Science.gov

Sample records for age disability sexual

  1. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... Curiae Briefs Legislative Goals Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities National Goals 2015 SIS Product Information Benefits of ... SIS Use Order SIS-A Contact Us Intellectual Disability Historical Context Definition FAQs on Intellectual Disability Diagnostic ...

  2. [Sexuality in aging].

    PubMed

    Berner, Yitshal N

    2002-07-01

    During aging, impairment in many physiological functions is manifested. This is exhibited in sexual functioning, which is an intricate interaction involving a number of systems: endocrinal, motor, sensor, physical and sensual. Sexual activity is a component of the well-being of the individual, while sexuality is part of self-identity at any age. Sexual activity is a primary base to human relations, and it is a basic right of every person in society. Sexuality and sexual activity are considered to be part of youth, hence, the combination of sexuality and aging is considered strange. In many instances, sexual activity in the elderly is considered exceptional and possibly requiring certain intervention of the society establishment. Recent technological advances enable sexual activity, despite physiological and even anatomical shortcomings. Knowledge of the changes in sexual activity with aging, as well as having open communication on the subject, are the best tools for maintaining sexual activity with appropriate limitation during aging. The purpose of this short review is to present the different aspects of sexuality and sexual activity in aging.

  3. Sexual activity and aging.

    PubMed

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. PMID:23540950

  4. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  5. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  6. Constructing Sexual Identities: People with Intellectual Disability Talking about Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzopardi-Lane, Claire; Callus, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented research undertaken in collaboration with a self-advocacy group using inclusive research methods and puts forward the views of people with intellectual disability on the topics of sexuality and relationships. The paper presents the perceptions of sexuality of the people with intellectual disability and how these are influenced…

  7. Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

  8. Sexual Force at Sexual Debut. Swedish Adolescents with Disabilities at Higher Risk than Adolescents without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study are first to compare the incidence of force on the first occasion of sexual intercourse reported by participants with disabilities to that of students without disabilities; second to determine whether there are significant differences in mental health, substance abuse, and school performance as reported by participants…

  9. Sexuality of Disabled Athletes Depending on the Form of Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Plinta, Ryszard; Sobiecka, Joanna; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Nowak-Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-11-22

    The main purpose of this study was to determine sexuality of disabled athletes depending on the form of locomotion. The study included 170 disabled athletes, aged between 18 and 45. The entire population was divided into 3 research groups depending on the form of locomotion: moving on wheelchairs (n=52), on crutches (n=29) and unaided (n=89). The research tool was a questionnaire voluntarily and anonymously completed by the respondents of the research groups. The questionnaire was composed of a general part concerning the socio-demographic conditions, medical history, health problems, a part dedicated to physical disability as well as the Polish version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) evaluating sexual life. STATISTICA 10.0 for Windows was used in the statistical analysis. Subjects moving on crutches were significantly older than ones moving on wheelchairs and unaided (34.41 ±11.00 vs. 30.49 ±10.44 and 27.99 ±10.51 years, respectively) (p=0.018). Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in athletes moving on wheelchairs (70.27%), followed by athletes moving on crutches and moving unaided (60% and 35.42%, respectively; p=0.048). Clinical sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed on a similar level among all female athletes. It was concluded that the form of locomotion may determine sexuality of disabled men. Males on wheelchair revealed the worst sexual functioning. Female athletes moving on wheelchairs, on crutches and moving unaided were comparable in the aspect of their sexual life. PMID:26834876

  10. School-based sexual violence among female learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi; Nyokangi, Doris

    2012-03-01

    Following qualitative research methodology, this article presents school-based sexual violence experiences of female learners with mild intellectual disability. A total of 16 learners aged 16 to 24 years participated in the study. The findings revealed that learners with intellectual disability are not immune to school-based sexual violence. Modes of behavior that occurred frequently included touching, threats, and intimidation. School practices that reinforced school-based sexual violence are identified. The findings contradict common misconceptions that people with intellectual disability do not understand what is happening to them. The study recommends that school policies for sexual violence be intensified and learners receive developmentally appropriate sex education.

  11. The First Sexual Experience Among Adolescent Girls With and Without Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Shandra, Carrie L.; Chowdhury, Afra R.

    2014-01-01

    First sexual intercourse is an important experience in the young adult life course. While previous research has examined racial, gender, and socioeconomic differences in the characteristics of first sexual intercourse, less is known about differences by disability status. Using a racially diverse (27% Black, 20% Hispanic, and 53% non-Hispanic white) sample of 2,729 adolescent girls aged 12–24 at first sexual intercourse from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this article examines the association between disability and type of first sexual relationship, degree of discussion about birth control, and pregnancy wantedness. Regression analyses indicate that girls with mild or learning or emotional disabilities experience first sexual intercourse in different types of relationships than girls without disabilities. Adolescents with learning or emotional conditions have greater levels of discussion about birth control with their first sexual partners than those without disabilities. In addition, among those who do not use birth control at first sexual intercourse, girls with multiple or seriously limiting conditions are more likely to want a pregnancy—versus not want a pregnancy—at first sexual intercourse. Findings indicate that disability status is important to consider when examining adolescent sexuality; however, not all youth with disabilities have equal experiences. PMID:21559882

  12. Positive Approaches: A Sexuality Guide for Teaching Developmentally Disabled Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Lisa

    This guide is intended to assist caregivers of people with development disabilities in acquiring knowledge about sexuality and skill in expressing sexuality in a safe and appropriate manner. Section 1 provides an overview of the history of sexuality and developmentally disabled individuals. The second section provides exercises for the caregiver…

  13. Sexual interest, attitudes, knowledge, and sexual history in relation to sexual behavior in the institutionalized aged.

    PubMed

    White, C B

    1982-02-01

    Although the idea that sexuality is a lifelong need is gaining greater research support and greater acceptability to the general public, few consider the institutionalized aged as having sexual needs or being able to benefit from sexual intimacy. The research presented here indicates that sexual activity in the institutionalized aged is related to their attitudes and behavior toward sexuality and to their sexual interest level and prior frequency of sexual activity. Institutionalized aged persons evidence sexual needs and do engage in sexual behavior.

  14. Sexuality and Developmental Disability: Obstacles to Healthy Sexuality throughout the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Deborah; Miodrag, Nancy; Watson, Shelley L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a lifespan perspective of sexuality issues for individuals with developmental disabilities. Individuals with developmental disabilities are human beings who have historically been denied the right to express their sexuality or engage in sexual relationships due to misconceptions or negative attitudes. Using a hypothetical case…

  15. Sexuality and Aging: An Overview for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave

    1982-01-01

    Discusses male and female sexual response in aging adults. Describes common medical problems and their relationship to sexuality in older adults. Considers common surgeries including hysterectomy, mastectomy, and prostatectomy and sexuality in older adults. Discusses implications for counselors. (RC)

  16. Sexual issues of the disabled: implications for public health education.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zubir, T N

    2000-01-01

    Sexuality of persons with spinal cord injury has received increased attention especially in the Western countries. However, in the local context, studies pertaining to the sexuality of the disabled are almost nil. This paper utilized a qualitative approach in assessing sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of persons with spinal cord injury. Eight focus group discussions consisting of 28 adult spinal cord injured persons were carried out. The results showed that the frequency of sexual activity decreased following injury. The disabled themselves have a negative self-concept and a low self-esteem and this affects their attitudes towards sexuality and their sexual behaviour. Health care professionals tend to neglect this issue perhaps due to their insensitivity to the sexual needs for the disabled or a lack of understanding and expertise in this area. A need for sexual information related to their disability is warranted in the areas of reproduction, contraception and their ability/disability in achieving an erection or ejaculation. This study indicated a need for more comprehensive research in this neglected area of sexual issues of persons with disabilities. Public health education and counseling is deemed necessary for the disabled themselves so as to accommodate their sexual lives to their physical capabilities and desires. Attitudes and misconceptions of the public need to be corrected. Above all, there is a need for education and training for health care professionals in the area of sexual rehabilitation, which is currently non-existent in the country. Perhaps, it is timely to incorporate sexual rehabilitation as part of a holistic medical rehabilitation of the disabled. PMID:11338746

  17. Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

  18. Sexual Relationships in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Understanding the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, A. C.; Murphy, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are known to be very vulnerable to sexual abuse. This may result partly from their lack of sexual knowledge and their powerless position in society. It could also be exacerbated by an ignorance of the law. This study investigates their understanding of the law relating to sexuality. Method:…

  19. The Assessment of Sexual Knowledge in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Jennifer; Butler, Jenny; Iacono, Teresa; Leighton, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate components of a new tool, the Assessment of Sexual Knowledge (ASK), and to use it to assess the sexual knowledge of adults with intellectual disability. The ASK consists of a Knowledge Section, an Attitudes Section, a Quick Knowledge Quiz and a Problematic Socio-Sexual Behaviours Checklist. A sample of 96…

  20. Sexuality in young people with physical disabilities: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, D

    2012-09-01

    Sexuality and sexual function are important to persons with disabilities just as they are to their able-bodied counterparts, but knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among persons with disabilities is frequently inadequate. Adolescents and young adults with physical disabilities are less active socially, and have difficulties in developing intimate relationships. Thus, despite greater needs for SRH education and service delivery than persons without disabilities, dedicated services regarding sexuality and physical disabilities are scantly reported. Together with a literature survey on sexuality and disability in adolescents, a unique comprehensive SRH service for young people with physical disabilities is described in this review. Despite being interdisciplinary, the utilization of the service was limited due to difficulties in transportation to the clinic and in finding escort for aid in accessibility to public transportation. Health authorities should provide the resources for the development of accessible comprehensive multidisciplinary SRH services dedicated to young people with disabilities, and thus fulfill the United Nations General Assembly declaration on the rights of persons with disabilities.

