton J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  7. Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (≤46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (≤25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity. PMID:24478643

  8. Towards global age-friendly cities: determining urban features that promote active aging.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Louise; Kalache, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    At the same time as cities are growing, their share of older residents is increasing. To engage and assist cities to become more "age-friendly," the World Health Organization (WHO) prepared the Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and a companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities". In collaboration with partners in 35 cities from developed and developing countries, WHO determined the features of age-friendly cities in eight domains of urban life: outdoor spaces and buildings; transportation; housing; social participation; respect and social inclusion; civic participation and employment; communication and information; and community support and health services. In 33 cities, partners conducted 158 focus groups with persons aged 60 years and older from lower- and middle-income areas of a locally defined geographic area (n = 1,485). Additional focus groups were held in most sites with caregivers of older persons (n = 250 caregivers) and with service providers from the public, voluntary, and commercial sectors (n = 515). No systematic differences in focus group themes were noted between cities in developed and developing countries, although the positive, age-friendly features were more numerous in cities in developed countries. Physical accessibility, service proximity, security, affordability, and inclusiveness were important characteristics everywhere. Based on the recurring issues, a set of core features of an age-friendly city was identified. The Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities" released by WHO serve as reference for other communities to assess their age readiness and plan change.

  9. Application of age estimation methods based on teeth eruption: how easy is Olze method to use?

    PubMed

    De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Merelli, V; Botto, M; Ventura, F; Cattaneo, C

    2014-09-01

    The development of new methods for age estimation has become with time an urgent issue because of the increasing immigration, in order to estimate accurately the age of those subjects who lack valid identity documents. Methods of age estimation are divided in skeletal and dental ones, and among the latter, Olze's method is one of the most recent, since it was introduced in 2010 with the aim to identify the legal age of 18 and 21 years by evaluating the different stages of development of the periodontal ligament of the third molars with closed root apices. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of the method to the daily forensic practice, with special focus on the interobserver repeatability. Olze's method was applied by three different observers (two physicians and one dentist without a specific training in Olze's method) to 61 orthopantomograms from subjects of mixed ethnicity aged between 16 and 51 years. The analysis took into consideration the lower third molars. The results provided by the different observers were then compared in order to verify the interobserver error. Results showed that interobserver error varies between 43 and 57 % for the right lower third molar (M48) and between 23 and 49 % for the left lower third molar (M38). Chi-square test did not show significant differences according to the side of teeth and type of professional figure. The results prove that Olze's method is not easy to apply when used by not adequately trained personnel, because of an intrinsic interobserver error. Since it is however a crucial method in age determination, it should be used only by experienced observers after an intensive and specific training.

  10. [Comparison of two cholesterol determination methods in children (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Menzinger, P; Sitzmann, F C

    1979-01-01

    In 792 children aged 1 day-16 years cholesterol in serum was determined by two different methods: the well-known Liebermann-Burchard-reaction and the new enzymatical colorimetric test (Boehringer). The later procedure is simple and reliable. The cholesterol values got by this method amounted to 20 mg/dl lower. But it is not allowed to use a conversion-factor. The values in newborns and infants were significantly lower than these found in school childrens and adults.

  11. Metabolic reserve as a determinant of cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represent points on a continuum of cognitive performance in aged populations. Cognition may be impaired or preserved in the context of brain aging. One theory to account for memory maintenance in the context of extensive pathology involves ‘cognitive reserve,’ or the ability to compensate for neuropathology through greater recruitment of remaining neurons. In this review, we propose a complementary hypothesis of ‘metabolic reserve’, where a brain with high metabolic reserve is characterized by the presence of neuronal circuits that respond adaptively to perturbations in cellular and somatic energy metabolism and thereby protects against declining cognition. Lifestyle determinants of metabolic reserve, such as exercise, reduced caloric intake, and intake of specific dietary components can promote neuroprotection, while pathological states arising from sedentary lifestyles and excessive caloric intake contribute to neuronal endangerment. This bidirectional relationship between metabolism and cognition may be mediated by alterations in central insulin and neurotrophic factor signaling and glucose metabolism, with downstream consequences for accumulation of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylated tau. The metabolic reserve hypothesis is supported by epidemiological findings, and the spectrum of individual cognitive trajectories during aging, with additional data from animal models identifying potential mechanisms for this relationship. Identification of biomarkers for metabolic reserve could assist in generating a predictive model for the likelihood of cognitive decline with aging. PMID:22045480

  12. Substrates and method for determining enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.E.; Bissell, E.R.

    1981-10-13

    A method is disclosed for determining the presence of an enzyme in a biological fluid, which includes the steps of contacting the fluid with a synthetic chromogenic substrate, which is an amino acid derivative of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin; incubating the substrate-containing fluid to effect enzymatic hydrolysis; and fluorometrically determining the presence of the free 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin chromophore in the hydrolyzate. No Drawings

  13. Substrates and method for determining enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E.; Bissell, Eugene R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the presence of an enzyme in a biological fluid, which includes the steps of contacting the fluid with a synthetic chromogenic substrate, which is an amino acid derivative of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin; incubating the substrate-containing fluid to effect enzymatic hydrolysis; and fluorometrically determining the presence of the free 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin chromophore in the hydrolyzate.

  14. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  15. Method of fan sound mode structure determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, G. F.; Sofrin, T. G.; Wells, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the determination of fan sound mode structure in the Inlet of turbofan engines using in-duct acoustic pressure measurements is presented. The method is based on the simultaneous solution of a set of equations whose unknowns are modal amplitude and phase. A computer program for the solution of the equation set was developed. An additional computer program was developed which calculates microphone locations the use of which results in an equation set that does not give rise to numerical instabilities. In addition to the development of a method for determination of coherent modal structure, experimental and analytical approaches are developed for the determination of the amplitude frequency spectrum of randomly generated sound models for use in narrow annulus ducts. Two approaches are defined: one based on the use of cross-spectral techniques and the other based on the use of an array of microphones.

  16. Electrical methods of determining soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, L. F.; Schultz, F. V.; Zalusky, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical permittivity of soils is a useful indicator of soil moisture content. Two methods of determining the permittivity profile in soils are examined. A method due to Becher is found to be inapplicable to this situation. A method of Slichter, however, appears to be feasible. The results of Slichter's method are extended to the proposal of an instrument design that could measure available soil moisture profile (percent available soil moisture as a function of depth) from a surface measurement to an expected resolution of 10 to 20 cm.

  17. New method for determination of critical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruge, C.; Dunkelmann, S.; Wagner, F.

    1992-10-01

    Our method uses topological properties of the large clusters in the single-cluster algorithm of Wolff for Monte Carlo simulations of spin systems. We have applied this method to the d=3 Ising model with film geometry near the special transition. As a test for the method we determined the bulk critical temperature and the critical indices in fair agreement with the results obtained by other methods. The new results refer to the critical surface coupling J1c/J=1.5004(20) and the surface exponents, where φ=0.461(15) and βmi=0.237(5).

  18. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods included…

  19. A new method of carboxyhaemoglobin determination.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J H; Sotheran, M F; Stattersfield, J P

    1978-02-01

    A quick and accurate method of determining the concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in blood has been developed. The method uses a dual wavelength double beam spectrophotometer in the 1st derivative mode, linked to a digital voltmeter (DVM), with the two beams set 3 nm apart around an isobestic point of reduced haemoglobin (Hbred) and carboxyhaemoglobin at 579 nm. The 1st derivative mode measures the slope, and this slope is proportional to the concentration of COHb.

  20. A dithizone method for the determination of lead in monazite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, R.A.; Kinser, C.A.

    1956-01-01

    In determining lead in monazite [(Ce,La,Th)PO4]--to be used as the basis for geologic age measurements--it was necessary to eliminate interferences due to the presences of phosphates of thorium and the rare-earth metals. The method, in which monazite samples are attacked with hot concentrated sulfuric acid, taken up with dilute nitric acid, lead extracted as the dithizonate and then determined spectrophotometrically at 520 mμ, was successfully applied to a series of monazite samples. Rapid determinations were made with good reproducibility.

  1. A calorimetric method to determine water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg-1 to 3 mol kg-1 and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO3, and K2SO4) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities.

  2. A method of determination of permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, S.V.; Trofimov, V.A.

    2007-11-15

    A method is proposed for determining permeability of coals under conditions of steady-state deformation and stationary filtration mode by employing a reference core made of gas-non-sorbing material with a known permeability. The approach has been developed to assess the time of transition to the stable filtration.

  3. Method of determining nanoparticle core weight.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Fred; O'loughlin, Terry; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee

    2005-02-01

    Polymer-coated metal or metal oxide nanoparticles have a variety of uses in industry, biological research, and medicine. Characterization of nanoparticles often includes determination of the dimensions of the electron-dense core by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the weight of the core determined from core volume and core density. However, TEM is labor intensive, has a long turnaround time, and uses equipment that is sometimes not readily available. Here we present an alternative method for determining the weight of nanoparticle cores termed the viscosity/light scattering method, which uses (i) measurements of viscosity over a wide concentration range to obtain the partial specific volume, (ii) measurements of particle diameter by light scattering, to obtain the volume of an individual particle, and (iii) the concentration of nanoparticles (w/v). We have applied this method to determine the weights of nanoparticle cores (iron of amino-CLIO and ferritin), the weights of globular proteins (molecular weight of IgG and albumin), and the weight of polystyrene microspheres. The viscosity/light scattering method is nondestructive of the sample and can be performed with a variety of materials on a routine basis.

  4. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  5. Physiological age of ixodid ticks: aspects of its determination and application.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, I

    1995-11-01

    physiological age of mosquitoes and other bloodsucking dipterans. Balashov's histological method of tick age determination successfully used by many authors, remains the most appropriate, until now. However, there is ample room for further advancement of methodologies of tick age assessment. The future methods should be based on the quantitative estimation of a number of characters (test-battery) related to different organs or systems.

  6. An Observational Assessment Method for Aging Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela M; Jarema, Kimberly A; Kurtz, David M; MacPhail, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age. PMID:21205442

  7. An Improved Method for Determining Barometric Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahi, K. A.; Halihan, T.

    2008-12-01

    The barometric efficiency (BE) is the ratio of water-level changes in a well to the changes in barometric pressure that produces them. An estimate of barometric efficiency is needed to remove the atmospheric pressure effects on groundwater fluctuation to be able to analyze the influence of other stresses such as earth tides or groundwater pumping tests. The BE is currently determined by the Clark method. This research examines the Clark method as applied to water level fluctuations of several wells in the Arbuckle- Simpson aquifer located in south-central Oklahoma. The study was consistent with previous researchers findings in that the Clark method is inconsistent in the values that it produces and may overestimate the BE . In at least two instances, the Clark method produced physically unrealistic BE values greater than 100 percent. An improved method to determine the BE is presented which overcomes the deficiencies in the Clark method. The new model is tested using water level fluctuation data in two wells collected over a one year period to evaluate the consistency of the new method in a single well. Additional data was evaluated from three other wells to evaluate consistency across the aquifer. The new model demonstrates a consistent, realistic set of values that did not produce BE values exceeding 100 percent.

  8. The simplex method for nonlinear mass determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L.

    1988-03-01

    The Gauss-Newton method, and calculating a mass that minimizes the variation of residuals are standard techniques for determining planetary masses, but both may fail under certain circums tances. The Gauss-Newton method, in particular, may diverge, and when it converges may converge to a local, rather than global, minimum of the nonlinear regression problem. The simplex method of nonlinear optimization needs no initial estimate for the solution and can be made to converge to a global minimum. It may also be used with non-least squares criteria, such as the L1 criterion, for greater robustness. But the simplex method achieves these advantages at a high computational price. To test the method as a tool for dynamical astronomy, over 12,000 observations of Neptune were used to calculate Pluto's mass. From an initial estimate of 1/1, 812,000 the Gauss-Newton method diverged. The simplex method converged to a more satisfactory 1/22,000,000 with a range of 1/47,000,000 to 1/14,000,000 as indicated by the mean error. Because the simplex method is considerably slower than competing methods, it should be reserved for refractory problems that do not yield facil solutions when tackled by other methods.

  9. Methods for determining time of death.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard

    2016-12-01

    Medicolegal death time estimation must estimate the time since death reliably. Reliability can only be provided empirically by statistical analysis of errors in field studies. Determining the time since death requires the calculation of measurable data along a time-dependent curve back to the starting point. Various methods are used to estimate the time since death. The current gold standard for death time estimation is a previously established nomogram method based on the two-exponential model of body cooling. Great experimental and practical achievements have been realized using this nomogram method. To reduce the margin of error of the nomogram method, a compound method was developed based on electrical and mechanical excitability of skeletal muscle, pharmacological excitability of the iris, rigor mortis, and postmortem lividity. Further increasing the accuracy of death time estimation involves the development of conditional probability distributions for death time estimation based on the compound method. Although many studies have evaluated chemical methods of death time estimation, such methods play a marginal role in daily forensic practice. However, increased precision of death time estimation has recently been achieved by considering various influencing factors (i.e., preexisting diseases, duration of terminal episode, and ambient temperature). Putrefactive changes may be used for death time estimation in water-immersed bodies. Furthermore, recently developed technologies, such as H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, can be used to quantitatively study decompositional changes. This review addresses the gold standard method of death time estimation in forensic practice and promising technological and scientific developments in the field.

  10. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  11. Auricular surface aging: a blind test of the revised method on historic Italians from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Hens, Samantha M; Belcastro, M Giovanna

    2012-01-10

    Age determination from human skeletal remains is an important biological parameter in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface age estimation method proposed by Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 321-329) on a large sample (n=404) of known sex and age from the Sassari collection, housed at the Museum of Anthropology, University of Bologna, Italy. Ilia were scored for five features: transverse organization, surface texture, microporosity, macroporosity, and apical changes, which combined for a composite score. The results indicated that all features and the composite score were positively correlated with known age. Composite scores were significantly different between the sexes, suggesting that males and females should be treated separately. Bias and inaccuracy varied across age intervals. Age tended to be overestimated in individuals under age 59 and underestimated for those over age 60 years. However, the revised method showed improvement over the original auricular surface method (Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15-28), especially for aging older individuals. Considerable variation exists in the age ranges derived from composite scores and few significant differences were found between age stages, suggesting that fewer stages with wider age ranges may be necessary. The independent, quantitative scoring of the surface features makes the revised method substantially easier to apply and the method shows significant improvement for aging older individuals.

  12. Methods of determining permeability, transmissibility and drawdown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentall, Ray

    1964-01-01

    If the Theis graphical method is used for determining the hydraulic constants of an aquifer under water-table conditions, the observed drawdowns should be corrected for the decrease in saturated thickness. This is especially true if the drawdown is a large fraction of the original saturated thickness, for then the computed coefficient of permeability is highly inaccurate if based on observed, rather than corrected, water levels. Wenzel's limiting formula, a modification of the Theis graphical method, is useful where u=r2s/4Tt is less than about 0.01. However, a shorter procedure for determination of the coefficient of transmissibility, as well as the coefficient of storage, consists of plotting the values of the corrected drawdowns against the values of the logarithm of r. Wenzel (1942) suggested that observation wells be situated on lines that extend upgradient and downgradient from the pumped well. However, a detailed analysis of aquifer-test results indicates that such a restriction is unnecessary. The gradient method for determining permeability should yield the same results as the Thies method. The former, when applied for a distance within the range of applicability of the latter, is merely a duplication of effort or, at best, a crude check. Because of the limitations of accuracy in plotting, the gradient method is much less satisfactory. That Wenzel (1942) obtained identical results from the two methods is regarded as a coincidence. Failure to take into consideration the fact that the pumped well does not tap the full thickness of the aquifer leads to an apparent coefficient of permeability that is much too low, especially if the aquifer consists of stratified sediments. The average coefficient of permeability computed from uncorrected drawdowns may be only a little more than half of the true value.

  13. Precision of two methods for estimating age from burbot otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, W.H.; Stapanian, M.A.; Stoneman, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Lower reproductive success and older age structure are associated with many burbot (Lota lota L.) populations that are declining or of conservation concern. Therefore, reliable methods for estimating the age of burbot are critical for effective assessment and management. In Lake Erie, burbot populations have declined in recent years due to the combined effects of an aging population (&xmacr; = 10 years in 2007) and extremely low recruitment since 2002. We examined otoliths from burbot (N = 91) collected in Lake Erie in 2007 and compared the estimates of burbot age by two agers, each using two established methods (cracked-and-burned and thin-section) of estimating ages from burbot otoliths. One ager was experienced at estimating age from otoliths, the other was a novice. Agreement (precision) between the two agers was higher for the thin-section method, particularly at ages 6–11 years, based on linear regression analyses and 95% confidence intervals. As expected, precision between the two methods was higher for the more experienced ager. Both agers reported that the thin sections offered clearer views of the annuli, particularly near the margins on otoliths from burbot ages ≥8. Slides for the thin sections required some costly equipment and more than 2 days to prepare. In contrast, preparing the cracked-and-burned samples was comparatively inexpensive and quick. We suggest use of the thin-section method for estimating the age structure of older burbot populations.

  14. A method to determine asteroid poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deangelis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of spin axis and shape is well known to be of fundamental importance for studies about the rotational and physical properties of asteroids. In particular, knowledge that the pole coordinate distribution is random or not could indicate the probable non-Maxwellian distribution of asteroid spin axes, while the distribution in terms of size and shape could place important constraints on the theories about the collisional history of some individual asteroids, of asteroid families, and of the asteroid population as a whole. Many kinds of methods have been developed to determine pole coordinates. An EA method is presented, from which it is possible to obtain the solution with no trial poles, but with a simultaneous least square fit on both the E and A part. Results for rotational and shape parameters were obtained for 18 asteroids: the values of the obtained parameters are generally in close agreement with those of others.

  15. A general method to determine twinning elements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779

  16. Spectrochemical method for the determination of selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waring, C.L.; Worthing, H.W.; Hazel, K.V.

    1958-01-01

    Selenium can be determined in pyrite, chalcocite, and marcasite by a simple and rapid spectrochemical method that requires no complicated arrangement of spectrographic equipment or chemical pretreatment of samples. Advantage is taken of the new short wave length radiation plates (Eastman) and the addition of copper oxide to enhance the selenium lines 2039.85 and 2062.78 A. The possibility exists of determining many other elements on the same exposure of the sample. The method is applicable in the range of 0.0015 to 2% selenium. Tests indicate an average difference from the chemical results of 0.07% in the few per cent range, 0.03% in the 0.1 to 1.0% range, 0.005% in the 0.01 to 0.1% range, and 0.00075% in the 0.001 to 0.01% range. The relative accuracy over the entire range is to about 7% of the concentration.

  17. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1982-05-28

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  18. Method and apparatus for determining tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Ratigan, Joe L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the statistical distribution of apparent tensile strength of rock, the size effect with respect to tensile strength, as well as apparent deformation modulus of both intact and fractured or jointed rock. The method is carried out by inserting a plug of deformable material, such as rubber, in an opening of a specimen to be tested. The deformable material is loaded by an upper and lower platen until the specimen ruptures, whereafter the tensile strength is calculated based on the parameters of the test specimen and apparatus.

  19. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  20. Age and sex determination of the Maui Parrotbill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Kim E.; Simon, John C.; Pratt, Thane K.; Baker, Paul E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    2001-01-01

    We determined the best plumage and morphometric variables for ageing and sexing the Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on east Maui, Hawaii, by examining and measuring 30 museum specimens and 71 live birds captured in mist nets. Juvenal plumage was identified by the presence of pale-tipped wing bars on the middle and greater coverts, grayish olive dorsal plumage, and dingy white underparts and superciliaries. Birds undergoing first prebasic molt retained the juvenal remiges, rectrices, and wing coverts. Birds in first basic plumage possessed juvenal wing bars and a dull juvenal-like plumage. Subsequent molts were complete, and adults lacked wing bars. Adult males had bright yellow plumage on the cheeks, throat, and superciliaries, as did 27% of adult females. All other adult females had less yellow in the underparts. The dorsal plumage of adult females was more variable than adult males and was either yellow-olive like the males or grayish olive. Adult males had longer wing, bill, tail, and tarsometatarsus and greater mass than adult females. Virtually all males and females could be distinguished by wing length. Morphometrics of immature birds were significantly smaller than for adult males. Only immature male wing chord was significantly larger than that of adult females. Although it was difficult to distinguish between immatures and some adult females based on plumage coloration or measurements, a cut-off point of 70.4 mm for wing chord separated 91% of females from 93% of males, regardless of age.

  1. Determination of age at death using combined morphology and histology of the femur

    PubMed Central

    THOMAS, C. D. L.; STEIN, M. S.; FEIK, S. A.; WARK, J. D.; CLEMENT, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is characterised by age-related morphological and histological changes. We have previously established an automated method of recording bone morphometry and histology from entire transverse sections of cortical bone. Our aim was to determine whether data acquired using this automated system were useful in the prediction of age. Ninety-six specimens of human femoral middiaphysis were studied from subjects aged 21–92 y. Equations predicting specimen age were constructed using macroscopic data (total subperiosteal area (TSPA), periosteal perimeter (PP), endosteal perimeter (EP), cortical bone area (CA) and moments of area) and microscopic data (the number, size and diversity of pores and intracortical porosity) together with sex, height and weight. Both TSPA and PP were independent predictors of age but the number of pores was not a significant predictor of age in any equation. The age predicted by these equations was inaccurate by more than 8 y in over half the subjects. We conclude that we could not predict age at a clinically acceptable level using data from our automated system. This most likely reflects an insensitivity to regional age-related changes in bone histology because we recorded data from each entire cortex. Automated bone measurement according to cortical region might be more useful in the prediction of age. The inclusion of TSPA together with PP as independent predictors of age raises the possibility that a future measure of periosteal shape at the femoral diaphysis could also be helpful in the prediction of age. The accuracy reached with the relatively simple methods described here is sufficient to encourage the development of image-analysis systems for the automatic detection of more complex features. PMID:10853968

  2. Method of determining drilling fluid invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-10

    A method of determining the invasion of drilling fluid into a core sample taken from a borehole. A first material is added to the drilling fluid to obtain a first fluid that has an effective atomic number that is different than the effective atomic number of the connate fluids in the rock formation surrounding the borehole. A preserved core sample is collected from the borehole for scanning by a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a cross section of the core sample. The preserved core sample is scanned with a CAT at first and second energies, and the determined attenuation coefficients for the plurality of points in the cross section at each energy are used to determine an atomic number image for the cross section of the core sample. The depth of invasion of the first fluid is then determined from the atomic number image, as an indication of the depth of invasion of the drilling fluid into the core sample.

  3. [Determination of writing age of blue ballpoint pen inks by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Fan; Li, Xin-Qian; Xu, Ying-Jian; Wang, Jing-Han; Wang, Yan-Ji

    2006-09-01

    As it is a frequently encountered problem in the laboratory of forensic science nowadays to distinguish whether the questioned documents, such as deeds, contracts, and receipts, written in ballpoint pen inks are true or not, and identify the writing age of them, it is very essential to establish a simple, sensitive and accurate method to examine the similarities and differences of the ballpoint pen inks and identify the writing age. The present paper introduces a technique that allows identifying the kind and the writing age of the blue ballpoint pen inks. The technique is based on using a high performance liquid chromatographic method for distinguishing the similarities and differences in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks and determining changes in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks developed with age, and these changes can be evaluated by the ratio of peak areas.

  4. [Evaluation of cervical vertebrae for determination of skeletal age].

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, M; Leonardi, R; Zaborra, G

    1990-01-01

    The relationship among cervical vertebral maturation and skeletal, dental and chronological ages were assessed by the Authors in lateral cephalometric, hand and orthopantomographic x-rays on 72 italian young subjects from 10 to 15 years of age. Statistically significant correlations were found between cervical vertebral maturation and skeletal age both in males and females, while vertebrae age was correlated with dental and chronological ages only in the females.

  5. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  6. Age determination of ballpoint pen ink by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bügler, Jürgen H; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

    2008-07-01

    Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages. As a consequence, this relative amount of solvent released at a certain low temperature, and its decrease with time, can be used to estimate ink age. This age-dependent parameter was studied in 85 different inks ranging in age from 1 week to 1.5 years. It was found that some inks showed a significant decrease of this parameter up to an age of several months, and that the aging process can be monitored within this period. For other inks, however, the age-dependent parameter decreases relatively fast, e.g., within a few days, to a constant level, which can be too fast for casework. Based on these results, a general procedure for assessing the age of ballpoint pen inks on paper was developed.

  7. Alternative methods to determine headwater benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.S.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.

    1997-11-10

    In 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began using a Flow Duration Analysis (FDA) methodology to assess headwater benefits in river basins where use of the Headwater Benefits Energy Gains (HWBEG) model may not result in significant improvements in modeling accuracy. The purpose of this study is to validate the accuracy and appropriateness of the FDA method for determining energy gains in less complex basins. This report presents the results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) validation of the FDA method. The validation is based on a comparison of energy gains using the FDA method with energy gains calculated using the MWBEG model. Comparisons of energy gains are made on a daily and monthly basis for a complex river basin (the Alabama River Basin) and a basin that is considered relatively simple hydrologically (the Stanislaus River Basin). In addition to validating the FDA method, ORNL was asked to suggest refinements and improvements to the FDA method. Refinements and improvements to the FDA method were carried out using the James River Basin as a test case.

  8. Improved methods for fan sound field determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicon, D. E.; Sofrin, T. G.; Mathews, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Several methods for determining acoustic mode structure in aircraft turbofan engines using wall microphone data were studied. A method for reducing data was devised and implemented which makes the definition of discrete coherent sound fields measured in the presence of engine speed fluctuation more accurate. For the analytical methods, algorithms were developed to define the dominant circumferential modes from full and partial circumferential arrays of microphones. Axial arrays were explored to define mode structure as a function of cutoff ratio, and the use of data taken at several constant speeds was also evaluated in an attempt to reduce instrumentation requirements. Sensitivities of the various methods to microphone density, array size and measurement error were evaluated and results of these studies showed these new methods to be impractical. The data reduction method used to reduce the effects of engine speed variation consisted of an electronic circuit which windowed the data so that signal enhancement could occur only when the speed was within a narrow range.

  9. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGES

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; ...

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  10. Survey of methods for soil moisture determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Existing and proposed methods for soil moisture determination are discussed. These include: (1) in situ investigations including gravimetric, nuclear, and electromagnetic techniques; (2) remote sensing approaches that use the reflected solar, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; and (3) soil physics models that track the behavior of water in the soil in response to meteorological inputs (precipitation) and demands (evapotranspiration). The capacities of these approaches to satisfy various user needs for soil moisture information vary from application to application, but a conceptual scheme for merging these approaches into integrated systems to provide soil moisture information is proposed that has the potential for meeting various application requirements.

  11. Methods to determine food inulin and oligofructose.

    PubMed

    Prosky, L; Hoebregs, H

    1999-07-01

    The fructans, inulin and oligofructose, were known to possess many of the physiologic properties of dietary fiber (DF) but were not listed as DF on the labels of foods that contained them because they did not precipitate in 78% ethanol as prescribed in the AOAC International methods for DF. In the latter part of 1995, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agreed to consider fructans as DF if an AOAC-accepted analytical method could be successfully developed for fructans. Six blind duplicate pairs of foods, containing from 4 to 40% of inulin or oligofructose, were sent to nine collaborators in five countries for assay. These foods included a low fat spread, cheese spread, chocolate, wine gum, dry ice mix powder and biscuits. In the proposed method, the samples were treated with amyloglucosidase and inulinase, and the sugars released were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The concentration of the fructan was calculated by the difference in sugars present in the two enzymic treatments and the initial sample. The repeatability standard deviations (RSDr) for the inulin and oligofructose ranged from 2.9 to 5.8% and the reproducibility standard deviations (RSDR) for these fructans ranged from 4.7 to 11.1%. The method was accepted by the AOAC as an official first action.

  12. Validation of band counts in eyestalks for the determination of age of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Using known-age Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) grown from eggs hatched at two different laboratories, we validate the annual pattern of bands deposited in the eyestalks of krill and determine the absolute age of these animals. Ages two through five years were validated, and these animals ranged from 37.1 to 62.6 mm in total length. The band counts in these individuals were either identical to their absolute ages, or only failed to agree by a few months, which demonstrates the accuracy of this method. Precision and bias were estimated graphically using Chang’s index (Coefficient of Variation = 5.03%). High accuracy and precision between readers and low ageing bias indicate that longitudinal sections of eyestalks can be used to age krill in wild samples and to develop age-based stock assessment models for krill. Archival samples preserved in formalin (5%) and stored in ambient conditions were also readable. Ageing preserved krill will provide the opportunity to examine changes in growth among krill populations within the Southern Ocean and to retrospectively examine changes in krill production over the last century to better understand the historical and future impacts of climate change on this critical Southern Ocean species. PMID:28225825

  13. Molecular method for determining sex of walruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischbach, A.S.; Jay, C.V.; Jackson, J.V.; Andersen, L.W.; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of a set of published trans-species molecular sexing primers and a set of walrus-specific primers, which we developed, to accurately identify sex of 235 Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). The trans-species primers were developed for mammals and targeted the X- and Y-gametologs of the zinc finger protein genes (ZFX, ZFY). We extended this method by using these primers to obtain sequence from Pacific and Atlantic walrus (0. r. rosmarus) ZFX and ZFY genes to develop new walrus-specific primers, which yield polymerase chain reaction products of distinct lengths (327 and 288 base pairs from the X- and Y-chromosome, respectively), allowing them to be used for sex determination. Both methods yielded a determination of sex in all but 1-2% of samples with an accuracy of 99.6-100%. Our walrus-specific primers offer the advantage of small fragment size and facile application to automated electrophoresis and visualization.

  14. Accuracy of Four Dental Age Estimation Methods in Southern Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Praveen; Perumalla, Kiran Kumar; Srinivasaraju, D.; Srinivas, Jami; Kalyan, U. Siva; Rasool, SK. Md. Iftekhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: For various forensic investigations of both living and dead individuals, the knowledge of the actual age or date of birth of the subject is of utmost importance. In recent years, age estimation has gained importance for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement. Developing teeth are used to assess maturity and estimate age in number of disciplines; however the accuracy of different methods has not been assessed systematically. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of four dental age estimation methods. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomographs (OPGS) of South Indian children between the ages of 6 and 16 y who visited the department of Department of Oral medicine and Radiology of GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India with similar ethnic origin were assessed. Dental age was calculated using Demirjian, Willems, Nolla, and adopted Haavikko methods and the difference between estimated dental age and chronological age were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: An overestimation of the dental age was observed by using Demirjian and Nolla methods (0.1±1.63, 0.47±0.83 years in total sample respectively) and an underestimation of dental age was observed by using Willems and Haavikko methods (-0.4±1.53, -2.9±1.41 years respectively in total sample). Conclusion: Nolla’s method was more accurate in estimating dental age compared to other methods. Moreover, all the four methods were found to be reliable in estimating age of individuals of unknown chronological age in South Indian children. PMID:25738008

  15. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  16. Age estimation methods using anthropological parameters on human teeth-(A0736).

    PubMed

    Brkic, H; Milicevic, M; Petrovecki, M

    2006-10-16

    The research was conducted on the 160 intact extracted human teeth with one and two roots of the known age and sex. The teeth were disinfected, dried and X-rayed. After that the section of the longitudinal cut through the teeth was performed in order to facilitate monitoring of all tissues and morphological characteristics of the teeth. The age was determined in three ways: Method 1 [G.Bang, E. Ramm, Determination of age in humans from root dentin transparency, Acta Odontol. Scand. 28 (1970) 3-35]--analysis of the translucency of the root dentine, Method 2 [S. Kvaal, T. Solheim, A non-destructive dental method for age estimation, J. Forensic Odonto-stomatol. 12 (1994) 6-11]--analysis of the root and the root canal from the X-ray, Method 3 [G. Johanson, Age determination from human teeth, Odontol. Revy. 22 (1971) 1-126]--analysis of six parameters on each teeth. All data were subject to the correlation and regression analysis which showed the following: all of the three applied methods were in the significant correlation with the real age, and the best of them proved to be Method 3 where the coefficient of correlation was 0.85, p<0.001. The teeth of the maxilla are more convenient for the age determination than the teeth of mandible. They are in the significant strong correlation with the known real age, and in Method 3, the coefficient of correlation is 0.78, p<0.001. Age determination of the teeth with two roots is in significant correlation with the known real age p<0.001 in relation to the determined age on the teeth with one root. The results show that sex too, is in significant correlation with the real age, p<0.001. In practice, the methods used and the results achieved in this research have been enabling the dental age estimation of human remains from mass graves after the 1991 war in Croatia.

  17. Device and method for determining freezing points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, Balakrishnan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A freezing point method and device (10) are disclosed. The method and device pertain to an inflection point technique for determining the freezing points of mixtures. In both the method and device (10), the mixture is cooled to a point below its anticipated freezing point and then warmed at a substantially linear rate. During the warming process, the rate of increase of temperature of the mixture is monitored by, for example, thermocouple (28) with the thermocouple output signal being amplified and differentiated by a differentiator (42). The rate of increase of temperature data are analyzed and a peak rate of increase of temperature is identified. In the preferred device (10) a computer (22) is utilized to analyze the rate of increase of temperature data following the warming process. Once the maximum rate of increase of temperature is identified, the corresponding temperature of the mixture is located and earmarked as being substantially equal to the freezing point of the mixture. In a preferred device (10), the computer (22), in addition to collecting the temperature and rate of change of temperature data, controls a programmable power supply (14) to provide a predetermined amount of cooling and warming current to thermoelectric modules (56).

  18. Icy Satellites of Saturn: Impact Cratering and Age Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dones, L.; Chapman, C. R.; McKinnon, William B.; Melosh, H. J.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Neukum, G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    , and catastrophically disrupt, the saturnian moons. Finally, we present crater counts on the satellites from two different groups. Many of the heavily cratered terrains appear to be nearly saturated, so it is difficult to infer the provenance of the impactors from crater counts alone. More large craters have been found on Iapetus than on any other satellite. Enceladus displays an enormous range of surface ages, ranging from the old mid-latitude plains to the extremely young South Polar Terrain. Cassini images provide some evidence for the reality of Population II. Most of the observed craters may have formed in one or more cataclysms, but more work is needed to determine the roles of heliocentric and planetocentric bodies in creating the craters.

  19. Age determination of highly enriched uranium: separation and analysis of 231Pa.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, A; Apostolidis, C; Mayer, K

    2002-11-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the age determination of highly enriched uranium samples exploiting the mother/daughter pair 235U/231Pa. Protactinium is separated from bulk uranium through highly selective sorption to silica gel and is subsequently quantified using alpha-spectrometry. The method has been validated using uranium standard reference materials of known ages. It affords decontamination factors exceeding 2.5 x 10(7), overall recoveries in the range of 80-85%, and a combined uncertainty below 5%.

  20. TDR method for determine IC's parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenkov, V.; Rodionov, D.; Khlybov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Frequency domain simulation is a widely used approach for determine integrated circuits parameters. This approach can be found in most of software tools used in IC industry. Time domain simulation approach shows intensive usage last years due to some advantages. In particular it applicable for analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary systems where frequency domain is inapplicable. Resolution of time domain systems allow see heterogeneities on distance 1mm, determine it parameters and properties. Authors used approach based on detecting reflected signals from heterogeneities - time domain reflectometry (TDR). Field effect transistor technology scaling up to 30-60nm gate length and 10nm gate dielectric, heterojunction bi-polar transistors with 10-30nm base width allows fabricate digital IC's with 20GHz clock frequency and RF-IC's with tens GHz bandwidth. Such devices and operation speed suppose transit signal by use microwave lines. There are local heterogeneities can be found inside of the signal path due to connections between different parts of signal lines (stripe line-RF-connector pin, stripe line - IC package pin). These heterogeneities distort signals that cause bandwidth decrease for RF-devices. Time domain research methods of transmission and reflected signals give the opportunities to determine heterogeneities, it properties, parameters and built up equivalent circuits. Experimental results are provided and show possibility for inductance and capacitance measurement up to 25GHz. Measurements contains result of signal path research on IC and printed circuit board (PCB) used for 12GHz RF chips. Also dielectric constant versus frequency was measured up to 35GHz.

  1. A new test method for young age strength of shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Teramoto, Shozo

    1995-12-31

    As a method for testing the young-age strength of shotcrete used as tunnel supports, use of the Parotester, which is designed to measure the hardness of paper rolls at printing factories, has been considered. This paper reports the results of laboratory tests conducted to establish this method as a means of strength testing.

  2. An observational assessment method for aging laboratory rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biological processes ofaging and susceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. Methods to evaluate health ofaging animals over time are needed, especially efficient methods for...

  3. Dental age estimation: Comparison of reliability between Malay formula of Demirjian method and Malay formula of Cameriere method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghali, R.; Kamaruddin, A. F.; Mokhtar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: The application of forensic odontology using teeth and bones becomes the most commonly used methods to determine age of unknown individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of Malay formula of Demirjian and Malay formula of Cameriere methods in determining the dental age that is closely matched with the chronological age of Malay children in Kepala Batas region. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. 126 good quality dental panoramic radiographs (DPT) of healthy Malay children aged 8-16 years (49 boys and 77 girls) were selected and measured. All radiographs were taken at Dental Specialist Clinic, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The measurements were carried out using new Malay formula of both Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calibrated examiner. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis between the chronological age with Demirjian and Cameriere has been calculated. The Demirjian method has shown a better percentage (91.4%) of ICC compared to Cameriere (89.2%) which also indicates a high association, with good reliability. However, by comparing between Demirjian and Cameriere, it can be concluded that Demirjian has a better reliability. Conclusion: Thus, the results suggested that, modified Demirjian method is more reliable than modified Cameriere method among the population in Kepala Batas region.

  4. The Multispecimen Method for Absolute Paleointensity Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekkers, M. J.; de Groot, L. V.; Monster, M.

    2015-12-01

    Paleointensity methods have seen a large improvement in the 21th century. This included optimizing classic Thellier-style protocols along with establishing stringent sets of quality criteria, developing microwave excitation as an alternative to thermal treatment, selecting sample material that contains the most suitable remanence carriers (i.e. single domain magnetic particles), calibrating non-heating paleointensity methods, and the introduction of the multispecimen paleointensity (MSP) protocol. An MSP experiment is carried out at one specific temperature selected to avoid thermochemical alteration; a series of specimens is heated and cooled in various applied furnace fields oriented parallel to the specimen's NRM. The furnace field value at which no change in NRM occurs is the paleofield. While the rationale of the MSP approach is surprisingly straightforward, some of the original claims (Dekkers and Böhnel, 2006) are by now shown to be untenable. This pertains to the claimed domain state independence in the original MSP method, although the Fabian and Leonhardt (2010) extended protocol largely corrects for domain state effects. Here we describe the optimal workflow for MSP experiments derived from our collection of historic flows from four volcanic edifices: Mt. Etna, Hawaii, the Canary Islands, and the Azores. By comparing the experimental outcome derived from historic flows with known paleointensities we found that technically acceptable experiments may yield overestimates, correct determinations, as well as underestimates of the paleofield. The so-called "ARM test" (de Groot et al., 2012) can distinguish between those three options. Based on TRM and ARM being analogues, this test compares ARM acquisition curves of sister samples before and after heating to the MSP experiment temperature. Simulated paleointensity experiments following this workflow consistently deliver the correct answer (Monster et al., submitted).

  5. The Impact of Enhanced He and CNONa Abundances on Globular Cluster Relative Age-Dating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Aparicio, Antonio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2010-05-01

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as ~0.5 (or ~6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates—taken from the literature—of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  6. Epigenetic Determinants of Healthy and Diseased Brain Aging and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    S., Akbarian; S., Beeri M.; V., Haroutunian

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of normal and diseased brain aging and cognition will have a significant public health impact, given that the oldest-old persons over 85 years of age represent the fastest growing segment in the population in developed countries, with over 30 million new cases of dementia predicted to occur world-wide each year by 2040. Dysregulation of gene expression, and more generally, genome organization and function, is thought to contribute to age-related declines in cognition. Remarkably, nearly all neuronal nuclei that reside in an aged brain had permanently exited from the cell cycle during prenatal development, and DNA methylation and histone modifications and other molecular constituents of the epigenome are likely to play a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal health and function throughout the entire lifespan. Here, we provide an overview on age-related changes in the brain’s chromatin structures, highlight potential epigenetic drug targets for cognitive decline and age-related neurodegenerative disease and discuss opportunities and challenges when studying ‘epigenetic biomarkers’ in aging research. PMID:23571692

  7. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  8. Airborne SAR determination of relative ages of Walker Valley moraines, eastern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, A.; Isacks, B.; Bloom, A.; Fielding, E.; Mcmurry, D.

    1991-01-01

    A regional study of the distribution and elevations of Pleistocene moraines in the Andes requires a method of determining relative age from space. One of our primary objectives is to establish the relative chronology of major climatic events responsible for glaciation in the Andes and other regions that are difficult to access on the ground and where suitable material for absolute age determination is lacking. The sensitivity of radar to surface roughness makes it possible to develop a remotely-based relative dating technique for landforms for which surface age and roughness can be correlated. We are developing such a technique with Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) imagery of the eastern Sierra Nevada where independent evidence is available for the ages and physical characteristics of moraines. The Sierra Nevada moraines are similar in form and environmental setting to Andean moraines that we have targeted for study during the pending Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission. SAR imagery is used to differentiate the ages of five moraine sequences of Walker Valley in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  9. Dental age estimation using Willems method: A digital orthopantomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Krishnamraju, P. V.; Prasanth, P. S.; Sanghvi, Praveen; Lata Reddy, M. Asha; Jyotsna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, age estimation has become increasingly important in living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as a birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army, and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of left seven mandibular teeth for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population using Willems method. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomogram of 332 subjects (166 males, 166 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular teeth (from central incisor to the second molar on left quadrant) development was undertaken and DA was assessed using Willems method. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males (r = 0.71 and females (r = 0.88). The overall mean difference between the estimated DA and CA for males was 0.69 ± 2.14 years (P < 0.001) while for females, it was 0.08 ± 1.34 years (P > 0.05). Willems method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.69 years and females by 0.08 years and showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. The mean difference between DA and CA according to Willems method was 0.39 years and is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed significant relation between DA and CA. Thus, digital radiographic assessment of mandibular teeth development can be used to generate mean DA using Willems method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. PMID:25191076

  10. Method and apparatus for nitrogen oxide determination

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining nitrogen oxide content in a high temperature process gas, which involves withdrawing a sample portion of a high temperature gas containing nitrogen oxide from a source to be analyzed. The sample portion is passed through a restrictive flow conduit, which may be a capillary or a restriction orifice. The restrictive flow conduit is heated to a temperature sufficient to maintain the flowing sample portion at an elevated temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source, to thereby provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate within the restrictive flow conduit cannot occur. The sample portion is then drawn into an aspirator device. A heated motive gas is passed to the aspirator device at a temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source. The motive gas is passed through the nozzle of the aspirator device under conditions sufficient to aspirate the heated sample portion through the restrictive flow conduit and produce a mixture of the sample portion in the motive gas at a dilution of the sample portion sufficient to provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate from the mixture cannot occur at reduced temperature. A portion of the cooled dilute mixture is then passed to analytical means capable of detecting nitric oxide.

  11. Determination of carbazochrome by fluorescence quenching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiaojuan; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Cui, Zhiping; Wang, Yaqiong

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive, simple and selective spectrofluorimetric method for the reaction of carbazochrome (CBZC) and Eosin Y (EY) or Phloxine B (PB) in acidic medium is developed for the determination of carbazochrome in biological fluids, which gives a highly fluorescent derivative measured at 545 and 565 nm at excitation wavelengths of 301 and 305 nm. The fluorescence quenching extent (ΔF) is proportional to the concentration of CBZC for CBZC-EY and CBZC-PB system at the range of 0.03-1.50 μg/mL and 0.08-1.25 μg/mL, respectively. The detection limit is 9.1 ng/mL for EY system and 22.7 ng/mL for PB system. The intra-day and inter-day reproducibility (RSD values) are less than 8.3% under three concentrations. Moreover, the affecting factors of fluorescence intensity of the product are carefully investigated and optimized, as well as the effect of coexisting substances. Judging from temperature, the Stern-Volmer plots and fluorescence emission decay curves, the quenching of fluorescence of EY and PB by CBZC is a static quenching process, caused by electrostatic attraction and aromatic stacking interaction.

  12. BioAge: Toward A Multi-Determined, Mechanistic Account of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Correne A.; Tuokko, Holly A.; Williams, Dorothy; Dixon, Roger A.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for reliable early indicators of age-related cognitive decline represents a critical avenue for progress in aging research. Chronological age is a commonly used developmental index; however, it offers little insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline. In contrast, biological age (BioAge), reflecting the vitality of essential biological systems, represents a promising operationalization of developmental time. Current BioAge models have successfully predicted age-related cognitive deficits. Research on aging-related cognitive function indicates that the interaction of multiple risk and protective factors across the human lifespan confers individual risk for late-life cognitive decline, implicating a multi-causal explanation. In this review, we explore current BioAge models, describe three broad yet pathologically relevant biological processes linked to cognitive decline, and propose a novel operationalization of BioAge accounting for both moderating and causal mechanisms of cognitive decline and dementia. We argue that a multivariate and mechanistic BioAge approach will lead to a greater understanding of disease pathology as well as more accurate prediction and early identification of late-life cognitive decline. PMID:25278166

  13. [Methods of radiological bone age assessment (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fendel, H

    1976-09-01

    An assessment of the bone age can be made in different manners. Numerical methods calculating the number of existing ossification centers are to inaccurate. The use of "age-of-appearance" tables gives a more accurate evaluation. In both methods, however, x-ray films of several body parts must be made. Therefore, they are complicated and lead to a higher patient radiation exposure. Methods using hand and wrist as a representative area of the whole skeleton are of greater value for routine bone-age assessments. There is a wide-spread use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The atlas-method is fully sufficient in the great majority of cases when certain rules are considered. A more detailed information can be achieved by using the so-called "bone-by-bone" evaluation. A score system was introduced by Tanner and Whitehouse which should be used to a greater extent than is done up to now. Metrical methods give no real information about the bone age but additional informations which can be helpful in following examinations with short intervals.

  14. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A. E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  15. Shelf life determination of an epoxy resin by accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives of the study reported were to first define the rate and mode of degradation of an epoxy resin at two storage conditions, 4.4/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C, by means of a thermally accelerated aging experiment. Then, samples which had been aged the equivalent of at least 10 years at each storage condition would be tested for conformance to the material specifications. The study's results demonstrate that the commercial resin could be acquired and stored for the required 10 to 11 years without concern over degradation. The expected changes at the two storage temperatures have been defined. Aged resin samples are shown to yield an acceptable product. Sufficient data exist to predict the changes in viscosity and epoxide equivalent of the resin at any other storage temperature of interest. (LEW)

  16. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  17. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age TABLE I-10—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-14—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-13—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-12— Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  2. Accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound in determining gestational age in first trimester pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient reported menstrual history, physician clinical evaluation, and ultrasonography are used to determine gestational age in the pregnant female. Previous studies have shown that pregnancy dating by last menstrual period (LMP) and physical examination findings can be inaccurate. An ultrasound performed in the radiology department is considered the standard for determining an accurate gestational age. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound as an estimation of gestational age (EDUGA) as compared to the radiology department standard. Methods A prospective convenience sample of ED patients presenting in the first trimester of pregnancy (based upon self-reported LMP) regardless of their presenting complaint were enrolled. EDUGA was compared to gestational age estimated by ultrasound performed in the department of radiology (RGA) as the gold standard. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between EDUGA compared to RGA. Results Sixty-eight pregnant patients presumed to be in the 1st trimester of pregnancy based upon self-reported LMP consented to enrollment. When excluding the cases with no fetal pole, the median discrepancy of EDUGA versus RGA was 2 days (interquartile range (IQR) 1 to 3.25). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.978. When including the six cases without a fetal pole in the data analysis, the median discrepancy of EDUGA compared with RGA was 3 days (IQR 1 to 4). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.945. Conclusion Based on our comparison of EDUGA to RGA in patients presenting to the ED in the first trimester of pregnancy, we conclude that emergency physicians are capable of accurately performing this measurement. Emergency physicians should consider using ultrasound to estimate gestational age as it may be useful for the future care of that pregnant patient. PMID:23216683

  3. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  4. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Dubyak, George R.; Berger, Nathan A.; Hanson, Richard W.; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging. PMID:26631730

  5. Obesity and aging: determinants of endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2010-10-01

    Endothelial cells are both the source and target of factors contributing to atherosclerosis. After the discovery of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) by Robert F. Furchgott in 1980 it soon became clear that endothelial cells also release vasoactive factors distinct from nitric oxide (NO) namely, endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCF) as well as hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF). Vasoactive factors derived from endothelial cells include NO/EDRF, reactive oxygen species, endothelins and angiotensins which have either EDRF or EDCF functions, cyclooxygenase-derived EDCFs and EDRFs, and EDHFs. Endothelial factors are formed by enzymes such as NO synthase, cyclooxygenase, converting enyzmes, NADPH oxidases, and epoxigenases, among others, and participate in the regulation of vascular homeostasis under physiological conditions; however, their abnormal regulation due to endothelial cell dysfunction contributes to disease processes such as atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, and renal disease. Because of recent changes in world demographics and the declining health status of the world's population, both aging and obesity as independent risk factors for atherosclerosis-related diseases such as coronary artery disease and stroke, will continue to increase in the years to come. Obesity and associated conditions such as arterial hypertension and diabetes are now also some of the primary health concerns among children and adolescents. The similarities of pathomechanisms activated in obesity and aging suggest that obesity--at least in the vasculature--can be considered to have effects consistent with accelerated, "premature" aging. Pathomechanisms as well as the clinical issues of obesity- and aging-associated vascular changes important for atherosclerosis development and prevention are discussed.

  6. Fetal kidney length as a useful adjunct parameter for better determination of gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mete G.; Mustafa, Aynur; Ozcan, Huseyin C.; Tepe, Neslihan B.; Kurt, Huseyin; Akcil, Emre; Gunduz, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the validity of fetal kidney length and amniotic fluid index (AFI) in labor dating. Methods: This prospective study included 180 pregnant women followed up in the outpatient clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. The gestational age (GA) was estimated by early fetal ultrasound measures and last menstrual period. Routine fetal biometric parameters, fetal kidney length, and amniotic fluid index were measured. We studied the correlation between fetal kidney length, amniotic fluid index, and gestational age. Result: The mean gestational age depending on last menstrual period and early ultrasound was 31.98±4.29 (24-39 weeks). The mean kidney length was 35.66±6.61 (19-49 mm). There was a significant correlation between gestational age and fetal kidney length (r=0.947, p=0.001). However, there was a moderate negative correlation between GA and AFI. Adding fetal kidney length to the routine biometrics improved the effectiveness of the model used to estimate GA (R2=0.965 to R2=0.987). Conclusion: Gestational age can be better predicted by adding fetal kidney length to other routine parameters. PMID:27146616

  7. A Complication in Determining the Precise Age of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solar nebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materials formed requires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes to Pb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining the ages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. However, my colleagues at Arizona State University, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universitat (Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made. Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before the Solar System began to form.

  8. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  9. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755

  10. Age and Environment Determined Children’s Preference Towards Dentist Attire - A Cross - Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Karthikeyan, Shanmugaavel; Subbramanian, EMG; Samuel, Victor A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The attire of the dentist has an influence on child’s behaviour in dental setup. Recent research has shown that the children have preferences towards the outfit worn by the dentist. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the preference of children towards dentists’ attire based on various age groups and environment. Materials and Methods A total of 534 children aged between 6-11 years participated in the study. Children were divided into three groups based on their age as younger, middle and older age groups. Photographs of the dentist in different attires such as white coat, surgical scrubs and regular outfit were shown to children and the questionnaire was evaluated by a single, qualified Paediatric dentist in two different environmental set ups, namely school and dental environment. The anxiety level was evaluated by using Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Data was collected and tabulated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Results A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards dentist attire (p-value= 0.002). There was a positive correlation in the preference level of children towards dentist attire in different age groups. A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards the dentist attire in school and dental environment (p-value <0.001). Conclusion Younger age group children preferred regular outfit and middle and older age group preferred white coat and surgical scrubs respectively. Children preferred white coat in school environment and surgical scrubs in dental environment. PMID:27891450

  11. A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwary, Deny Arnos

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary…

  12. A method of determining combustion gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bon Tempi, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Zirconium oxide coating enables the determination of hot gas flow patterns on liquid rocket injector face and baffle surfaces to indicate modifications that will increase performance and improve combustion stability. The coating withstands combustion temperatures and due to the coarse surface and coloring of the coating, shows the hot gas patterns.

  13. Determination of pole sensitivities by Danilevskii's method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nail, J. B.; Mitchell, J. R.; Mcdaniel, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In control theory, a synonymous term for pole sensitivity is eigenvalue sensitivity. Existing methods of calculating eigenvalues are cumbersome, and cannot be trusted for systems roughly greater than tenth order. The method proposed in the present paper is applicable to high-order system. (It has been routinely used to generate eigenvalue sensitivities for systems up to 26th order, using a UNIVAC 1106.) Danilevskii's method is shown to be suitable for performing the necessary evaluations. The result is a rational function that can be used to evaluate the sensitivities for all distinct poles.

  14. Determination of an ageing factor for lead/acid batteries. 1. Kinetic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta-Deu, C.; Donaire, T.

    The capacity of lead/acid batteries decreases with the number of cycles. This process is known as ageing. The reduction of capacity affects not only the operation time but also the performance of the accumulator and of the system attached to the battery. One of the main procedures affected by the battery ageing is the determination of the state-of-charge. In this paper, a parameter called 'ageing factor', fa, which represents the reduction of the available energy in lead/acid batteries, is introduced. A method to calculate this factory and its incidence on battery performance has also been developed. The method is intended to predict 'ageing' effects on lead/acid batteries as a non-destructive method, as well as on-line battery operation. The method is based on the effective reduction in electrolyte specific gravity in a fully charged lead/acid battery computed from the change of the slope of the electrolyte density during charge with the number of cycles, and the subsequent reduction in discharge time. A correlation process between the reduction of the energy delivered by the electrochemical cell, the reduction of the discharge time, and the apparent change of the slope of electrolyte density has been developed, resulting in an analytical expression that may be used to compute the effective reduction in available energy in lead/acid batteries. The results of the experiments have proven the merit of the proposed system: the predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error in the a estimation being lower than 9%, a result which has been considered acceptable to validate the proposed method.

  15. Applications of the Joint Epicenter Determination Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Locations are also shown to change if different travel -time tables are used. The result is established both for a North American and a world-wide net...earth travel time tables caused by geology at the source or in the mantle. Thus JED could not be used to determine station corrections which would result in teleseismic locations accurate to 2-4 kilometers.

  16. Age Determination of Six Intermediate-Age Small Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters with HST/ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatt, Katharina; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Gallagher, John S., III; Nota, Antonella; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Harbeck, Daniel; Koch, Andreas; Kayser, Andrea; Da Costa, Gary

    2008-10-01

    We present a photometric analysis of the star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F555W and F814W filters. Our color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend ~3.5 mag deeper than the main-sequence turnoff points, deeper than any previous data. Cluster ages were derived using three different isochrone models: Padova, Teramo, and Dartmouth, which are all available in the ACS photometric system. Fitting observed ridgelines for each cluster, we provide a homogeneous and unique set of low-metallicity, single-age fiducial isochrones. The cluster CMDs are best approximated by the Dartmouth isochrones for all clusters, except for NGC 419 where the Padova isochrones provided the best fit. Using Dartmouth isochrones we derive ages of 7.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 1), 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Kron 3), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 339), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 416), and 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 38). The CMD of NGC 419 shows several main-sequence turnoffs, which belong to the cluster and to the SMC field. We thus derive an age range of 1.2-1.6 Gyr for NGC 419. We confirm that the SMC contains several intermediate-age populous star clusters with ages unlike those of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. Interestingly, our intermediate-age star clusters have a metallicity spread of ~0.6 dex, which demonstrates that the SMC does not have a smooth, monotonic age-metallicity relation. We find an indication for centrally-concentrated blue straggler star candidates in NGC 416, while these are not present for the other clusters. Using the red clump magnitudes, we find that the closest cluster, NGC 419 (~50 kpc), and the farthest cluster, Lindsay 38 (~67 kpc), have a relative distance of ~17 kpc, which confirms the large depth of the SMC. The three oldest SMC clusters (NGC 121, Lindsay 1, and Kron 3) lie in the northwestern part of the SMC, while the youngest (NGC 419

  17. [Bioluminescent method of determining antiprotease activity].

    PubMed

    Gitel'zon, I I; Rykov, S A; Kratasiuk, G A; Petushkov, V N; Shvetskiĭ, A G

    1985-11-01

    A method for antiprotease activity measurement based on the use of luminous bacteria luciferase as protein substrate of proteases is suggested. Antiprotease is incubated with protease for 1 to 2 min at 30 degrees C and then it is added to the reaction mixture containing luciferase, NADH: FMN-oxidoreductase and their substrates--myristic aldehyde, FMN and NADH. Biofluorescence is measured in a temperature-controlled cuvette for 1 min. The total time of the measurement is 3 min. The method can be applied both in fine biochemical assays and in medical rapid diagnosis.

  18. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-06-29

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  19. Patients' age as a determinant of care received following acute stroke: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009) that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64%) showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke. PMID:21729329

  20. Graphical Method for Determining Projectile Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. C.; Baker, J. C.; Franzel, L.; McMahon, D.; Songer, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a nontrigonometric graphical method for predicting the trajectory of a projectile when the angle and initial velocity are known. Students enrolled in a general education conceptual physics course typically have weak backgrounds in trigonometry, making inaccessible the standard analytical calculation of projectile range. Furthermore,…

  1. SYSTEM FOR AND METHOD OF DETERMINING RANGE

    DOEpatents

    Horrell, M.W.; Sanders, E.R.

    1963-11-01

    A system and method for indicating a predetermined altitude of an object or aircraft is described. The device utilizes a pulse transmit-receive system wherein pulses of predetermined width are transmitted towards the ground and the reflected pulses received gating only pulses having a predetermined width. (AEC)

  2. Experimental methods of determining thermal properties of granite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of thermal properties of granite using the block method is discussed and compared with other methods. Problems that limit the accuracy of contact method in determining thermal properties of porous media are evaluated. Thermal properties of granite is determined in the laboratory with a...

  3. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  4. Species and age determination of central nervous system tissue by fatty acid patterns.

    PubMed

    Griessbach, Maria; Hartmann, Franziska; Massag, Nicole; Baumann, Daniela; Krex, Christian; Biedermann, Wolfgang; Truyen, Uwe; Lücker, Ernst

    2008-01-25

    The banning of specified risk materials (SRMs) from food chain is one of the most important measures to protect the consumer against any exposition with the agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In order to control the SRM-ban, suitable methods for the detection of SRMs have to be developed. In this study homogenized samples of central nervous system (CNS) tissue from cattle (n=38), sheep (n=38) and pig (n=40) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis was focused on the identification of fatty acid ratios for species differentiation and age estimation. We found a novel fatty acid ratio (C24:1(n-9)/(n-7))/(2OH-C24:1(n-9)/(n-7) for species differentiation. For the first time, we used multivariate analysis for species differentiation, based on fatty acid ratios. It showed an excellent predictive ability (Q_(cum)(2))Q_(cum)(2)=0.842. For age estimation in cattle CNS we discovered a novel fatty acid ratio 2OH-C25:0/2OH-C24:1(n-7). The ratio is strongly correlated with age (coefficient of correlation (r)=0.935, Spearman-Rho). The corresponding regression analysis which allows the prediction of age by this ratio was acceptable (coefficient of determination (R(2))=0.831).

  5. Method of continuously determining crack length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakaran, Ramamurthy (Inventor); Lopez, Osvaldo F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The determination of crack lengths in an accurate and straight forward manner is very useful in studying and preventing load created flaws and cracks. A crack length sensor according to the present invention is fabricated in a rectangular or other geometrical form from a conductive powder impregnated polymer material. The long edges of the sensor are silver painted on both sides and the sensor is then bonded to a test specimen via an adhesive having sufficient thickness to also serve as an insulator. A lead wire is connected to each of the two outwardly facing silver painted edges. The resistance across the sensor changes as a function of the crack length in the specimen and sensor. The novel aspect of the present invention includes the use of relatively uncomplicated sensors and instrumentation to effectively measure the length of generated cracks.

  6. Geo-structural mapping and age determinations of Rembrandt basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Sabrina; Massironi, Matteo; Martellato, Elena; Giacomini, Lorenza; Cremonese, Gabriele; Rothery, David; Prockter, Louise M.

    During its second and thirds flybys MESSENGER imaged a new large and well-preserved basin called Rembrandt Basin (Watters et al., 2009) in Mercury's southern hemisphere. Rembrandt is partially filled by volcanic overlay and is crossed by a marked lobate scarp with some similarities to another prominent mercurian lobate scarp, Beagle Rupes. In attempt to reveal Rembrandt Basin evolution, we mapped its geological units inferring -where possible -their stratigraphic relationships. In addition, we performed crater counts on several of these units and derived age estimates by applying Model Production Function (MPF) absolute-model chronology (Marchi et al., 2009). Since Rembrandt basin (in contrast to other well-seen basins) displays evidence of global-scale in addition to basin-localized deformation (Watters et al. 2009), it is characterized by different tectonic features that in some cases may be controlled by rheological layering within the crust. We attempted to map the contractional and extensional local patterns and the global tectonic features. Notably, the pronounced scarp transecting a 60 km crater near the edge of Rembrandt's inner ring and other structural features in the surrounding regions suggest a linked fault system. The apparent bow shape of this feature could be compared with Beagle Rupes, and similarly may imply special conditions of weakness inside the crust (Rothery and Massironi, 2010). Ref. Watters, T. R., Head, J. W., Solomon, S. C., Robinson, M. S., Chapman, C. R., Denevi, B. W., Fassett, C. I., Murchie, S. L., and Strom, R. G., 2009. Evolution of the Rembrandt Impact Basin on Mercury. Science, 324 , 618-621. Marchi, S., Mottola, S., Cremonese, G., Massironi, M., and Martellato, E., 2009. A new Chronology for the Moon and Mercury. Astronomical Journal, 137 , 4936-4948. Rothery, D. A. and Massironi, M., 2010. Beagle Rupes -evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere. Icarus (In Press).

  7. THE IMPACT OF ENHANCED He AND CNONa ABUNDANCES ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER RELATIVE AGE-DATING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    MarIn-Franch, Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano E-mail: antapaj@iac.e E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.i

    2010-05-10

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as {approx}0.5 (or {approx}6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates-taken from the literature-of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  8. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-11—Selection of Retirement Rate Category If participant reaches URA in year— Participant's retirement rate category is— Low 1 if...

  9. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Zweihoff, Ralf; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Heinemeier, Jan

    2010-09-10

    Based on an actual case, where we were able to ascertain the year of birth of three dead babies found in a deep-freezer to within 1-2 years (1986, 1988 and 2004, respectively), we review the current state of forensic age determination/year of birth determination. The age of an individual (year of birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper). As such, these methods are all relative, i.e. they do not furnish calendar ages or years, but an estimate of the age at death, with a rather large range, i.e. the methods rely on biological aging following the chronological aging. More recently, methods have been proposed using more direct ascertainment of age at death, e.g. protein racemisation, or, as in our case, radiocarbon methods. Especially the latter method may in fact yield absolute ages (years of birth), because (14)C activity, as measured in specific proteins in specific cells or tissues in the body, were in equilibrium with the so-called bomb-pulse, when these proteins were formed (at birth). The bomb pulse reflects a dramatic change in atmospheric (14)C content due to nuclear bomb testing, and these dramatic changes can be rather tightly related to single calendar years.

  10. ["Secret causes": causality and determinism in the classical age].

    PubMed

    Cléro, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The notion of the "secret cause", which appears in many classical texts is tied to a particular practice of science and a conception of its methods where the "law" finds itself at the center of the nexus. If certain phenomena appear to escape the law, one is obliged to amend the law through the introduction of a series of "small equations." If the calculation of probabilities is deployed, this is to precisely reveal causes which are, at their origin, secret, but which will gradually become less so and eventually conform to laws.

  11. Shocked monazite chronometry: integrating microstructural and in situ isotopic age data for determining precise impact ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Timmons M.; Timms, Nicholas E.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Tohver, Eric; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Pearce, Mark A.; Reddy, Steven M.

    2017-03-01

    Monazite is a robust geochronometer and occurs in a wide range of rock types. Monazite also records shock deformation from meteorite impact but the effects of impact-related microstructures on the U-Th-Pb systematics remain poorly constrained. We have, therefore, analyzed shock-deformed monazite grains from the central uplift of the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa, and impact melt from the Araguainha impact structure, Brazil, using electron backscatter diffraction, electron microprobe elemental mapping, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Crystallographic orientation mapping of monazite grains from both impact structures reveals a similar combination of crystal-plastic deformation features, including shock twins, planar deformation bands and neoblasts. Shock twins were documented in up to four different orientations within individual monazite grains, occurring as compound and/or type one twins in (001), (100), ( 10bar{1} ), {110}, { 212 }, and type two (irrational) twin planes with rational shear directions in [0bar{1}bar{1}] and [bar{1}bar{1}0]. SIMS U-Th-Pb analyses of the plastically deformed parent domains reveal discordant age arrays, where discordance scales with increasing plastic strain. The correlation between discordance and strain is likely a result of the formation of fast diffusion pathways during the shock event. Neoblasts in granular monazite domains are strain-free, having grown during the impact events via consumption of strained parent grains. Neoblastic monazite from the Inlandsee leucogranofels at Vredefort records a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2010 ± 15 Ma (2 σ, n = 9), consistent with previous impact age estimates of 2020 Ma. Neoblastic monazite from Araguainha impact melt yield a Concordia age of 259 ± 5 Ma (2 σ, n = 7), which is consistent with previous impact age estimates of 255 ± 3 Ma. Our results demonstrate that targeting discrete microstructural domains in shocked monazite, as identified through orientation mapping, for in

  12. Determining approximate age of digital images using sensor defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav

    2011-02-01

    The goal of temporal forensics is to establish temporal relationship among two or more pieces of evidence. In this paper, we focus on digital images and describe a method using which an analyst can estimate the acquisition time of an image given a set of other images from the same camera whose time ordering is known. This is achieved by first estimating the parameters of pixel defects, including their onsets, and then detecting their presence in the image under investigation. Both estimators are constructed using the maximum-likelihood principle. The accuracy and limitations of this approach are illustrated on experiments with three cameras. Forensic and law-enforcement analysts are expected to benefit from this technique in situations when the temporal data stored in the EXIF header is lost due to processing or editing images off-line or when the header cannot be trusted. Reliable methods for establishing temporal order between individual pieces of evidence can help reveal deception attempts of an adversary or a criminal. The causal relationship may also provide information about the whereabouts of the photographer.

  13. Paleodemographic age-at-death distributions of two Mexican skeletal collections: a comparison of transition analysis and traditional aging methods.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50.

  14. Correlation of Condylar Guidance Determined by Panoramic Radiographs to One Determined by Conventional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Godavarthi, A Sowjanya; Sajjan, M C Suresh; Raju, A V Rama; Rajeshkumar, P; Premalatha, Averneni; Chava, Narayana

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the feasibility of using panoramic radiographs as an alternative to an interocclusal recording method for determining the condylar guidance in dentate and edentulous conditions. Materials and Methods: 20 dentulous individuals with an age range of 20-30 years and 20 edentulous patients of 40-65 years were selected. An interocclusal bite registration was done in protrusive position for all the subjects. Orthopantomographs were made for all patients in open mouth position. Hanau articulator was modified to record the angulations to the accuracy of 1°. Tracing of glenoid fossa on radiograph was done to measure the condylar guidance angles. Readings were recorded and analyzed by Freidman’s test and t-test. Results: Condylar guidance values obtained by the interocclusal method and radiographic method in dentate individuals on the right side and left side 40.55°, and 37.1°, and 40.15°, and 34.75°, respectively. In the edentulous individuals, the values on the right side and left side was 36.7° and 36.1° and 35.95° and 33.6,° respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P = < 0.001) in dentate group and was not statistically significant (P = 0.6493) in edentulous group. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph can be used as an alternative to interocclusal technique only in edentulous patients. Further studies comparing panoramic radiograph to jaw tracking devices would substantiate the results of this study. PMID:26464554

  15. Determination of K-Ar ages in milligram samples using an infrared laser for argon extraction.

    PubMed

    Solé, Jesús

    2009-11-01

    The K-Ar dating method has been used for decades to decipher the ages of terrestrial and extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. The natural radioactive decay of a metal to a rare gas is an advantage that allows the determination of very small amounts of argon by mass spectrometry. Although the Ar-Ar method has superseded K-Ar, the latter is still used and it has room for improvement. One of these is the reduction of the analyzed sample mass, a desideratum of any current analytical technique. I report here our experience in K-Ar geochronology of milligram-sized samples using laser heating and melting for gas extraction. This modification of the classical K-Ar technique has not been, to my knowledge, used in any other laboratory in the world and deserves a detailed description of its advantages and limitations.

  16. The calibration of photographic and spectroscopic films. The utilization of the digital image processor in the determination of aging of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kevin A.; Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The age of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) can be determined with the use of the Digital Image Processor. This technique is used in conjunction with a modified method for aging, refined by John Ropes of the Woods Hole Laboratory, Massachusetts. This method utilizes a thinned sectioned chondrophore of the surf clam which contains annual rings. The rings of the chondrophore are then counted to determine age. By digitizing the chondrophore, the Digital Image Processor is clearly able to separate these annual rings more accurately. This technique produces an easier and more efficient way to count annual rings to determine the age of the surf clam.