  1. Shakespeare on old age and disability.

    PubMed

    Covey, H

    2000-01-01

    The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used. PMID:10987340

  2. Sexual and Substance Use Behaviors of College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernert, Donna J.; Ding, Kele; Hoban, Mary T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the substance use and the sexual behaviors of college students with disabilities. Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted of the spring 2009 administration of the ACHA-NCHA II. Results: College students with disabilities tended to be 24 or more years old; of an ethnic minority; and bisexual, gay, or lesbian. They…

  3. Sexual Abuse Prevention Treatment Services for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    The paper describes a federally funded project of the University of Alberta (Canada) addressing sexual assault and sexual abuse of people with disabilities. Written in outline style, the paper briefly describes project activities and general conclusions. Phase I of the project documented the nature and extent of the problem. It was concluded that…

  4. Sexual Offending Theories and Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…

  5. Clinical Assessment of Adult Sexual Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudway, Jeremy A.; Darmoody, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Assessment and treatment of adults with learning disabilities who commit sexual offences presents a number of challenges. Much of the professional forensic and psychiatric literature on work with this group concentrates on the development of interventions based on theoretical models of sexual offending originating from the mainstream criminal…

  6. Sexual function of the ageing male.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2013-08-01

    With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. PMID:24054932

  7. Predictors of Sexual Risk Behavior among Zimbabwean Adolescents With and Without Disabilities: Implications for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaya, Lindiwe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sexual risk behaviors among Zimbabwean adolescents with and without disabilities. Participants included 456 Zimbabwean high school students. Results indicated that more males than females engaged in sexual activities as early as nine years of age or younger. Females who reported having had sex, also…

  8. Sexuality and Developmental Disabilities: An Investigation of Sexual Incidents at Bernard Fineson Developmental Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled, Albany.

    This report is the result of an investigation by the New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled of the Bernard Fineson Developmental Center's policies and practices concerning sexual incidents among residents. It also raises broader issues about the meaning of consent when sexual activity involves persons with severe or…

  9. Teacher Training, Sexuality Education, and Intellectual Disabilities: An Online Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Acquaro, Katia

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the impact of an online workshop on teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy beliefs toward sexuality education and intellectual disabilities. A pretest-post-test group design was implemented for this study. Sixty-eight teachers were randomly assigned to one of two training conditions or a control…

  10. Sexual Health Care in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servais, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    In the past, preventive health concerning sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities was addressed through surgical sterilization as part of nationwide eugenic programs in many countries. For more than 30 years now, it has come progressively to light in the scientific literature that, besides major ethical and legal problems, these…

  11. Sexual Risk Assessment for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P.; van den Bogaard, K.; Hendriks, L.; Heestermans, M.; Schuitemaker, M.; van Wouwe, H.

    2010-01-01

    Given that sexually offensive behavior on the part of people with intellectual disabilities has been identified as a significant problem, we developed a risk assessment questionnaire, that takes not only various static and dynamic factors into account but also environmental risk variables. Psychologists and staff members completed this Risk…

  12. Sexual Conflict, Life Span, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Margo I.; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The potential for sexual conflict to influence the evolution of life span and aging has been recognized for more than a decade, and recent work also suggests that variation in life span and aging can influence sexually antagonistic coevolution. However, empirical exploration of these ideas is only beginning. Here, we provide an overview of the ideas and evidence linking inter- and intralocus sexual conflicts with life span and aging. We aim to clarify the conceptual basis of this research program, examine the current state of knowledge, and suggest key questions for further investigation. PMID:24938876

  13. Sexual conflict, life span, and aging.

    PubMed

    Adler, Margo I; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-08-01

    The potential for sexual conflict to influence the evolution of life span and aging has been recognized for more than a decade, and recent work also suggests that variation in life span and aging can influence sexually antagonistic coevolution. However, empirical exploration of these ideas is only beginning. Here, we provide an overview of the ideas and evidence linking inter- and intralocus sexual conflicts with life span and aging. We aim to clarify the conceptual basis of this research program, examine the current state of knowledge, and suggest key questions for further investigation. PMID:24938876

  14. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  15. A Desire for Love: Considerations on Sexuality and Sexual Education of People With Intellectual Disability in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to attract public attention to the fact that people with intellectual disability, despite their delayed sexual development, still remain sexual beings, which is connected with many individual and social consequences. The empirical data collected in this work provides knowledge about biological and psychological conditioning of sexual development of individuals with intellectual disability. However, the problem of sexuality for this population should be further analyzed. One should also think about the possibility of supporting the psychological and sexual development of people with more severe intellectual disability. PMID:21423325

  16. The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Sexual Self-Concept in People With Physical-Motor Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P < 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that except for sexual anxiety and sexual self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people’s sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P < 0.05). Moreover, Spearman coefficient showed that

  17. Aging and Developmental Disabilities. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This feature issue of a bulletin on community integration points out the challenge of making service systems more familiar with and responsive to the needs of older adults with developmental disabilities and their families. It includes articles with the following titles and authors: "Living on the Edge" (Arthur Campbell, Jr.); "Aging and…

  18. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  19. Age, religious beliefs, and sexual attitudes.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Armelle; Mullet, Etienne; Rivière Shafighi, Sheila

    2002-08-01

    Age effects on sexual attitudes were examined using the Hendrick and Hendrick (1987a) Sexual Attitude Scale. The study was cross-sectional, including people from various age groups, from young adults to older adults. The religious beliefs variable, which covaries substantially both with age and sexual attitudes, was controlled. Three main questions guided the study: (a) Is the four-factor structure (Permissiveness, Instrumentality, Communion, and Sexual Practices) previously identified in a sample of young students able to accurately account for data gathered over a full range of adult ages, (b) are older adults much less permissive and less instrumentalist than young people, and (c) to what extent are believers less permissive and instrumentalist than young people when age is taken into account? Factor analyses showed that at least five correlated factors were needed to account for the data; the fourth factor, Sexual Practices, divided itself into two distinct factors: Pleasure and Responsibility. Older adults and believers were shown to be less permissive than young people and nonbelievers, and this result held regardless of the participants educational level. As regards to instrumentality, however, the pattern of differences was extremely complex.

  20. Family Extrusion of the Aged Patient: Family Homeostasis and Sexual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Case studies demonstrate that when chronic sexual conflict constitutes a factor in family homeostasis, nursing home placement of the aged ill is a likely event when either there is a shift in family dynamics due to death or illness of a key member or the aged becomes overtly psychiatrically disabled. (Author)

  1. Sexual health and relationships after age 60.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. PMID:26547237

  2. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls.

  3. Sexual Behaviours and Reproductive Health Knowledge among In-School Young People with Disabilities in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaleye, Adeniyi O.; Anoemuah, Olayinka A.; Ladipo, Oladapo A.; Delano, Grace E.; Idowu, Grace F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore sexual behaviours and reproductive health knowledge among in-school young people with disabilities (PWD) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper a structured questionnaire was administered to 103 randomly selected PWD, aged ten to 25, from four integrated secondary schools in Ibadan. The…

  4. Images of Sexuality and Aging in Gerontological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Kristin S.

    2010-01-01

    Discursive portrayals of aging and sexuality have important implications for the creation and reproduction of inequalities. This article delineates some of the images of older adults’ sexualities using an interpretive content analysis of gerontology articles dealing with issues of sexuality in 21 gerontological journals over a 20-year span (1988–2007). The 3 main findings of this analysis were (a) that aging sexualities are asserted, (b) that the sexual identities of older adults vary, and (c) that older adults’ sexualities are regulated through a variety of mechanisms. Furthermore, these representations inform research and policy at the intersections of sexuality and aging. PMID:20606712

  5. The Social-Sexual Voice of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, George W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how adults with mild intellectual disabilities live out their social-sexual lives. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are often assumed to be asexual or incapable of having sexual lives, resulting in a paucity of research-based knowledge. Research and educational efforts with this…

  6. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  7. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  8. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  9. Sexuality and Personal Relationships for People with an Intellectual Disability. Part I: Service-User Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, E.; McGuire, B. E.; Evans, D. S.; Carley, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent ideological shift towards the recognition of sexual autonomy for people with an intellectual disability (ID), there are continuing social and cultural barriers to sexual expression. Part I of the current two-part study assessed the sexual knowledge, experiences and aspirations of service users through focus groups and…

  10. Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parents, Support Staff, and a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Bryde, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…

  11. A prospective study of young females' sexual subjectivity: associations with age, sexual behavior, and dating.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Ducat, Wendy H; Boislard-Pepin, Marie-Aude

    2011-10-01

    Sexual self-perceptions are important aspects of sexuality, which can undergo significant change during adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe these changes among girls (N = 251; ages 16-25) over one year, and to examine associations of sexual self-perceptions (sexual subjectivity) with age, sexual behavior, and romantic status. Sexual body-esteem, perceptions of entitlement to desire and pleasure, sexual efficacy, and sexual self-reflection were investigated as elements of sexual subjectivity. All sexual subjectivity elements were higher among girls who had more sexual experience and/or had steady romantic partners during the study. Perception of entitlement to desire and pleasure increased over time, whereas sexual body-esteem showed the most stability and had minimal associations with sexual or romantic experiences. The greatest increases in sexual subjectivity were found among girls who began the study with the least sociosexual experience and self-reflection also increased for girls who had first coitus after the start of the study. Overall, girls who had sexual intercourse the earliest (before age 16) had the highest sexual subjectivity, but sexual subjectivity increased the most among girls without coital experience or who had more recent first coitus.

  12. The Developmental Progression of Age 14 Behavioral Disinhibition, Early Age of Sexual Initiation, and Subsequent Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Iacono, William G.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition towards behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. Methods A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Results Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. Conclusion The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability towards BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males

  13. National survey of sexual behavior and sexual behavior policies in facilities for individuals with mental retardation/developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gust, Deborah A; Wang, Susan A; Grot, James; Ransom, Ray; Levine, William C

    2003-10-01

    To obtain information regarding sexual behavior and related policies in state residential facilities for individuals with mental retardation/developmental disabilities, we sent surveys to 168 members listed in the Association of Public Developmental Disabilities Administrators 1998-1999 directory. Response rate was 68.5%. For the 46 facilities where 50% or fewer of clients had profound retardation, sexual relations between clients was reported to occur "sometimes" or "often" by 29 (63%). Six of 115 (5.2%) administrators reported at least one client with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the past year. Of 110 instances of sexual abuse reported, the perpetrator was another client in 63% of cases. Ninety-six percent of administrators (n = 110) reported their facility had written guidelines concerning sexual abuse. Careful monitoring of STDs and the effectiveness of sex education will be instrumental in preventing HIV/STDs and helping prevent sexual abuse in this vulnerable population.

  14. Creating disability inclusive work environments for our aging nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Matt, Susan B; Fleming, Susan E; Maheady, Donna C

    2015-06-01

    The workforce is aging, and the implications of an older nursing workforce are profound. As nurses age, injuries and disabilities are more prevalent. If disabilities were more commonly recognized and accommodated in the design of our nursing work environments, we could meet future needs. This article explores the literature on accommodations for an aging workforce, reports disabilities commonly seen in this population, and introduces universal design. PMID:26010282

  15. Creating disability inclusive work environments for our aging nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Matt, Susan B; Fleming, Susan E; Maheady, Donna C

    2015-06-01

    The workforce is aging, and the implications of an older nursing workforce are profound. As nurses age, injuries and disabilities are more prevalent. If disabilities were more commonly recognized and accommodated in the design of our nursing work environments, we could meet future needs. This article explores the literature on accommodations for an aging workforce, reports disabilities commonly seen in this population, and introduces universal design.

  16. Chronological Age and the Identification of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erion, R. Joel

    Children are generally identified as learning disabled as a result of their achievement and perceptual skills below an expectancy level which is based on mental age, grade level and/or chronological age. Despite its usefulness, Maturity is infrequently considered. The ages at entrance to school of a group of 67 learning disabled (LD) students…

  17. Intersectionality and Disability Harassment: The Interactive Effects of Disability, Race, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…

  18. Age and disability biases in pediatric resuscitation among future physicians.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rocksheng; Knobe, Joshua; Feigenson, Neal; Mercurio, Mark R

    2011-11-01

    This study examined whether biases concerning age and/or disability status influenced resuscitation decisions. Medical students were randomly chosen to read 1 of 4 vignettes, organized in a 2 (age: infant vs school-age) × 2 (disability: preexisting vs no preexisting) between-subjects design. The vignettes described a pediatric patient experiencing an acute episode who required resuscitation. Following resuscitation, patients with existing disability would continue to have disability, whereas those without would develop disability. Participants indicated whether they would resuscitate, given a 10% chance of success. There was a significant main effect of disability: Medical students displayed a preference for resuscitating previously disabled children compared with previously healthy children when prognosis was held constant, F(1, 121) = 4.89, p = .03. This differential treatment of the two groups cannot easily be morally justified and poses a quandary for educators.

  19. Age and disability: explaining the wage differential.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brenda; Munley, Margaret

    2009-07-01

    This paper estimates the level of explained and unexplained factors that contribute to the wage gap between workers with and without disabilities, providing benchmark estimates for Ireland. It separates out the confounding impact of productivity differences between disabled and non-disabled, by comparing wage differentials across three groups, disabled with limitations, disabled without limitations and non-disabled. Furthermore, data are analysed for the years 1995-2001 and two sub-samples pre and post 1998 allow us to decompose wage differentials before and after the Employment Equality Act 1998. Results are comparable to those of the UK and the unexplained component (upper bound of discrimination) is lower once we control for productivity differences. The lower bound level depends on the contribution of unobserved effects and the validity of the selection component in the decomposition model.

  20. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  1. Sexual and Reproductive Health Care for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Primary Care Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nechama W.; Wilkinson, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) face multiple health disparities and challenges to accessing health care. Little is known about sexual health care of this population and about how to optimize women's reproductive health care for women with intellectual disabilities. Women with ID face important barriers to care, including lack of provider training and experience, hesitancy to broach the topic of sexual health, a lack of sexual knowledge and limited opportunities for sex education, disability-related barriers, higher prevalence of sexual abuse and assault, often underreported, lack of dialogue around this population's human right to consensual sexual expression, undertreatment of menstrual disorders, and legal and systemic barriers. We conducted a limited literature review related to six aspects of sexual health care of women with ID, including barriers to sexual health care, sex education, sexual abuse and consensual sexuality, contraception, screening for sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer, and pregnancy and parenting. After providing background information about each topic, we suggest practice recommendations for primary care clinicians, using a rights-based framework. PMID:24455249

  2. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age. PMID:26691789

  3. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age.

  4. Are Adolescent Girls with a Physical Disability at Increased Risk for Sexual Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I.; Armour, Brian S.; Thibadeau, Judy K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether US female adolescents who self-reported having a physical disability or long-term health problem were more likely to report having been physically forced to have sexual intercourse than US female adolescents without a physical disability or long-term health problem. Methods: Using…

  5. Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviour: Do Those with Learning Disabilities Form a Distinct Subgroup?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Giles, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The study examines 102 young people with Learning Disabilities (n = 51) and without a learning disability (NLD; n = 51) to explore ways in which LD young people with harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) should be recognized as a subgroup requiring specialized treatment and intervention. Throughout this comparison of perpetrator, victim and abuse…

  6. Predicting Sexual Re-Offending in a UK Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Helen Louise; Vettor, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to address the paucity of research and assessment tools for adolescent males with intellectual disabilities who have sexually harmed, by comparing the predictive accuracy of the AIM2 assessment, developed with populations without intellectual disabilities, and the adapted AIM assessment, designed for this group. The sample…

  7. Beyond the Call: Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities Responding to Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Catherine Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative, interdisciplinary study was undertaken to examine the experiences of mothers of children with developmental disabilities who were sexually abused. In-depth interviews were conducted with four mothers, their children, and the professionals involved with each case. The dual impact of caring for a child with a disability together with…

  8. Meeting the Social and Sexual Needs of Disabled Students: A Counseling Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Margaret H.