  17. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  18. Cation-ratio dating: A new rock varnish age-determination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    1983-07-01

    Rock varnish coats many surfaces of geomorphic and archaeologic interest in arid lands. All varnish dating techniques are limited by the time lag between the exposure of a surface to subaerial processes and the onset of varnishing. They are valid only where manganese is not remobilized after deposition, for example, in most arid environments. The premise of a new age-determination method, cation-ratio dating, is that the ratio of the more mobile cations (e.g., K and Ca) to titanium in varnish decreases with time. Although there are many inherent assumptions and potential limitations, cation-ratio dating has been verified on relative age-sequences from a Death Valley debris cone, Negev Desert talus flatirons, and prehistoric lake levels at Searles Lake in California. Varnish cation ratios have been calibrated to independently dated surfaces in the Coso volcanic field and vicinity in California. Tentative absolute dates have been assigned to geomorphic surfaces in the Coso area. Cation ratios have been used to distinguish relative ages of archaeologic artifacts in southwestern North America and to demonstrate that varnish at the South Stoddard locality, Mojave Desert, did not form in 25 yr.

  19. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p < 0.001). The quality of life in the Physical, Psychological, and total Score domains remained associated with the outcome in the final model for both genders. Among the men, the behavioral and community participation factors were positive predictors of active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  20. Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

  1. Several methods to determine heavy metals in the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrási, Erzsébet; Igaz, Sarolta; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Farkas, Éva; Ajtony, Zsolt

    1999-05-01

    The determination of naturally occurring heavy metals in various parts of the human brain is discussed. The patients had no diseases in their central nervous systems (five individuals, mean age 70 years). Twenty brain parts were selected from both hemispheres. The analysis was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. Accuracy and precision of the applied techniques were tested by using standard reference materials. Two digestion methods were used to dissolve the brain samples for ICP-AES and GF-AAS. One was performed in a Parr-bomb and the second in a microwave oven. The present results show a non-homogeneous distribution of the essential elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in normal human brain. Corresponding regions in both hemispheres showed an almost identical concentration of these elements. In the case of toxic elements (Pb, Cd) an average value in different brain regions can not be established because of the high variability of individual data. This study indicates that beside differences in Pb and Cd intake with foods or cigarette smoke inhalation, the main factors of the high inter-individual variability of these element concentrations in human brain parts may be a marked difference in individual elimination or accumulation capabilities.

  2. Methods for diagnosing perceived age on the basis of an ensemble of phenotypic features

    PubMed Central

    Coma, Mireia; Valls, Raquel; Mas, José Manuel; Pujol, Albert; Herranz, Miquel Angel; Alonso, Vicente; Naval, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Perceived age has been defined as the age that a person is visually estimated to be on the basis of physical appearance. In a society where a youthful appearance are an object of desire for consumers, and a source of commercial profit for cosmetic companies, this concept has a prominent role. In addition, perceived age is also an indicator of overall health status in elderly people, since old-looking people tend to show higher rates of morbidity and mortality. However, there is a lack of objective methods for quantifying perceived age. Methods In order to satisfy the need of objective approaches for estimating perceived age, a novel algorithm was created. The novel algorithm uses supervised mathematical learning techniques and error retropropagation for the creation of an artificial neural network able to learn biophysical and clinically assessed parameters of subjects. The algorithm provides a consistent estimation of an individual’s perceived age, taking into account a defined set of facial skin phenotypic traits, such as wrinkles and roughness, number of wrinkles, depth of wrinkles, and pigmentation. A nonintervention, epidemiological cross-sectional study of cases and controls was conducted in 120 female volunteers for the diagnosis of perceived age using this novel algorithm. Data collection was performed by clinical assessment of an expert panel and biophysical assessment using the ANTERA 3D® device. Results and discussion Employing phenotype data as variables and expert assignments as objective data, the algorithm was found to correctly classify the samples with an accuracy of 92.04%. Therefore, we have developed a method for determining the perceived age of a subject in a standardized, consistent manner. Further application of this algorithm is thus a promising approach for the testing and validation of cosmetic treatments and aesthetic surgery, and it also could be used as a screening method for general health status in the population. PMID

  3. Short Report: The effect of preservation methods on predicting mosquito age by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining mosquito age is important to evaluate vector control programs because the ability to transmit diseases is age-dependent. Current age-grading techniques require dissection or DNA extraction. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to rapidly and nondestructively determine the age of fr...

  4. New method for determining total dietary fiber by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, K; Matsuda, I; Katta, Y; Tsuji, K; Ohkuma, K; Matsuda, I; Katta, Y; Tsuji, K

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight limit of water-soluble dietary fiber (SDF) determined by the Prosky method was studied by liquid chromatography (LC). It was confirmed that only SDF with an average degree of polymerization of 12 or higher can be determined by the Prosky method. Total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined by 2 additional methods using LC. In the first method, the total quantity of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and high molecular weight SDF (HMSDF) was determined according to the modified Prosky method (MES-TRIS buffer-based). The quantitatively collected final filtrate was analyzed by LC for the quantity of low molecular weight SDF (LMSDF), and the 2 quantities were totaled to obtain TDF. TDF values thus determined for rice, polished or unpolished, soybean flour, and pressed barley were higher than those determined by the Prosky method by approximately 6, 3.5, and 3.5%, respectively. In the second method, direct determination by LC analysis was done on samples after enzymatic treatment according to the Prosky method. Results showed that the determination of LMSDF, in particular, was highly accurate and more effective. In both of these methods, the quantity of LMSDF was determined from its chromatographic peak area ratio to glucose as an internal standard, which was produced by hydrolysis.

  5. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry and colorimetry in a general linear model for the determination of the age of bruises.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Vanessa K; Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-12-01

    Bruises can have medicolegal significance such that the age of a bruise may be an important issue. This study sought to determine if colorimetry or reflectance spectrophotometry could be employed to objectively estimate the age of bruises. Based on a previously described method, reflectance spectrophotometric scans were obtained from bruises using a Cary 100 Bio spectrophotometer fitted with a fibre-optic reflectance probe. Measurements were taken from the bruise and a control area. Software was used to calculate the first derivative at 490 and 480 nm; the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin was calculated using an isobestic point method and a software application converted the scan data into colorimetry data. In addition, data on factors that might be associated with the determination of the age of a bruise: subject age, subject sex, degree of trauma, bruise size, skin color, body build, and depth of bruise were recorded. From 147 subjects, 233 reflectance spectrophotometry scans were obtained for analysis. The age of the bruises ranged from 0.5 to 231.5 h. A General Linear Model analysis method was used. This revealed that colorimetric measurement of the yellowness of a bruise accounted for 13% of the bruise age. By incorporation of the other recorded data (as above), yellowness could predict up to 32% of the age of a bruise-implying that 68% of the variation was dependent on other factors. However, critical appraisal of the model revealed that the colorimetry method of determining the age of a bruise was affected by skin tone and required a measure of the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin, which is obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Using spectrophotometry, the first derivative at 490 nm alone accounted for 18% of the bruise age estimate. When additional factors (subject sex, bruise depth and oxygenation of hemoglobin) were included in the General Linear Model this increased to 31%-implying that 69% of the variation was dependent on other factors. This

  6. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.; Summerfelt, R.D.; Hall, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  7. Setting the light conditions for measuring root transparency for age-at-death estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Nogué-Navarro, Laia; Zapico, Sara C; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2017-03-30

    Age-at-death estimation is one of the main goals in forensic identification, being an essential parameter to determine the biological profile, narrowing the possibility of identification in cases involving missing persons and unidentified bodies. The study of dental tissues has been long considered as a proper tool for age estimation with several age estimation methods based on them. Dental age estimation methods can be divided into three categories: tooth formation and development, post-formation changes, and histological changes. While tooth formation and growth changes are important for fetal and infant consideration, when the end of dental and skeletal growth is achieved, post-formation or biochemical changes can be applied. Lamendin et al. in J Forensic Sci 37:1373-1379, (1992) developed an adult age estimation method based on root transparency and periodontal recession. The regression formula demonstrated its accuracy of use for 40 to 70-year-old individuals. Later on, Prince and Ubelaker in J Forensic Sci 47(1):107-116, (2002) evaluated the effects of ancestry and sex and incorporated root height into the equation, developing four new regression formulas for males and females of African and European ancestry. Even though root transparency is a key element in the method, the conditions for measuring this element have not been established. The aim of the present study is to set the light conditions measured in lumens that offer greater accuracy when applying the Lamendin et al. method modified by Prince and Ubelaker. The results must be also taken into account in the application of other age estimation methodologies using root transparency to estimate age-at-death.

  8. Critical period for menarche derived by the wavelet interpolation method from changes in BMI with age in South Korean girls.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Tanaka, Nozomi

    2010-12-01

    Recently, few studies regarding the changes in BMI with age have been reported. In the present study, the wavelet interpolation method (WIM) was applied to the changes in BMI with age from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school in Korean girls, and the relationship between age at the maximum peak velocity (MPV) of BMI and age at menarche was confirmed by determining the age at MPV of BMI. Age at menarche and activity status were obtained from questionnaires given to 263 second grade high school girls in the Pusan area of South Korea. Moreover, longitudinal growth data on height and weight from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school (from 1997 to 2008) were obtained from health examination records. BMI was calculated from height and weight values from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school, and wavelet interpolation was applied to the distances of BMI in each grade. The change curve of BMI with age was determined by wavelet interpolation, and the age at MPV of BMI was determined from the changes in the velocity curve with age as the differentiation curve. Age at MPV of BMI was found to be 12.76 +/- 1.6 years, and age at menarche to be 12.34 +/- 1.1 years. The interval in age at the two times was -0.42 +/- 1.6 years, and a significant difference was seen between age at menarche and age at MPV of BMI. The reason that the age at menarche was a little earlier than the age at MPV of BMI is hypothesized to be abnormal melatonin levels influenced by lack of sleep in Korean school girls. However, it is proposed that the age at MPV of BMI is valid as the critical period for the age at menarche.

  9. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  10. A practical method of estimating standard error of age in the fission track dating method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.M.; McGee, V.E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A first-order approximation formula for the propagation of error in the fission track age equation is given by PA = C[P2s+P2i+P2??-2rPsPi] 1 2, where PA, Ps, Pi and P?? are the percentage error of age, of spontaneous track density, of induced track density, and of neutron dose, respectively, and C is a constant. The correlation, r, between spontaneous are induced track densities is a crucial element in the error analysis, acting generally to improve the standard error of age. In addition, the correlation parameter r is instrumental is specifying the level of neutron dose, a controlled variable, which will minimize the standard error of age. The results from the approximation equation agree closely with the results from an independent statistical model for the propagation of errors in the fission-track dating method. ?? 1979.

  11. Are the new automated methods for bone age estimation advantageous over the manual approaches?

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Di Maio, Salvatore; Bedair, Said

    2014-12-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) is performed worldwide for the evaluation of endocrine, genetic and chronic diseases, to monitor response to medical therapy and to determine the growth potential of children and adolescents. It is also used for consultation in planning orthopedic procedures, for determination of chronological age for adopted children, youth sports participation and in forensic settings. The main clinical methods for skeletal bone age estimation are the Greulich and Pyle (GP) and the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW) methods. Seventy six per cent (76%) of radiologists or pediatricians usually use the method of GP, 20% that of TW and 4% other methods. The advantages of using the TW method, as opposed to the GP method, are that it overcomes the subjectivity problem and results are more reproducible. However, it is complex and time consuming; for this reason its usage is just about 20% on a world-wide scale. Moreover, there are some evidences that bone age assignments by different physicians can differ significantly. Computerized and Quantitative Ultrasound Technologies (QUS) for assessing skeletal maturity have been developed with the aim of reducing many of the inconsistencies associated with radiographic investigations. In spite of the fact that the volume of automated methods for BAA has increased, the majotity of them are still in an early phase of development. QUS is comparable to the GP based method, but there is not enough established data yet for the healthy population. The Authors wish to stimulate the attention on the accuracy, reliability and consistency of BAA and to initiate a debate on manual versus automated approaches to enhance our assessment for skeletal matutation in children and adolescents.

  12. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  13. Membership determination of open cluster with parametric method: cross entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirul Fitriana, Itsna; Ikbal Arifiyanto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Stellar open clusters are useful for studying the structure and evolution of Galaxy. Determination of the open cluster members can be viewed from their kinematics: proper motion and radial velocity. It is because the star cluster members will have a motion in the same direction, towards a convergent point. Parametric method with a double elliptic bivariate gaussian function which contains 11 parameters is used as a model of the proper motion distribution. The value of these parameters are determined numerically by cross entropy method. This method is a method of data fitting using the likelihood function whose value is maximized to get the proper parameters. This method solves the problem of determining the initial value that is often difficult to determine in other numerical methods. There are four open clusters which we have analysed: NGC 2244, ASCC 100, NGC 5168, and NGC 2169. The resulting of proper motion parameters of this method matches the parameters in the literature.

  14. Forensic age estimation by the Schmeling method: computed tomography analysis of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Sayin, Ibrahim; Solmaz, Dilek; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The variability of anthropometric measures, such as the degree of ossification, among societies should be taken into account when estimating age. The degree of ossification of the medial clavicle can be determined with thin-section computed tomography (CT), which is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the applicability of thin-section CT analysis of the degree of ossification of the medial clavicle in a Turkish population. We evaluated the CT images (1-mm slice thickness) of 503 patients (362 male, 141 female; age, 10-35 years) using the Schmeling five-stage method. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between age and ossification stage in both male and female patients (total group: rho = 0.838, p < 0.001; male: rho = 0.831, p < 0.001; female: rho = 0.856, p < 0.001). The linear regression analysis results indicated that the ossification stage of the medial clavicle is a good predictor when estimating age (r (2) = 0.735 for all patients, 0.734 for male patients, 0.741 for female patients). Sex differences in ossification stages were observed only for stage 1 and 4 ossification. We believe that future research could expand the database on this topic and contribute to improvements in this measurement method.

  15. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  16. Age of an Indonesian Fossil Tooth Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, JS

    2004-04-07

    The first fossil hominid tooth recovered during 1999 excavations from the Cisanca River region in West Java, Indonesia, was associated with a series of bovid teeth from a single individual that was recovered 190 cm beneath the hominid tooth. The age of the fossil bovid teeth was determined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis as part of an effort to bracket the age of the hominid tooth. The EPR-derived age of the bovid teeth is (5.16 {+-} 2.01) x 10{sup 5} years. However, the age estimate reported here is likely an underestimate of the actual age of deposition since evidence of heating was detected in the EPR spectra of the bovid teeth, and the heating may have caused a decrease in the intensity of EPR components on which the age calculation is based.

  17. Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Mark R; Eccleston, George W; Bedell, Jeffrey J; Lockard, Chanelle M

    2009-01-01

    The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of short-lived fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopic values are available. Uranium isotopics are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U isotopic values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium isotopics over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate isotopic calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium isotopics. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium isotopics; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.

  18. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hand-Wrist and Cervical Vertebrae Radiography for the Determination of Skeletal Age

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Mohammadhashem; Zamaheni, Sara; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hourieh; Akbari, Forough; Chalipa, Javad; Rahmati, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of skeletal growth is necessary for growth modification and surgical orthodontic treatments and is usually done by assessing skeletal maturity indicators in hand-wrist radiographs. The use of growth stages of cervical vertebrae in lateral cephalograms has been suggested to avoid overexposure. Objectives This study seeks to assess the degree of agreement between hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae maturation stages for skeletal age determination and prediction of the peak growth spurt (PGS). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 boys and 66 girls between 8 and 18 years of age, divided into 11 age groups; 266 hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained and analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were evaluated according to the Grave and Brown, Bjork system (stages 1 - 9). The cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) was determined on lateral cephalograms based on a system described by Baccetti et al. (CVMS 1-5). To apply the Cohen’s kappa index, the stages of growth were reduced to 5 intervals (A - E) to relate the 5 CVMS to the 9 stages of Bjork hand-wrist analysis. Results In all age groups, the skeletal maturity stages of the hand and wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae of the girls were ahead of the boys. Cohen’s kappa test revealed a low level of agreement between the two methods [Kappa (95% CI) = 0.312 (0.290 - 0.377)]; concordance was slightly higher in males (K = 0.33 for males versus 0.27 for females). Evaluation of concordance coefficients between the stages determined by the two methods indicated the highest concordance in 8- and 9-year-olds and the lowest in 12- and 14-year-olds. The level of agreement between the two methods was only acceptable in 8- and 9-year-olds of both genders and 10-year-old boys. The level of agreement between the two methods in other age groups was not acceptable. Conclusion The level of agreement between the two methods was low; thus, they cannot be

  20. ACCELERATED METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF E. COLI,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A method was developed for preparing indicator paper slips for the determination of E . coli by the ’Bactostrip’ method (Foerg) when appraising the...quality of milk. The essence of the method is the exposure of E . coli on a strip of paper, impregnated with nutrient medium containing an indicator (triphenyltetrazolium chloride or other). (Author)

  1. Comparison of 9 methods for the determination of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R; Sonntag, O; Külpmann, W R; Feldmann, U

    1979-08-01

    Seven enzymatic procedures for the determination of cholesterol in serum were compared with the Liebermann-Burchard- and a gas-chromatographic method. Using a decision matrix all methods could be ranked according to reliability and practicability . With the exception of the cholesterol oxidase-coupled Kageyama principle and the Liebermann-Burchard procedure, all the other methods showed similar reliability.

  2. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  3. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  8. A method for identifying research priorities for health systems research on health and aging.

    PubMed

    Sivananthan, Saskia N; Chambers, Larry W

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and feasible priority-setting method conducted within a limited budget was used to identify research topics that would have an influence on health services for older adults. Health and aging researchers, policy makers, and caregivers were recruited to complete Delphi surveys that generated and ranked topics and identified other potential researchers. An interdisciplinary team of researchers was selected to produce and submit a proposal to a peer-review-granting agency. This method can be adapted by organizations to determine the focus of their research agenda and to engage individuals for collaboration on future research projects.

  9. Lifecourse Activity Participation From Early, Mid, and Later Adulthood as Determinants of Cognitive Aging: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    PubMed Central

    Pattie, Alison; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. Method: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129). Participants provided retrospective details of their activity participation for young (20–35 years), mid (40–55 years), and later adulthood (60–75 years), and contemporaneously at age 79. Results: Associations between activity and the level of, and change in, cognitive ability in old age were examined with latent growth curve models. Accounting for demographics and childhood cognitive ability, engagement in leisure activities in midlife was positively associated with cognitive ability level (path coefficient = .32), whereas higher physical activity in later adulthood was associated with less cognitive decline (.27). Discussion: The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging; leisure and physical activity during different periods of adulthood may enhance cognitive abilities or reduce decline. PMID:27974473

  10. [Clinical, biochemical and anthropometric studies and determination of biological age in relation to body mass in a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Hunecke, I; Reuter, W; Sauer, I; Ries, W

    1989-01-15

    On 46 adipose persons (25 males and 21 females) and 53 test persons with normal weight (35 males and 18 females) at the age of 25-40 years since 1976 clinical, biochemical and anthropometric investigations as well as the determination of the biological age have annually been performed. Several of the parameters established (e.g. cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure among others) in the course of 9 years within the well-known normal regions draw towards the adequate valid limit value to the pathological entity. The results of the study distinctly show the central role of obesity for the development of risk factors. Despite the partly only with a certain tendency recognizable behaviour of single parameters after 9 years from our point of view the longitudinal method represents itself as a very well suitable method for establishing dynamic processes and risk factors of age.

  11. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  12. Group methods of determining surfactants in water (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Subbotina, E.I.; Dedkov, Yu.M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years new and promising methods for the determination of industrial surfactant waste migration and concentration in the hydrosphere have been developed. These methods include different forms of chromatography, ion selective electrode analysis, titration, and solvent extraction. This article reviews the application and usefulness of each of these methods in the analysis of various surfactants. The methods of chromatography reviewed include liquid column, thin layer, and ion exchange.

  13. Depth determination for shallow teleseismic earthquakes Methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, S.; Wiens, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    Contemporary methods used to determine depths of moderate-sized shallow teleseismic earthquakes are described. These include techniques based on surface wave spectra, and methods which estimate focal depth from the waveforms of body waves. The advantages of different methods and their limitations are discussed, and significant results for plate tectonics, obtained in the last five years by the application of these methods, are presented. 119 references.

  14. Depth determination for shallow teleseismic earthquakes Methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Seth; Wiens, Douglas A.

    1986-01-01

    Contemporary methods used to determine depths of moderate-sized shallow teleseismic earthquakes are described. These include techniques based on surface wave spectra, and methods which estimate focal depth from the waveforms of body waves. The advantages of different methods and their limitations are discussed, and significant results for plate tectonics, obtained in the last five years by the application of these methods, are presented.

  15. A Novel Method for Moisture Determination in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate determination of moisture content of the peanuts is an important factor for preserving the quality and prevention of spoilage in peanuts. Hence, it is very important to devise rapid methods for determining moisture during harvesting, storage, marketing, and processing of peanuts. This paper...

  16. A multispectral method of determining sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A multispectral method for determining sea surface temperatures is discussed. The specifications of the equipment and the atmospheric conditions required for successful multispectral data acquisition are described. Examples of data obtained in the North Atlantic Ocean are presented. The differences between the actual sea surface temperatures and the equivalent blackbody temperatures as determined by a radiometer are plotted.

  17. System and method for determining stability of a neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are methods, systems, and computer-readable media for determining stability of a neural system. The method includes tracking a function world line of an N element neural system within at least one behavioral space, determining whether the tracking function world line is approaching a psychological stability surface, and implementing a quantitative solution that corrects instability if the tracked function world line is approaching the psychological stability surface.

  18. Comparison of four methods for determining nitrate utilization by cryptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, J C; Roberts, G D

    1975-01-01

    This study evaluated the following methods for determining nitrate utilization: Wickerham broth, a special nitrate broth, Delft plate, and nitrate strip. With 236 isolates of cryptococci as test organisms, the special nitrate broth method gave 99% correct results and the Wickerham broth method gave 98%. The nitrate strip and Delft plate methods gave correct results in 94 and 86% of tests, respectively. The special nitrate broth method is judged superior because it provides accurate results within 48 h, compared to 14 days with the Wickerham broth method. PMID:1100649

  19. Method and apparatus for determining the coordinates of an object

    DOEpatents

    Pedersen, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    A simplified method and related apparatus are described for determining the location of points on the surface of an object by varying, in accordance with a unique sequence, the intensity of each illuminated pixel directed to the object surface, and detecting at known detector pixel locations the intensity sequence of reflected illumination from the surface of the object whereby the identity and location of the originating illuminated pixel can be determined. The coordinates of points on the surface of the object are then determined by conventional triangulation methods.

  20. Method for determining properties of red blood cells

    DOEpatents

    Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for quantifying the concentration of hemoglobin in a cell, and indicia of anemia, comprises determining the wavelength of the longitudinal mode of a liquid in a laser microcavity; determining the wavelength of the fundamental transverse mode of a red blood cell in the liquid in the laser microcavity; and determining if the cell is anemic from the difference between the wavelength of the longitudinal mode and the fundamental transverse mode. In addition to measuring hemoglobin, the invention includes a method using intracavity laser spectroscopy to measure the change in spectra as a function of time for measuring the influx of water into a red blood cell and the cell's subsequent rupture.

  1. Face Verification across Age Progression using Discriminative Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Under the MURI Grant N00014-08-10638. REFERENCES [1] “Face and gesture recognition working group,” 2000. [Online]. Available: http://www...Conference on Face & Gesture Recognition (FG), 1998, pp. 30–35. [24] A. Montillo and H. Ling, “Age regression from faces using random forests,” in IEEE...aging model.” in International Conference on Face & Gesture Recognition (FG), 2008. [26] E. Patterson, A. Sethuram, M. Albert, K. Ricanek Jr., and M

  2. Applicability of Demirjian's four methods and Willems method for age estimation in a sample of Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Nursel; Yilanci, Hümeyra Özge; Göksülük, Dinçer

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of five dental methods including Demirjian's original, revised, four teeth, and alternate four teeth methods and Willems method for age estimation in a sample of Turkish children. Panoramic radiographs of 799 children (412 females, 387 males) aged between 2.20 and 15.99years were examined by two observers. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to compare dental methods among gender and age groups. All of the five methods overestimated the chronological age on the average. Among these, Willems method was found to be the most accurate method, which showed 0.07 and 0.15years overestimation for males and females, respectively. It was followed by Demirjian's four teeth methods, revised and original methods. According to the results, Willems method can be recommended for dental age estimation of Turkish children in forensic applications.

  3. Assessment of gestational age in the Cameroonian newborn infant: a comparison of four scoring methods.

    PubMed

    Sunjoh, F; Njamnshi, A K; Tietche, F; Kago, I

    2004-10-01

    A clinical assessment of gestational age using four different methods was performed in the same population of 358 Cameroonian newborn infants with the aim of determining the most applicable in the local context. Method applicability was compared in terms of validity, accuracy, reliability, and ease of administration. The gestational age ranged from 25 to 44 weeks. The infants were evaluated within 72 h from birth, using the scoring methods of Farr (FSM), Dubowitz (DSM), Ballard (New Ballard Score--NBS) and Eregie (ESM). The DSM was the most valid with a 93 per cent agreement within +/-2 weeks of gestational age by dates followed by the ESM with 92.4 per cent. The NBS and the FSM showed lower validity of 85.6 per cent and 78.3 per cent respectively. The ESM was the most accurate with a mean difference (MD) in weeks (+/-1 SD) between gestational age by method and gestational age by dates of 0.259+/-1.376, followed by the NBS with 0.355+/-1.51. The DSM was fairly accurate with a MD of 0.500+/-1.31, and the FSM the least accurate with a MD of 1.228+/-1.495. The DSM was the most reliable with a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94. The NBS and the ESM had comparable reliability with correlation coefficient of 0.93 each. The easiest to administer was the ESM, completed in an average of 41 s, followed by the FSM in 1 min 22 s. The NBS was completed in 2 min 48 s and the DSM in 4 min 28 s. We concluded that the Eregie model has comparable validity and reliability to the Dubowitz score but is more accurate, simple, and very easy to administer. It is therefore recommended where the workload is heavy and health personnel limited, as is the case in developing countries.

  4. On non-invasive 2D and 3D Chromatic White Light image sensors for age determination of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-10-10

    The feasibility of 2D-intensity and 3D-topography images from a non-invasive Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor for the age determination of latent fingerprints is investigated. The proposed method might provide the means to solve the so far unresolved issue of determining a fingerprints age in forensics. Conducting numerous experiments for an indoor crime scene using selected surfaces, different influences on the aging of fingerprints are investigated and the resulting aging variability is determined in terms of inter-person, intra-person, inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Main influence factors are shown to be the sweat composition, temperature, humidity, wind, UV-radiation, surface type, contamination of the finger with water-containing substances, resolution and measured area size, whereas contact time, contact pressure and smearing of the print seem to be of minor importance. Such influences lead to a certain experimental variability in inter-person and intra-person variation, which is higher than the inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Comparing the aging behavior of 17 different features using 1490 time series with a total of 41,520 fingerprint images, the great potential of the CWL technique in combination with the binary pixel feature from prior work is shown. Performing three different experiments for the classification of fingerprints into the two time classes [0, 5 h] and [5, 24 h], a maximum classification performance of 79.29% (kappa=0.46) is achieved for a general case, which is further improved for special cases. The statistical significance of the two best-performing features (both binary pixel versions based on 2D-intensity images) is manually shown and a feature fusion is performed, highlighting the strong dependency of the features on each other. It is concluded that such method might be combined with additional capturing devices, such as microscopes or spectroscopes, to a very promising age estimation scheme.

  5. Graphical method for forecasting radiation exposure from multi-aged fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1986-06-01

    After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation exposure of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation exposures both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the age of fallout and future exposure rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-aged fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.

  6. A graphical method for forecasting radiation exposure from multi-aged fallout from nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Haaland, C M

    1986-06-01

    After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation exposure of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation exposures both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the age of fallout and future exposure rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-aged fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.

  7. [A membrane filter sampling method for determining microbial air pollution].

    PubMed

    Cherneva, P; Kiranova, A

    1996-01-01

    The method is a contribution in the evaluation of the exposition and the control of the standards for organic powders. The method concerns the sample-taking procedure and the analysis-making technique for determining of the concentration of the microbial pollution of the air. It is based on filtering of some amount of air through a membrane filter which is then processed for cultivating of microbial colonies on its surface. The results are obtained in number of microbial colonies per unit of air. The method presents opportunity to select and vary the filtered volume of air, to determine the respirable fraction, to determine the personal exposition, as well as for the simultaneous determining of the microbial pollution together with other important parameters of the particle pollutants of the air (metal, fibre and others).

  8. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE STABILITY OF FLUOROCARBON IOLS

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Z.D.; Haendler, H.M.

    1959-07-21

    A method of determining the stability of a fluorocarbon oil to uranium hexafluoride is presented. The method comprises reacting a weighed sample of the oil with condensed uranium hexafluoride in a reaction zone and titrating the amount of uranium tetrafluoride produced with potassium dichromate.

  9. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  10. Improved Method for Determining the Heat Capacity of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Roger; Moran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    An improved procedure for laboratory determination of the heat capacities of metals is described. The temperature of cold water is continuously recorded with a computer-interfaced temperature probe and the room temperature metal is added. The method is more accurate and faster than previous methods. It allows students to get accurate measurements…

  11. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  12. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  13. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  14. Can bone age determination provide criteria for growth hormone treatment in adopted girls with early puberty?

    PubMed

    Proos, L A; Lönnerholm, T; Jonsson, B; Tuvemo, T

    2006-01-01

    In treatment of idiopathic central precocious puberty, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) have been accepted as the treatment of choice. Since growth velocity may be impaired with GnRHa treatment growth hormone (GH) treatment has been added in clinical trials. Recently, a study followed adopted girls with early or precocious puberty on GnRHa or combined GnRHa and GH treatment to final height. It was found that final height was significantly higher in the combined treatment group, although the difference was small. It was seen that patients that were extremely short at arrival and short at start of treatment seemed to be candidates for combined treatment. We have now analysed the data in order to define criteria for the sub-group in need of combined GnRHa-GH treatment in order to achieve normal final height, i.e. above -2 SDS. Bone ages of 46 patients at start of treatment, randomized to either GnRHa treatment or GnRHa treatment combined with GH, were examined blindly by the same radiologist and the PAH calculated. The methods according to Greulich-Pyle / Bayley-Pinneau (GP/BP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) were used. Predictions versus final height data were analysed. The accuracy of FH prediction was greatest for GnRHa treated group using the GP/BP method. The GP/BP method gave useful cut off limits for when combined treatment was necessary to possibly achieve normal height. If pre-treatment GP/PAH was > 157cm, the patients attained normal height with GnRHa treatment only. Ten out of 13 (77%) such girls could be correctly identified. Using TW2 with a cut off of 164 cm, 9 out of 13 could be selected. Using a multi regression equation of best fit the number of correctly selected cases for GnRHa treatment only, could not be further increased in this group. We conclude that bone age determination and adult height prediction with the Greulich-Pyle/Bayley-Pinneau method, provides useful criteria for selecting the subgroup of adopted girls with early puberty where combined treatment

  15. Methods for determining the physiological state of a plant

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette

    2003-09-23

    The present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter. The methods of the invention include the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer or kinetic spectrophotometer/fluorimeter to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for determining the physiological state of a plant.

  16. [Biological Age as a Method for Systematic Assessment of Ontogenetic Changes in the State of an Organism].

    PubMed

    Dontsov, V I; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a common feature of living and nonliving systems as a disturbance of the structure of the system accumulating with age. The only cause of aging of a living system, which is capable of renewal, is the insufficiency of renewal. The latter manifests itself as two global mechanisms of aging: the genetically determined nonrenewal of a number of structures that can only die with age (stochastic aging) and the regulatory reduction in the rate of self-renewal of living structures. The regulatory reduction in cellular self-renewal (cell growth and division) is most important. At the same chronological age, the degree of aging of the organism in general, as well as individual organs, cells, and systems of the organism, may be different, reflecting the concept of biological age (BA)--an indicator of the level of development, changes, or deterioration of a structure or function of an element of the organism, a functional system, or the organism as a whole. It is expressed in units oftime by relating the values of biomarkers defining the processes of aging with the standard average statistical dependences of changes in these biomarkers with the chronological age. The concept of BA is directly related to the concept of viability of the organism, which is determined by the sum (integral) of viabilities of its parts (in practice, the residual functional resource). For quantitative characterization of aging in general, the index of integrated biological age is used. To give a detailed characterization, the partial biological ages are used, which reflect the aging of different systems of the organism, as well as a number of indices reflecting its functional and psychological possibilities. The contribution of pathological processes to BA is also taken into account. In addition, the amount of retained adaptive reserves in the physical and nervous and mental aspects, the risk factors, and the factors of longevity should be determined. For this purpose, it is necessary to take

  17. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  18. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  19. Hubble Space Telescope observations determine the age of some of the oldest stars in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-05-01

    Globular clusters like NGC 6752 are compact, spherically shaped collections of several hundred thousand stars which orbit our galaxy. Virtually all of the stars in these clusters began their lives at the time of the formation of our galaxy. Astronomers therefore believe that globular clusters contain the oldest sample of stars that we can easily study and that an accurate determination of the ages of such stars would also define the age of our own galaxy since its formation. The age of our galaxy, in turn, sets a firm lower limit on the age of the Universe. Obtaining accurate ages of stars in globular clusters has previously been hindered by the inability to determine accurate distances to these clusters. Using the Wide Field and Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope, a team of astronomers in Italy, the US and Canada obtained long exposure images of NGC 6752 in April 1995. These sharp images allowed them to detect and measure the brightness and color of a number of faint white dwarf stars in the cluster. With dwarfs are the condensed cores of stars that have reached the final stage of their lives as stars. They represent the stellar remains of the more massive stars in NGC 6752 which have completed their evolution. By comparing the apparent brightness and color of these stars with a sample of white dwarfs in the neighborhood of the Sun which have known distances, the team determined the distance to NGC 6752 to be 13,300 light years with an uncertainty of less than 5%. This distance provides an accurate measure of the luminosity of the brightest stars in NGC 67523 that are still burning hydrogen at their center. In turn, the knowledge of this luminosity allows to estimate the time elapsed since the formation of the stars in the cluster, hence the cluster age. This leads rather directly to an age of 15 billion years with a 10% uncertainty. Using current estimates of the time interval between the Big Bang and the era of galaxy formation gives 16-17 billion

  20. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  1. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2003-05-13

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  2. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  3. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria. 410.426 Section 410.426 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- )...