    The paper discusses the social and sexual developmental needs of disabled students, who are often viewed as asexual beings, and describes ways counselors can help disabled students recognize and fulfill such needs. The human needs of the handicapped student are described at three life stages. In the developmental years, from infancy to 5 years,…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  10. Issues in Sexuality for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on sexuality issues regarding adolescents and young adults with disabilities and chronic illnesses. The resources are grouped into the following categories: psychosocial development (23 references); attitudes and knowledge (11 references); sex education (34 references); sexual abuse (four references);…

  11. Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

  12. Actuarial Risk Assessment and Recidivism in a Sample of UK Intellectually Disabled Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dan; Beech, Anthony; Markall, Helena F.; Blacker, Janine

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three risk assessment instruments: Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM2000) and the Rapid Risk of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), in predicting sexual recidivism among 27 intellectually disabled sex offenders. The overall sexual offence reconviction rate was 30%, while non-recidivists remained offence-free…

  13. High School Counselors' Attitudes toward the Sexuality of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Latofia P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school counselors' attitudes toward the sexuality of students with intellectual disabilities. One hundred and twenty-two high school counselors in Alabama were the participants for this study. Participants completed the "Attitudes towards Sexuality and Students with Intellectual Disability…

  14. Group Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disability and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: Service User Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Sarah-Jane; Murphy, Glynis H.; Langdon, Peter E.; Rose, David; Reed, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Men with intellectual disability (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour are a disempowered and marginalised group. Nevertheless, as service users, they can be consulted and involved in a variety of different ways, including ascertaining their views of the services they receive. Method: A group of 16 men with ID and sexually abusive…

  15. Sexuality and Sex Education of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Attitudes, Experiences, and Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…

  16. Enhancing Capacity to Make Sexuality-Related Decisions in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, E.; McGuire, B. E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to apply an intervention to the area of sexual knowledge in order to determine if capacity to make sexuality-related decisions could be improved. Method: The study adopted a single subject design using multiple baseline method with four adults with a moderate intellectual disability. The intervention consisted of…

  17. The First Sexual Experience among Adolescent Girls with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandra, Carrie L.; Chowdhury, Afra R.

    2012-01-01

    First sexual intercourse is an important experience in the young adult life course. While previous research has examined racial, gender, and socioeconomic differences in the characteristics of first sexual intercourse, less is known about differences by disability status. Using a racially diverse (27% Black, 20% Hispanic, and 53% non-Hispanic…

  18. Sexuality and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, Experiences, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…

  19. Articulating Learning Disabilities in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.; Griffin, Cynthia C.

    2009-01-01

    In a 1986 study published in the "Learning Disability Quarterly," Simmons and Kame'enui examined information found in popular periodicals about learning disabilities (LD) in an effort to understand what people learn about LD from these high-readership sources. After more than 20 years, advances in technology have brought significant changes to how…

  20. Myths of Human Sexuality in the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    Human sexuality is discussed in terms of misconceptions about its function and the changing sexual needs of older adults. A review of history indicates that human sexuality has traditionally been connected with ideas of purity and strict importance of procreation. Judaeo-Christian ethics and the doctrine of Saint Augustine illustrate these…

  1. Age and sexual behavior of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, L

    1978-01-01

    The sexual behavior of the Arashiyama West troop, a natural semi-free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques, was studied during the 1973-1974 and 1974-1975 breeding seasons. The troop was transported intact from Japan to its current location in South Texas. There they have been free to move about in a 42.2-hectare electric fence enclosure. This report describes the relationships among age, aging, and sexual behavior. Males beginning at the age of 2.5 years were observed to series-mount estrous females in the double foot clasp mount position. Mounting in series in the double foot position is the normal pattern for Japanese macaque males. The ejaculation of semen with concomitant body movements indicative of orgasm begins at age 4.5 years at the earliest and continues until death. Males 4.5 and 5.5 years of age, sexually mature in the physiological sense, were not consistently sexually mature in the behavioral sense. The oldest male displayed traits that appear analogous to traits observed in aging human males. Females begin to experience estrus at 3.5 years of age. However, like pubescent males, pubescent females display behavioral patterns of sexual immaturity. The oldest female of the troop has remained sexually active. The attainment of sexual maturity by adulthood can be viewed as a learned process leading to efficiency and prowess, followed in old age by sexual involution.

  2. Understanding the link between sexual selection, sexual conflict and aging using crickets as a model.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Hunt, John

    2015-11-01

    Aging evolved because the strength of natural selection declines over the lifetime of most organisms. Weak natural selection late in life allows the accumulation of deleterious mutations and may favor alleles that have positive effects on fitness early in life, but costly pleiotropic effects expressed later on. While this decline in natural selection is central to longstanding evolutionary explanations for aging, a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of lifespan and aging has only been identified recently. Testing how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect lifespan and aging is challenging as it requires quantifying male age-dependent reproductive success. This is difficult in the invertebrate model organisms traditionally used in aging research. Research using crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), where reproductive investment can be easily measured in both sexes, has offered exciting and novel insights into how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect the evolution of aging, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Here we discuss how sexual selection and sexual conflict can be integrated alongside evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging using crickets as a model. We then highlight the potential for research using crickets to further advance our understanding of lifespan and aging.

  3. Related Services for School-Aged Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Davis, Judy; Littlejohn, William R.

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview of related services for school aged children with disabilities as required by federal law, especially the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It identifies the personnel associated with delivering various services including audiology, occupational…

  4. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  5. Musculoskeletal impairments and physical disablement among the aged.

    PubMed

    Jette, A M; Branch, L G; Berlin, J

    1990-11-01

    This article summarizes the results of a longitudinal investigation of the progression of sight, hearing, and musculoskeletal impairments and their association with change in physical disability, in 10 ADLs among members of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. The findings confirm widely held clinical beliefs that specific types of musculoskeletal decrement are an important cause of physical disability among older persons. Decrement in hand function is a significant musculoskeletal impairment influencing limitations in Basic ADL, and progression of Instrumental ADL dysfunction is influenced by progression of lower extremity impairments. Progression of sight and hearing impairments was not associated with change in physical disability. Musculoskeletal impairments, one of the most prevalent and symptomatic chronic complaints of middle and old age, deserve increased attention from epidemiologists, disability researchers, and clinicians seeking ways to prevent disablement among the aged. PMID:2229943

  6. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    PubMed

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties. PMID:24313599

  7. Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

    1999-04-01

    Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one.

  8. The demands of human dignity: Sexuality in the young person with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Earl K.; Fernandes, Ashley K.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of sexuality among the disabled is often ignored within Catholic seminaries; within pediatrics, it is treated as a “problem” where the best solution is contraception or sterilization. In this article, the authors argue for an approach to sexuality in disabled youth that is grounded in the inherent dignity of the person, borne out of Christ's own humanity. Because sexuality is a part of the human person in his or her totality, it cannot be ignored or obscured; on the other hand, it cannot also be the overriding “problem” which defines them. Rather, by friendship, love, and covenantal solidarity with the disabled person, we can begin to set an example for them and for society that there are goods to be strived for beyond the physical. The demands of dignity require practical changes in seminary and medical education and practice. PMID:25473132

  9. A Revised Sexual Knowledge Assessment Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Is Sexual Knowledge Related to Sexual Offending Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, T. J.; Langdon, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to update an existing short measure of sexual knowledge and generate some initial reliability and normative data. Comparisons of sexual knowledge across several groups were made to examine whether or not a lack of sexual knowledge is related to sexual offending. Methods: The Bender Sexual Knowledge…

  10. Sexual abuse involving children with an intellectual disability (ID): a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wissink, Inge B; van Vugt, Eveline; Moonen, Xavier; Stams, Geert-Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The current paper provides a narrative review of the literature on sexual abuse, involving children with Intellectual Disability (ID). The thirteen articles that were found and met our criteria vary in their definitions of sexual abuse and in how ID was determined. Still, they do paint a general picture concerning (1) the extent of sexual abuse, (2) the nature of the sexual abuse, and (3) the institutional reactions following sexual abuse of children with ID. Our findings confirm the greater vulnerability of children with ID to become involved in sexual abuse both as a victim and as a perpetrator, and we discuss ways to help strengthening prevention and intervention methods. Nevertheless, more research is needed, as it is still a rather unexplored topic, which is striking in light of the high vulnerability of this group.

  11. Challenges in Providing HIV and Sexuality Education to Learners with Disabilities in South Africa: The Voice of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Reus, Liset; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Henken, Sophie; van Brakel, Wim

    2015-01-01

    People with disabilities are at increased risk of exposure to HIV, yet they lack access to HIV prevention, treatment care and support including sexuality education. Lack of knowledge, skills and confidence of educators teaching sexuality education to learners with disabilities is related to this increased vulnerability. This study identifies…

  12. Demographic drivers of age-dependent sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection has a critical role in evolution, and it is fundamental to identify what ecological factors drive its variation. Disentangling the ecological correlates of sexual selection over the long term, however, is challenging and has rarely been done in nature. We sought to assess how demographic changes influenced the intensity, direction and form of sexual selection and whether selective pressures varied with age. We tested whether breeder sex ratio, number of competitors and age structure influenced selection differentials on horn length of wild bighorn rams (Ovis canadensis) of different age classes on Ram Mountain, Alberta. We used 21 years of data including a detailed pedigree, demographic parameters and repeated morphological measurements. Sexual selection on horn length of males of all ages was directional and positive. Selection intensity increased with the number of competitors, reflecting male-male encounter rate during the rut, but was independent of breeder sex ratio or age structure. This result can also be linked to changes in population size because the number of competitors was highly correlated to total number of sheep. This demographic effect likely arises from age-dependent mating tactics. Males aged 2-4 years are weakly competitive and experienced stronger sexual selection as they accounted for a greater proportion of all males. Selection experienced by mature males appeared independent of demography. Our study provides a rare description of the demographic determinants of sexual selection in nature.