  4. Late Na+ current and protracted electrical recovery are critical determinants of the aging myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Signore, Sergio; Sorrentino, Andrea; Borghetti, Giulia; Cannata, Antonio; Meo, Marianna; Zhou, Yu; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Pasqualini, Francesco; O'Malley, Heather; Sundman, Mark; Tsigkas, Nikolaos; Zhang, Eric; Arranto, Christian; Mangiaracina, Chiara; Isobe, Kazuya; Sena, Brena F.; Kim, Junghyun; Goichberg, Polina; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Isom, Lori L.; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The aging myopathy manifests itself with diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction. We raised the possibility that, in a mouse model of physiological aging, defects in electromechanical properties of cardiomyocytes are important determinants of the diastolic characteristics of the myocardium, independently from changes in structural composition of the muscle and collagen framework. Here we show that an increase in the late Na+ current (INaL) in aging cardiomyocytes prolongs the action potential (AP) and influences temporal kinetics of Ca2+ cycling and contractility. These alterations increase force development and passive tension. Inhibition of INaL shortens the AP and corrects dynamics of Ca2+ transient, cell contraction and relaxation. Similarly, repolarization and diastolic tension of the senescent myocardium are partly restored. Thus, INaL offers inotropic support, but negatively interferes with cellular and ventricular compliance, providing a new perspective of the biology of myocardial aging and the aetiology of the defective cardiac performance in the elderly. PMID:26541940

  5. Determining the age of cats by pulp cavity/tooth width ratio using dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoungsun; Ahn, Jaesang; Kang, Sunmee; Lee, Euiri; Kim, Soohyun; Park, Sangwan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo; Seo, Kangmoon

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the ratio of pulp cavity/tooth width (P/T ratio) in healthy cats. The dental radiographs of 32 cats (16 males and 16 females) were generated with a digital dental X-ray unit with the animals under general anesthesia. Standardized measurement of the canine teeth was performed by drawing a line on the radiograph perpendicular to the cemento- enamel junction (CEJ) of the tooth. There was an inversely proportional correlation between chronological age and the P/T ratio. Moreover, a strong Pearson squared correlation (γ(2) = 0.92) was identified by the curved regression model. No significant differences in the P/T ratio based on gender or breed were found. These results suggest that determination of age by P/T ratio could be clinically useful for estimating the chronological age of cats.

  6. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  7. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  8. New forensic anthropological approachment for the age determination of human fetal skeletons on the base of morphometry of vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Kósa, F; Castellana, C

    2005-01-17

    The anthropometrical study was carried out on 107 human fetal/newborn skeletons (54 male, 43 female, and 9 of unknown sex). The age of the individuals ranged from 4 to 10 lunar months. Each fetal or newborn vertebral region (cervical, thoracal and lumbar) has its own distinguishing features that are easily identifiable even in fragmentary bones. With our large sample size and extension of the age range studied, we are able to determine the fetal age with a considerable degree of accuracy from measurements defined in the vertebral ossification centers using regression equations. A simple rapid method for the identification and classification of fetal vertebral column bones has been contributed. The identification and classifications were carried out using discriminant functions. Knowledge of changes in vertebral column bones during fetal development is important in applied contexts of forensic and anthropology researches.

  9. Determination of S-Factors with the LIT Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidemann, Winfried; Deflorian, Sergio; Efros, Victor D.

    2017-03-01

    The precise determination of astrophysical S-factors is essential for a detailed understanding of the nucleosynthesis in its various facets. It is discussed how the Lorentz integral transform (LIT) method can be applied for such a determination. The astrophysical S-factor for the proton-deuteron radiative capture is considered as test case. The importance of a specific many-body basis used for the LIT equation solution is pointed out. The excellent results of the test are discussed.

  10. System and Method for Wirelessly Determining Fluid Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and method are provided for determining the volume of a fluid in container. Sensors are positioned at distinct locations in a container of a fluid. Each sensor is sensitive to an interface defined by the top surface of the fluid. Interfaces associated with at least three of the sensors are determined and used to find the volume of the fluid in the container in a geometric process.

  11. Fluorometric Method for Determination of Uric Acid in Flour

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    of the excreta of adult Tribolium used in this study for natural infestation, accumulates in infested products providing a quantitative measure of past...by Adult Tribolium 8 4 FLUOROMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF URIC ACID IN FLOUR Introduction Chemical and microanalytical techniques have been...determining uric acid content.’ Approximately 18% of the total excreta from Tribolium confusum is uric acid.2 Various investigators have established

  12. Determination of traces of cobalt in soils: A field method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almond, H.

    1953-01-01

    The growing use of geochemical prospecting methods in the search for ore deposits has led to the development of a field method for the determination of cobalt in soils. The determination is based on the fact that cobalt reacts with 2-nitroso-1-naphthol to yield a pink compound that is soluble in carbon tetrachloride. The carbon tetrachloride extract is shaken with dilute cyanide to complex interfering elements and to remove excess reagent. The cobalt content is estimated by comparing the pink color in the carbon tetrachloride with a standard series prepared from standard solutions. The cobalt 2-nitroso-1-naphtholate system in carbon tetrachloride follows Beer's law. As little as 1 p.p.m. can be determined in a 0.1-gram sample. The method is simple and fast and requires only simple equipment. More than 40 samples can be analyzed per man-day with an accuracy within 30% or better.

  13. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-25

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein's ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter's mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na(+)-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures.

  14. Stability indicating methods for the determination of clozapine.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nagiba Y; Elkawy, Mohamed A; Elzeany, Badr E; Wagieh, Nour E

    2002-08-22

    Five new selective, precise and accurate methods are described for the determination of clozapine in the presence of its main degradation product. Method A utilizes the second and third derivative spectrophotometry at 315 and 305 nm, respectively. Method B is RSD(1) spectrophotometric method based on the simultaneous use of the first derivative of ratio spectra and measurement at 295 nm. Method C is a pH-induced difference (delta A) spectrophotometry using UV measurement at 325 nm. Method D is a densitometric one, after separation on silica gel plate using methanol: water as mobile phase, and the spot was scanned at 295 nm. Method E is RP-HPLC using acetonitrile: water (40:60 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detection was at 295 nm. Regression analysis showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 3-10, 4-10, 10-25 micro g/ml, 200-1000 ng/spot, 5-100 micro g/ml with percentage recoveries of 99.4+/-0.28, 99.8+/-0.20, 100.05+/-0.11, 99.41+/-0.34, 100.11+/-0.07 and 100.07+/-0.05% for methods A, B, C, D and E, respectively. These methods are suitable as stability indicating methods for the determination of clozapine in the presence of its main degradation product either in bulk powder or in pharmaceutical formulations.

  15. A novel method for determining human ex vivo submaximal skeletal muscle mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Gram, Martin; Jensen, Martin Borch; Lund, Michael Taulo; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Dela, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite numerous studies, there is no consensus about whether mitochondrial function is altered with increased age. The novelty of the present study is the determination of mitochondrial function at submaximal activity rates, which is more physiologically relevant than the ex vivo functionality protocols used previously. Muscle biopsies were taken from 64 old or young male subjects (aged 60–70 or 20–30 years). Aged subjects were recruited as trained or untrained. Muscle biopsies were used for the isolation of mitochondria and subsequent measurements of DNA repair, anti-oxidant capacity and mitochondrial protein levels (complexes I–V). Mitochondrial function was determined by simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption, membrane potential and hydrogen peroxide emission using pyruvate + malate (PM) or succinate + rotenone (SR) as substrates. Proton leak was lower in aged subjects when determined at the same membrane potential and was unaffected by training status. State 3 respiration was lower in aged untrained subjects. This effect, however, was alleviated in aged trained subjects. H2O2 emission with PM was higher in aged subjects, and was exacerbated by training, although it was not changed when using SR. However, with a higher manganese superoxide dismuthase content, the trained aged subjects may actually have lower or similar mitochondrial superoxide emission compared to the untrained subjects. We conclude that ageing and the physical activity level in aged subjects are both related to changes in the intrinsic functionality of the mitochondrion in skeletal muscle. Both of these changes could be important factors in determining the metabolic health of the aged skeletal muscle cell. Key points The present study utilized a novel method aiming to investigate mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle at submaximal levels and at a predefined membrane potential. The effect of age and training status was investigated using a cross

  16. Spatial contrast sensitivity - Effects of age, test-retest, and psychophysical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Kent E.; Jaffe, Myles J.; Caruso, Rafael C.; Demonasterio, Francisco M.

    1988-01-01

    Two different psychophysical methods were used to test the spatial contrast sensitivity in normal subjects from five age groups. The method of adjustment showed a decline in sensitivity with increasing age at all spatial frequencies, while the forced-choice procedure showed an age-related decline predominantly at high spatial frequencies. It is suggested that a neural component is responsible for this decline.

  17. Method for experimental determination of flutter speed by parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1989-01-01

    A method for flight flutter testing is proposed which enables one to determine the flutter dynamic pressure from flights flown far below the flutter dynamic pressure. The method is based on the identification of the coefficients of the equations of motion at low dynamic pressures, followed by the solution of these equations to compute the flutter dynamic pressure. The initial results of simulated data reported in the present work indicate that the method can accurately predict the flutter dynamic pressure, as described. If no insurmountable difficulties arise in the implementation of this method, it may significantly improve the procedures for flight flutter testing.

  18. Child Weight Growth Trajectory and its Determinants in a Sample of Iranian Children from Birth until 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayed-Mohsen; Maracy, Mohamad-Reza; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth is one of the most important indices in child health. The best and most effective way to investigate child health is measuring the physical growth indices such as weight, height and head circumference. Among these measures, weight growth is the simplest and the most effective way to determine child growth status. Weight trend at a given age is the result of cumulative growth experience, whereas growth velocity represents what is happening at the time. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted among 606 children repeatedly measured from birth until 2 years of age. We used linear mixed model to analyze repeated measures and to determine factors affecting the growth trajectory. LOWESS smooth curve was used to draw velocity curves. Results: Gender, child rank, birth status and feeding mode had a significant effect on weight trajectory. Boys had higher weight during the study. Infants with exclusive breast feeding had higher weight than other infants. Boys had higher growth velocity up to age 6 month. Breast fed infants had higher growth velocity up to 6 month, but thereafter the velocity was higher in other infants. Conclusions: Many of the studies have investigated child growth, but most of them used cross-sectional design. In this study, we used longitudinal method to determine effective factors on weight trend in children from birth until 2-year-old. The effects of perinatal factors on further growth should be considered for prevention of growth disorders and their late complications. PMID:24829720

  19. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency nonintrusively

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.

    2011-08-30

    A system and method for nonintrusively determining electric motor efficiency includes a processor programed to, while the motor is in operation, determine a plurality of stator input currents, electrical input data, a rotor speed, a value of stator resistance, and an efficiency of the motor based on the determined rotor speed, the value of stator resistance, the plurality of stator input currents, and the electrical input data. The determination of the rotor speed is based on one of the input power and the plurality of stator input currents. The determination of the value of the stator resistance is based on at least one of a horsepower rating and a combination of the plurality of stator input currents and the electrical input data. The electrical input data includes at least one of an input power and a plurality of stator input voltages.

  20. Age-related changes in rat cerebellar basket cells: a quantitative study using unbiased stereological methods

    PubMed Central

    HENRIQUE, RUI M. F.; ROCHA, EDUARDO; REIS, ALCINDA; MARCOS, RICARDO; OLIVEIRA, MARIA H.; SILVA, MARIA W.; MONTEIRO, ROGÉRIO A. F.

    2001-01-01

    Cortical cerebellar basket cells are stable postmitotic cells; hence, they are liable to endure age-related changes. Since the cerebellum is a vital organ for the postural control, equilibrium and motor coordination, we aimed to determine the quantitative morphological changes in those interneurons with the ageing process, using unbiased techniques. Material from the cerebellar cortex (Crus I and Crus II) was collected from female rats aged 2, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 mo (5 animals per each age group), fixed by intracardiac perfusion, and processed for transmission electron microscopy, using conventional techniques. Serial semithin sections were obtained (5 blocks from each rat), enabling the determination of the number-weighted mean nuclear volume (by the nucleator method). On ultrathin sections, 25 cell profiles from each animal were photographed. The volume density of the nucleus, ground substance, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus (Golgi) and dense bodies (DB), and the mean surface density of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were determined, by point counting, using a morphometric grid. The mean total volumes of the soma and organelles and the mean total surface area of the RER [s̄N (RER)] were then calculated. The results were analysed with 1-way ANOVA; posthoc pairwise comparisons of group means were performed using the Newman-Keuls test. The relation between age and each of the parameters was studied by regression analysis. Significant age-related changes were observed for the mean volumes of the soma, ground substance, Golgi, DB, and s̄N (RER). Positive linear trends were found for the mean volumes of the ground substance, Golgi, and DB; a negative linear trend was found for the s̄N (RER). These results indicate that rat cerebellar basket cells endure important age-related changes. The significant decrease in the s̄N (RER) may be responsible for a reduction in the rate of protein synthesis. Additionally, it may be implicated in a cascade of events

  1. Method of determining fracture parameters for heterogenous formations

    SciTech Connect

    Solimon, M.Y.; Kuhlman, R.D.; Poulson, D.K.

    1991-04-09

    This patent describes a method of determining the parameters of a full scale fracturing treatment of a subterranean formation. It comprises injecting fluid into a wellbore penetrating the subterranean formation to generate a fracture in the formation; measuring the pressure of the fluid in the fracture over time; determining a leak-off exponent that characterizes the rate at which the fluid leaks off into the formation as a function of time; determining parameters of a fracturing treatment including fracture length and width using the leak-off exponent.

  2. Determinant Computation on the GPU using the Condensation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisul Haque, Sardar; Moreno Maza, Marc

    2012-02-01

    We report on a GPU implementation of the condensation method designed by Abdelmalek Salem and Kouachi Said for computing the determinant of a matrix. We consider two types of coefficients: modular integers and floating point numbers. We evaluate the performance of our code by measuring its effective bandwidth and argue that it is numerical stable in the floating point number case. In addition, we compare our code with serial implementation of determinant computation from well-known mathematical packages. Our results suggest that a GPU implementation of the condensation method has a large potential for improving those packages in terms of running time and numerical stability.

  3. Determination of nitrous oxide concentrations by spectroscopic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoeva, Larissa A.; Kiseleva, Margarete S.; Sinelnikova, Galina E.

    1990-08-01

    In the proposed paper an empirical method has been developed for determination of nitrous oxide concentration using the absorption band 2'), in proximity of), 3.87J4m, free from overlapping with absorption bands from other atmospheric gases. The transmission spectra of the atmospheric air are recorded with unresolved rotation-vibration structure. The method is inexpensive, simple and efficient It may be used for determination of enviromental pollution in homogeneous media (laboratory or production plant conditions, ground layer of atmosphere) and of unhomogeneous composistion mixtures when studying the contents of nitrous oxide along slope paths in troposphere and stratosphere.

  4. A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

    2014-01-01

    The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population.

  5. Method and apparatus for determining material structural integrity

    DOEpatents

    Pechersky, Martin

    1996-01-01

    A non-destructive method and apparatus for determining the structural integrity of materials by combining laser vibrometry with damping analysis techniques to determine the damping loss factor of a material. The method comprises the steps of vibrating the area being tested over a known frequency range and measuring vibrational force and velocity as a function of time over the known frequency range. Vibrational velocity is preferably measured by a laser vibrometer. Measurement of the vibrational force depends on the vibration method. If an electromagnetic coil is used to vibrate a magnet secured to the area being tested, then the vibrational force is determined by the amount of coil current used in vibrating the magnet. If a reciprocating transducer is used to vibrate a magnet secured to the area being tested, then the vibrational force is determined by a force gauge in the reciprocating transducer. Using known vibrational analysis methods, a plot of the drive point mobility of the material over the preselected frequency range is generated from the vibrational force and velocity measurements. The damping loss factor is derived from a plot of the drive point mobility over the preselected frequency range using the resonance dwell method and compared with a reference damping loss factor for structural integrity evaluation.

  6. Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A; Wockner, Leesa F; Birrell, Geoff W; Norris, Emma L; Kienzle, Vivian J; Sikulu, Maggy T; Ryan, Peter A; Gorman, Jeffery J; Kay, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  7. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. A reproducible method for determination of nitrocellulose in soil.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Denise K; Majerus, Chelsea R; Laubscher, Randy D; Shannon, John P

    2008-01-15

    A reproducible analytical method for determination of nitrocellulose in soil is described. The new method provides the precision and accuracy needed for quantitation of nitrocellulose in soils to enable worker safety on contaminated sites. The method utilizes water and ethanol washes to remove co-contaminants, acetone extraction of nitrocellulose, and base hydrolysis of the extract to reduce nitrate groups. The hydrolysate is then neutralized and analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of free nitrate and nitrite. A variety of bases for hydrolysis and acids for neutralization were evaluated, with 5N sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide giving the most complete hydrolysis and interference-free neutralization, respectively. The concentration of nitrocellulose in the soil is calculated from the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite and the weight percentage of nitrogen content in nitrocellulose. The laboratory detection limit for the analysis is 10mg/kg. The method acceptance range for recovery of nitrocellulose from control samples is 78-105%.

  9. Determinants of VO2 max decline with aging: an integrated perspective.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Hepple, Russell T

    2008-02-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in the capacity for physical activity. Central to this decline is a reduction in the maximal rate of oxygen utilization, or VO2 max. This critical perspective examines the roles played by the factors that determine the rate of muscle oxygen delivery versus those that determine the utilization of oxygen by muscle as a means of probing the reasons for VO2 max decline with aging. Reductions in muscle oxygen delivery, principally due to reduced cardiac output and perhaps also a maldistribution of cardiac output, appear to play the dominant role up until late middle age. On the other hand, there is a decline in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with aging, due in part to mitochondrial dysfunction, which appears to play a particularly important role in extreme old age (senescence) where skeletal muscle VO2 max is observed to decline by approximately 50% even under conditions of similar oxygen delivery as young adult muscle. It is noteworthy that at least the structural aspects of the capillary bed do not appear to be reduced in a manner that would compromise the capacity for muscle oxygen diffusion even in senescence.

  10. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible.

  11. Determining sunspot positions in the classroom using the Carrington method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaviz, Pedro; Sánchez-Bajo, Florentino; Vaquero, José M.

    2016-07-01

    The method developed by Richard Carrington nearly 150 years ago is still very useful in order to determine the sunspot heliographic coordinates, owing to its simplicity and low cost equipment required. In this paper, we present a very detailed explanation of the procedure, along with an example of an application. With regard to this, the method can be employed successfully for educational purposes, due to the noticeable accuracy that it provides using a simple instrumental setup.

  12. Accurate Method for Determining Adhesion of Cantilever Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.; de Boer, M.P.

    1999-01-08

    Using surface micromachined samples, we demonstrate the accurate measurement of cantilever beam adhesion by using test structures which are adhered over long attachment lengths. We show that this configuration has a deep energy well, such that a fracture equilibrium is easily reached. When compared to the commonly used method of determining the shortest attached beam, the present method is much less sensitive to variations in surface topography or to details of capillary drying.

  13. Method for determining formation quality factor from seismic data

    DOEpatents

    Taner, M. Turhan; Treitel, Sven

    2005-08-16

    A method is disclosed for calculating the quality factor Q from a seismic data trace. The method includes calculating a first and a second minimum phase inverse wavelet at a first and a second time interval along the seismic data trace, synthetically dividing the first wavelet by the second wavelet, Fourier transforming the result of the synthetic division, calculating the logarithm of this quotient of Fourier transforms and determining the slope of a best fit line to the logarithm of the quotient.

  14. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  15. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. Methods In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25–35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands’ literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (p<0.001) and vaginitis. In addition, significant relationships between health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Conclusion Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial

  16. Environments for ageing, assistive technology and self-determination: ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    The development of information and communication technologies for design of environments for ageing is of great importance considering demographic trends in the future. There is a realistic hope for the preservation of self-determination and independence in the long term. However, some risks like a gradual loss of privacy should not be underestimated. The article discusses some ethical problems within this context. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the development and implementation of these technologies might be discussed for instance under some ethical assumptions of personal self-responsibility as well as social responsibility for the widest independence in advanced age.

  17. The optical density of erythrolabe determined by a new method

    PubMed Central

    King-Smith, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    1. A new method is described for the determination of optical density by retinal densitometry based on an analysis of stray light. 2. The basic assumption used is that the stray light present in retinal densitometry is independent of wave-length. The justification for this assumption is considered. 3. The stray light and hence the optical density was determined by a method of successive approximations using a Linc 8 computer. 4. The optical density of erythrolabe for the direction of maximum Stiles—Crawford efficiency was determined for five subjects, two deuteranopes, two deuteranomalous and one red-rich normal subject. The mean values for three of the subjects were close to the grand mean value of 0·42, but the other two subjects had considerably higher and lower values respectively. 5. The results are in satisfactory agreement with optical density values determined by the self-screening method using retinal densitometry, and also with determinations using microspectrophotometry and psychophysics. 6. The relevance of dielectric wave-guide modes in the outer segments is considered. PMID:4541512

  18. [Development of analytical method for determination nicotine metabolites in urine].

    PubMed

    Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Florek, Ewa; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wilimowska, Jolanta; Loba, Urszula

    2009-01-01

    The assay of biomarkers in biological material is the most popular and reliable method in estimate exposure to tobacco smoke. Nicotine and its metabolites qualify to the most specific biomarkers for tobacco smoke. Currently the most often used are cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine. The aim of this study was development of easy and quick method of determining nicotine and its main metabolites with high performance liquid chromatography--available in most laboratories. Nicotine and its metabolites in urine (cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and nicotine N-oxide) was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometry detection (HPLC-UV). The determined compounds were extracted from urine by means of the liquid-liquid technique, before analysed by the HPLC method. Developed technique of high performance liquid chromatography proved to be useful to assessment nicotine and its four metabolites in smokers, though further research are necessary. The further modification of procedure is required, because of the interferences of cotinine N-oxide with matrix, which prevent determination. Increasing the efficiency of extraction nicotine and nornicotine could enable the determination in people exposed on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This study confirm other authors' observations that 3'-hydroxycotinine might be equivalent with cotinine predictor of tobacco smoke exposure, however further studies are required.

  19. A Quick Method for Determining the Density of Single Crystals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Pascual; Gutierrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how the Archimedes method is used to determine the density of a single crystal of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. Also shows how to calculate the density of other chemicals when they are available as single crystals. Experimental procedures and materials needed are included. (JN)

  20. NIR reflectance method to determine the Moisture Content in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is an important property that is measured and monitored at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. In this work an NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) reflectance method, that would rapidly determine the average mc of a peanut sample (about ...

  1. Determination of the Electronics Charge--Electrolysis of Water Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatachar, Arun C.

    1985-01-01

    Presents an alternative method for measuring the electronic charge using data from the electrolysis of acidified distilled water. The process (carried out in a commercially available electrolytic cell) has the advantage of short completion time so that students can determine electron charge and mass in one laboratory period. (DH)

  2. Method and apparatus for determining material structural integrity

    DOEpatents

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a nondestructive method and apparatus for determining the structural integrity of materials by combining laser vibrometry with damping analysis to determine the damping loss factor. The method comprises the steps of vibrating the area being tested over a known frequency range and measuring vibrational force and velocity vs time over the known frequency range. Vibrational velocity is preferably measured by a laser vibrometer. Measurement of the vibrational force depends on the vibration method: if an electromagnetic coil is used to vibrate a magnet secured to the area being tested, then the vibrational force is determined by the coil current. If a reciprocating transducer is used, the vibrational force is determined by a force gauge in the transducer. Using vibrational analysis, a plot of the drive point mobility of the material over the preselected frequency range is generated from the vibrational force and velocity data. Damping loss factor is derived from a plot of the drive point mobility over the preselected frequency range using the resonance dwell method and compared with a reference damping loss factor for structural integrity evaluation.

  3. A METHOD OF DETERMINING A CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR AVAILABILITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report presents a method of determining a confidence interval for availability when it is estimated from the mean time between equipment...for a confidence interval for availability. An example is included to demonstrate the procedure of placing a confidence interval about the estimated availability.

  4. An approximate method for determining of investment risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavkova, Maria; Tzenova, Zlatina

    2016-12-01

    In this work a method for determining of investment risk during all economic states is considered. It is connected to matrix games with two players. A definition for risk in a matrix game is introduced. Three properties are proven. It is considered an appropriate example.

  5. An acoustic method for the determination of Avogadro's number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houari, Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    To diversify the measurement techniques of Avogadro's number in physics teaching, I propose a simple acoustic method for the experimental determination of Avogadro's number based only on the measurement of the speed of sound in metals, provided that their Debye temperatures are known.

  6. An Acoustic Method for the Determination of Avogadro's Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    To diversify the measurement techniques of Avogadro's number in physics teaching, I propose a simple acoustic method for the experimental determination of Avogadro's number based only on the measurement of the speed of sound in metals, provided that their Debye temperatures are known. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. NEW CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT METHOD OF DETERMINING GLYCOPROTEINS IN BLOOD SERUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The reaction with ammonium molybdate is a simple and at the same time a very sensitive method for determining the level of glycoproteins in the blood ... serum , which has a number of advantages over the diphehylamine reaction. The reaction with ammonium molybdate is a valuable supplementary test for

  8. Determination of fluorine in organic compounds: Microcombustion method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, H.S.

    1951-01-01

    A reliable and widely applicable means of determining fluorine in organic compounds has long been needed. Increased interest in this field of research in recent years has intensified the need. Fluorine in organic combinations may be determined by combustion at 900?? C. in a quartz tube with a platinum catalyst, followed by an acid-base titration of the combustion products. Certain necessary precautions and known limitations are discussed in some detail. Milligram samples suffice, and the accuracy of the method is about that usually associated with the other halogen determinations. Use of this method has facilitated the work upon organic fluorine compounds in this laboratory and it should prove to be equally valuable to others.

  9. Methods of determining complete sensor requirements for autonomous mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of determining complete sensor requirements for autonomous mobility of an autonomous system includes computing a time variation of each behavior of a set of behaviors of the autonomous system, determining mobility sensitivity to each behavior of the autonomous system, and computing a change in mobility based upon the mobility sensitivity to each behavior and the time variation of each behavior. The method further includes determining the complete sensor requirements of the autonomous system through analysis of the relative magnitude of the change in mobility, the mobility sensitivity to each behavior, and the time variation of each behavior, wherein the relative magnitude of the change in mobility, the mobility sensitivity to each behavior, and the time variation of each behavior are characteristic of the stability of the autonomous system.

  10. Accuracy of dental age estimation in Venezuelan children: comparison of Demirjian and Willems methods.

    PubMed

    Medina, Aída C; Blanco, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Dental age is a somatic maturity indicator with importance in clinical and forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study is to compare the applicability of the Demirjian and Willems methods for dental age estimation in a group of Venezuelan children. Panoramic radiographs of 238 Venezuelan children aged 5-13 years were used to assess dental age using the methods described by Demirjian and Willems. Children with unclear panoramic radiographs, dental agenesis, and premature loss of primary teeth were excluded. Mean differences between dental age and chronological age by gender and age groups were estimated (ANOVA, Student tests p = 0.05). For the Demirjian method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.62 +/- 0.93 years, statistically significant. The mean overestimation was lower for females than for males (females 0.56 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.67 +/- 0.93 years). For the Willems method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.15 +/- 0.97 years, not statistically significant. Accuracy was significantly different between genders, performing best for females (females 0.01 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.29 +/- 0.96 years). The Willems method for age estimation was found to be more accurate than the Demirjian method in this sample of Venezuelan children.

  11. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamalandua, Aubeline

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0–91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19–70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals PMID:26280308

  12. Determination of higher order accelerations by a functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosie, C.

    A functional method is developed for the simultaneous determination of all the linear accelerations which exist in the differential equation of a material system dynamics. The method introduces variable angular accelerations of different orders, called direct connection functions, which allow the passing from a linear acceleration of a certain order to that of a higher order. Feedback functions are also introduced which allow the passing from a linear acceleration of a certain order to that of lower orders. This method is applicable to accelerations which occur when passenger trains move rapidly around a curve and at the vertical vibrations of trucks and tractors.

  13. [A method for determining the toxigenicity of micromycetes].

    PubMed

    Volkov, N V

    1992-01-01

    A method is suggested to determine toxigenicity of microscopic fungi from genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, etc. which contaminate fodder, food products and environment objects. The method is based on the property of micromycetes isolated from fodder, food products and environment objects to produce mycotoxins under optimal conditions of their cultivation on the nutrient media. Their further extraction by the organic solvent, evaporation and emulsification of the extract and its peroral introduction to young female rats cause a disease and death of animals. The suggested method may be used for recognizing and preventing mycotoxicoses of farm animals and poultry.

  14. Optoelectronic method for determining platinum in biological products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Simona; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Macovei, Radu Alexandru; Caragea, Genica; Forje, Mǎrgǎrita; Grecu, Iulia; Vlǎdescu, Marian; Viscol, Oana

    2016-12-01

    Of all platinum metals, platinum has the most uses and it's the most abundant and most easily to be processed. Its use in auto catalysts results in environmental contamination of crowded cities and high-traffic roads. In medicine, Pt is used as a cytostatic drug. In order to study the degree of contamination of the population with Pt or the correctness of treatment with Pt, it has been developed a method for its determination from urine or blood samples with a system Graphite Furnance - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, (GF-AAS) Varian. There are presented the methods of sampling processing for blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. In the determination of the operating parameters for the system GF-AAS, was aimed the reducing of the nonanatomic absorbance by optimizing the drying temperatures, the calcination and atomization temperatures and the removal of the nonanatomic absorbance with D2 lamp. As a result of the use of the method are presented the concentrations of Pt in the blood or urine of a group of patients in Bucharest, a city with heavy traffic of vehicles. GF-AAS method presented is sensitive, reproducible, and relatively easy to apply with an acceptable cost. With this method, the concentration of Pt can be determined from blood and urine, both in order to establish the degree of contamination with Pt and for monitoring cancer therapy with platinum compounds.

  15. Apparatus and method for determining solids circulation rate

    DOEpatents

    Ludlow, J Christopher [Morgantown, WV; Spenik, James L [Morgantown, WV

    2012-02-14

    The invention relates to a method of determining bed velocity and solids circulation rate in a standpipe experiencing a moving packed bed flow, such as the in the standpipe section of a circulating bed fluidized reactor The method utilizes in-situ measurement of differential pressure over known axial lengths of the standpipe in conjunction with in-situ gas velocity measurement for a novel application of Ergun equations allowing determination of standpipe void fraction and moving packed bed velocity. The method takes advantage of the moving packed bed property of constant void fraction in order to integrate measured parameters into simultaneous solution of Ergun-based equations and conservation of mass equations across multiple sections of the standpipe.

  16. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  17. Validation of a Numerical Method for Determining Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.; Tanner, Sharon E.; Parrott, Tony L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the initial results of a test series to evaluate a method for determining the normal incidence impedance of a locally reacting acoustically absorbing liner, located on the lower wall of a duct in a grazing incidence, multi-modal, non-progressive acoustic wave environment without flow. This initial evaluation is accomplished by testing the methods' ability to converge to the known normal incidence impedance of a solid steel plate, and to the normal incidence impedance of an absorbing test specimen whose impedance was measured in a conventional normal incidence tube. The method is shown to converge to the normal incident impedance values and thus to be an adequate tool for determining the impedance of specimens in a grazing incidence, multi-modal, nonprogressive acoustic wave environment for a broad range of source frequencies.

  18. Validated spectrofluorimetric method for determination of selected aminoglycosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Ahmed, Hytham M.; Hammad, Mohamed A.; Derayea, Sayed M.

    2015-01-01

    New, sensitive, and selective spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of three aminoglycoside drugs in different dosage forms, namely; neomycin sulfate (NEO), tobramycin (TOB) and kanamycin sulfate (KAN). The method is based on Hantzsch condensation reaction between the primary amino group of aminoglycosides with acetylacetone and formaldehyde in pH 2.7 yielding highly yellow fluorescent derivatives measured emission (471 nm) and excitation (410 nm) wavelengths. The fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the concentration over the range 10-60, 40-100 and 5-50 ng/mL for NEO, TOB and KAN respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for determination of these drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  19. Dental age estimation using Demirjian and Willems methods: cross sectional study on children from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Ambarkova, Vesna; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Biočina-Lukenda, Dolores; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate applicability of Demirjian and Willems methods for calculating dental age of children in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia we analyzed panoramic radiographs of 966 children (485 female and 481 male, aged 6-13 years) treated at the University and Community Dental Clinics in Skopje using four Demirjian methods and a Willems method for determining dental ages. Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement of mineralization stages were 0.86 and 0.82, respectively. All methods significantly overestimated dental age when compared to the chronological age (p<0.001). In males, the lowest overestimation was shown using Willems method (0.52±0.87 years), followed by Demirjian methods from 1976 using PM1, PM2, M1, M2 teeth (0.69±0.92 years) and using I2, PM1, PM2, M2 teeth (0.80±0.98 years). The greatest overestimation were shown using Demirjian methods using 7 teeth from 1976 (0.92±0.99 years) and method from 1973 (1.06±1.07 years). In females, the lowest overestimation was shown using Willems method (0.33±0.83 years) than the Demirjian method using PM1, PM2, M1, M2 teeth (1.00±1.01 years), following methods from 1976 using 7 teeth (1.03±1.01 years) and I2, PM1, PM2, M2 teeth (1.12±0.96 years). The greatest overestimation was for method from 1973 using 7 teeth (1.17±0.98 years). Willems method was the most accurate while Demirjian's methods for dental age calculation are not suitable on children from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

  20. The accumulation of stable cytogenetic rearrangements with age-determined by chromosome painting

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, M.J.; Lee, D.A.; Senft, J.R.; Briner, J.F.; Moore, D.H. II; Tucker, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Chromosome painting is a rapid method of quantifying structural chromosomal rearrangements. The method is particularly useful for detecting stable aberrations which are difficult and expensive to quantify with classical methods. Translocations, being inherently stable, can be used as a biodosimeter for chronic and temporally-displaced exposure to radiation. Translocations may also be useful for quantifying chronic exposure to environmentally related agents which may result in an accumulation of cytogenetic damage with age. Because most chemical exposures are low and chronic, conventional cytogenetic methods are not expected to be informative. To understand the extent that age and lifestyle factors impact the frequency of stable aberrations, we used chromosome painting in healthy individuals who have not been occupationally or accidentally exposed to radiation or chemicals, and who have not received chemo- or radiotherapy. To date we have analyzed 15 umbilical cord bloods as well as peripheral blood samples from 83 adults aged up to 77 years. Because stable aberrations are rare in unexposed people, we have scored large numbers of cells from each subject. Thus far we have analyzed the equivalent of more than 78,000 metaphases from these 83 people, and have observed an average of 0.75% of cells with translocations or stable insertions. A significant curvilinear relationship with age is apparent (R{sup 2} = 0.69, p <0.00001). No effect with smoking was seen.

  1. Spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, and densitometric methods for the determination of indapamide.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadia F

    2003-01-01

    Three sensitive spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, and densitometric methods are described for the determination of indapamide. The first and second methods are based on the oxidative coupling reaction of indapamide with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone HCl (MBTH) in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium sulfate in an acidic medium. The absorbance of the reaction product is measured at the lambdamax, 601 nm. With the same reaction, indapamide is determined by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of excess cerous ions at the emission lambdamax, 350 nm, and the excitation at lambdamax, 300 nm. The reaction conditions were optimized, and Beer's law was obeyed for indapamide at 1.2-9.6 microg/mL with mean recoveries of 99.92 +/- 0.83 and 99.97 +/- 1.11%, respectively. The third method, a stability-indicating densitometric assay, was developed for the determination of indapamide, using toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (69 + 30 + 1, v/v/v) as the developing system and scanning at the lambdamax, 242 nm, in the presence of the degradation product and related substance; for the indapamide concentration range of 0.6-6 microg/spot, the mean recovery was 99.73 +/- 0.71%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of indapamide in bulk powder and commercial tablets, and the results of the analysis agreed statistically with those obtained with the official method. Furthermore, the methods were validated according to the guidelines of the U.S. Pharmacopeia and also assessed by applying the standard additions technique.

  2. Advanced digital methods for solid propellant burning rate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel A.

    The work presented here is a study of a digital method for determining the combustion bomb burning rate of a fuel-rich gas generator propellant sample using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The advanced digital method, which places user defined limits on the search for the ultrasonic echo from the burning surface, is computationally faster than the previous cross correlation method, and is able to analyze data for this class of propellant that the previous cross correlation data reduction method could not. For the conditions investigated, the best fit burning rate law at 800 psi from the ultrasonic technique and advanced cross correlation method is within 3 percent of an independent analysis of the same data, and is within 5 percent of the best fit burning rate law found from parallel research of the same propellant in a motor configuration.

  3. Determinants of contraceptive use and method choice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koc, I

    2000-07-01

    In this study, the determinants of contraceptive use and method choice are examined based on various variables, classified as individual, cultural, fertility and contextual. The data used came from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The main finding is that there exists a positive association between the educational level of both spouses and the use of contraceptive methods in Turkey. After all individual, cultural, fertility and contextual variables are controlled, a woman's education is a stronger predictor of method use and method choice than that of her husband. Increasing the educational level of women may be the most effective means of advancing family planning acceptance and increasing the demand for contraceptive services in Turkey. The study also shows that, to a great extent, contraceptive use and choice of modern method depend on the sex of a couple's living children, implying some preference for sons, although generally women prefer to have children of both sexes.

  4. Mountaintop island age determines species richness of boreal mammals in the American Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, J.K.; Bogan, M.A.; Yates, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Models that describe the mechanisms responsible for insular patterns of species richness include the equilibrium theory of island biogeography and the nonequilibrium vicariance model. The relative importance of dispersal or vicariance in structuring insular distribution patterns can be inferred from these models. Predictions of the alternative models were tested for boreal mammals in the American Southwest. Age of mountaintop islands of boreal habitat was determined by constructing a geographic cladogram based on characteristics of intervening valley barriers. Other independent variables included area and isolation of mountaintop islands. Island age was the most important predictor of species richness. In contrast with previous studies of species richness patterns in this system, these results supported the nonequilibrium vicariance model, which indicates that vicariance has been the primary determinant of species distribution patterns in this system.

  5. Method of trivalent chromium concentration determination by atomic spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Reheulishvili, Aleksandre N.; Tsibakhashvili, Neli Ya.

    2006-12-12

    A method is disclosed for determining the concentration of trivalent chromium Cr(III) in a sample. The addition of perchloric acid has been found to increase the atomic chromium spectrometric signal due to Cr(III), while leaving the signal due to hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) unchanged. This enables determination of the Cr(III) concentration without pre-concentration or pre-separation from chromium of other valences. The Cr(III) concentration may be measured using atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry or atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

  6. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOEpatents

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  7. Non-invasive method of determining diastolic intracranial pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining diastolic intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. A first change in the length of a path across the skull of the patient caused by a known change in ICP is measured and used to determine an elasticity constant for the patient. Next, a second change in the length of the path across the patient's skull occurring between systolic and diastolic portions of the patient's heartbeat is measured. The patient's diastolic ICP is a function of the elasticity constant and the second change.

  8. Field method for the determination of molybdenum in plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichen, Laura E.; Ward, F.N.

    1951-01-01

    Fresh plant material is ashed directly by heating in nickel or platinum dishes over a "flame. An acid solution of 25 milligrams of ash is treated with stannous chloride and potassium thiocyanate. The amber-colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex ion is extracted with isopropyl ether, and the intensity of the color of the ether layer over a sample solution is compared with the ether layer over standard molybdenum solutions treated similarly. Field determinations can be made quickly and the method requires no special equipment. As little as 0.25 microgram or 0.001 percent molybdenum can be determined in plant ash.

  9. Systems and methods for determining a spacecraft orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard R (Inventor); Luquette, Richard J (Inventor); Lee, Michael H (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Disclosed are systems and methods of determining or estimating an orientation of a spacecraft. An exemplary system generates telemetry data, including star observations, in a satellite. A ground station processes the telemetry data with data from a star catalog, to generate display data which, in this example, includes observed stars overlaid with catalog stars. An operator views the display and generates an operator input signal using a mouse device, to pair up observed and catalog stars. Circuitry in the ground station then processes two pairs of observed and catalog stars, to determine an orientation of the spacecraft.

  10. Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure

    DOEpatents

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

    1983-11-01

    A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure at regions of interest within the object.

  11. [Generic method for determination of volatile organic solvents in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Da, Jing; Huang, Xianglu; Wang, Gangli; Cao, Jin; Zhang, Qingsheng

    2014-11-01

    A generic screening, confirmation and determination method was established based on 36 commonly used volatile organic solvents in cosmetics by headspace gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method included a database for pilot screening and identifi- cation of those solvents and their quantitative method. Pilot screening database was composed by two sections, one was household section built by two columns with opposite polarities (col- umn VF-1301 ms and DB-5 ms) using retention index in different column systems as qualitative parameter, and the other was NIST MS search version 2.0. Meanwhile, the determination method of the 36 volatile solvents was developed with GC-MS. Cosmetic samples were dissolved in water and transferred to a headspace vial. After 30 min equilibration at 60 °C, the samples were analyzed by GC-MS equipped with a capillary chromatographic column VF-1301 ms. The external calibration was used for quantification. The limits of detection were from 0.01 to 3.3 μg/g, and the recoveries were from 60.77% to 126.6%. This study provided a generic method for pilot screening, identification, and quantitation of volatile organic solvents in cosmetics, and may solve the problem that different analytical methods need to be developed for different targeted compounds and pilot screening for potential candidate solvent residues.

  12. Survey and Method for Determination of Trajectory Predictor Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentas, Tamika L.; Green, Steven M.; Cate, Karen Tung

    2009-01-01

    A survey of air-traffic-management researchers, representing a broad range of automation applications, was conducted to document trajectory-predictor requirements for future decision-support systems. Results indicated that the researchers were unable to articulate a basic set of trajectory-prediction requirements for their automation concepts. Survey responses showed the need to establish a process to help developers determine the trajectory-predictor-performance requirements for their concepts. Two methods for determining trajectory-predictor requirements are introduced. A fast-time simulation method is discussed that captures the sensitivity of a concept to the performance of its trajectory-prediction capability. A characterization method is proposed to provide quicker, yet less precise results, based on analysis and simulation to characterize the trajectory-prediction errors associated with key modeling options for a specific concept. Concept developers can then identify the relative sizes of errors associated with key modeling options, and qualitatively determine which options lead to significant errors. The characterization method is demonstrated for a case study involving future airport surface traffic management automation. Of the top four sources of error, results indicated that the error associated with accelerations to and from turn speeds was unacceptable, the error associated with the turn path model was acceptable, and the error associated with taxi-speed estimation was of concern and needed a higher fidelity concept simulation to obtain a more precise result

  13. Geochemical field method for determination of nickel in plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichen, L.E.

    1951-01-01

    The use of biogeochemical data in prospecting for nickel emphasizes the need for a simple, moderately accurate field method for the determination of nickel in plants. In order to follow leads provided by plants of unusual nickel content without loss of time, the plants should be analyzed and the results given to the field geologist promptly. The method reported in this paper was developed to meet this need. Speed is acquired by elimination of the customary drying and controlled ashing; the fresh vegetation is ashed in an open dish over a gasoline stove. The ash is put into solution with hydrochloric acid and the solution buffered. A chromograph is used to make a confined spot with an aliquot of the ash solution on dimethylglyoxime reagent paper. As little as 0.025% nickel in plant ash can be determined. With a simple modification, 0.003% can be detected. Data are given comparing the results obtained by an accepted laboratory procedure. Results by the field method are within 30% of the laboratory values. The field method for nickel in plants meets the requirements of biogeochemical prospecting with respect to accuracy, simplicity, speed, and ease of performance in the field. With experience, an analyst can make 30 determinations in an 8-hour work day in the field.

  14. Liquid chromatography method to determine polyamines in thermosetting polymers.

    PubMed

    Dopico-García, M S; López-Vilariño, J M; Fernández-Martínez, G; González-Rodríguez, M V

    2010-05-14

    A simple, robust and sensitive analytical method to determine three polyamines commonly used as hardeners in epoxy resin systems and in the manufacture of polyurethane is reported. The studied polyamines are: one tetramine, TETA (triethylenetetramine), and two diamines, IPDA (Isophorone diamine) and TCD-diamine (4,7-methano-1H-indene-5,?-dimethanamine, octahydro-). The latter has an incompletely defined structure, and, as far as we know, has not been previously determined by other methods. All three polyamines contain primary amines; TETA also contains secondary amines. The analytical method involves derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate, used for the first time for these compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with a fluorescence (FL) detector (lambda excitation 248nm, lambda emision 395nm). The HPLC-DAD-LTQ Orbitrap MS was used in order to provide structural information about the obtained derivatized compounds. The hybrid linear ion trap LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer has been introduced in recent years and provides a high mass accuracy. The structures of the derivatized analytes were identified from the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+) and corresponded to the fully labelled analytes. The following analytical parameters were determined for the method using the HPLC-FL: linearity, precision (2.5-10%), instrumental precision intraday (0.8-1.5%) and interday (2.9-6.3%), and detection limits (0.02-0.14mgL(-1)). The stability of stock solutions and derivatized compounds was also investigated. The method was applied to determine the amine free content in epoxy resin dust collected in workplaces.

  15. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  16. Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1997-12-01

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  18. Size separation method for absorption characterization in brown carbon: Application to an aged biomass burning sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Robert A.; Young, Cora J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols is derived from biomass burning (BB) and is primarily composed of extremely low volatility organic carbons. We use two chromatographic methods to compare the contribution of large and small light-absorbing BrC components in aged BB aerosols with UV-vis absorbance detection: (1) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and (2) reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We observe no evidence of small molecule absorbers. Most BrC absorption arises from large molecular weight components (>1000 amu). This suggests that although small molecules may contribute to BrC absorption near the BB source, analyses of aerosol extracts should use methods selective to large molecular weight compounds because these species may be responsible for long-term BrC absorption. Further characterization with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to SEC demonstrates an underestimation of the molecular size determined through MS as compared to SEC.

  19. Noninvasive cardiac output determination for children by the inert gas-rebreathing method.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Gesa; Kerst, Gunter; Baden, Winfried; Hofbeck, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Standard methods for determination of cardiac output (CO) are either invasive or technically demanding. Measurement of CO by the inert gas-rebreathing (IGR) method, applied successfully in adults, uses a low-concentration mixture of an inert and a blood-soluble gas, respectively. This study tested the feasibility of this method for determining CO during exercise for pediatric patients with complete congenital atrioventricular block (CCAVB) stimulated with a VVI pacemaker. In this study, 5 CCAVB patients (age 9.2-17.4 years) were compared with 10 healthy age-matched boys and girls. Testing was performed with the Innocor system. The patients were instructed to breathe the test gas from a closed system. Pulmonary blood flow was calculated according to the washout of the soluble gas component. During standardized treadmill testing, CO was determined at three defined levels. The CO measurements were successful for all the study participants. The patients reached a lower peak CO than the control subjects (5.9 l/min/m(2) vs 7.3 [boys] and 7.2 [girls]). The stroke volume increase under exercise also was reduced in the patients compared with the control subjects. The feasibility of the IGR method for exercise CO testing in children was documented. Application of the IGR method for children requires careful instruction of the patients and appears restricted to subjects older than 8 years. The method offers new insights into mechanisms of cardiovascular adaptation in children with congenital heart disease.

  20. Accuracy of age estimation methods from orthopantomograph in forensic odontology: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Khorate, Manisha M; Dinkar, A D; Ahmed, Junaid

    2014-01-01

    Changes related to chronological age are seen in both hard and soft tissue. A number of methods for age estimation have been proposed which can be classified in four categories, namely, clinical, radiological, histological and chemical analysis. In forensic odontology, age estimation based on tooth development is universally accepted method. The panoramic radiographs of 500 healthy Goan, Indian children (250 boys and 250 girls) aged between 4 and 22.1 years were selected. Modified Demirjian's method (1973/2004), Acharya AB formula (2011), Dr Ajit D. Dinkar (1984) regression equation, Foti and coworkers (2003) formula (clinical and radiological) were applied for estimation of age. The result of our study has shown that Dr Ajit D. Dinkar method is more accurate followed by Acharya Indian-specific formula. Furthermore, in this study by applying all these methods to one regional population, we have attempted to present dental age estimation methodology best suited for the Goan Indian population.

  1. Improved rapid methods for the determination of iron content and binding capacity of serum.

    PubMed

    BEALE, R N; BOSTROM, J O; TAYLOR, R F

    1962-03-01

    Improved methods are described for the determination of serum iron (SeFe) and latent iron-binding capacity under controlled conditions of pH. As before, no precipitation or heating of the serum is required, and controls are not used. Unbuffered sulphonated bathophenanthroline is employed for colour development. Statistical data for 40 normals are presented and comparisons with other data are given; the effects of ageing of serum are studied.

  2. Determining anisotropic transmissivity using a simplified Papadopulos method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Hsieh, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The straight-line method presented by Papadopulos requires a minimum of three observation wells for determining the transmissivity tensor of a homogeneous and anisotropic aquifer. A simplification of this method was developed for fractured aquifers where the principal directions of the transmissivity tensor are known prior to implementation, such as when fracture patterns on outcropping portions of the aquifer may be used to infer the principal directions. This new method assumes that observation wells are drilled along the two principal directions from the pumped well, thus reducing the required number of observation wells to two. This method was applied for an aquifer test in the fractured Navajo Sandstone of southwestern Utah and yielded minimum and maximum principal transmissivity values of 70 and 1800 m 2/d, respectively, indicating an anisotropy ratio of ???24 to 1.

  3. [Accelerated radioisotope method of determining cholera vibrios' sensitivity to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Korol', V V; Podosinnikova, L S; Golubinskiĭ, E P; Rublev, B D

    1980-05-01

    Estimation of protein biosynthesis rate was used for rapid determination of Vibrio cholerae sensitivity to tetracycline and chloramphenicol by comparison of the bacterial cell radioactivity in samples with and without the antibiotics. For the sensitivity determination the strains were grown for 30 minutes at a temperature of 37 degrees C in nutrient media with a 14C-amino acid and antibiotic. The data of the determination were indicative of at least 10-fold difference in the amount of the amino acid assimilated by the sensitive strains in the presence and absence of the antibiotic. The value of the label incorporation into the antibiotic resistant strains under the above conditions did not differ. Complete coincidence of the results obtained upon parallel testing of the strain antibiotic sensitivity by the rapid and routine methods was observed.

  4. [Method of determining tissue renin activity using heterologous serum].

    PubMed

    Orbetsova, V Ts; Kiprov, D

    1979-01-01

    The authors described a method for determination of tissue renin activity with heterologous substrate. The preparation of the substrate was performed at several stages: salting with amonium sulfate; dialisis of the precipitate till complete separation of amonium sulfate molecules; distruction of angiotensinases by interchangeble souring and alcalization of the medium; lyophylization of the pure substrate. The obtained renin-substrate was preserved in ampules and its usage had a series of advantages--duration, economic, a possibility for standartization of the determination, etc., which were described in details in the article. The described in details also the quantitative determination of the renin activity in the tissues (renal and cerebral) with the help of the obtained substrate as the moments, modiied by the authors, were indicated.

  5. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  6. Practical flight test method for determining reciprocating engine cooling requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. T.; Miley, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that efficient and effective cooling of air-cooled reciprocating aircraft engines is a continuing problem for the general aviation industry. Miley et al. (1981) have reported results of a study regarding the controlling variables for cooling and installation aerodynamics. The present investigation is concerned with experimental methods which were developed to determine cooling requirements of an instrumented prototype or production aircraft, taking into account a flight test procedure which has been refined and further verified with additional testing. It is shown that this test procedure represents a straightforward means of determining cooling requirements with minimal instrumentation. Attention is given to some background information, the development history of the NACA cooling correlation method, and the proposed modification of the NACA cooling correlation.

  7. [Determination of palladium in automobile exhaust catalysts by FAAS method].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Feng; Cai, Guo-Hui; Xiao, Yi-Hong; Zhan, Ying-Ying; Xie, Zeng-Hong; Wei, Ke-Mei

    2009-12-01

    Palladium in automotive exhaust catalyst was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytical conditions and the coexisting elements interference were studied. The catalyst was dissolved by the mixture of H2O2 and HCl. Pd in the solution was directly determined by FAAS method. The linearity of working curve ranges from 0.1 to 15 microg x mL(-1); the detection limit is 0.029 microg x mL(-1); the relative standard deviation (RSD) range is from 0.8% to 2.5%; and the recovery rate range is from 99.6% to 101.2%. It is a simple and convenient method for accurate analysis of Pd in the exhaust catalysts.

  8. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  9. Compatibility assessment of methods used for soil hydrophobicity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papierowska, Ewa; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Kalisz, Barbara; Łachacz, Andrzej; Matysiak, Wojciech; Debaene, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity is a global problem. Effect of hydrophobicity on the soil environment is very important, because it can cause irreversible changes in ecosystems, leading to their complete degradation. The choice of method used to determine soil hydrophobicity is not simple because there is no obvious criteria for their selection. The results obtained by various methods may not be coherent and may indicate different degrees of hydrophobicity within the same soil sample. The objective of the study was to assess the compatibility between methods used to determine the hydrophobicity of selected organic and mineral-organic soils. Two groups of soil materials were examined: hydrogenic (87 soil samples) and autogenic soils (19 soil samples) collected from 41 soil profiles located in north-eastern Poland. Air-dry soil samples were used. Hydrophobicity was determined using two different methods i.e. on the basis of wetting contact angle measurements between water and solid phase of soils and with water drop penetration time tests. The value of the wetting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method with optical goniometer CAM 100 (KSV Instruments). The wetting contact angles were determined at room temperature (20° C) within 10 min after sample preparation using standard procedure. In addition, water drop penetration time was measured. In order to compare the methods used for the assessment of soil hydrophobicity, the agreement between observers model was applied. In this model five categories of soil hydrophobicity were proposed according to the class used in the soil hydrofobicity classification based on water drop penetration time test. Based on this classification the values of the weighted kappa coefficients were calculated using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary NC) for evaluating relationships between between the different investigated methods. The results of agreement were presented in forms of agreement charts. Research results indicated good

  10. A personal sampling method for the determination of styrene exposure.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H; Saunders, K J; Walkin, K T

    1987-09-01

    A diffusive sampler, which is suitable for the determination of time-weighted average personal and static exposures to styrene, is described. The sampler is based on a commercially available tube design that is amenable to fully-automated thermal desorption. The performance of the sampler has been evaluated using a protocol, developed by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive, involving both laboratory and field experiments. The sampler has been shown to give results that are similar both in magnitude and precision to those obtained using conventional sorbent tube and pump methods. The diffusive method is preferred because of its simplicity and convenience.

  11. Methods of Selenium Supplementation: Bioavailability and Determination of Selenium Compounds.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Malgorzata; Szczyglowska, Marzena; Konieczka, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Selenium, a "dual-surface" element, maintains a very thin line between a level of necessity and harmfulness. Because of this, a deficiency or excess of this element in an organism is dangerous and causes health-related problems, both physically and mentally. The main source of selenium is a balanced diet, with a proper selection of meat and plant products. Meanwhile, the proper assimilation of selenium into these products depends on their bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and/or bioactivity of a given selenium compound. From the time when it was discovered that selenium and its compounds have a significant influence on metabolic processes and in many countries throughout the world, a low quantity of selenium was found in different parts of the environment, pressure was put upon an effective and fast method of supplementing the environment with the help of selenium. This work describes supplementation methods applied with the use of selenium, as well as new ideas for increasing the level of this element in various organisms. Based on the fact that selenium appears in the environment at trace levels, the determination of total amount of selenium or selenium speciation in a given sample demands the selection of appropriate measurement methods. These methods are most often comprised of a sample preparation technique and/or a separation technique as well as a detection system. The work presents information on the subject of analytical methods used for determining selenium and its compounds as well as examples in literature of their application.

  12. Aging commuter aeroplanes: Fatigue evaluation and control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmerson, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of reliability in aircraft is caused by two broad classes of problems. There are those problems which are self evident and hazardous rather than catastrophic. These are the problem areas where characteristically there have been multiple overhauls, repairs, and replacements, and where aging really means the results of repair ineffectiveness that accumulates. The other class of the problem is the insidious and potentially catastrophic class. It includes the progressive deterioration of items that are not maintained, and often cannot be maintained because the deterioration cannot be seen. It includes the loss of physical properties in adhesives and other organic compounds, corrosion, and the response of repeated loads. Dealt with here is a currently unnecessarily troublesome aspect of that response. Although we must remain concerned about those types of aircraft which have been certified under a design standard or operational rule which embodies the elementary fail-safe concept and which have not been subjected to a subsequent structural audit, the focus here is on types of aircraft for which fatigue and damage tolerance evaluation was not required as a condition of certification.

  13. Determination of berkelium by the method of spectrophotometric titration

    SciTech Connect

    Frolova, L.M.; Vityutnev, V.M.; Vasil'ev, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    The method that the authors propose consists of the following: berkelium is oxidized electrochemically, spectrophotometric titration of berkelium(IV) by a solution of the reducing agent is performed, and the amount of berkelium(IV) is determined according to the volume of the titrant, and considering the degree of oxidation of berkelium(III) to berkelium(IV), the total berkelium content in the sample is also determined. In this case the necessity for preliminary determination of the molar extinction coefficient of berkelium(IV) under the experimental conditions falls away. Moreover, the radiometric method of determining the berkelium content is not used. Successful titration requires selection of a reagent which, on the one hand, would rapidly reduce berkelium(VI), but on the other hand, neither itself nor the reaction products would interfere with the measurement of the optical density of berkelium(IV). As is well known, berkelium(IV) is quantitatively and rapidly reduced by hydrogen peroxide (10, 11), hydroxylamine (11), and nitrous acid (9). After preliminary experiments, they selected hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrite as the titrants.

  14. Determination of Coal Permeability Using Pressure Transient Methods

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.; Siriwardane, H.; Haljasmaa, I.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Soong, Y.; Irdi, G.A.

    2007-05-01

    Coalbed methane is a significant natural resource in the Appalachian region. It is believed that coalbed methane production can be enhanced by injection of carbon dioxide into coalbeds. However, the influence of carbon dioxide injection on coal permeability is not yet well understood. Competitive sorption of carbon dioxide and methane gases onto coal is a known process. Laboratory experiments and limited field experience indicate that coal will swell during sorption of a gas and shrink during desorption of a gas. The swelling and shrinkage may change the permeability of the coal. In this study, the permeability of coal was determined by using carbon dioxide as the flowing fluid. Coal samples with different dimensions were prepared for laboratory permeability tests. Carbon dioxide was injected into the coal and the permeability was determined by using pressure transient methods. The confining pressure was variedto cover a wide range of depths. The permeability was also determined as a function of exposure time of carbon dioxide while the confining stress was kept constant. CT scans were taken before and after the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results show that the porosity and permeability of the coal matrix was very low. The paper presents experimental data and theoretical aspects of the flow of carbon dioxide through a coal sample during pressure transient tests. The suitability of the pressure transient methods for determining permeability of coal during carbon dioxide injection is discussed in the paper.

  15. Methods for Obtaining and Determination of Squalene from Natural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Ovidiu; Băbeanu, Narcisa Elena; Niță, Sultana; Dinu-Pârvu, Cristina Elena

    2015-01-01

    Squalene is a natural dehydrotriterpenic hydrocarbon (C30H50) with six double bonds, known as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phytosterol or cholesterol in plants or animals. We have briefly reviewed the natural sources for squalene and focused on the main methods and techniques to obtain and to determine it. Some of its applications in different fields of human activity are also mentioned. PMID:25695064

  16. Methods of Determining Playa Surface Conditions Using Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-08

    NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) METHODS OF DETERMINING PLAYA SURFACE CONDITIONS USING REMOTE SENSING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J. PONDER...PLAYA SURFACE CONDITIONS USING REMOTE SENSING J. Ponder Henley U. S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060-5546 "ABSTRACT...geochemistry, hydrology and remote sensing but all of these are important to the understanding of these unique geomorphic features. There is a large body

  17. Review of Ultrasonic Velocity Methods of Determining Residual Stress.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Matzkanin and D.L. Davidson, The influence of mechanical stress on ’magnetization processes and Barkhausen Jumps in ferromagnetic materials. Int. Journ...AD-A160 769 REVIEM OF ULTRASONIC VELOCITY METHODS OF DETERMINING i I RESIDUAL STRESS (U) AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LADS MELBOURNE I (AUSTRALIA) S J RUMBLE...RESEARCH LABORATORIES MELBOURNE, VICTORIA(0Io 0 Structurs Technical I8tDzandm 416 REVIE OF ULTRASONIC VELOCITY NETHODS OF DTLR1INING RESIDUAL STRESS

  18. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  19. Method to determine factors contributing to thermoplastic sheet shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensch, Greg J.; Frye, Brad A.

    A test method is presented for the determination of shrinkage behavior in vacuum-formed thermoplastic resin sheeting, as presently simulated for various resin lots, sheet-gage thicknesses, sheet orientations, and mold profiles. The thermoforming machine and vacuum-forming mold characteristics are discussed. It is established that the four variable factors exert statistically significant effects on the shrinkage response of three Declar resin lots, but that these are of no real practical significance for either engineering or manufacturing operations.

  20. Determination of organic acids by CE and CEC methods.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Christian W

    2007-10-01

    A comprehensive overview of the analysis of low-molecular-mass organic acids employing electromigration methods in the capillary format is given. This review includes papers published since 2003 and can be seen as an update of the review paper published by Galli et al. in 2003. Tables included in this review contain application papers describing the determination of organic acids from a variety of fields like the analysis of food and beverages, environmental samples, samples from clinical origin, and from natural products.

  1. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging.

  2. A general method for determining secondary active transporter substrate stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    The number of ions required to drive substrate transport through a secondary active transporter determines the protein’s ability to create a substrate gradient, a feature essential to its physiological function, and places fundamental constraints on the transporter’s mechanism. Stoichiometry is known for a wide array of mammalian transporters, but, due to a lack of readily available tools, not for most of the prokaryotic transporters for which high-resolution structures are available. Here, we describe a general method for using radiolabeled substrate flux assays to determine coupling stoichiometries of electrogenic secondary active transporters reconstituted in proteoliposomes by measuring transporter equilibrium potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this method by determining the coupling stoichiometry of VcINDY, a bacterial Na+-coupled succinate transporter, and further validate it by confirming the coupling stoichiometry of vSGLT, a bacterial sugar transporter. This robust thermodynamic method should be especially useful in probing the mechanisms of transporters with available structures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21016.001 PMID:28121290

  3. A comparison of methods for determining total body protein.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S P; Lampi, B J; Sarwar, G; Botting, H G

    1995-03-20

    The aim of the study was to find the optimal method (with respect to convenience and accuracy) for determining total protein in whole-body homogenates of rats. Three different protein extraction methods and five different protein concentration methods were assessed. The results were compared against a reference value measured by complete amino acid analysis after acid hydrolysis. The data demonstrated that extraction with 5% (w/v) sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in 0.5 N NaOH was far superior to that with water alone or to 6 N guanidine-HCl. A comparison of the Biuret, Bradford, and bicinchoninic acid methods on the SDS-NaOH-extracted samples showed that the Biuret method was optimal, giving a value that was 90% of the reference value with a small variation (2.4% of the mean). The Kjeldahl method gave the correct protein concentration only when a nitrogen factor of 5.51 +/- 0.03 (N = 5) was applied. The results suggest that extraction with SDS-NaOH followed by the Biuret procedure is a good method for measuring protein concentrations in whole body rat homogenates.

  4. Age and gender dependence of human cardiac phosphorus metabolites determined by SLOOP 31P MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Köstler, Herbert; Landschütz, Wilfried; Koeppe, Sabrina; Seyfarth, Tobias; Lipke, Claudia; Sandstede, Jörn; Spindler, Matthias; von Kienlin, Markus; Hahn, Dietbert; Beer, Meinrad

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to apply (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using spatial localization with optimal point spread function (SLOOP) to investigate possible age and gender dependencies of the energy metabolite concentrations in the human heart. Thirty healthy volunteers (18 males and 12 females, 21-67 years old, mean = 40.7 years) were examined with the use of (31)P-MRS on a 1.5 T scanner. Intra- and interobserver variability measures (determined in eight of the volunteers) were both 3.8% for phosphocreatine (PCr), and 4.7% and 8.3%, respectively, for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). High-energy phosphate (HEP) concentrations in mmol/kg wet weight were 9.7 +/- 2.4 (age < 40 years, N = 16) and 7.7 +/- 2.5 (age >or= 40 years, N = 14) for PCr, and 5.1 +/- 1.0 (age < 40 years) and 4.1 +/- 0.8 (age >or= 40 years) for ATP, respectively. Separated by gender, PCr concentrations of 9.2 +/- 2.4 (men, N = 18) and 8.0 +/- 2.8 (women, N = 12) and ATP concentrations of 4.9 +/- 1.0 (men) and 4.2 +/- 0.9 (women) were measured. A significant decrease of PCr and ATP was found for volunteers older than 40 years (P < 0.05), but the differences in metabolic concentrations between both sexes were not significant. In conclusion, age has a minor but still significant impact on cardiac energy metabolism, and no significant gender differences were detected.

  5. High Sensitivity, Low Volume Method to Determine Dissolved Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberer, J. L.; Brandes, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    A high sensitivity, low volume method was developed to determine nanomolar concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) using reverse phase HPLC. The technique in determining SRP involved using methods from Strickland and Parsons, 1972 and Karl and Tien, 1992. Various techniques for improving blanks and sensitivity will be discussed. The method was applied to seawater and freshwater samples taken from the estuarine Nueces Delta system, Texas, two sites in the Gulf of Mexico, and within two upland (2400 m) forest catchments in the Peruvian Andes. One catchment was partially deforested within the last 3 years, while the other has remained untouched. Samples in the Gulf of Mexico were taken at a series of coastal and open water stations at various depths. Samples in each of the two upland forest catchments in Peru were obtained at 33.3 m distance intervals along a 100 m reach. Samples were taken in the Nueces River, Texas upland from a marsh estuary and from high and low regions of the marsh. Comparisons are made between the forest catchment sites in addition to comparisons made in the Nueces marsh estuary/river system. Depth profiles of SRP in the Gulf of Mexico are established. Future studies should be conducted to investigate phosphate in sediment pore waters. This method has many potential applications, is scalable across a wide range of sample volumes, and can be automated.

  6. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of atrazine and cyanazine by chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui

    2011-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of two herbicides, atrazine and cyanazine, is described for the first time based on their reaction with p-aminoacetophenone in the presence of pyridine in hydrochloric acid medium. The absorption spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 400-600 nm. The optimized method indicated that individual analytes followed Beer's law in the concentration ranges for atrazine and cyanazine were 0.2-3.5 mg L -1 and 0.3-5.0 mg L -1, and the limits of detection for atrazine and cyanazine were 0.099 and 0.15 mg L -1, respectively. The original and first-derivative absorption spectra of the binary mixtures were performed as a pre-treatment on the calibration matrices prior to the application of chemometric models such as classical least squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS). The analytical results obtained by using these chemometric methods were evaluated on the basis of percent relative prediction error and recovery. It was found that the application of PCR and PLS models for first-derivative absorbance data gave the satisfactory results. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the two herbicides in several food samples.

  7. An autonomous orbit determination method for MEO and LEO satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jin; Yu, Guobin; Zhong, Jie; Lin, Ling

    2014-09-01

    A reliable and secure navigation system and assured autonomous capability of satellite are in high demand in case of emergencies in space. This paper introduces a novel autonomous orbit determination method for Middle-Earth-Orbit and Low-Earth-Orbit (MEO and LEO) satellite by observing space objects whose orbits are known. Generally, the geodetic satellites, such as LAGEOS and ETALONS, can be selected as the space objects here. The precision CCD camera on tracking gimbal can make a series of photos of the objects and surrounding stars when MEO and LEO satellite encounters the space objects. Then the information processor processes images and attains sightings and angular observations of space objects. Several clusters of such angular observations are incorporated into a batch least squares filter to obtain an orbit determination solution. This paper describes basic principle and builds integrated mathematical model. The accuracy of this method is analyzed by means of computer simulation. Then a simulant experiment system is built, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. The experimental results show that this method can attain the accuracy of 150 meters with angular observations of 1 arcsecond system error.

  8. Comparative analysis of the methods for SADT determination.

    PubMed

    Kossoy, A A; Sheinman, I Ya

    2007-04-11

    The self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is an important parameter that characterizes thermal safety at transport of self-reactive substances. A great many articles were published focusing on various methodological aspects of SADT determination. Nevertheless there remain several serious problems that require further analysis and solution. Some of them are considered in the paper. Firstly four methods suggested by the United Nations "Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods" (TDG) are surveyed in order to reveal their features and limitations. The inconsistency between two definitions of SADT is discussed afterwards. One definition is the basis for the US SADT test and the heat accumulation storage test (Dewar test), another one is used when the Adiabatic storage test or the Isothermal storage test are applied. It is shown that this inconsistency may result in getting different and, in some cases, unsafe estimates of SADT. Then the applicability of the Dewar test for determination of SADT for solids is considered. It is shown that this test can be restrictedly applied for solids provided that the appropriate scale-up procedure is available. The advanced method based on the theory of regular cooling mode is proposed, which ensures more reliable results of the Dewar test application. The last part of the paper demonstrates how the kinetics-based simulation method helps in evaluation of SADT in those complex but practical cases (in particular, stack of packagings) when neither of the methods recommended by TDG can be used.

  9. The resurrection of Laplace's method of initial orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taff, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with a number of interrelated topics. The common thread is Laplace's method of initial orbit determination based on passively acquired optical data. We discuss this method's principal competitor (that of Gauss), the difficulties of Gauss's technique, and the traditional reasons the Gaussian method is preferred to the Laplacian. We reject this hegemony for a variety of reasons and concentrate on Laplace's method in an era of a surfeit of high quality data. This leads us into a discussion of data smoothing. Once one leaves the raw observatorial data the possibility of combining observations from multiple observers comes to mind and hence the determination of parallax by trigonometrical means. All of this may be applied to two different classes of objects-astroids and artificial satellites. Our immediate interests are in fast moving asteroids (greater than 0.5/day or an abnormally fast ecliptic latitude rate) and high altitude artificial satellites (P greater than 6h). In both instances it is the high inclination and high eccentricity subset which is of special concern.