  13. Demographic drivers of age-dependent sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection has a critical role in evolution, and it is fundamental to identify what ecological factors drive its variation. Disentangling the ecological correlates of sexual selection over the long term, however, is challenging and has rarely been done in nature. We sought to assess how demographic changes influenced the intensity, direction and form of sexual selection and whether selective pressures varied with age. We tested whether breeder sex ratio, number of competitors and age structure influenced selection differentials on horn length of wild bighorn rams (Ovis canadensis) of different age classes on Ram Mountain, Alberta. We used 21 years of data including a detailed pedigree, demographic parameters and repeated morphological measurements. Sexual selection on horn length of males of all ages was directional and positive. Selection intensity increased with the number of competitors, reflecting male-male encounter rate during the rut, but was independent of breeder sex ratio or age structure. This result can also be linked to changes in population size because the number of competitors was highly correlated to total number of sheep. This demographic effect likely arises from age-dependent mating tactics. Males aged 2-4 years are weakly competitive and experienced stronger sexual selection as they accounted for a greater proportion of all males. Selection experienced by mature males appeared independent of demography. Our study provides a rare description of the demographic determinants of sexual selection in nature. PMID:27090379

  14. Obesity, job satisfaction and disability at older ages in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health. PMID:26656204

  15. Obesity, job satisfaction and disability at older ages in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health.

  16. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  17. Ageing and People with Learning Disabilities: In Search of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…

  18. Sexual and Intimacy Issues for Aging Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.

  19. Psychiatric disorders and characteristics of abuse in sexually abused children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.

  20. Sexuality Issues for Youth with Disabilities and Chronic Health Conditions. Healthy & Ready To Work (HRTW) Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapland, Ceci

    This policy paper addresses sexuality issues of youth with disabilities and chronic health conditions. The first section introduces the problem of teen pregnancy and pregnancy prevention. The second section provides definitions of disabilities including both visible and invisible disabilities. Risk factors for teen pregnancy are identified and…

  1. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active. PMID:10553493

  2. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active.

  3. Age and Disability Employment Discrimination: Occupational Rehabilitation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bjelland, Melissa J.; von Schrader, Sarah; Houtenville, Andrew J.; Ruiz-Quintanilla, Antonio; Webber, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As concerns grow that a thinning labor force due to retirement will lead to worker shortages, it becomes critical to support positive employment outcomes of groups who have been underutilized, specifically older workers and workers with disabilities. Better understanding perceived age and disability discrimination and their intersection can help rehabilitation specialists and employers address challenges expected as a result of the evolving workforce. Methods Using U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Integrated Mission System data, we investigate the nature of employment discrimination charges that cite the Americans with Disabilities Act or Age Discrimination in Employment Act individually or jointly. We focus on trends in joint filings over time and across categories of age, types of disabilities, and alleged discriminatory behavior. Results We find that employment discrimination claims that originate from older or disabled workers are concentrated within a subset of issues that include reasonable accommodation, retaliation, and termination. Age-related disabilities are more frequently referenced in joint cases than in the overall pool of ADA filings, while the psychiatric disorders are less often referenced in joint cases. When examining charges made by those protected under both the ADA and ADEA, results from a logit model indicate that in comparison to charges filed under the ADA alone, jointly-filed ADA/ADEA charges are more likely to be filed by older individuals, by those who perceive discrimination in hiring and termination, and to originate from within the smallest firms. Conclusion In light of these findings, rehabilitation and workplace practices to maximize the hiring and retention of older workers and those with disabilities are discussed. PMID:19680793

  4. Community services, issues, and service gaps for individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit inappropriate sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ward, K M; Trigler, J S; Pfeiffer, K T

    2001-02-01

    Inappropriate sexual behaviors represent the most challenging behaviors for community service providers. A national survey of 243 community agencies was conducted to describe services provided for individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit high-risk sexual behaviors and to identify issues and service gaps. The most common types of offenses were sexual behavior (a) in public situations, (b) that inappropriately involved others, and (c) involved minors. Community agencies used multifaceted approaches to serve these individuals. The major issues and problems were systemic, specifically staff issues and service gaps, followed by funding. Implications of this study are that increased knowledge and skills related to sexuality and inappropriate sexual behavior and mental health resources are needed to build community capacity to serve this population. PMID:11270210

  5. Sexual Harassment among Students with Educational Disabilities: Perspectives of Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Heath, Melissa Allen; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Smith, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of special education teachers about the prevalence and characteristics of sexual harassment among students identified with educational disabilities. Utah special education teachers (250) were randomly selected from the state's database. Fifty-two percent (n = 129) of the surveys were returned. Approximately…

  6. Barriers to Sexuality for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, James; Unruh, Deanne; Lindstrom, Lauren; Scanlon, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) experience multiple barriers that may prevent them from understanding and exploring their own sexuality. These barriers prevent them from achieving the same autonomy and quality of life as their peers. This research synthesis focuses on 13 articles published between 2000 and 2013…

  7. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  8. Overcoming Barriers to the Sexual Expression of Women with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Jennifer; Christian, LeeAnn; Dotson, Lori Ann

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses barriers to sexual fulfillment faced by women with developmental disabilities, including: access to gynecological healthcare, limited choices regarding reproductive issues, lack of sex education, and prevailing negative stereotypes that affect the way women are viewed by others and the way they view themselves.…

  9. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  10. Sexual Uncertainties and Disabled Young Men: Silencing Difference within the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Craig; Carson, Iain

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects upon and connects the findings of two research projects that examined the sexual inequalities experienced by disabled young gay men. Using some of the data for illustrative purposes, we explore the consequences of the dominant heteronormative discursive practices that they experienced within sex education classes. Drawing on…

  11. Attitudes of Social Service Providers towards the Sexuality of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzo, Giuseppe; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ferrari, Lea; Minnes, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Background: The sexual lives of people with intellectual disability is made complex by the involvement and influence of social service providers, whose beliefs and values have a great impact on the support they provide. We hypothesized that social service providers' role, educational level and service in which they worked could affect attitudes…

  12. Sexuality and Disability: A SIECUS Annotated Bibliography of Available Print Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortridge, James; And Others

    This annotated listing of print materials on sexuality and disability includes 61 publications as well as 2 databases and 23 organizations. Print materials are listed alphabetically by title within the following categories: books, materials for parents, materials for professionals, curricula, and journals/newsletters. Prices, addresses, and…

  13. The Sexual Lives of Men with Mild Learning Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoub, Evan; Hall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to explore in detail the sexual lives and behaviour of men with mild learning disabilities living both in community and in secure hospital settings. We wanted to generate hypotheses about them and identify potential unmet needs. We used a narrative interview that focused on areas such as relationships, sex education, contraception and the…

  14. Motivational Factors in Discussing Sexual Health with Young People with Chronic Conditions or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Stege, Heleen A.; Hilberink, Sander R.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals' intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional web-based survey of 336 professionals before…

  15. Patterns of Risk in Adult Protection Referrals for Sexual Abuse and People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge, Paul; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Milne, Alisoun; Mansell, Jim; Whelton, Beckie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult protection monitoring data held by local authorities in England provide opportunities to examine referrals for alleged sexual abuse for people with intellectual disability to identify patterns of risk. Methods: Adult protection monitoring data collected by two local authorities was analysed, with referrals for alleged sexual…

  16. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ponseti, J.; Granert, O.; van Eimeren, T.; Jansen, O.; Wolff, S.; Beier, K.; Deuschl, G.; Bosinski, H.; Siebner, H.

    2014-01-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  17. Study Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities: Recruitment and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a consort of three large care providers with a total…

  18. Explaining Optimistic Old Age Disability and Longevity Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Font, Joan; Costa-Font, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Biased health care decision making has been regarded as responsible for inefficient behaviours (for example, the limited insurance purchase). This paper empirically examines two sets of biases in the perception of old age disability and longevity. Particularly, we test for the existence of a so called cumulative bias and, secondly, a so called…

  19. [Caring for the aging and institutionalized disabled person].