  10. Comparing supervised learning methods for classifying sex, age, context and individual Mudi dogs from barking.

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Ana; Bielza, Concha; Pongrácz, Péter; Faragó, Tamás; Bálint, Anna; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    Barking is perhaps the most characteristic form of vocalization in dogs; however, very little is known about its role in the intraspecific communication of this species. Besides the obvious need for ethological research, both in the field and in the laboratory, the possible information content of barks can also be explored by computerized acoustic analyses. This study compares four different supervised learning methods (naive Bayes, classification trees, [Formula: see text]-nearest neighbors and logistic regression) combined with three strategies for selecting variables (all variables, filter and wrapper feature subset selections) to classify Mudi dogs by sex, age, context and individual from their barks. The classification accuracy of the models obtained was estimated by means of [Formula: see text]-fold cross-validation. Percentages of correct classifications were 85.13 % for determining sex, 80.25 % for predicting age (recodified as young, adult and old), 55.50 % for classifying contexts (seven situations) and 67.63 % for recognizing individuals (8 dogs), so the results are encouraging. The best-performing method was [Formula: see text]-nearest neighbors following a wrapper feature selection approach. The results for classifying contexts and recognizing individual dogs were better with this method than they were for other approaches reported in the specialized literature. This is the first time that the sex and age of domestic dogs have been predicted with the help of sound analysis. This study shows that dog barks carry ample information regarding the caller's indexical features. Our computerized analysis provides indirect proof that barks may serve as an important source of information for dogs as well.

  11. Validated spectrophotometric methods for determination of some oral hypoglycemic drugs.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M; Abdel-Satar, O; Abdel-Aziz, O; Shaaban, M

    2011-02-01

    Four accurate, precise, rapid, reproducible, and simple spectrophotometric methods were validated for determination of repaglinide (RPG), pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGL) and rosiglitazone maleate (RGL). The first two methods were based on the formation of a charge-transfer purple-colored complex of chloranilic acid with RPG and RGL with a molar absorptivity 1.23 × 103 and 8.67 × 102 l•mol-1•cm-1 and a Sandell's sensitivity of 0.367 and 0.412 μg•cm-2, respectively, and an ion-pair yellow-colored complex of bromophenol blue with RPG, PGL and RGL with molar absorptivity 8.86 × 103, 6.95 × 103, and 7.06 × 103 l•mol-1•cm-1, respectively, and a Sandell's sensitivity of 0.051 μg•cm-2 for all ion-pair complexes. The influence of different parameters on color formation was studied to determine optimum conditions for the visible spectrophotometric methods. The other spectrophotometric methods were adopted for demtermination of the studied drugs in the presence of their acid-, alkaline- and oxidative-degradates by computing derivative and pH-induced difference spectrophotometry, as stability-indicating techniques. All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations with good extraction recovery ranges between 98.7-101.4%, 98.2-101.3%, and 99.9-101.4% for RPG, PGL, and RGL, respectively. Results of relative standard deviations did not exceed 1.6%, indicating that the proposed methods having good repeatability and reproducibility. All the obtained results were statistically compared to the official method used for RPG analysis and the manufacturers methods used for PGL and RGL analysis, respectively, where no significant differences were found.

  12. Method for Determining the Coalbed Methane Content with Determination the Uncertainty of Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Korzec, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Methane has a bad influence on safety in underground mines as it is emitted to the air during mining works. Appropriate identification of methane hazard is essential to determining methane hazard prevention methods, ventilation systems and methane drainage systems. Methane hazard is identified while roadways are driven and boreholes are drilled. Coalbed methane content is one of the parameters which is used to assess this threat. This is a requirement according to the Decree of the Minister of Economy dated 28 June 2002 on work safety and hygiene, operation and special firefighting protection in underground mines. For this purpose a new method for determining coalbed methane content in underground coal mines has been developed. This method consists of two stages - collecting samples in a mine and testing the sample in the laboratory. The stage of determining methane content in a coal sample in a laboratory is essential. This article presents the estimation of measurement uncertainty of determining methane content in a coal sample according to this methodology.

  13. Pu and Am determination in the environment—method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, M.; Simonoff, M.; Donard, O.; Michel, H.; Ardisson, G.

    2003-01-01

    A high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (HR-ICP-MS) method for the determination of plutonium isotopes, Am and the 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio utilising modification of Pu-02-RC Plutonium in Soil Samples, Pu-03-RC Plutonium in Soil Residue—Total Dissolution Method, Pu-11-RC Plutonium Purification—Ion Exchange Technique, Pu-12-RC Plutonium and/or Americium in Soil or Sediments, HASL-300 was developed. Total plutonium concentrations (239+240Pu) measured in environmental samples by this HR-ICP-MS method were in good agreement with recommended data obtained from a-spectrometry. It was achieved the decreasing of the time to analyze the samples over than 33%.

  14. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  15. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  17. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  18. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  19. Determining the Most Appropriate Classification Methods for Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürsoy, Önder

    2016-10-01

    Assessing water resources’ quality and also monitoring them have attracted lots of attention in the recent years. Remote sensing has been growing widely in the last decade and its resources are very usable when it comes to water resources management. In this study, by using remote sensing technology, satellite images that have 350 to 1050 nanometres wavelength band sensors are used to determine the quality of the Kizilirmak River's water. Through the river's resources, ground based spectral measurements are made to identify the quality differences of the water at the test spots that have been determined before. In this context at Imranli, where the river contacts civilization for the first time, which is located in Sivas city of Turkey, samples are gathered in order to do ground based spectroradiometer measurements. These samples are gathered simultaneously with the image acquiring time of CHRIS Proba satellite. Spectral signatures that are obtained from ground measurements are used as reference data in order to classify CHRIS Proba satellite's hyperspectral images over the study area. Satellite images are classified based on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity (EC) attributes. As a result, interpretations obtained from classified CHRIS Proba satellite hyperspectral images of the study area are presented. Spectras are readied for Matched Filtering and Spectral Angle Mapper methods for determining the best classification method.

  20. New validated method for piracetam HPLC determination in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Curticapean, Augustin; Imre, Silvia

    2007-01-10

    The new method for HPLC determination of piracetam in human plasma was developed and validated by a new approach. The simple determination by UV detection was performed on supernatant, obtained from plasma, after proteins precipitation with perchloric acid. The chromatographic separation of piracetam under a gradient elution was achieved at room temperature with a RP-18 LiChroSpher 100 column and aqueous mobile phase containing acetonitrile and methanol. The quantitative determination of piracetam was performed at 200 nm with a lower limit of quantification LLQ=2 microg/ml. For this limit, the calculated values of the coefficient of variation and difference between mean and the nominal concentration are CV%=9.7 and bias%=0.9 for the intra-day assay, and CV%=19.1 and bias%=-7.45 for the between-days assay. For precision, the range was CV%=1.8/11.6 in the intra-day and between-days assay, and for accuracy, the range was bias%=2.3/14.9 in the intra-day and between-days assay. In addition, the stability of piracetam in different conditions was verified. Piracetam proved to be stable in plasma during 4 weeks at -20 degrees C and for 36 h at 20 degrees C in the supernatant after protein precipitation. The new proposed method was used for a bioequivalence study of two medicines containing 800 mg piracetam.

  1. Determination Of The Activity Space By The Stereometric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloison, Y.; Crete, N.; Mollard, R.

    1980-07-01

    To determine the activity space of a sitting subject, it is necessary to go beyond the mere statistical description of morphology and the knowledge of the displacement volume. An anlysis of the positions or variations of the positions of the diverse segmental elements (arms, hands, lower limbs, etc...) in the course of a given activity is required. Of the various methods used to locate quickly and accurately the spatial positions of anatomical points, stereometry makes it possible to plot the three-dimensional coordinates of any point in space in relation to a fixed trirectangle frame of reference determined by the stereome-tric measuring device. Thus, regardless of the orientation and posture of the subject, his segmental elements can be easily pin-pointed, throughout the experiment, within the space they occupy. Using this method, it is possible for a sample of operators seated at an operation station and applying either manual controls or pedals and belonging to a population statistically defined from the data collected and the analyses produced by the anthropometric study to determine a contour line of reach capability marking out the usable working space and to know, within this working space, a contour line of preferential activity that is limited, in space, by the whole range of optimal reach capability of all the subjects.

  2. Optical method for the determination of stress in thin films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    1999-01-01

    A method and optical system is disclosed for measuring an amount of stress in a film layer disposed over a substrate. The method includes steps of: (A) applying a sequence of optical pump pulses to the film layer, individual ones of said optical pump pulses inducing a propagating strain pulse in the film layer, and for each of the optical pump pulses, applying at least one optical probe pulse, the optical probe pulses being applied with different time delays after the application of the corresponding optical probe pulses; (B) detecting variations in an intensity of a reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, the variations being due at least in part to the propagation of the strain pulse in the film layer; (C) determining, from the detected intensity variations, a sound velocity in the film layer; and (D) calculating, using the determined sound velocity, the amount of stress in the film layer. In one embodiment of this invention the step of detecting measures a period of an oscillation in the intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, while in another embodiment the step of detecting measures a change in intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses and determines a time at which the propagating strain pulse reflects from a boundary of the film layer.

  3. Optical method for the determination of stress in thin films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, H.J.

    1999-01-26

    A method and optical system is disclosed for measuring an amount of stress in a film layer disposed over a substrate. The method includes steps of: (A) applying a sequence of optical pump pulses to the film layer, individual ones of said optical pump pulses inducing a propagating strain pulse in the film layer, and for each of the optical pump pulses, applying at least one optical probe pulse, the optical probe pulses being applied with different time delays after the application of the corresponding optical probe pulses; (B) detecting variations in an intensity of a reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, the variations being due at least in part to the propagation of the strain pulse in the film layer; (C) determining, from the detected intensity variations, a sound velocity in the film layer; and (D) calculating, using the determined sound velocity, the amount of stress in the film layer. In one embodiment of this invention the step of detecting measures a period of an oscillation in the intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, while in another embodiment the step of detecting measures a change in intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses and determines a time at which the propagating strain pulse reflects from a boundary of the film layer. 16 figs.

  4. Rapid springback compensation for age forming based on quasi Newton method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong; Xiong, Shipeng; Xia, Yushan

    2014-05-01

    Iterative methods based on finite element simulation are effective approaches to design mold shape to compensate springback in sheet metal forming. However, convergence rate of iterative methods is difficult to improve greatly. To increase the springback compensate speed of designing age forming mold, process of calculating springback for a certain mold with finite element method is analyzed. Springback compensation is abstracted as finding a solution for a set of nonlinear functions and a springback compensation algorithm is presented on the basis of quasi Newton method. The accuracy of algorithm is verified by developing an ABAQUS secondary development program with MATLAB. Three rectangular integrated panels of dimensions 710 mm ×750 mm integrated panels with intersected ribs of 10 mm are selected to perform case studies. The algorithm is used to compute mold contours for the panels with cylinder, sphere and saddle contours respectively and it takes 57%, 22% and 33% iterations as compared to that of displacement adjustment (DA) method. At the end of iterations, maximum deviations on the three panels are 0.618 4 mm, 0.624 1 mm and 0.342 0 mm that are smaller than the deviations determined by DA method (0.740 8 mm, 0.740 8 mm and 0.713 7 mm respectively). In following experimental verification, mold contour for another integrated panel with 400 mm×380 mm size is designed by the algorithm. Then the panel is age formed in an autoclave and measured by a three dimensional digital measurement devise. Deviation between measuring results and the panel's design contour is less than 1 mm. Finally, the iterations with different mesh sizes (40 mm, 35 mm, 30 mm, 25 mm, 20 mm) in finite element models are compared and found no considerable difference. Another possible compensation method, Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method, is also presented based on the solving nonlinear functions idea. The Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method is employed to compute mold contour for the second panel

  5. Age as a main determinant of renal functional damage in urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, U B; Johansson, S B

    1983-01-01

    Renal function was studied in 61 girls suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections, with at least one febrile infection. Clearance of inulin was determined. Intravenous urography and micturating cystourethrography were performed 1-6 months after the first infection and 0-6 months before or after the function test. A low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was found only among children with their first pyelonephritis before the age of 3 years. A low GFR was found mostly in patients with small or scarred kidneys but was also seen in a few patients with normal intravenous urographs. Low GFR as well as radiologically small kidneys at the time of the function test were found independently of the presence or grade of vesicoureteral reflux at first infection. Patients with early onset pyelonephritis (before age 3 years) had a low capacity for early compensatory hypertrophy in contrast to patients with late onset pyelonephritis. PMID:6660895

  6. Determinants of reliability in psychiatric surveys of children aged 6-12.

    PubMed

    Fallon, T; Schwab-Stone, M

    1994-11-01

    The reliability of young children's self reports of psychiatric information is a concern of epidemiologists and clinicians alike. This paper explores the determinants of test-retest reliability in a sample of children from the general population using reliability coefficients constructed from a kappa statistic. Age, cognitive ability, and gender are related to consistency of reports in a test-retest paradigm. Controlling for age, cognitive ability and gender, children report more reliably on observable behaviors, and less reliably on questions involving unspecified time, reflections of one's own thoughts, and comparison of themselves with others. The reliability of reports of emotions lies between these two extremes. Surprisingly, sentence length of up to 40 words and psychiatric impairment of the child as measured by the Child Global Assessment Scale did not influence reliability. As might be expected, parents' reports of their children are more reliable than their children's reports.

  7. Determination of petrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, D.; Kaukler, D.; Fanetti, M.; Cabrera, H.; Daubront, E.; Franko, M.

    2017-04-01

    Petrophysical properties of rocks (thermal diffusivity and conductivity, porosity and density) as well as the correlation between them are of great importance for many geoscientific applications. The porosity of the reservoir rocks and their permeability are the most fundamental physical properties with respect to the storage and transmission of fluids, mainly oil characterization. Accurate knowledge of these parameters for any hydrocarbon reservoir is required for efficient development, management, and prediction of future performance of the oilfield. Thus, the porosity and permeability, as well as the chemical composition must be quantified as precisely as possible. This should be done along with the thermal properties, density, conductivity, diffusivity and effusivity that are intimately related with them. For this reason, photothermal Beam Deflection Spectrometry (BDS) technique for determination of materials' thermal properties together with other methods such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) for determining the chemical composition and sample structure, as well as optical microscopy to determine the particles size, were applied for characterization of sedimentary rocks. The rocks were obtained from the Andes south flank in the Venezuela's western basin. The validation of BDS applicability for determination of petrophysical properties of three sedimentary rocks of different texture and composition (all from Late Cretaceous associated with the Luna, Capacho and Colón-Mito Juan geological formations) was performed. The rocks' thermal properties were correlated to the microstructures and chemical composition of the examined samples.

  8. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These 'Age Reference Lines' were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70-75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified.

  9. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana)

    PubMed Central

    Stansfield, Fiona J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These ‘Age Reference Lines’ were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70–75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  10. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age...

  11. Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for determination of amantadine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, I. A.; Khedr, A. S.; Askal, H. F.; Mahmoud, R. M.

    2006-11-01

    Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A-C) for determination of amantadine hydro-chloride have been developed and validated. The first method (A) is based on the oxidation of the drug by ammonium molybdate. The second method (B) was based on the charge-transfer complexation reaction between the amantadine base as an electron donor and iodine as a σ-acceptor. The third method (C) is based on the reaction of N-alkylvinylamine formed from the interaction of the free amino group in amantadine molecule and acetalde-hyde with chloranil to give colored vinylamino-substituted benzoquinone. The colored products of these reactions were measured at their corresponding maximum absorption peaks. Different variables affecting the reactions were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients 0.9993-0.9998 were found between the reading and the corresponding concentration of the drug in the range 2-90 µg·ml-1. The limits of detection ranged from 0.16 to 1.91 µg·ml-1. The precision of the methods was satisfactory: the values of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.63%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of amantadine HCl in its capsules with good accuracy and precision; the label claim percentages ranged from 99.8 to 100.5 ± (0.52-1.22) %. The results obtained by the proposed spectrophotometric methods were comparable with those obtained by the official method.

  12. Validated spectrofluorometric methods for determination of amlodipine besylate in tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wadood, Hanaa M.; Mohamed, Niveen A.; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.

    2008-08-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrofluorometric methods have been developed and validated for determination of amlodipine besylate (AML) in tablets. The first method was based on the condensation reaction of AML with ninhydrin and phenylacetaldehyde in buffered medium (pH 7.0) resulting in formation of a green fluorescent product, which exhibits excitation and emission maxima at 375 and 480 nm, respectively. The second method was based on the reaction of AML with 7-chloro-4-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) in a buffered medium (pH 8.6) resulting in formation of a highly fluorescent product, which was measured fluorometrically at 535 nm ( λex, 480 nm). The factors affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. Under the optimum reaction conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9949-0.9997) were found between the fluorescence intensity and the concentrations of AML in the concentration range of 0.35-1.8 and 0.55-3.0 μg ml -1 for ninhydrin and NBD-Cl methods, respectively. The limits of assays detection were 0.09 and 0.16 μg ml -1 for the first and second method, respectively. The precisions of the methods were satisfactory; the relative standard deviations were ranged from 1.69 to 1.98%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of AML in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy; the recovery percentages ranged from 100.4-100.8 ± 1.70-2.32%. The results were compared favorably with those of the reported method.

  13. Silver nanoparticle enhanced chemiluminescence method for the determination of nitrazepam.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Li, Xia; Wei, Bei

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine nitrazepam. This method is based on the fact that rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) enhanced the weak CL emission of the reaction of hexacyanoferrate with nitrazepam, and that it was further enhanced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The effects of the concentrations of K3Fe(CN)6, Rh6G, AgNPs and NaOH on the CL reaction were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of nitrazepam in the range from 1.0 nM to 10.0 μM. The detection limit (3σ) was at 0.1 nM. The relative standard deviation was 2.1% (at a 0.1 μM concentration and for n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrazepam in Coca-Cola beverage, urine and plasma, and the recovery was 98 - 103%. We also considered the possible CL reaction mechanism.

  14. A Straightforward Method to Determine Equilibrium Constants from Spectrophotometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszei, E.; Takács, M. G.; Vizkeleti, B.

    2000-07-01

    Spectrophotometry provides reliable information on the equilibrium concentration in chemically reacting mixtures. However, the widely used traditional linearized models to determine the equilibrium constant from spectrophotometric data do not provide optimal information and unnecessarily complicate data evaluation for students. In this paper we show an easy and straightforward inference method, which makes use only of Beer's Law and an elementary mathematical treatment of the problem. Though the resulting parameter estimation is nonlinear with respect to the equilibrium constant, the commercial availability of many nonlinear parameter estimation software packages eliminates the need for the student to bother with either mathematical or numerical details. Adding a suitable spectral shape function to the model describing equilibrium further facilitates the use of the proposed method and makes it an easy task to determine the components' spectra from equilibrium measurements. Three practical examples are treated in detail in the online version. They illustrate how the method works at different complexity levels and are easy to install in undergraduate physical chemistry labs.

  15. Facile colorimetric methods for the quantitative determination of tetramisole hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, A. S.; Dessouki, H. A.

    2002-10-01

    A facile, rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of tetramisole hydrochloride in pure and in dosage forms are described. The procedures are based on the formation of coloured products with the chromogenic reagents alizarin blue BB (I), alizarin red S (II), alizarin violet 3R (III) and alizarin yellow G (IV). The coloured products showed absorption maxima at 605, 468, 631 and 388 nm for I-IV, respectively. The colours obtained were stable for 24 h. The colour system obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range 1.0-36, 0.8-32, 1.2-42 and 0.8-30 μg ml -1, respectively. The results obtained showed good recoveries with relative standard deviations of 1.27, 0.96, 1.13 and 1.35%, respectively. The detection and determination limits were found to be 1.0 and 3.8, 1.2 and 4.2, 1.0 and 3.9 and finally 1.4 and 4.8 ng ml -1 for I-IV complexes, respectively. Applications of the method to representative pharmaceutical formulations are represented and the validity assessed by applying the standard addition technique, which is comparable with that obtained using the official method.

  16. Miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Manami; Namera, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Kimura, Kojiro

    2004-07-16

    A simple and miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine was developed using on-column derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine was directly applied to the extraction column that was pre-packed with Extrelut and sodium carbonate. Amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine were adsorbed on the surface of Extrelut. AP and MA were then converted to a free base and derivatized to N-propoxycarbonyl derivatives using propylchloroformate on the column. Pentadeuterated MA was used as an internal standard. The recoveries of AP and MA from urine were 100 and 102%, respectively. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.50-50 microg/mL for AP and MA in urine. When urine samples containing two different concentrations (0.50 and 5.0 microg/mL) of AP and MA were determined, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were 1.4-7.7%. This method was applied to 14 medico-legal cases of MA intoxication. The results were compared and a good agreement was obtained with a HPLC method.

  17. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    DOEpatents

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  18. Orthogonal polynomial projection quantization: a new Hill determinant method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, C. R.; Vrinceanu, D.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate energy eigenvalues are obtained by simply projecting the unknown bound state wave function on, essentially, arbitrary sets of orthogonal polynomials, and setting a subset of these to zero. The projection integrals are represented in terms of the power moments of the wave function, obtained recursively by transforming Schrödinger’s equation into a moment equation. Because unbounded wave functions do not have power moments, all solutions are guaranteed to be L2, resulting in a more robust, rapidly converging and stable method when compared with configuration space Hill determinant methods. More importantly, our approach permits the use of arbitrary, nonanalytic, positive reference functions, including those that manifest the true asymptotic behavior of the discrete states. These advantages are not usually possible with the standard Hill approach. The formulation presented here can be applied to any problem for which Schrödinger’s equation can be transformed into a moment equation. In this regard it is related to the L2 quantization prescription developed by Tymczak et al (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 3674; 1998 Phys. Rev. A 58 2708) corresponding to the Hill determinant method in momentum space, and to the eigenvalue moment method (Handy and Bessis 1985 Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 931; Handy et al 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 253), the first use of semidefinite programming related analysis in quantum physics. The latter method can be used to generate the ground state, whose orthogonal polynomials can serve to generate even more rapidly converging estimates for the excited discrete state energies. We demonstrate the power of this new approach on the sextic and quartic anharmonic oscillators, as well as on recently studied one- and two-dimensional pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians.

  19. [Method of determining body thickness from weight and height].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    With attention given to the fact that information on weight and height is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x height(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x height(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x height(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x height(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.

  20. Advances in direct and diffraction methods for surface structural determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, S. Y.

    1999-08-01

    I describe recent advances in low-energy electron diffraction holography and photoelectron diffraction holography. These are direct methods for determining the surface structure. I show that for LEED and PD spectra taken in an energy and angular mesh, the relative phase between the reference wave and the scattered wave has a known geometric form if the spectra are always taken from within a small angular cone in the near backscattering direction. By using data in the backscattering small cone at each direction of interest, a simple algorithm is developed to invert the spectra and extract object atomic positions with no input of calculated dynamic factors. I also describe the use of a convergent iterative method of PD and LEED. The computation time of this method scales as N2, where N is the dimension of the propagator matrix, rather than N3 as in conventional Gaussian substitutional methods. Both the Rehr-Albers separable-propagator cluster approach and the slab-type non-separable approach can be cast in the new iterative form. With substantial savings in computational time and no loss in numerical accuracy, this method is very useful in applications of multiple scattering theory, particularly for systems involving either very large unit cells (>300 atoms) or where no long-range order is present.

  1. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-06-23

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  2. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O. Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A. Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions. PMID:27347992

  3. Host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    1995-03-01

    The usual course of infection by Plasmodium falciparum among adults who lack a history of exposure to endemic malaria is fulminant. The infection in adults living with hyper- to holoendemic malaria is chronic and benign. Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria is the basis of this difference. Confusion surrounds an essential question regarding this process: What is its rate of onset? Opinions vary because of disagreement over the relationships between exposure to infection, antigenic polymorphism and naturally acquired immunity. In this review, Kevin Baird discusses these relationships against a backdrop of host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria.

  4. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  5. System and method for attitude determination based on optical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkins, John L. (Inventor); Pollock, Thomas C. (Inventor); Mortari, Daniele (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus is provide for receiving a first set of optical data from a first field of view and receiving a second set of optical data from a second field of view. A portion of the first set of optical data is communicated and a portion of the second set of optical data is reflected, both toward an optical combiner. The optical combiner then focuses the portions onto the image plane such that information at the image plane that is associated with the first and second fields of view is received by an optical detector and used to determine an attitude characteristic.

  6. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  7. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Gao, Xing; Gao, Bin; Granger, Darryl E

    2009-03-12

    The age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus, commonly known as 'Peking Man', has long been pursued, but has remained problematic owing to the lack of suitable dating methods. Here we report cosmogenic (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating of quartz sediments and artefacts from the lower strata of Locality 1 in the southwestern suburb of Beijing, China, where early representatives of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus were discovered. This study marks the first radioisotopic dating of any early hominin site in China beyond the range of mass spectrometric U-series dating. The weighted mean of six meaningful age measurements, 0.77 +/- 0.08 million years (Myr, mean +/- s.e.m.), provides the best age estimate for lower cultural layers 7-10. Together with previously reported U-series dating of speleothem calcite and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy, as well as sedimentological considerations, these layers may be further correlated to S6-S7 in Chinese loess stratigraphy or marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-19, in the range of approximately 0.68 to 0.78 Myr ago. These ages are substantially older than previously supposed and may imply early hominin's presence at the site in northern China through a relatively mild glacial period corresponding to MIS 18.

  8. A Rapid Radiocarbon Method for Age Surveys of Southern Ocean Deep-sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A.; Robinson, L. F.; Gerlach, D. S.; Jenkins, W. J.; McNichol, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    Deep-sea corals provide a unique archive of past ocean radiocarbon because they are sessile and can be dated independently using U-series nuclides. One difficulty, however, is that using current techniques it is impractical to date large numbers of corals in order to determine which specimens have the appropriate ages for radiocarbon reconstructions. Here we present results from a quick method of making graphite for radiocarbon dating that reduces the amount of sample preparation time, thus allowing us to date a greater number of corals. In addition, these rapid age surveys provide important information on coral age populations, allowing us to examine coral distributions through time. The corals used in this study come from a sample set of about 6,000 specimens of Flabellum, Balanophyllia and Desmophyllum spp. collected from the Drake Passage area (50S -70S, 120 m-1700 m depth). Replicate samples from a single coral yielded a standard deviation of 81 years (n=9). Variations in sample mass (3 to 85 mg) have no clear effect on the Fm and furthermore, a simple cleaning using methanol yields the same results as a more involved cleaning procedure that includes an oxidizing solution and perchloric acid rinse. To improve the efficiency of the method, we assumed a delta13C = 0 per mil. This assumption is likely our largest source of uncertainty, resulting in offsets of up to 200 radiocarbon years over a reasonable range of delta13C. This level of uncertainty is sufficiently low to allow distinction between corals from different time periods over the past 35 ky (e.g. Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas, etc.). To date, we have found corals from Burdwood Bank dating from the modern to the Younger Dryas and corals from the Drake Passage dating from the modern to Heinrich Event 1, which will be used in future paleo-climatic reconstructions in this important part of the ocean.

  9. Applicability of Demirjian’s Method and Modified Cameriere’s Methods for Dental Age Assessment in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pratyusha, K; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Saujanya, Kaniti; Raviteja, Narra Venkata Krishna; Chandrasekhar, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tooth development is extensively used for age estimation as a part of forensic science. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of Demirjian’s, Cameriere’s and modified Cameriere’s population-specific regression equation methods in the dental age estimation of West Godavari children. Materials and Methods The study included orthopantomograms (OPG) of 60 children of West Godavari district with age group between 9 to 14 years on whom all the three methods were used for age estimation. The OPG were traced with the help of a tracing paper and lead pencil and the appropriate dimensions were measured. Age estimation was done based on canine calcification stage as per Demirjian’s method and measurements of the seven permanent left mandibular teeth using Cameriere’s formula and modified population-specific regression equation obtained for the South Indian population from Cameriere’s formula. The resultant data were subjected to statistical analysis by student’s paired t-test. Results The estimated age was closer to the chronological age when the modified Cameriere’s population-specific regression equation was used (p=0.68); whereas, the difference was more in Demirjian’s method (p=0.008) followed by Cameriere’s method (p<0.001). Conclusion The method using modified Cameriere’s population-specific regression equation exhibited a least significant difference in chronological and dental age assessment in children of West Godavari district as compared to the other two methods.

  10. Novel methods for determination of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvia, V.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A rapid method for analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON) was developed using high pressure liquid chromatography with reductive electrochemical detection (LCECD). Deoxynivalenol produced by Fusarium roseum growing on solid cornmeal and rice substrates and from naturally contaminated wheat was extracted and quantitated. Two deoxynivalenol producing isolates of Fusarium roseum (ATCC number28114, NCPRL-A) were incubated in stationary liquid culture in the presence of (1-/sup 14/C) sodium acetate to biosynthetically produce a radiolabeled toxin suitable for use in tissue distribution studies. Specific activities of 139 uCi/mmole (NCPRL-A on corn media), 67.5 uCi/mmole (NCPRL-A on rice media) and 21.5 uCi/mmol (ATCC number28114 on rice media) were obtained in this study and represent the first reported incorporation of /sup 14/C into deoxynivalenol. A minicolumn method for DON determination was also investigated.

  11. Determining Static Stability Boundaries Using A Non-Iterative Method

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Ma, Jian; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2007-06-28

    Static voltage and angle stability conditions (and saddle node bifurcations) are often associated with singularities of the power flow Jacobian matrix. This paper presents a new method based on singularity conditions written in Cartesian coordinates to determine static stability boundaries. The Cartesian coordinates instead of the traditional polar coordinates are used, allowing non-iterative locating saddle-node bifurcation points of the power flow problem. The singularity problem is formulated and then is easily reduced to a linear set of equations with respect to the real and imaginary components of nodal voltages. Because the linear problem can be singular in its turning point, singular value decomposition is used to find its solutions. The proposed method allows quick exploration of static stability boundaries in the state space, which is essential for developing real-time wide-area and local system security assessment applications. This paper demonstrates some very promising initial results of a pilot research using a 3-bus power system.

  12. Methods for L-ribooligonucleotide sequence determination using LCMS.

    PubMed

    Turner, John J; Hoos, Johannes S; Vonhoff, Stefan; Klussmann, Sven

    2011-11-01

    The ability to verify the sequence of a nucleic acid-based therapeutic is an essential step in the drug development process. The challenge associated with sequence identification increases with the length and nuclease resistance of the nucleic acid molecule, the latter being an important attribute of therapeutic oligonucleotides. We describe methods for the sequence determination of Spiegelmers, which are enantiomers of naturally occurring RNA with high resistance to enzymatic degradation. Spiegelmer sequencing is effected by affixing a label or hapten to the 5'-end of the oligonucleotide and chemically degrading the molecule in a controlled fashion to generate fragments that are then resolved and identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Spiegelmer sequence is then derived from these fragments. Examples are shown for two different Spiegelmers (NOX-E36 and NOX-A12), and the specificity of the method is shown using a NOX-E36 mismatch control.

  13. Method For Determining And Modifying Protein/Peptide Solubilty

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2005-03-15

    A solubility reporter for measuring a protein's solubility in vivo or in vitro is described. The reporter, which can be used in a single living cell, gives a specific signal suitable for determining whether the cell bears a soluble version of the protein of interest. A pool of random mutants of an arbitrary protein, generated using error-prone in vitro recombination, may also be screened for more soluble versions using the reporter, and these versions may be recombined to yield variants having further-enhanced solubility. The method of the present invention includes "irrational" (random mutagenesis) methods, which do not require a priori knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the protein of interest. Multiple sequences of mutation/genetic recombination and selection for improved solubility are demonstrated to yield versions of the protein which display enhanced solubility.

  14. Methods and principles for determining task dependent interface content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalin, Valerie L.; Geddes, Norman D.; Mikesell, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    Computer generated information displays provide a promising technology for offsetting the increasing complexity of the National Airspace System. To realize this promise, however, we must extend and adapt the domain-dependent knowledge that informally guides the design of traditional dedicated displays. In our view, the successful exploitation of computer generated displays revolves around the idea of information management, that is, the identification, organization, and presentation of relevant and timely information in a complex task environment. The program of research that is described leads to methods and principles for information management in the domain of commercial aviation. The multi-year objective of the proposed program of research is to develop methods and principles for determining task dependent interface content.

  15. Methods for determining the degree of baking in anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Anode baking temperature is recognized as a critical factor in determining anode quality and performance. It is difficult and costly to measure directly and an indirect method, the coke L{sub c} technique, is often used. In this technique, baking temperature is estimated from the average crystallite size in the c direction (L{sub c}) of a coke sample placed in the anode stubhole. The paper details the results of a large statistically designed experimental program in which coke L{sub c} results were compared to anode properties routinely measured by smelters. Anode thermal conductivity and air and carboxy reactivity were found to correlate well with baking temperature. A direct anode L{sub c} measurement technique was also strongly associated with temperature, particularly at high baking temperatures. Recommendations are given on the usefulness and simplicity of traditional anode property measurements for assessing baking temperatures as alternatives to the coke L{sub c} method.

  16. Ad hoc methods for accurate determination of Bader's atomic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polestshuk, Pavel M.

    2013-08-01

    In addition to the recently published triangulation method [P. M. Polestshuk, J. Comput. Chem. 34, 206 (2013)], 10.1002/jcc.23121, two new highly accurate approaches, ZFSX and SINTY, for the integration over an atomic region covered by a zero-flux surface (zfs) were developed and efficiently interfaced into the TWOE program. ZFSX method was realized as three independent modules (ZFSX-1, ZFSX-3, and ZFSX-5) handling interatomic surfaces of a different complexity. Details of algorithmic implementation of ZFSX and SINTY are discussed. A special attention to an extended analysis of errors in calculations of atomic properties is paid. It was shown that uncertainties in zfs determination caused by ZFSX and SINTY approaches contribute negligibly (less than 10-6 a.u.) to the total atomic integration errors. Moreover, the new methods are able to evaluate atomic integrals with a reasonable time and can be universally applied for the systems of any complexity. It is suggested, therefore, that ZFSX and SINTY can be regarded as benchmark methods for the computation of any Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules atomic property.

  17. Methods for determining the genetic affinity of microorganisms and viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, George E. (Inventor); Willson, III, Richard C. (Inventor); Zhang, Zhengdong (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Selecting which sub-sequences in a database of nucleic acid such as 16S rRNA are highly characteristic of particular groupings of bacteria, microorganisms, fungi, etc. on a substantially phylogenetic tree. Also applicable to viruses comprising viral genomic RNA or DNA. A catalogue of highly characteristic sequences identified by this method is assembled to establish the genetic identity of an unknown organism. The characteristic sequences are used to design nucleic acid hybridization probes that include the characteristic sequence or its complement, or are derived from one or more characteristic sequences. A plurality of these characteristic sequences is used in hybridization to determine the phylogenetic tree position of the organism(s) in a sample. Those target organisms represented in the original sequence database and sufficient characteristic sequences can identify to the species or subspecies level. Oligonucleotide arrays of many probes are especially preferred. A hybridization signal can comprise fluorescence, chemiluminescence, or isotopic labeling, etc.; or sequences in a sample can be detected by direct means, e.g. mass spectrometry. The method's characteristic sequences can also be used to design specific PCR primers. The method uniquely identifies the phylogenetic affinity of an unknown organism without requiring prior knowledge of what is present in the sample. Even if the organism has not been previously encountered, the method still provides useful information about which phylogenetic tree bifurcation nodes encompass the organism.

  18. Determination of transient fluid temperature using the inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an inverse method to obtain accurate measurements of the transient temperature of fluid. A method for unit step and linear rise of temperature is presented. For this purpose, the thermometer housing is modelled as a full cylindrical element (with no inner hole), divided into four control volumes. Using the control volume method, the heat balance equations can be written for each of the nodes for each of the control volumes. Thus, for a known temperature in the middle of the cylindrical element, the distribution of temperature in three nodes and heat flux at the outer surface were obtained. For a known value of the heat transfer coefficient the temperature of the fluid can be calculated using the boundary condition. Additionally, results of experimental research are presented. The research was carried out during the start-up of an experimental installation, which comprises: a steam generator unit, an installation for boiler feed water treatment, a tray-type deaerator, a blow down flashvessel for heat recovery, a steam pressure reduction station, a boiler control system and a steam header made of martensitic high alloy P91 steel. Based on temperature measurements made in the steam header using the inverse method, accurate measurements of the transient temperature of the steam were obtained. The results of the calculations are compared with the real temperature of the steam, which can be determined for a known pressure and enthalpy.

  19. Ad hoc methods for accurate determination of Bader's atomic boundary.

    PubMed

    Polestshuk, Pavel M

    2013-08-07

    In addition to the recently published triangulation method [P. M. Polestshuk, J. Comput. Chem. 34, 206 (2013)], two new highly accurate approaches, ZFSX and SINTY, for the integration over an atomic region covered by a zero-flux surface (zfs) were developed and efficiently interfaced into the TWOE program. ZFSX method was realized as three independent modules (ZFSX-1, ZFSX-3, and ZFSX-5) handling interatomic surfaces of a different complexity. Details of algorithmic implementation of ZFSX and SINTY are discussed. A special attention to an extended analysis of errors in calculations of atomic properties is paid. It was shown that uncertainties in zfs determination caused by ZFSX and SINTY approaches contribute negligibly (less than 10(-6) a.u.) to the total atomic integration errors. Moreover, the new methods are able to evaluate atomic integrals with a reasonable time and can be universally applied for the systems of any complexity. It is suggested, therefore, that ZFSX and SINTY can be regarded as benchmark methods for the computation of any Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules atomic property.

  20. Method and apparatus for determining fluid mass flowrates

    DOEpatents

    Hamel, W.R.

    1982-10-07

    This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flowrate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flowrate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flowrate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flowrate and density are determined from the required bending of the fluid flow.

  1. Method for determining shear direction using liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for determining shear direction wherein a beam of white light is directed onto the surface of a liquid crystal coating to cause the white light to be dispersed (reflected) from the surface in a spectrum having bands of different colors in a fixed spatial 2 (angular) sequence. The system is calibrated by locating an observer, e.g., a video and movie camera, such that a particular color band (preferably at or near the center of the reflected spectrum) is observed to thereby provide a reference color band. Because the application of shear causes either clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the reflected spectrum dependent on the direction of the shear, a determination is then made of the reflected color band observed by the observer when the surface of the liquid crystal is subjected to shear to thereby determine the direction of the shear based on the directional (rotation) relation of the observed color band with respect to the reference color band in the spatial sequence of color bands.

  2. Optical method for determining the mechanical properties of a material

    DOEpatents

    Maris, H.J.; Stoner, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) acquiring data from the sample using at least one probe beam wavelength to measure, for times less than a few nanoseconds, a change in the reflectivity of the sample induced by a pump beam; (b) analyzing the data to determine at least one material property by comparing a background signal component of the data with data obtained for a similar delay time range from one or more samples prepared under conditions known to give rise to certain physical and chemical material properties; and (c) analyzing a component of the measured time dependent reflectivity caused by ultrasonic waves generated by the pump beam using the at least one determined material property. The first step of analyzing may include a step of interpolating between reference samples to obtain an intermediate set of material properties. The material properties may include sound velocity, density, and optical constants. In one embodiment, only a correlation is made with the background signal, and at least one of the structural phase, grain orientation, and stoichiometry is determined. 14 figs.

  3. Optical method for determining the mechanical properties of a material

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Stoner, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample, comprising the steps of: (a) acquiring data from the sample using at least one probe beam wavelength to measure, for times less than a few nanoseconds, a change in the reflectivity of the sample induced by a pump beam; (b) analyzing the data to determine at least one material property by comparing a background signal component of the data with data obtained for a similar delay time range from one or more samples prepared under conditions known to give rise to certain physical and chemical material properties; and (c) analyzing a component of the measured time dependent reflectivity caused by ultrasonic waves generated by the pump beam using the at least one determined material property. The first step of analyzing may include a step of interpolating between reference samples to obtain an intermediate set of material properties. The material properties may include sound velocity, density, and optical constants. In one embodiment, only a correlation is made with the background signal, and at least one of the structural phase, grain orientation, and stoichiometry is determined.

  4. A new chemiluminescence method for the determination of nickel ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li Na; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2006-05-01

    A new chemiluminescence (CL) phenomenon described as the second-chemiluminescence (SCL) was observed and a strong CL signal was detected, when Ni(II) ion was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of potassium permanganate with alkaline luminol. The possible CL mechanism is proposed based on the kinetic curve of the CL reaction, CL spectra, UV-vis spectra and some other experiments. A flow-injection analysis for the determination of nickle(II) ion has been developed, based on the catalysis of nickel(II) ion on the CL reaction between potassium manganate produced on-line and luminol under alkaline condition. Under the optimum conditions, the SCL intensity is linear with the concentration of nickel(II) ion in the range of 8.0-200.0 μg l -1 and 0.2-2.0 mg l -1. The R.S.D. was 4.5% for 11 determinations of 250 μg l -1 nickel(II) ion and the detection limit (3 σ) for nickel(II) ion was 0.33 μg l -1. The method was applied to determine nickel(II) ion in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Specific Rate of Protein Crystallization Determined by the Guggenheim Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, James K.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Caraballo, Katiuska G.

    2014-05-01

    The biological function of a protein is intimately related to its three-dimensional molecular structure. Although X-ray diffraction from single crystals can be employed to solve for the molecular structure, use of this method is often impeded by the slow rate of precipitation of crystals from the pH buffered, aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes which ordinarily serve as growth media. The rate of crystallization can be measured as a function of growth solution conditions by growing the crystals in a dilatometer. As the crystallization progresses, the rate of change of the system volume caused by the difference in density between the crystals and the solution is reflected in the rate of change of the height of the fluid in the capillary side arm of the dilatometer. In the case of the proteins, lysozyme, and canavalin, this height changes exponentially with time, which serves to define a first-order rate constant or specific crystallization rate, k. A dozen such experiments may be needed to determine how depends upon pH, electrolyte concentration, and temperature. Each experiment can require 4 or 5 days to reach equilibrium. If height measurements are made equally spaced in time, however, early time data can be combined according to the Guggenheim procedure, and the value of k can be determined without the experiment having to reach equilibrium. By using this method, the time required to complete an experiment can be reduced by as much as 50 %.

  6. Reddening and age for 13 southern Galactic open clusters determined from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Dutra, C. M.; Torres, M. C.

    2001-10-01

    In this study we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range 3800-6800 Å for 13 concentrated open clusters with Galactic longitudes between 219deg and 316deg, nine of which have not been previously studied. Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra of Magellanic Clouds and Galactic star clusters with known parameters, we derive both foreground interstellar reddening values and age. For nine clusters these two parameters have been determined for the first time, while for the rest of the sample the results show good agreement with previous studies. The present analysis indicates four very young (Hogg 11, NGC 5606, vdB-RN 80 and Pismis 17), seven moderately young (ESO 429-SC13, Hogg 3, Hogg 12, Haffner 7, BH 87, NGC 2368 and Bochum 12) and two intermediate-age (Berkeley 75 and NGC 2635) open clusters. The derived foreground interstellar reddening values are in the range 0.00 <= E(B-V) <= 0.38. The age and reddening distributions of the present sample of relatively faint open clusters match those of open clusters with known parameters in a 90deg sector centered at l = 270deg. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  7. Can chlorofluorocarbon sorption to black carbon (char) affect groundwater age determinations?

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Allen-King, Richelle M

    2010-06-15

    Although adsorption is not generally considered important in low f(oc) (fraction organic carbon) aquifers, we show that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) adsorption to black carbon (BC) is sufficiently large to retard transport and affect groundwater ages obtained with CFCs. Sorption isotherms of CFC-11, -12, and -113 to synthetic wood char were nonlinear (Freundlich n = 0.71-0.94) while humic acid isotherms were linear. Moreover, sorption to char was 10-1000 times greater than to humic acid for all three CFCs at the lowest observed concentrations, C(w)/S approximately 10(-8)-10(-7). We used the observed isotherms for char and humic acid to represent sorption to BC and amorphous organic matter, respectively, in a dual mode model to estimate retardation factors for a low f(oc) aquifer (= 0.06% gC g(-1)). The estimated retardation factors for the char-containing aquifer (presumed BC fraction = 9% of f(oc)) were approximately 6.8-10.6 at C(w)/S = 10(-8) and >5 times those estimated assuming amorphous organic matter partitioning only. The results indicate that unless CFC adsorption to BC is evaluated in transport, the groundwater age determined may be biased toward older than true ages. The CFC data archived in BC-containing aquifers may contain information about its adsorbent properties that could be useful to predict retardation of other chlorinated organic contaminants.

  8. DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Chasman, Daniel I.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Elks, Cathy; Albrecht, Eva; Andrulis, Irene L.; Beesley, Jonathan; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Brown, Judith; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Esko, Tõnu; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Flyger, Henrik; Fraser, Abigail; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Giles, Graham; Guenel, Pascal; Hägg, Sara; Hall, Per; Hayward, Caroline; Hopper, John; Ingelsson, Erik; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kasiman, Katherine; Knight, Julia A.; Lahti, Jari; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Margolin, Sara; Marsh, Julie A.; Metspalu, Andres; Olson, Janet E.; Pennell, Craig E.; Polasek, Ozren; Rahman, Iffat; Ridker, Paul M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Salumets, Andres; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Smith, Erin N.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Southey, Melissa; Stöckl, Doris; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Truong, Therese; Ulivi, Sheila; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Qin; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F.; Zgaga, Lina; Ong, Ken K.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Karasik, David; Murray, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using genome-wide complex trait analysis. However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P = 1.9 × 10−9), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility. PMID:24357391

  9. Determining Distance, Age, and Activity in a New Benchmark Cluster: Ruprecht 147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2009-08-01

    This proposal seeks 0.7 night of time on Hectochelle to observe the F, G, and K dwarfs of Ruprecht 147, recently identified as the closest old stellar cluster. At only ~ 200 pc and at an age of ~ 1-2 Gyr, this will be an important benchmark in stellar astrophysics, providing the only sample of spectroscopically accessible old, late-type stars of determinable age. Hectochelle is the ideal instrument to study this cluster, with a FOV, fiber count, and telescope aperture well matched to the cluster's diameter (~ 1°), richness (~ 100 identified members), and distance modulus (6.5-7 mag., putting the G and K dwarfs at B=11-15). Hectochelle will measure the Ca II line strengths of members to establish, for the first time, the chromospheric activity levels of a statistically significant sample of single, G and K dwarfs of this modest age. Hectochelle will also vet background stars for suitability as astrometric reference stars for a forthcoming HST FGS proposal to robustly measure the cluster's distance.

  10. Determinants of foodservice satisfaction for patients in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residents in residential aged care

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Olivia R. L.; Connelly, Luke B.; Capra, Sandra; Hendrikz, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Poor satisfaction with institutional food is a significant moderator of food intake in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Purpose  To quantify the relationship between foodservice satisfaction, foodservice characteristics, demographic and contextual variables in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Methods  The Resident Foodservice Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered to 103 patients of 2 geriatrics/rehabilitation units and 210 residents of nine residential aged care facilities in Brisbane, Australia. Ordered probit regression analysis measured the association of age, gender, ethnicity and appetite, timing and amount of meal choice, menu selectivity, menu cycle, production system, meal delivery system and therapeutic diets with foodservice satisfaction. Results  Patient and resident appetite (P < 0.01), the amount and timing of meal choice (P < 0.01), self‐rated health (P < 0.01), accommodation style (P < 0.05) and age (P < 0.10) significantly moderated foodservice satisfaction. High protein/high energy therapeutic diets (P < 0.01), foodservice production (P < 0.01) and delivery systems (P > 0.01) were significant moderators for those with ‘fair’ self‐rated health. Conclusions  Patient and resident characteristics and structural and systems‐related foodservice variables were more important for influencing foodservice satisfaction than characteristics of food quality. The results suggest modifications to current menu planning and foodservice delivery methods: reducing the time‐lapse between meal choice and consumption, augmenting the number of meals at which choice is offered, and revising food production and delivery systems.It is important that residents in poorer health who are a high risk of under‐nutrition are provided with sufficient high protein/high energy therapeutic diets. Diets that restrict macro‐ and micro‐nutrients should be

  11. Study of a laboratory-scaled new method for the accelerated continuous ageing of wine spirits by applying ultrasound energy.

    PubMed

    Delgado-González, M J; Sánchez-Guillén, M M; García-Moreno, M V; Rodríguez-Dodero, M C; García-Barroso, C; Guillén-Sánchez, D A

    2017-05-01

    During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured. With that proposal, the influence of different powers of ultrasound, and also the influence of the movement of the liquor through oak chips, was determined first. This way, the results show that higher powers of ultrasound, of nearly 40W/L, in addition with the movement of the spirit, improve the extraction of phenolic compounds in a 33.94%, after seven days of ageing. Then, applying Youden and Steiner's experimental design, eight experiments of ageing were performed, and the samples obtained by this new method were analysed to obtain information related to their physicochemical and oenological characterisation in order to determine the experimental conditions that produce the best ageing results. This way, the best spirit produced by this new method of ageing is obtained with a high alcoholic strength of the distilled wine and a high quantity of oak chips, and with room temperature and high flow rate. In addition, the presence of oxygen in the sample and the absence of light increase the quality of the produced spirit. Finally, the application of ultrasound energy in large pulses is related with the improvement of two important ageing markers: the intensity of the colour and the TPI. As a last experiment, we applied this ageing method to five varietal spirits. The sensorial

  12. Determination of Carbonyl Functional Groups in Bio-oils by Potentiometric Titration: The Faix Method

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. While traditional carbonyl oximation methods occur at room temperature, the Faix method presented here occurs at an elevated temperature of 80 degrees C.

  13. Determination of Carbonyl Functional Groups in Bio-oils by Potentiometric Titration: The Faix Method.

    PubMed

    Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R

    2017-02-07

    Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. While traditional carbonyl oximation methods occur at room temperature, the Faix method presented here occurs at an elevated temperature of 80 °C.

  14. Age-related increase of reactive oxygen generation in the brains of mammals and birds: is reactive oxygen a signaling molecule to determine the aging process and life span?

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toru; Unno, Keiko; Tahara, Shoichi; Kaneko, Takao

    2010-07-01

    Since Harman proposed the "free-radical theory of aging", oxidative stress has been postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. The accumulation of oxidative stress-induced oxidatively modified macromolecules, including protein, DNA and lipid, were found in tissues during the aging process; however, it is not necessarily clear which factor is more critical, an increase in endogenous reactive oxygen and/or a decrease in anti-oxidative defense, to the age-related increase in oxidative damage. To clarify the increasing production of reactive oxygen with age, we examined reactive oxygen-dependent chemiluminescent (CL) signals in ex vivo brain slices prepared from different-aged animal brains during hypoxia-reoxygenation treatment using a novel photonic imaging method. The CL signal was intensified during reoxygenation. The signals in SAMP10 (short-life strain) and SAMR1 (control) brain slices increased with aging. The slope of the increase of CL intensity with age in P10 was steeper than in R1. Age-dependent increase of CL intensity was also observed in C57BL/6 mice, Wistar rats and pigeons; however, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the brain did not change with age. These results suggest that reactive oxygen production itself increased with aging. The rate of age-related increases of CL intensity was inversely related to the maximum lifespan of animals. We speculate that reactive oxygen might be a signaling molecule and its levels in tissue might determine the aging process and lifespan. Decelerating age-related increases of reactive oxygen production are expected to be a potent strategy for anti-aging interventions.

  15. Determination of L- Ascorbic Acid in Plasma by Voltammetric Method

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdol Azim; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Voltammetric techniques have been considered as important methods among the analytical techniques used for the identification and determination of trace concentrations of many biological molecules such as L-ascorbic acid (AA). L-ascorbic acid is an electro-active molecule, though it is difficult to determine its value directly with a majority of electrodes made of carbon and transition metals, because of electrode surface problems. The present study is based on I-E curves for AA analysis at various pH. Furthermore, the effects of the presence of other electro-active substances; such as copper, as well as the effect of the sweep rate of potential will be studied. The present study is based on analysis of the current-voltage curves for L-ascorbic acid at varying pH and sweep rate scan values. An analysis was also carried out to measure the influence of the concentration of some electro active species. The peak height of the first oxidation wave is used for L-ascorbic acid assay. L-ascorbic acid was determined in aqueous media by linear-scan voltammetry on a gold electrode; ranging between (1-175 μg/mL). In biologic samples, for elimination of uric acid or some sugars and effects, a significant interference of copper ions whose presence reduces the height of the L-ascorbic acid oxidation peak was used. The optimum pH and sweep rate were 3.2 and 7500mV/s, respectively. Under these conditions, the detection limit of the method was 0.3 μg/mL. Repeatability of the method based on relative standard deviation (RSD) 50, 10 and 1 μg/mL concentrations was 0.83, 2.1 and 10.3%, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range 1-175μg/mL (r2 = 0.9977, p < 0.001). The advantage of this method lies in the fact that the use of copper eliminates the interference of different substances such as uric acid. PMID:24363717

  16. A Test of the Passalacqua Age at Death Estimation Method Using the Sacrum.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Tara

    2016-01-01

    A test of the accuracy of the Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) sacrum method in a forensic context was performed on a sample of 153 individuals from the J.C.B. Grant Skeletal Collection. The Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) method assesses seven traits of the sacrum using a 7-digit coding system. An accuracy of 97.3% was achieved using the Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) method to estimate adult skeletal age. On average each age estimate differed by 12.87 years from the known age. The method underestimated the age of individuals by an average of 4.3 years. An intra-observer error of 6.6% suggests that the method can be performed with precision. Correlation and regression analysis found that the sacral traits used in the Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) method did not have a strong relationship with age or an ability to strongly predict age. Overall, the method was not practical for use in a forensic context due to the broad age ranges, despite the high accuracy and low intra-observer error.

  17. Auricular Surface Aging: Comparing Two Methods that Assess Morphological Change in the Ilium with Bayesian Analyses.

    PubMed

    Hens, Samantha M; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    Modern standards in forensic anthropology require rigorous testing and evaluation of methods used for aging skeletal remains. Age estimation has been criticized for bias, inaccuracy, and population specificity; issues which are minimized by the application of Bayesian methodology. Using Bayesian statistics, we compare the Lovejoy et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol, 68, 1985, 15) (original) and Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am J Phys Anthropol, 119, 2002, 231) (revised) auricular surface aging methods. Transition analysis parameters derived from American males (n = 372), in combination with a Thai male (N = 37) informative prior, statistically model age in Portuguese males (n = 221). Cumulative binomial tests assess the accuracy of the generated age ranges. Overall, the application of transition analysis and Bayesian statistics significantly improved age estimation with both methods (also outperforming Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging). Moreover, the accuracy of the original method was low without statistical modeling, whereas the revised method can be applied accurately without further statistical analysis. Additionally, reference tables for aging Portuguese males are provided.

  18. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  19. Thorite in an Apollo 12 granite fragment and age determination using the electron microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddio, Stephen M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first quantitative compositional analysis of thorite in a lunar sample. The sample, a granitic assemblage, also contains monazite and yttrobetafite grains, all with concentrations of U, Th, and Pb sufficiently high to determine reliably with the electron microprobe. The assemblage represents the first documented occurrence of these three minerals together and only the second reported occurrence of thorite in a lunar rock. Sample 12023,147-10 is a small, monomict rock fragment recovered from an Apollo 12 regolith sample. It comprises graphic intergrowths of K-feldspar and quartz, and plagioclase and quartz, along with minor or accessory hedenbergite, fayalite, ilmenite, zircon, yttrobetafite, thorite, monazite, and Fe metal. Thorite, ideally ThSiO4, occurs in the assemblage adjacent to quartz and plagioclase, and includes a 12% xenotime ([Y,HREE]PO4) component. From quantitative electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Th, U, and Pb in thorite, assuming that all of the measured Pb is radiogenic, we calculate an age of 3.87 ± 0.03 Ga. Yttrobetafite and monazite, which contain lesser concentrations of U, Th, and Pb than the thorite, yield ages of 3.78 ± 0.06 Ga and 3.9 ± 0.3 Ga, respectively. These dates are consistent with formation of the granitic material around 3.8-3.9 Ga, possibly associated with, or after, the formation of the Imbrium basin. This age falls within a group of younger ages for granitic samples, measured mainly by ion microprobe analysis of zircon, compared to a suite of older ages, ca. 4.20-4.32 Ga, also from zircons (Meyer et al., 1996). A 3.8-3.9 Ga age may reflect an origin following the Imbrium event whereby granitic melt formed as a result of heating and melting, and was mobilized and emplaced along an Imbrium-related ring-fracture system. Silicic volcanic or exposed intrusive materials occur in several circum-Imbrium locations such as the Mairan and Gruithuisen Domes and in ejecta excavated by Aristarchus crater. Perhaps

  20. Socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking among people aged 50 or over in England

    PubMed Central

    Iparraguirre, José

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Setting Community-dwellers across England. Participants Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. Results (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Conclusions Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the ‘successful ageing’ policy framework. PMID:26204909

  1. Lunar basalt chronology, mantle differentiation and implications for determining the age of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J.; Anand, Mahesh; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2016-10-01

    Despite more than 40 years of studying Apollo samples, the age and early evolution of the Moon remain contentious. Following the formation of the Moon in the aftermath of a giant impact, the resulting Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is predicted to have generated major geochemically distinct silicate reservoirs, including the sources of lunar basalts. Samples of these basalts, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to characterize these reservoirs. However, the precise timing and extent of geochemical fractionation is poorly constrained, not least due to the difficulty in determining accurate ages and initial Pb isotopic compositions of lunar basalts. Application of an in situ ion microprobe approach to Pb isotope analysis has allowed us to obtain precise crystallization ages from six lunar basalts, typically with an uncertainty of about ± 10 Ma, as well as constrain their initial Pb-isotopic compositions. This has enabled construction of a two-stage model for the Pb-isotopic evolution of lunar silicate reservoirs, which necessitates the prolonged existence of high-μ reservoirs in order to explain the very radiogenic compositions of the samples. Further, once firm constraints on U and Pb partitioning behaviour are established, this model has the potential to help distinguish between conflicting estimates for the age of the Moon. Nonetheless, we are able to constrain the timing of a lunar mantle reservoir differentiation event at 4376 ± 18 Ma, which is consistent with that derived from the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systems, and is interpreted as an average estimate of the time at which the high-μ urKREEP reservoir was established and the Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) suite was formed.

  2. Determination Method of Bridge Rotation Angle Response Using MEMS IMU.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Hidehiko; Kinomoto, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2016-11-09

    To implement steel bridge maintenance, especially that related to fatigue damage, it is important to monitor bridge deformations under traffic conditions. Bridges deform and rotate differently under traffic load conditions because their structures differ in terms of length and flexibility. Such monitoring enables the identification of the cause of stress concentrations that cause fatigue damage and the proposal of appropriate countermeasures. However, although bridge deformation monitoring requires observations of bridge angle response as well as the bridge displacement response, measuring the rotation angle response of a bridge subject to traffic loads is difficult. Theoretically, the rotation angle response can be calculated by integrating the angular velocity, but for field measurements of actual in-service bridges, estimating the necessary boundary conditions would be difficult due to traffic-induced vibration. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a method for determining the rotation angle response of an in-service bridge from its angular velocity, as measured by a inertial measurement unit (IMU). To verify our proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) IMUs and two contact displacement gauges. The results showed that our proposed method provided high accuracy when compared to the reference responses calculated by the contact displacement gauges.

  3. Shock-Strength Determination With Seeded and Seedless Laser Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, G. C.; Meyers, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Two nonintrusive laser diagnostics were independently used to demonstrate the measurement of time-averaged and spatially-resolved pressure change across a twodimensional (2-D) shock wave. The first method is Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) which uses water seeding and generates 2-D maps of 3-orthogonal components of velocity. A DGV-measured change in flow direction behind an oblique shock provides an indirect determination of pressure jump across the shock, when used with the known incoming Mach number and ideal shock relations (or Prandtl-Meyer flow equations for an expansion fan). This approach was demonstrated at Mach 2 on 2-D shocks and expansions generated from a flat plate at angles-of-attack approx. equals -2.4deg and +0.6deg, respectively. This technique also works for temperature jump (as well as pressure) and for normal shocks (as well as oblique). The second method, laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), is a seedless approach that was used to generate 1-D spatial profiles of streamwise Mach number, sound speed, pressure, and temperature across the same shock waves. Excellent agreement was obtained between the DGV and LITA methods, suggesting that either technique is viable for noninvasive shock-strength measurements.

  4. A general method to determine the stability of compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Chang, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several problems were studied using two completely different approaches. The initial method was to use the standard linearized perturbation theory by finding the value of the individual small disturbance quantities based on the equations of motion. These were serially eliminated from the equations of motion to derive a single equation that governs the stability of fluid dynamic system. These equations could not be reduced unless the steady state variable depends only on one coordinate. The stability equation based on one dependent variable was found and was examined to determine the stability of a compressible swirling jet. The second method applied a Lagrangian approach to the problem. Since the equations developed were based on different assumptions, the condition of stability was compared only for the Rayleigh problem of a swirling flow, both examples reduce to the Rayleigh criterion. This technique allows including the viscous shear terms which is not possible in the first method. The same problem was then examined to see what effect shear has on stability.

  5. Determination Method of Bridge Rotation Angle Response Using MEMS IMU

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Hidehiko; Kinomoto, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2016-01-01

    To implement steel bridge maintenance, especially that related to fatigue damage, it is important to monitor bridge deformations under traffic conditions. Bridges deform and rotate differently under traffic load conditions because their structures differ in terms of length and flexibility. Such monitoring enables the identification of the cause of stress concentrations that cause fatigue damage and the proposal of appropriate countermeasures. However, although bridge deformation monitoring requires observations of bridge angle response as well as the bridge displacement response, measuring the rotation angle response of a bridge subject to traffic loads is difficult. Theoretically, the rotation angle response can be calculated by integrating the angular velocity, but for field measurements of actual in-service bridges, estimating the necessary boundary conditions would be difficult due to traffic-induced vibration. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a method for determining the rotation angle response of an in-service bridge from its angular velocity, as measured by a inertial measurement unit (IMU). To verify our proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) IMUs and two contact displacement gauges. The results showed that our proposed method provided high accuracy when compared to the reference responses calculated by the contact displacement gauges. PMID:27834871

  6. Methods for SAXS-Based Structure Determination of Biomolecular Complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Sichun

    2014-05-30

    Measurements from small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) are highly informative to determine the structures of bimolecular complexes in solution. Here, we describe current and recent SAXS-driven developments, with an emphasis on computational modeling. In particular, accurate methods to computing one theoretical scattering profile from a given structure model are discussed, with a key focus on structure factor coarse-graining and hydration contribution. Methods for reconstructing topological structures from an experimental SAXS profile are currently under active development. We report on several modeling tools designed for conformation generation that make use of either atomic-level or coarse-grained representations. Furthermore, since large, flexible biomolecules canmore » adopt multiple well-defined conformations, a traditional single-conformation SAXS analysis is inappropriate, so we also discuss recent methods that utilize the concept of ensemble optimization, weighing in on the SAXS contributions of a heterogeneous mixture of conformations. These tools will ultimately posit the usefulness of SAXS data beyond a simple space-filling approach by providing a reliable structure characterization of biomolecular complexes under physiological conditions.« less

  7. Determinants of contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Great Britain and Germany. I: Demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Oddens, B J; Lehert, P

    1997-10-01

    Multifactorial analyses of data from representative British and German national contraception surveys were used to examine the principal demographic determinants of contraceptive use by women. Contraceptive use appeared to be determined mainly by reference to 'reproductive status' (the combined impact of age, marital status, parity and future child wish). Women who were postponing pregnancies were using oral contraceptives, whereas those who wanted no more children relied more on intrauterine devices or sterilisation. Differences between the countries suggested that the choice of contraceptive method was influenced by health care policy, the organisation of the relevant services and differential provider preferences. The contraceptive method used was also related to having occasional rather than steady sexual partners (more condom use), lower educational level (less oral contraceptive use) and frequent church attendance (greater use of condoms and periodic abstinence). Contraception decisions appeared to follow a fixed pattern, based more on a couple's demographic situation (reproductive status, country, educational level and religious beliefs) than on the characteristics of the contraceptive methods. This resulted in an unnecessarily restricted choice of methods.

  8. Verification on the use of the Inoue method for precisely determining glomerular filtration rate in Philippine pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magcase, M. J. D. J.; Duyan, A. Q.; Carpio, J.; Carbonell, C. A.; Trono, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to validate the Inoue method so that it would be the preferential choice in determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in Philippine pediatrics. The study consisted of 36 patients ranging from ages 2 months to 19 years old. The subjects used were those who were previously subjected to in-vitro method. The scintigrams of the invitro method was obtained and processed for split percentage uptake and for parameters needed to obtain Inoue GFR. The result of this paper correlates the Inoue GFR and In-vitro method (r = 0.926). Thus, Inoue method is a viable, simple, and practical technique in determining GFR in pediatric patients.

  9. The applicability of Willems' method for age estimation in southern Turkish children: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Onat Altan, Halenur; Altan, Ahmet; Bilgiç, Fundagül; Akıncı Sözer, Özlem; Damlar, İbrahim

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of Willems' method for assessing southern Turkish children and to analyze the practicability of this method in different age groups for both genders. Panoramic radiographs of 756 children (378 females, 378 males) aged between 5 and 14.99 years were examined by one observer. This retrospective study involved a contemporary southern Turkish population. The chronological ages of the subjects were divided into 10 groups. These 10 groups consisted of children of the following ages 5 and 14.99. Relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The paired t-test was used to compare all data according to gender and age groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical data. According to the results, a very high correlation was found for both girls (r(2) = 0.946) and for boys (r(2) = 0.940). Dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) were consistent for girls in the four age groups (5-5.99, 6-6.99, 12-12.99, and 14-14.99) and for boys in the three age groups (5-5.99,13-13.99, 14-14.99). The maturity score of Willems' Belgian samples of the DA was applicable to seven groups of the southern Turkish children. The present study reports that Willems' method is more accurate for girls than for boys.

  10. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOEpatents

    Colwell, Frederick S.; Geesey, Gill G.; Gillis, Richard J.; Lehman, R. Michael

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure differences in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses.

  11. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOEpatents

    Colwell, F.S.; Geesey, G.G.; Gillis, R.J.; Lehman, R.M.

    1997-11-11

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure differences in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses. 5 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOEpatents

    Colwell, Frederick S.; Geesey, Gill G.; Gillis, Richard J.; Lehman, R. Michael

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for said microorganisms in said sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure difference in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses.

  13. Method and apparatus for determining nutrient stimulation of biological processes

    DOEpatents

    Colwell, F.S.; Geesey, G.G.; Gillis, R.J.; Lehman, R.M.

    1999-07-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the nutrients to stimulate microorganisms in a particular environment. A representative sample of microorganisms from a particular environment are contacted with multiple support means wherein each support means has intimately associated with the surface of the support means a different nutrient composition for microorganisms in the sample. The multiple support means is allowed to remain in contact with the microorganisms in the sample for a time period sufficient to measure difference in microorganism effects for the multiple support means. Microorganism effects for the multiple support means are then measured and compared. The invention is particularly adaptable to being conducted in situ. The additional steps of regulating nutrients added to the particular environment of microorganisms can enhance the desired results. Biological systems particularly suitable for this invention are bioremediation, biologically enhanced oil recovery, biological leaching of metals, and agricultural bioprocesses. 5 figs.

  14. [Methods for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Fernando; Esteban, Jaime; González-Martin, Julià; Palacios, Juan-José

    2016-05-25

    Mycobacteria are a large group of microorganisms, multiple species of which are major causes of morbidity and mortality, such as tuberculosis and leprosy. At present, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are one of the most serious health problems worldwide. Furthermore, in contrast to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are more frequently isolated and, in many cases, treatment is based on drug susceptibility testing. This article is a review of the different methods to determine the in vitro drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis complex and the most relevant NTM isolates. The molecular techniques currently used for rapid detection of resistance of clinical specimens are also analysed.

  15. [Automated method for determining calcium in biological liquids].

    PubMed

    Duchassaing, D; Ekindjian, O G; Leluan, G

    1977-01-01

    A method of determination of calcium in biological fluids is proposed. It is a continuous flow technic without deproteinisation nor dialysis, using orthocresol phtaleine in alkaline medium. The interference due to magnesium is eliminated by the presence of hydroxy-8-quinoleine. The addition of dimethyl sulfoxide improves the solubility of the reagents and ensures better stability of the media. The correlation between the results obtained by this technic and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was studied on 160 human sera and 40 urines. The influence of various parameters such as hemolysis, bilirubin, magnesium and phosphates is low or negligeable. The results concerning opalescent, cloudy or lactescent sera may be erroneous by excess. The physiological reference values for serum calcium are drawn up from a Paris student population of both sexes.

  16. Analytical methods for determination of anticoagulant rodenticides in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Shafi, Humera; Wattoo, Sardar Ali; Chaudhary, Muhammad Taimoor; Usman, Hafiz Faisal

    2015-08-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides belong to a heterogeneous group of compounds which are used to kill rodents. They bind to enzyme complexes responsible for recycling of vitamin K, thus producing impairment in coagulation process. Rodenticides are among the most common house hold toxicants and exhibit wide variety of toxicities in non-target species especially in human, dogs and cats. This article reviews published analytical methods reported in literature for qualitative and quantitative determination of anticoagulant rodenticides in biological specimens. These techniques include high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and florescence detectors, liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, ion chromatography with fluorescence detection, ion chromatography electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry and ion chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

  17. [Solanine and chaconine: occurrence, properties, methods for determination].