    PubMed

    Trungel-Legay, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    The French national group of public social and medical-social institutions (GEPSO) has for several years been studying the issue of the ageing of disabled people. These people need more complex care and can present a loss of autonomy requiring changes to their day-to-day life.

  20. Treatment of Sexual Offenses by Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Beverly A.

    1991-01-01

    A case history of a young man with mild mental retardation who had engaged in pedophilia and was successfully treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate is presented. The role of antiandrogen treatments of mentally retarded sexual offenders is discussed including issues of informed consent and ethical aspects of treatment. (Author/DB)

  1. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  2. Prospective Dynamic Assessment of Risk of Sexual Reoffending in Individuals with an Intellectual Disability and a History of Sexual Offending Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Rachael E.; Lindsay, William R.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Boer, Douglas P.; Haaven, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to add to the literature on the predictive accuracy of a dynamic intellectual disability specific risk assessment tool. Method: A dynamic risk assessment for sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S), a static risk assessment for sexual offending (STATIC-99), and a static risk assessment for violence…

  3. Aging modulates cuticular hydrocarbons and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tsung-Han; Yew, Joanne Y.; Fedina, Tatyana Y.; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Dierick, Herman A.; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Attractiveness is a major component of sexual selection that is dependent on sexual characteristics, such as pheromone production, which often reflect an individual’s fitness and reproductive potential. Aging is a process that results in a steady decline in survival and reproductive output, yet little is known about its effect on specific aspects of attractiveness. In this report we asked how aging impacts pheromone production and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evidence suggests that key pheromones in Drosophila are produced as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), whose functions in attracting mates and influencing behavior have been widely studied. We employed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to show that the composition of D. melanogaster CHC is significantly affected by aging in both sexes and that these changes are robust to different genetic backgrounds. Aging affected the relative levels of many individual CHC, and it shifted overall hydrocarbon profiles to favor compounds with longer chain lengths. We also show that the observed aging-related changes in CHC profiles are responsible for a significant reduction in sexual attractiveness. These studies illuminate causal links among pheromones, aging and attractiveness and suggest that CHC production may be an honest indicator of animal health and fertility. PMID:22323204

  4. The young and the restless? Age as a moderator of the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kyle Richard; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-01-01

    The authors aimed to assess the degree to which age moderates the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women. The authors combined 4 independent data sets that yielded a total sample of 771 women (M age = 27.76, SD age = 9.64) who had completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women and the Female Sexual Function Index. Desire interacted with age quadratically in predicting personal and relational sexual distress such that desire was more strongly associated with distress for younger women as compared with middle-aged and older women. Age is an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Vaughan, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as the unit in which to calculate the burden of disease associated with reproductive ill-health has given rise to considerable debate. Criticisms include the failure to address the problem of missing and inadequate epidemiological data, inability to deal adequately with co-morbidities, and lack of transparency in the process of ascribing disability weights to sexual and reproductive health conditions. Many of these criticisms could be addressed within the current DALY framework and a number of suggestions to do so are made. These suggestions include: (1) developing an international research strategy to determine the incidence and prevalence of reproductive ill-health and diseases, including the risk of long-term complications; (2) undertaking a research strategy using case studies, population-based surveillance data and longitudinal studies to identify, evaluate and utilize more of the existing national data sources on sexual and reproductive health; (3) comprehensively mapping the natural history of sexual and reproductive health conditions--in males and in females--and their sequelae, whether physical or psychological; (4) developing valuation instruments that are adaptable for both chronic and acute health states, that reflect a range of severity for each health state and can be modified to reflect prognosis; (5) undertaking a full review of the DALY methodology to determine what changes may be made to reduce sources of methodological and gender bias. Despite the many criticisms of the DALY as a measurement unit, it represents a major conceptual advance since it permits the combination of life expectancy and levels of dysfunction into a single measure. Measuring reproductive ill-health by counting deaths alone is inadequate for a proper understanding of the dimensions of the problem because of the young age of many of the deaths associated with reproductive ill-health and the large component of years lived with

  6. Age or Disability? Age-Based Disparities in Service Provision for Older People with Intellectual Disabilities in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alan; Walker, Carol

    1998-01-01

    This paper argues that a key factor in the dependency of older people with intellectual disabilities is the age discriminatory attitudes held by many service providers. Two research projects of deinstitutionalization in Britain found greater improvement in competencies or less deterioration in older than younger individuals at follow-up despite…

  7. Treatment of sexual offenses by persons with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Myers, B A

    1991-03-01

    Sexual offenses, particularly paraphilias, although infrequent, are committed by people with mental retardation. Their management poses clinical and ethical dilemmas. Available treatments were reviewed, especially the literature on the most effective agent, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). A case history was presented of a young man with mild mental retardation who was successfully treated with MPA. The role of antiandrogen treatments of paraphilias among the mentally retarded population includes a consideration of informed consent and ethical aspects of treatment.

  8. When people with pre-existing disabilities age in place: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Gilson, S F; Netting, F E

    1997-11-01

    We focus on a population of people with disabilities who are "aging in place," that is, individuals aging with pre-existing physical disabilities. We distinguish between those who experience prolonged aging and others who experience accelerated aging. A brief overview of people aging with disabilities and selected background information on the increasing linkages between the aging and disability communities is provided. Four case examples illustrate the practice implications faced by social workers in partnering with people with pre-existing disabilities and in being sensitive to their desires concerning aging in place.

  9. Sexual incidents in an extended care unit for aged men.

    PubMed

    Szasz, G

    1983-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the nursing staff of a 400-bed extended-care unit for aged men by questionnaire to find out what patient behaviors were identified as sexual by the staff and how they reacted to these behaviors. Three types of behavior were identified as sexual and as "causing problems": sex talk (e.g., using foul language); sexual acts (e.g., touching or grabbing, exposing genitalia); and implied sexual behavior (e.g., openly reading pornographic magazines). As many as 25 per cent of the residents were thought to create such incidents. Acceptable sexual behavior identified by the staff were limited to hugging and kissing on the cheek, although their answers implied that residents could need more intimate touching and affection. The survey raised questions about the nature and causes of different types of sexual behavior in the institutionalized elderly and about the roles nursing staff, physicians, and administrators can play in recognizing individual needs while safeguarding both the residents and the staff from the consequences of unacceptable incidents. PMID:6863791

  10. Associations between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed…

  11. Sexuality and Aging: A Timely Addition to the Gerontology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a course on sexuality in aging for a gerontology master's program. Topics include physical health, AIDS, gay/lesbian issues, widows/widowers, marriage, ethnic issues, menopause, and impotence. Provides a 33-item bibliography. (SK)

  12. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  13. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  14. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  15. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  16. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  17. Comparing the Relationship Between Age and Length of Disability Across Common Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jetha, Arif; Besen, Elyssa; Smith, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the association between age and disability length across common chronic conditions. Methods: Analysis of 39,915 nonwork-related disability claims with a diagnosis of arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, depression, low back pain, chronic pulmonary disease, or cancer. Ordinary least squares regression models examined age-length of disability association across chronic conditions. Results: Arthritis (76.6 days), depression (63.2 days), and cancer (64.9 days) were associated with longest mean disability lengths; hypertension was related to shortest disability lengths (41.5 days). Across chronic conditions, older age was significantly associated with longer work disability. The age–length of disability association was most significant for chronic pulmonary disease and cancer. The relationship between age and length of work disability was linear among most chronic conditions. Conclusions: Work disability prevention strategies should consider both employee age and chronic condition diagnosis. PMID:27164446

  18. Severe childhood sexual abuse and nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Little, L

    1998-01-01

    This article offers a review of, and case report on, the treatment of a young adult with a history of severe childhood abuse, dissociative symptoms, and right-hemisphere dysfunction, or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). The core of nonverbal learning disabilities is the inability to synthesize information and create meaning from complex information. Learning is a form of adaptation and disruptions in an individual's meaning-making process. There are major implications for the person's overall adjustment. Trauma is itself complex and often damaging to the survivor's well being. Clinical assessment must take into account a person's cognitive style and possible learning deficits in order to adequately address traumatic material. Therapy must be modified in order to respond to the unique learning style of the NLD client. Finally, and important issue for therapists remains their willingness to broaden their awareness and knowledge base, and shift the treatment paradigm to meet the needs of the client with neurocognitive vulnerabilities. Treating clients with difficult trauma histories' alone, can elicit negative reactions in the therapist. Repeated experiences with a client's mistrust, anger, noncompliance or self-defeating habits are particularly stressful. The neuropsychological perspective can provide a valuable tool in the mastery of those reactions, and in building a context for empathy and a joint narrative. PMID:9742317

  19. Justification of sexual reproduction by modified Penna model of ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Martins, J. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2001-05-01

    We generalize the standard Penna bit-string model of biological ageing by assuming that each deleterious mutation diminishes the survival probability in every time interval by a small percentage. This effect is added to the usual lethal but age-dependent effect of the same mutation. We then find strong advantages or disadvantages of sexual reproduction (with males and females) compared to asexual cloning, depending on parameters.