    PubMed

    Badowski, P; Urbanek-Karłowska, B

    1999-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are naturally occurring toxicants in plants that are members of the Solanaceae family. In this paper occurrence of glycoalkaloids, especially solanine and chaconine in potatoes and tomatoes, were reviewed. Basing on literature, toxicological properties and methods of determination were reported. Attention was paid to common content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes and tomatoes and their commercial products. Solanine and chaconine are usually present at low levels in large majority of current commercial varieties but they can accumulate to high levels in greened, stored, damaged potatoes. High concentration may cause acute poisoning, including gastro-intestinal and neurological disturbances, in man. The upper limit, recognized as a safe (non-toxic), was presented. According to WHO normal levels in potatoes 20-100 mg per kg of potatoes is not of toxicological concern.

  18. Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-yan

    In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

  19. Azomethine H colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.R.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An automated colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water is described. The boron is complexed with azomethine H, which is readily available as the condensation product of H acid (8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid) and salicylaldehyde. The absorbance of the yellow complex formed is then measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. Interference effects from other dissolved species are minimized by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); however, iron, zinc, and bicarbonate interfere at concentrations above 400 ??g/L, 2000 ??g/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. The bicarbonate interference can be eliminated by careful acidification of the sample with concentrated HCl to a pH between 5 and 6. Thirty samples per hour can be routinely analyzed over the range of from 10 to 400 ??g/L, boron.

  20. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  1. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.; Spates, James J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  2. Numerical methods for determining interstitial oxygen in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.O.; Medernach, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) concentration in Czochralski silicon and the subsequent SiO{sub x} precipitation are important parameters for integrated circuit fabrication. Uncontrolled SiO{sub x} precipitation during processing can create detrimental mechanical and electrical effects that contribute to poor performance. An inability to consistently and accurately measure the initial O{sub i} concentration in heavily doped silicon has led to contradictory results regarding the effects of dopant type and concentration on SiO{sub x} precipitation. The authors have developed a software package for reliably determining and comparing O{sub i} in heavily doped silicon. The SiFTIR{copyright} code implements three independent oxygen analysis methods in a single integrated package. Routine oxygen measurements are desirable over a wide range of silicon resistivities, but there has been confusion concerning which of the three numerical methods is most suitable for the low resistivity portion of the continuum. A major strength of the software is an ability to rapidly produce results for all three methods using only a single Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum as input. This ability to perform three analyses on a single data set allows a detailed comparison of the three methods across the entire range of resistivities in question. Integrated circuit manufacturers could use the enabling technology provided by SiFTIR{copyright} to monitor O{sub i} content. Early detection of O{sub i} using this diagnostic could be beneficial in controlling SiO{sub x} precipitation during integrated circuit processing.

  3. Methods for determining atypical gate valve thrust requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.

    1995-04-01

    Evaluating the performance of rising stem, wedge type, gate valves used in nuclear power plant is not a problem when the valves can be design-basis tested and their operability margins determined diagnostically. The problem occurs when they cannot be tested because of plant system limitations or when they can be tested only at some less-than-design-basis condition. To evaluate the performance of these valves requires various analytical and/or extrapolation methods by which the design-basis stem thrust requirement can be determined. This has been typically accomplished with valve stem thrust models used to calculate the requirements or by extrapolating the results from a less-than-design-basis test. The stem thrust models used by the nuclear industry to determine the opening or closing stem thrust requirements for these gate valves have generally assumed that the highest load the valve experiences during closure (but before seating) is at flow isolation and during unwedging or before flow initiation in the opening direction. However, during full-scale valve testing conducted for the USNRC, several of the valves produced stem thrust histories that showed peak closing stem forces occurring before flow isolation in the closing direction and after flow initiation in the opening direction. All of the valves that exhibited this behavior in the closing direction also showed signs of internal damage. Initially, we dismissed the early peak in the closing stem thrust requirement as damage-induced and labeled it nonpredictable behavior. Opening responses were not a priority in our early research, so that phenomenon was set aside for later evaluation.

  4. Enzymatic method for determining ketone body ratio in arterial blood.

    PubMed

    Uno, S; Takehiro, O; Tabata, R; Ozawa, K

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a new, sensitive, and rapid method for measuring the ketone body concentration in arterial blood and determining the arterial blood ketone body ratio. The procedure involves the sequential use of the enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (3-HBDH; EC 1.1.1.30) and NADH oxidase, followed by a color-generating reaction with the hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxidase reaction. The amount of oxidized chromogen produced is proportional to the 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HBA) concentration. The acetoacetate (AcAc) concentration is obtained after complete conversion of the AcAc to 3-HBA, in the presence of 3-HBDH. The total 3-HBA concentration is measured and then subtracted from the total ketone body concentration to give the AcAc concentration. This procedure may be applied to plasma samples and the absorbance change measured with an automated chemistry analyzer. Ketone body concentration may be determined over the range 0 to 400 mumol/L. The analysis takes approximately 12 min and requires only 30 microL of plasma.

  5. Beta shapefactor determinations by the cutoff energy yield method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau Carles, A.

    2005-10-01

    The measurement of spectral deformations due to the forbiddenness of β transitions is commonly resolved by fitting a Kurie plot to experimental data. However, the autoabsorption of the sample and the presence of electromagnetic interferences frequently modify the expected spectral shape, making the determination of the shapefactor function inaccurate in semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. Although the problem of autoabsorption is not present in liquid-scintillation samples, the sum-coincidence process for pulses and the poor resolution of scintillation spectrometers complicate the deconvolution of the spectra. The goal of this paper is to measure shapefactor functions by making use of observables, such as the maximum point or the cutoff energy yield, which are invariant under resolution changes. As a test of the method, the shapefactor coefficients of the six β-emitters, 36Cl, 204Tl, 210Bi, 89Sr, 90Y and 32P are determined from the analysis of the liquid-scintillation pulse-height spectra. Although the results for 210Bi, 89Sr and 90Y are in good agreement with theory, the measured shapefactors for 36Cl and 204Tl exhibit similar deviations from theory than those referenced in the literature for the Kurie plots.

  6. Determination of acoustical transfer functions using an impulse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, J.

    1985-02-01

    The Transfer Function of a system may be defined as the relationship of the output response to the input of a system. Whilst recent advances in digital processing systems have enabled Impulse Transfer Functions to be determined by computation of the Fast Fourier Transform, there has been little work done in applying these techniques to room acoustics. Acoustical Transfer Functions have been determined for auditoria, using an impulse method. The technique is based on the computation of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a non-ideal impulsive source, both at the source and at the receiver point. The Impulse Transfer Function (ITF) is obtained by dividing the FFT at the receiver position by the FFT of the source. This quantity is presented both as linear frequency scale plots and also as synthesized one-third octave band data. The technique enables a considerable quantity of data to be obtained from a small number of impulsive signals recorded in the field, thereby minimizing the time and effort required on site. As the characteristics of the source are taken into account in the calculation, the choice of impulsive source is non-critical. The digital analysis equipment required for the analysis is readily available commercially.

  7. Development of a biometric method to estimate age on hand radiographs.

    PubMed

    Remy, Floriane; Hossu, Gabriela; Cendre, Romain; Micard, Emilien; Mainard-Simard, Laurence; Felblinger, Jacques; Martrille, Laurent; Lalys, Loïc

    2017-02-01

    Age estimation of living individuals aged less than 13, 18 or 21 years, which are some relevant legal ages in most European countries, is currently problematic in the forensic context. Thus, numerous methods are available for legal authorities, although their efficiency can be discussed. For those reasons, we aimed to propose a new method, based on the biometric analysis of hand bones. 451 hand radiographs of French individuals under the age of 21 were retrospectively analyzed. This total sample was divided into three subgroups bounded by the relevant legal ages previously mentioned: 0-13, 13-18 and 18-21 years. On these radiographs, we numerically applied the osteometric board method used in anthropology, by including each metacarpal and proximal phalange of the five hand rays in the smallest rectangle possible. In that we can access their length and width information thanks to a measurement protocol developed precisely for our treatment with the ORS Visual(®) software. Then, a statistical analysis was performed from these biometric data: a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) evaluated the probability for an individual to belong to one of the age group (0-13, 13-18 or 18-21); and several multivariate regression models were tested for the establishment of age estimation formulas for each of these age groups. The mean Correlation Coefficient between chronological age and both lengths and widths of hand bones is equal to 0.90 for the total sample. Repeatability and reproducibility were assessed. The LDA could more easily predict the belonging to the 0-13 age group. Age can be estimated with a mean standard error which never exceeds 1 year for the 95% confidence interval. Finally, compared to the literature, we can conclude that estimating an age from the biometric information of metacarpals and proximal phalanges is promising.

  8. Age determinations and growth rates of Pacific ferromanganese deposits using strontium isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingram, B.L.; Hein, J.R.; Farmer, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    87Sr 86Sr ratios, trace element and REE compositions, and textural characteristics were determined for three hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts, one hydrothermal deposit, and two mixed hydrothermalhydrogenetic crusts from the Pacific. The Sr isotope data are compared to the Sr seawater curve for the Cenozoic to determine the ages and growth rates of the crusts. The 87Sr 86Sr in the crusts does not increase monotonically with depth as expected if the Sr were solely derived from seawater and perfectly preserved since deposition. This indicates post-depositional exchange of Sr or heterogeneous sources for the Sr originally contained in the crusts. Textures of hydrogenetic crusts generally correlate with Sr isotopic variations. The highest porosity intervals commonly exhibit the highest 87Sr 86Sr ratios, indicating exchange with younger seawater. Intervals with the lowest porosity commonly have lower 87Sr 86Sr and may preserve the original Sr isotopic ratios. Minimum ages of crust growth inception were calculated from dense, low porosity intervals. Growth of the hydrogenetic crusts began at or after 23 Ma, although their substrates are Cretaceous. Estimated average growth rates of the three hydrogenetic crusts vary between 0.9 and 2.7 mm/Ma, consistent with published rates determined by other techniques. Within the Marshall Islands crust, growth rates for individual layers varied greatly between 1.0 and 5.4 mm/Ma. For one crust, very low 87Sr 86Sr ratios occurred in detrital-rich intervals. Hydrothermal Fe-Mn oxide from the active Lau Basin back-arc spreading axis (Valu Fa Ridge) has an 87Sr 86Sr ratio with a predominantly seawater signature ( 87Sr 86Sr 0.709196), indicating a maximum age of 0.9 Ma. One crust from an off-axis seamount west of Gorda Ridge may have begun precipitating hydrogenetically at 0.5 Ma (0.709211), and had increasing hydrothermal or volcanic input in the top half of the crust, indicated by a significantly lower 87Sr 86Sr ratio (0.709052). ?? 1990.

  9. Influence Pulse Duration Methodical Error of Determination of Thermal Translucent Materials Laser Flash Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Mark M.; Katz, Ilija M.

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of errors in the determination of thermal diffusivity of a typical semiconductor material - Germany, due to radiative energy transfer in the heated layer of material, under conditions consistent with the implementation of the method under the influence of the laser pulse on the surface of the collimated laser pulse of finite duration.

  10. Determining optimum service conditions for concentrator mirrors by methods of mathematically planned experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismanzhanov, A.; Altman, T. M.; Zakhidov, R. A.; Dubrovskiy, L. A.

    1984-02-01

    A method of mathematically planning an experiment was proposed for determining the optimum service conditions for concentrator mirrors and also obtaining data on mirror performance which can be useful for optimization of the mirror manufacturing technology. First are determined the number of factors influencing a mirror under service conditions and the ranges of their likely variation. Then, by an a priori ranking process and on the basis of preliminary analysis, these factors are classified into significant and insignificant ones in terms of their contribution to the aging process. The method was applied to aluminum mirrors with front side reflection and various protective coatings. The plan of a 4 factor (air humidity, abrasive wear by dust and sand, photochemical action of solar radiation, mechanical action of cleaning agent) 3 level (base, upper, lower) experiment is shown and the regression equation is obtained for a typical case. Recommendations on optimum mirror design and selection are made on the basis of this experiment.

  11. A novel spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinshui; Wang, Xin; Wang, Lun

    2006-01-01

    A new simple, selective and sensitive fluorescence quenching method was developed to determine nucleic acids (DNA) with the 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid (ACA)-cetyl trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) system. The fluorescence intensity of ACA was decreased by the addition (CTAB). However, the fluorescence intensity of the system increased dramatically when DNA was added to the solution. The fluorescence enhancement is probably based on the DNA interaction with CTAB. Under the optimum conditions, the changes of fluorescence intensity in the absence and presence of nucleic acids was proportional to the concentration of nucleic acids over the range 0.08-1.0 μg mL-1 for CT (calf thymus) DNA or FS (fish sperm) DNA. Its detection limits are 0.02 μg mL-1 for CT DNA and 0.019 μg mL-1 for FS DNA. Based on this approach, a new quantitative method for DNA assay is presented in this paper.

  12. Method for determination of polyethylene glycol molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Pihlasalo, Sari; Hänninen, Pekka; Härmä, Harri

    2015-04-07

    A method utilizing competitive adsorption between polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and labeled protein to nanoparticles was developed for the determination of PEG molecular weight (MW) in a microtiter plate format. Two mix-and-measure systems, time-resolved luminescence resonance energy transfer (TR-LRET) with donor europium(III) polystyrene nanoparticles and acceptor-labeled protein and quenching with quencher gold nanoparticles and fluorescently labeled protein were compared for their performance. MW is estimated from the PEG MW dependent changes in the competitive adsorption properties, which are presented as the luminescence signal vs PEG mass concentration. The curves obtained with the TR-LRET system overlapped for PEGs larger than 400 g/mol providing no information on MW. Distinctly different curves were obtained with the quenching system enabling the assessment of PEG MW within a broad dynamic range. The data was processed with and without prior knowledge of the PEG concentration to measure PEGs over a MW range from 62 to 35,000 g/mol. The demonstration of the measurement independent of the PEG concentration suggests that the estimation of MW is possible with quenching nanoparticle system for neutrally charged and relatively hydrophilic polymeric molecules widening the applicability of the simple and cost-effective nanoparticle-based methods.

  13. Determination of dehydrodiisoeugenol in rat tissues using HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2008-11-01

    Dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) is a bioactive neolignan from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt., which exhibits good anti-inflammatory activity. A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of DDIE in rat tissues after intravenous administration. The tissue samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction. The analyses were successfully carried out on a Diamonsiltrade mark ODS C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm) equipped with a C18 guard column (8 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm). The mobile phase was the system of methanol-water (4:1, v/v). The UV detection was set at 270 nm. The calibration curves were linear from 0.4 to 200.0 microg/g with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.998. The intra- and inter-day precisions in quality control samples were less than 10% and the accuracies were in the range 85.4-110.3%. The average recoveries from all the tissues were between 84.4 and 106.0%. This assay method has been successfully used to study the tissues distribution of DDIE in rats after intravenous administration. The result suggests that DDIE is distributed to rat tissues rapidly with possibly greater initial concentrations in liver and brain than in other tissues.

  14. Evaluation method for determining management priorities for special case waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kudera, D.E.; Wickland, C.E.

    1990-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program (TSP) began the Special Case Waste (SCW) Inventory and Characterization Project in April 1989. The collection of data has been completed and a final draft report, Department of Energy Special Case Radioactive Waste Inventory and Characterization Data Report (DOE/LLW-96), was submitted in May 1990. A second final draft report, Supplemental Data Report to the Department of Energy Special Case Radioactive Waste Inventory and Characterization Data Report (DOE/LLW-95), containing additional and more detailed data and graphical presentations, was completed in July 1990. These two reports contain details on the special case waste categories and summaries of the total volumes and curies associated with each category of waste. It is anticipated that some version or combination of these two reports will be included in the final version of this report, which will describe an evaluation method for determining management priorities for special case waste. Preliminary analysis of the inventory data indicates that approximately 1,000,000 m{sup 3} of special case waste exist in the DOE system with possible insufficient treatment/storage/disposal capability or capacity. To help DOE prioritize the actions required to manage this large volume of special case waste, an evaluation method is required.

  15. Method And Apparatus For Determining Health Of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Devitt, John William; Ruud, James Anthony; Brewer, Luke Nathaniel

    2005-09-13

    A method for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises providing a photoluminescent ("PL") material in the TBC, directing an exciting radiation at the TBC, measuring the intensity of a characteristic peak in the emission spectrum of the PL material, and correlating the intensity of the characteristic peak or another quantity derived therefrom to an amount of a new phase that has been formed as a result of the exposure of the component to extreme temperatures. An apparatus for carrying out the method comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of the emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of the new phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component.

  16. A magnetic method for determining the geometry of hydraulic fractures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    1976-01-01

    We propose a method that may be used to determine the spatial orientation of the fracture plane developed during hydraulic fracture. In the method, magnetic particles are injected into the crack with the fracturing fluid so as to generate a sheet of magnetized material. Since the magnetization of a body with extreme dimension ratios, such as a crack, exceeds that of an equidimensional body and since this magnetization is sensitive both to orientation and geometry, this could be used to obtain information about the crack. By measuring the vertical and horizontal components of the magnetic field and field gradients at the earth's surface surrounding the injection well with superconducting magnetometers having 10-4 gamma sensitivity and also by measuring field direction within the well itself, it should be possible to calculate the orientation and perhaps infer the approximate geometry of the fracture surface. Experiments on electric field potential operated in conjunction with this experiment could further constrain estimates of shape and orientation. ?? 1976 Birkha??user Verlag.

  17. An improved determination of the lithium depletion boundary age of Blanco 1 and a first look on the effects of magnetic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Aaron J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.

    2014-11-10

    The lithium depletion boundary (LDB) is a robust method for accurately determining the ages of young clusters, but most pre-main-sequence models used to derive LDB ages do not include the effects of magnetic activity on stellar properties. In light of this, we present results from our spectroscopic study of the very-low-mass members of the southern open cluster Blanco 1 using the Gemini-North Telescope, program IDs: GN-2009B-Q-53 and GN-2010B-Q-96. We obtained Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra at intermediate resolution for cluster candidate members with I ≈ 13-20 mag. From our sample of 43 spectra, we find 14 probable cluster members by considering proximity to the cluster sequence in an I/I – K {sub s} color-magnitude diagram, agreement with the cluster's systemic radial velocity, and magnetic activity as a youth indicator. We systematically analyze the Hα and Li features and update the LDB age of Blanco 1 to be 126{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr. Our new LDB age for Blanco 1 shows remarkable coevality with the benchmark Pleiades open cluster. Using available empirical activity corrections, we investigate the effects of magnetic activity on the LDB age of Blanco 1. Accounting for activity, we infer a corrected LDB age of 114{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for magnetic activity on LDB inferred stellar ages, suggesting the need to reinvestigate previous LDB age determinations.

  18. Methods for Determining Operation Lifetime of Space Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriener, Timothy M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2007-01-01

    Space fission reactors can provide reliable, high power levels for periods of more than 10 years to support human outposts and for space travel to the farthest planets in the solar system. The operation lifetimes of these reactors depend on many factors chief among which are the hot-clean excess reactivity and the fuel burnup rate (or operation power) and the accumulation and decay of fission products. Other important parameters are the fuel average temperature and fissile inventory and the Doppler reactivity effect. Determining the operation lifetime for space reactors is a critical input to mission planning, requiring the use of sophisticated fuel burnup and criticality computational tools and benchmarking the results against actual data, if readily available. This paper performs parametric and comparative studies using widely used codes and a simplified approach for determining the operation lifetimes of two space reactors: the Sectored, Compact Reactor (SCoRe) that is liquid metal cooled, and the Submersion-Subcritical, Safe Space (S∧4) reactor that is cooled by a He-Xe binary gas mixture. The codes investigated against experimental data from a LWR are: (a) Monteburns 2.0, coupling MCNP5 1.30 to Origen2.2, (b) MCNPX 2.6b's internal burn package incorporating CINDER90, and (c) TRITON a code in the SCALE5 package using NEWT and Origen-S. From the results Monteburns and MCNPX performed the best, and are selected to compare their predictions of the lifetimes of the two space reactors with those of a simplified method. This method couples MCNP5 to a burnup analysis model in Simulink® considering only the 10 most probable low Z and 10 most probable high Z elements of the fission yield peaks plus 149Sm. Results show that the predicted operational lifetimes using the simplified method are within -6.6 to 12.8% of those calculated using the widely used Monteburns 2.0 and MCNPX 2.6bc1 codes.

  19. Methods for Determining Operation Lifetime of Space Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, Timothy M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2007-01-30

    Space fission reactors can provide reliable, high power levels for periods of more than 10 years to support human outposts and for space travel to the farthest planets in the solar system. The operation lifetimes of these reactors depend on many factors chief among which are the hot-clean excess reactivity and the fuel burnup rate (or operation power) and the accumulation and decay of fission products. Other important parameters are the fuel average temperature and fissile inventory and the Doppler reactivity effect. Determining the operation lifetime for space reactors is a critical input to mission planning, requiring the use of sophisticated fuel burnup and criticality computational tools and benchmarking the results against actual data, if readily available. This paper performs parametric and comparative studies using widely used codes and a simplified approach for determining the operation lifetimes of two space reactors: the Sectored, Compact Reactor (SCoRe) that is liquid metal cooled, and the Submersion-Subcritical, Safe Space (S and 4) reactor that is cooled by a He-Xe binary gas mixture. The codes investigated against experimental data from a LWR are: (a) Monteburns 2.0, coupling MCNP5 1.30 to Origen2.2, (b) MCNPX 2.6b's internal burn package incorporating CINDER90, and (c) TRITON a code in the SCALE5 package using NEWT and Origen-S. From the results Monteburns and MCNPX performed the best, and are selected to compare their predictions of the lifetimes of the two space reactors with those of a simplified method. This method couples MCNP5 to a burnup analysis model in Simulink registered considering only the 10 most probable low Z and 10 most probable high Z elements of the fission yield peaks plus 149Sm. Results show that the predicted operational lifetimes using the simplified method are within -6.6 to 12.8% of those calculated using the widely used Monteburns 2.0 and MCNPX 2.6bc1 codes.

  20. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Bravo, Lucía Gálvez

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge about the factors determining habitat use is especially interesting for herbivores living under seasonal climates as they have to deal with food shortage during the drought season. In this context, different-aged individuals are expected to respond differently to seasonal variations because nutritional requirements and predation risk can vary with age. We investigated adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use in a Mediterranean ecosystem of central Spain, during spring, summer and winter. Relationships between adult and juvenile rabbit pellet abundances and 11 environmental variables related to food availability and refuge density were analysed by means of multiple regression, and evaluated using information theory to identify the set of models best supported by the data. Density of warren entrances was the more constant predictor of habitat use for juvenile rabbits in all the seasons. Herbaceous vegetation volume had a negative influence and was the strongest predictor for adult rabbit habitat use in spring and winter. In summer, green vegetation cover became the strongest positive habitat use predictor. These results suggest that adults prefer to forage in low volume swards ensuring a wide sensory range for the detection of approaching predators. However, the arrival of summer and its associated food depletion forces them to shift toward more open productive areas where green vegetation persists, but at the expense of higher predation risk. Seasonal variation induces minor changes in juvenile habitat use due to their strong dependence on warrens. Thus, our results show that rabbit habitat use is influenced by animal age and seasonal variations in resources.

  1. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  2. A reproducible method to determine the meteoroid mass index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, P.; Brown, P. G.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The determination of meteoroid mass indices is central to flux measurements and evolutionary studies of meteoroid populations. However, different authors use different approaches to fit observed data, making results difficult to reproduce and the resulting uncertainties difficult to justify. The real, physical, uncertainties are usually an order of magnitude higher than the reported values. Aims: We aim to develop a fully automated method that will measure meteoroid mass indices and associated uncertainty. We validate our method on large radar and optical datasets and compare results to obtain a best estimate of the true meteoroid mass index. Methods: Using MultiNest, a Bayesian inference tool that calculates the evidence and explores the parameter space, we search for the best fit of cumulative number vs. mass distributions in a four-dimensional space of variables (a,b,X1,X2). We explore biases in meteor echo distributions using optical meteor data as a calibration dataset to establish the systematic offset in measured mass index values. Results: Our best estimate for the average de-biased mass index for the sporadic meteoroid complex, as measured by radar appropriate to the mass range 10-3 > m > 10-5 g, was s = -2.10 ± 0.08. Optical data in the 10-1 > m > 10-3 g range, with the shower meteors removed, produced s = -2.08 ± 0.08. We find the mass index used by Grün et al. (1985) is substantially larger than we measure in the 10-4 < m < 10-1 g range. Our own code with a simple manual and a sample dataset can be found here: http://ftp://aquarid.physics.uwo.ca/pub/peter/MassIndexCode/

  3. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  4. Determination of rheological property and its effect on key aroma release of Shanxi aged vinegar.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Qiu, Ju; Li, Zaigui

    2016-08-01

    The rheological property of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV) was determined by rheometer, and its effects on release in eight key aroma components of SAV was investigated by SPME-GC-MS. In order to simulate the change of rheological property of SAV, a modified SAV system was developed from a finished SAV using carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, glucose, fructose, sodium chloride and tannic acid at indicate levels. The consistency coefficients (K) of SAV ranged from 1.09e(-5) to 0.0137, which was correlated to glucose, polyphenol, acids and (o)Bx. SAV changed from shear-thickening to Newtonian fluid during long-time ageing. In the modified SAV system, the K values increased significantly, and two modified vinegar became quasi-Newtonian fluids too. Furthermore, release of the eight key aroma compounds decreased significantly and decreased was pronounced, for acetic acid, furfural and tetramethylpyrazine. The results demonstrated rheological property correlated to the concentrate of sugar, salt, polyphenol, acids and macromolecule, which significantly affected the release of major aroma compounds.

  5. Prospects for the BANYAN search of low-mass moving group members with Gaia, and the importance of magnetic fields for isochronal age determination .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo, L.; Gagne, J.; Doyon, R.; Lafreniere, D.; Artigau, E.; Feiden, G.; Albert, L.

    Using the BANYAN I and BANYAN II tools, we identified more than 500 candidate members in nearby young kinematic groups. As part of the follow-up programs, we measured radial velocity and confirmed signs of youth (Halpha , X-ray emission, low surface gravity, lithium) for more than 150 red objects using optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. An accurate determination of the age of those objects requires a comparison of their fundamental properties to those of evolutionary models, which take into account the impact of their fully convective interior. As young low-mass objects display strong magnetic activity, the inclusion of magnetic fields in evolutionary models is a key step towards the accurate determination of their fundamental properties. We present the isochronal age determination of beta Pictoris moving group members using the Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models, and show that including magnetic fields generally increases the isochronal age, which better agree with the lithium depletion boundary method.

  6. Method performance study of the determination of total nitrogen in soy sauce by the Kjeldahl method.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Shintaro; Hakoda, Akiko; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this collaborative study was to evaluate the proposed method for determining the total nitrogen in soy sauce by the Kjeldahl method submitted to the Codex Alimentarius Commission for endorsement in accordance with the protocol for the design, conduct, and interpretation of method-performance studies. The digestive conditions of the proposed method are the addition of 10 mL of H2SO4, 10 g (8 g by using a block digester) of K2SO4, and 1 mL of 20% CuSO4 x 5H2O and 80 min boiling period after the liquid is cleared by a heating device. Seventeen laboratories participated, analyzing five soy sauce samples as blind duplicates. Since the volume sampling method used in the JAS (Japanese Agricultural Standard) method showed lower accuracy of data because of the density of soy sauce, the method of sampling by weight was adopted as the proposed method. The total amount of outlier data was within acceptable limits for method-performance studies (< or = 22.2%). Lysine and ammonium sulfate recoveries for all laboratories were > or = 98% and > or = 99% respectively. The RSDr (repeatability relative standard deviation) values ranged from 0.4 to 1.3%, and the RSDR (reproducibility relative standard deviation) values were from 0.8 to 1.9%. HORRAT (RSDR/predicted RSDR) for the reproducibility showed 0.2 to 0.4, indicating acceptable precision of the method and excellent analytical performance.

  7. Development of a Test Method to Determine Potential Peroxide Content in Turbine Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    reasonable time i.e., less than 48 hours. Through the generally accepted 43 C (110 F) bottle storage method fo accelerated fuel aging, the relative ratings of four selected fuels’ oxidative tendencies were established. A matrix of experiments was designed to allow selection of those short-term reaction conditions that would give results comparable to the 43 C bottle storage experiments. Additionally, the results of these experiments would allow the development of global reaction kinetics to aid the determination of fuel peroxidation potential. From a partially

  8. ANALYSIS OF AGED IN-HOME CARPETING TO DETERMINE THE DISTRIBUTION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES BETWEEN DUST, CARPET, AND PAD COMPARTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of a study to determine the distribution of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between dust and carpet components in aged carpeting. Carpeting in eight homes in the Research Triangle Area, which...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in § 86.1826-08(d)(4). 3. Plot emissions (or catalyst inefficiency) versus aging time for each.... Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined in step 4) along the...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 86.1826-08(d)(4). 3. Plot emissions (or catalyst inefficiency) versus aging time for each.... Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined in step 4) along the...

  11. 76 FR 51458 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wonder of the Age: Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wonder of the Age: Master Painters... Age: Master Painters of India, 1100-1900,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  12. Genomic and p16-specific DNA methylation of the mouse colon: elder age and dietary folate as interactive determinants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elder age and inadequate folate intake are strongly implicated as important risk factors for colon cancer and each is associated with altered DNA methylation. This study was designed to determine the effect of aging and dietary folate on select features of DNA methylation in the colon that are relev...

  13. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Maelle

    2017-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (TEA) is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA) underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted), were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index) and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area). Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range)) of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0) and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477). MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0) weeks post menstrual age (PMA). The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5%) were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231–14.368]; p = 0.017), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01–21.89]; p = 0.036), early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004–21.889]; p = 0.036) and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093–9.497]; p = 0.03). There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429) vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449); p = 0,019); BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As’ variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions). These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants. PMID:28125676

  14. Quantitative determination of histamine in tears during conjunctivitis by a novel HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Venza, Isabella; Visalli, Maria; Ceci, Guglielmo; Teti, Diana

    2004-01-01

    The histamine content of tears of healthy sex- and age-matched subjects and patients affected by allergic or nonallergic inflammatory ocular diseases was determined through a new competitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Tear samples from 50 healthy subjects, 30 patients affected by seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 12 patients with bacterial conjunctivitis associated with Haemophilus influenzae and 8 patients with bacterial conjunctivitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae were analyzed for histamine concentration by O-phthaldialdehyde precolumn derivatization-based HPLC. In physiological conditions, the tear histamine content was low (2.26 ng/ml) and did not vary in relation to age and sex. Histamine levels were significantly higher in all the patients studied, to a greater extent in those affected by allergic (23.61 ng/ml) or Haemophilus influenzae-associated (21.53 ng/ml) conjunctivitis.

  15. Single parameter of inverse proportion between mortality and age could determine all mortality indicators in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Dolejs, Josef

    2016-05-21

    Mortality increase with age in adult population has been studied and modeled by many authors, but relatively little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Data split in more detailed age categories can newly test mortality decrease with age. Age trajectories of mortality are studied in 20 age categories in the specific age interval 1-365 days. Four basic models mentioned in literature are tested here. The linear model and the linear model with the specific slope -1 in the log-log scale represent the most successful formalism. Mortality indicators describing the first year could be determined by a single parameter of the model with slope -1 in the log-log scale. All conclusions are based on published data which are presented as a supplement.

  16. Ultrasound Elastography for Determination of the Age of Venous Thrombi. Evaluation of Thrombus Evolution in Patients After Sclerotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Paluch, Łukasz; Nawrocka-Laskus, Ewa; Dąbrowska, Agnieszka; Popiela, Tadeusz; Walecki, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease involving intravenous clot formation. It may occur spontaneously or after provoking events, such as traumatic injuries to the pelvis, upper and lower extermities, immobilization, intravascular procedures, including venous catheterization or injection. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a rapid and non-invasive technique for evaluation of venous disease. It is a very sensitive method for detection of thrombi, but has some limitations, e.g. inability to distinguish between an old and fresh thrombus. Elastography as a method for evaluation of tissue elasticity and allows more accurate assessment of venous thombosis. The thrombus solidifies significantly during the process of remodeling, thereby changing elasticity, while the tissues located around the vessel remain unchanged. Moreover, the homogeneity of the thrombus is also changed. These factors allow for exact determination of the age of the thrombus depending on changes of its elasticity. Material/Methods The object of this study was to assess thrombus age in patients with saphenous vein insufficiency treated with sclerotherapy. We examined 34 patients, 30 women and 4 men, aged 18–62 years. All short-listed patients with initial 7–8 mm vessel diameter underwent treatment with 3% Aetoxysklerol mixed with CO2 and other respiratory gases. Data acquisition was performed using an Esaote MyLab Twice device with LA523 linear probe. Results On the sixth day after the treatment 31 patients presented uniform, hypoechogenic thrombus in B-mode image. Ultrasound-based elasticity images (elastography) showed significant predominant red and green areas. Blue area was either invisible or appeared in insignificant grade on examined area. The mosaic image of colors appeared on 2 patients. On the fourteenth day of study 21 patients still presented hypoechogenic thrombus, whereas mixed echogenicity of thrombus appeared on 11 patients. On 28 examined patients mosaics of

  17. Establishing even-aged pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita mountains using the shelterwood method

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.; Baker, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The study was established in 1989 as a joint effort among the Ouachita National Forest, the Southern Forest Experiment Station, and the University of Arkansas at Monticello. The goals of the study are: (1) to determine the levels at which pine and hardwoods are compatible in the shelterwood regeneration method by evaluating the amount, spatial distribution and development of regeneration and measuring the growth and yield of the retained seedtrees, (2) determine the damage to regeneration caused by the eventual seedtree harvest, and (3) to evaluate the wildlife habitat, water quality, and aesthetics of shelterwood stands so that comparisons can be made with uneven-aged stands.

  18. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  19. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  20. Stable Isotope Analysis of Extant Lamnoid Shark Centra: A New Tool in Age Determination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labs, J.

    2003-12-01

    The oxygen isotopes of fourteen vertebral centra from ten extant lamnoid sharks (including Carcharodon carcharias [great white], Isurus paucus [longfin mako], and Isurus oxyrinchus [shortfin mako]) were sampled and measured along the growth axis to determine the periodicity of incremental growth represented in the centra. As part of the internal (endochondral) skeleton, shark centra are composed initially of hyaline cartilage, which then secondarily ossifies during ontogeny forming calcified hydroxyapatite bone. The incremental growth of shark centra forms definite growth rings, with darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (i.e., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (i.e., summer). Thus, shark centra, whether they are extant or extinct, are characterized by clearly delineated incremental growth couplets. The problem with this general rule is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. The challenge for paleobiological interpretations is how to interpret the periodicity of this growth. It can generally be assumed that these bands are annual, but it is uncertain the extent to which exceptions to the rule occur. Stable isotopic analysis provides the potential to independently determine the periodicity of the growth increments and ultimately the ontogenetic age of an individual.