  20. Mitochondrial maintenance failure in aging and role of sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Tower, John

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression changes during aging are partly conserved across species, and suggest that oxidative stress, inflammation and proteotoxicity result from mitochondrial malfunction and abnormal mitochondrial-nuclear signaling. Mitochondrial maintenance failure may result from trade-offs between mitochondrial turnover versus growth and reproduction, sexual antagonistic pleiotropy and genetic conflicts resulting from uni-parental mitochondrial transmission, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear mutations and loss of epigenetic regulation. Aging phenotypes and interventions are often sex-specific, indicating that both male and female sexual differentiation promote mitochondrial failure and aging. Studies in mammals and invertebrates implicate autophagy, apoptosis, AKT, PARP, p53 and FOXO in mediating sex-specific differences in stress resistance and aging. The data support a model where the genes Sxl in Drosophila, sdc-2 in C. elegans, and Xist in mammals regulate mitochondrial maintenance across generations and in aging. Several interventions that increase life span cause a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), and UPRmt is also observed during normal aging, indicating hormesis. The UPRmt may increase life span by stimulating mitochondrial turnover through autophagy, and/or by inhibiting the production of hormones and toxic metabolites. The data suggest that metazoan life span interventions may act through a common hormesis mechanism involving liver UPRmt, mitochondrial maintenance and sexual differentiation. PMID:25447815

  1. School Social Workers' Needs in Supporting Adolescents with Disabilities toward Dating and Sexual Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Rueda, Heidi; Linton, Kristen F.; Williams, Lela Rankin

    2014-01-01

    School social workers approach their direct practice from ecological systems and justice-oriented perspectives. As such, they may hold a critical role in providing needed sexual health and dating education and services to adolescents with disabilities. Thirteen high school social workers who work closely with adolescents with disabilities were…

  2. Examining Emerging Strategies to Prevent Sexual Violence: Tailoring to the Needs of Women with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…

  3. Attitudes Toward Male and Female Sexuality Among Men and Women With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the sexual attitudes of men and women with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been limited. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore attitudes toward sexuality among men and women with ID in Taiwan and to ascertain the disparities between attitudes among men and women with ID. First, fifty-six men and forty-four women with mild and moderate ID completed a face-to-face interview survey. After this, focus groups were conducted for men and women with ID. Results indicated that women with ID were more likely to have negative attitudes toward parenting and non-reproductive sexual behavior than their male counterparts. Qualitative data indicated that men and women with ID had different sexual attitudes and experiences and were subject to different expectations from people around them. Both men and women with ID had very limited opportunities to develop romantic relationships and a healthy sexual identity. Sexual rights awareness and practice should be matters of concern for this group of adults and women with ID in particular. PMID:26020162

  4. Young People with Learning Disabilities Who Sexually Harm Others: The Role of Criminal Justice within a Multi-Agency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyson, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the key findings from a recent study of statutory service responses to young people with learning disabilities who show sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviours, with a particular focus on the involvement of criminal justice agencies. The study found that although inappropriate sexual behaviours were commonplace in special…

  5. Alignment of Sexuality Education with Self Determination for People with Significant Disabilities: A Review of Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jason; Tincani, Matt; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer; Boutot, E. Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Sexual development is a complex but vital part of the human experience. People with significant disabilities are not excluded from this principle, but often may be prevented from receiving high-quality and comprehensive instruction necessary for a healthy sexual life. The functional model of self-determination emphasizes increasing knowledge,…

  6. Response Patterns on the Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offending in Groups of Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…

  7. Learning disabilities spectrum and sexual dimorphic abilities in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Inozemtseva, Olga; Matute, Esmeralda; Juárez, Jorge

    2008-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia could provide a promising model for the study of the effects of hormones on cognition. The aim of this study was to assess sexual dimorphic abilities related to oral language, spatial abilities, and verbal fluency and to determine the existence of learning disabilities in 11 congenital girls with adrenal hyperplasia compared with 11 healthy girls. Both groups underwent a neuropsychological evaluation using the Child Neuropsychological Assessment battery for Spanish-speaking children. Results showed that the congenital adrenal hyperplasia group had a significantly lower performance than the control group in the repetition and expression domains, right-left comprehension task, and verbal semantic fluency task. A higher incidence of learning disabilities (predominantly reading related) in the patient group compared with their controls was also evident. Thus, the presence of weak verbal areas along with a high incidence of learning disabilities related primarily, though not exclusively, to reading was documented in these girls.

  8. The sexual maltreatment of students with disabilities in American school settings.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Stephen J; Bensy, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    This study presents results from the first nationwide survey of students with disabilities who were sexually maltreated in American schools. The Web survey results, which were mostly provided by caregivers, parents/guardians, and professional advocates, illuminate the types of sexual maltreatment committed, the characteristics of the victims and the abusers, where in the school setting the maltreatment occurred, the manner in which the maltreatment was reported, and the school's response to the maltreatment. More than two-thirds of the maltreated students experienced at least one form of contact sexual maltreatment, and fully 35% of all incidences of maltreatment occurred more than 10 times. The majority of the incidences of maltreatment were committed by school personnel.

  9. Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children (N = 14–21 years) raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation, or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for early sexual intercourse into father absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads support the selection hypothesis: this association seems attributable to confounded risks, most likely genetic in origin, which correlated both with likelihood of father absence and early sexual behavior. This holds implications for environmental theories of maturation and suggests previous research may have inadvertently overestimated the role of family structure in reproductive maturation. PMID:19765012

  10. Growth in Reading Achievement of Students with Disabilities, Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Blackorby, Jose; Schiller, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SRI International, 2002), this study estimated reading growth trajectories in a nationally representative sample of 3,421 students with disabilities ages 7 to 17 representing 11 federal disability categories. Reading achievement in all disability categories increased with age,…

  11. The Effects of Aging on Employment of People with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Judith M.; Adkins, Rodney H.; Kemp, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study investigated the role of both aging and disability on employment status over the life span. Current employment rates of 262 people with a disability and 115 people without a disability were compared. Impairments were polio, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, and miscellaneous. Ages ranged from…

  12. 5 CFR 844.302 - Computation of disability annuity before age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of disability annuity before age 62. 844.302 Section 844.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.302 Computation of disability annuity before age 62. (a) For...

  13. 5 CFR 844.302 - Computation of disability annuity before age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of disability annuity before age 62. 844.302 Section 844.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.302 Computation of disability annuity before age 62. (a) For...

  14. 5 CFR 844.305 - Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. 844.305 Section 844.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.305 Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. Effective on...

  15. 5 CFR 844.302 - Computation of disability annuity before age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of disability annuity before age 62. 844.302 Section 844.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.302 Computation of disability annuity before age 62. (a) For...

  16. 5 CFR 844.305 - Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. 844.305 Section 844.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.305 Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. Effective on...

  17. 5 CFR 844.305 - Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. 844.305 Section 844.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.305 Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. Effective on...

  18. 5 CFR 844.302 - Computation of disability annuity before age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of disability annuity before age 62. 844.302 Section 844.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.302 Computation of disability annuity before age 62. (a) For...

  19. 5 CFR 844.305 - Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. 844.305 Section 844.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Computation of Disability Annuity § 844.305 Redetermination of disability annuity at age 62. Effective on...

  20. Frailty, disability and old age: a re-appraisal.

    PubMed

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Frailty has become a topic of increasing interest in health care. No longer treated as a catch-all term for agedness, decline and disablement it has acquired a more precise definition, applied to those individuals whose 'aged' state is seen to put them at risk of adverse outcomes. This transformation is we argue the outcome of a more general differentiation of terms that were previously used to categorize the weak and marginal within society. Old age re-labelled as 'later life' has become re-articulated as a successful life stage relatively free from impairment. Disability has been re-positioned and its links with impairment attenuated while chronic illness has acquired a new narrative of its own. This has left frailty behind, redolent still with all the old negative attributes of marginality, but now more than ever evacuated of any remaining elements of 'status' or 'agency'. Frailty is defined less by the identities of those who are deemed frail than by what frailty seems to augur in its direction of travel - a journey towards unspecified adverse outcomes. This re-positioning, we suggest, helps lay the foundation of a social imaginary of 'the fourth age' as the new location of old age.

  1. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  6. [Credibility of allegations of under age minors regarding sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y; Vervier, J F; Charlier, D

    1994-01-01

    When a child under age states he/she has been sexually abused, there seldom exists an objective certainty to support the allegation. Whereas clinicians know that a child who speaks spontaneously probably speaks the truth, it is nonetheless difficult to exclude the possibility of fabulating, lying or mistaking. The error probability is sharply increased when abuse is referred by a parent, specially in a context of parental separation. This article thus presents a review of criteria which help to better assess the truth or error of allegations. Criteria include analysis of the child's talk, application of projective techniques, observation of his/her behavior, etc. The author also describes some differential diagnoses based on the behaviors and sexual allegations of children under age. PMID:7878137

  7. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.426 Determining total disability: Age, education, and...

  8. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.426 Determining total disability: Age, education, and...

  9. Computer Simulation of Sexual Selection on Age-Structured Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, S. G. F.; Penna, T. J. P.

    Using computer simulations of a bit-string model for age-structured populations, we found that sexual selection of older males is advantageous, from an evolutionary point of view. These results are in opposition to a recent proposal of females choosing younger males. Our simulations are based on findings from recent studies of polygynous bird species. Since secondary sex characters are found mostly in males, we could make use of asexual populations that can be implemented in a fast and efficient way.

  10. Knowledge before School-Age, Is Power during School-Age: A Study of Urban Preschool and the Learning Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tylia

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if urban preschool decreased the likelihood of future identification of learning disabled (LD). According to the Child Development Institute (2010) and the Learning Disabilities Association of America (2010), four to ten percent of the school-aged students in this country are learning disabled.…

  11. Compensation Age Theory: Effect of Chronological Age on Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz-Vahav, Hefziba

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to discuss a new concept, the "Compensation Age Theory (CAT)", for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The CAT is a holistic framework comprised of four dimensions: (a) the state of the art of the CAT; (b) the theoretical resources which are at the core of the CAT; (c) a series of empirical…

  12. Exploring the relationship between age and tenure with length of disability

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amanda E.; Pransky, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Background The aging of the workforce, coupled with the changing nature of career tenure has raised questions about the impact of these trends on work disability. This study aimed to determine if age and tenure interact in relating to work disability duration. Methods Relationships were investigated using random effects models with 239,359 work disability claims occurring between 2008 and 2012. Results A 17‐day difference in the predicted length of disability was observed from ages 25 to 65. Tenure moderated the relationship between age and length of disability. At younger ages, the length of disability decreased as tenure increased, but at older age, the length of disability increased as tenure increased. Discussion Results indicate that although there is a relationship between length of disability and tenure, age makes a greater unique contribution to explaining variance in length of disability. Future research is needed to better understand why specifically age shows a strong relationship with length of disability and why that relationship varies with age. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:974–987, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010587

  13. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  14. Need or right: Sexual expression and intimacy in aged care.

    PubMed

    Rowntree, Margaret R; Zufferey, Carole

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores how the residential aged care sector could engage with residents' sexual expression and intimacy. It is informed by a study of 19 aged care staff members and 23 community members, and initially designed on the principles of Appreciative Inquiry methodology. The data were collected through focus groups and interviews and analyzed using discourse analysis. We found that staff members mainly conceptualize sexual expression as a need to be met, while community members (current and prospective residents) understand it as a right to be exercised. We conclude that the way in which sexual expression is conceptualized has critical implications for the sector's engagement with this topic. A 'needs' discourse informs policies, procedures and practices that enable staff to meet residents' needs, while a 'rights' discourse shapes policies, practices and physical designs that improve residents' privacy and autonomy, shifting the balance of power towards them. The former approach fits with a nursing home medical model of care, and the latter with a social model of service provision and consumption. PMID:26568211

  15. Accounting for Recent Declines in Employment Rates among Working-Aged Men and Women with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bound, John; Waidmann, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    During the 1990s, employment rates of people with disabilities fell and the number of working-age people receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits increased dramatically, Analysis of Current Population Survey and disability insurance data suggests that growth in the SSDI program accounts for much of the decline in employment…

  16. 20 CFR 216.33 - What is required for payment of an age or disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... age or evidence of disability. (The information collection requirements contained in this section were... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is required for payment of an age or... of an age or disability annuity. In addition to the eligibility requirements listed above,...

  17. When People with Pre-Existing Disabilities Age in Place: Implications for Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Stephen French; Netting, F. Ellen

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on a population of disabled people who are aging with pre-existing physical disabilities. Distinguishes between those who experience prolonged aging and those who experience accelerated aging. Provides four case examples to illustrate the practice implications faced by social workers in partnering with people with pre-existing…

  18. "I Don't Know What a Proper Woman Means": What Women with Intellectual Disabilities Think about Sex, Sexuality and Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Christina; Withers, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There is very little literature concerning how women with intellectual disabilities conceptualise their sexuality or develop a sexual identity. Semi-structured interview schedules were used to guide interviews with 10 women with intellectual disabilities. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. Many of the women could not…

  19. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  20. Relationships of Disability with Age Among Adults Aged 50 to 85: Evidence from the United States, England and Continental Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To extend existing research on the US health disadvantage relative to Europe by studying the relationships of disability with age from midlife to old age in the US and four European regions (England/Northern and Western Europe/Southern Europe/Eastern Europe) including their wealth-related differences, using a flexible statistical approach to model the age-functions. Methods We used data from three studies on aging, with nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 to 85 from 15 countries (N = 48225): the US-American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Outcomes were mobility limitations and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living. We applied fractional polynomials of age to determine best fitting functional forms for age on disability in each region, while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and important risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity). Results Findings showed high levels of disability in the US with small age-related changes between 50 and 85. Levels of disability were generally lower in Eastern Europe, followed by England and Southern Europe and lowest in Northern and Western Europe. In these latter countries age-related increases of disability, though, were steeper than in the US, especially in Eastern and Southern Europe. For all countries and at all ages, disability levels were higher among adults with low wealth compared to those with high wealth, with largest wealth-related differences among those in early old age in the USA. Conclusions This paper illustrates considerable variations of disability and its relationship with age. It supports the hypothesis that less developed social policies and more pronounced socioeconomic inequalities are related to higher levels of disability and an earlier onset of disability. PMID:23977172

  1. [Attitudes towards physical disability in the Middle Ages].

    PubMed

    Kolwitz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The article describes attitudes to disability and physically disabled people, taking into account the aspect of ethical and social location, what physically disabled meant in societies, and ways to solve the problems of disability. The article is based on studies of disability and historical sources. Christ's attitude shown in the Gospels changed the traditional cultures of the ancient treatment of disability in terms of it being seen as a penalty of the divine. The development of Christianity caused a gradual expansion of the ideas of charity, at the same time stepping up care and material support to all those physically disabled in need. Care of the disabled is based mostly on charity. Church activities supported, by the structure of the State and private individuals, was of paramount importance. Medieval society felt responsible for disabled people. PMID:25518101

  2. Supporting residents’ expression of sexuality: the initial construction of a sexuality assessment tool for residential aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a key component of quality of life and well-being and a need to express one’s sexuality continues into old age. Staff and families in residential aged care facilities often find expressions of sexuality by residents, particularly those living with dementia, challenging and facilities often struggle to address individuals’ needs in this area. This paper describes the development of an assessment tool which enables residential aged care facilities to identify how supportive their organisation is of all residents’ expression of their sexuality, and thereby improve where required. Methods Multi-phase design using qualitative methods and a Delphi technique. Tool items were derived from the literature and verified by qualitative interviews with aged care facility staff, residents and families. The final item pool was confirmed via a reactive Delphi process. Results A final item pool of sixty-nine items grouped into seven key areas allows facilities to score their compliance with the areas identified as being supportive of older people’s expression of their sexuality in a residential aged care environment. Conclusions The sexuality assessment tool (SexAT) guides practice to support the normalization of sexuality in aged care homes and assists facilities to identify where enhancements to the environment, policies, procedures and practices, information and education/training are required. The tool also enables facilities to monitor initiatives in these areas over time. PMID:24980463

  3. Distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged adults - results from the German KORA-Age study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today industrialized countries face a burgeoning aged population. Thus, there is increasing attention on the functioning and disabilities of aged adults as potential determinants of autonomy and independent living. However, there are few representative findings on the prevalence and determinants of disability in aged persons in the German population. The objective of our study is to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged persons and to assess the contribution of diseases to the prevalence of disability. Methods Data originate from the MONICA/KORA study, a population-based epidemiological cohort. Survivors of the original cohorts who were 65 and older were examined by telephone interview in 2009. Disability was assessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Minimal disability was defined as HAQ-DI > 0. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and additive regression to estimate the contribution of diseases to disability prevalence. Results We analyzed a total of 4117 persons (51.2% female) with a mean age of 73.6 years (SD = 6.1). Minimal disability was present in 44.7% of all participants. Adjusted for age and diseases, disability was positively associated with female sex, BMI, low income, marital status, physical inactivity and poor nutritional status, but not with smoking and education. Problems with joint functions and eye diseases contributed most to disability prevalence in all age groups. Conclusions In conclusion, this study could show that there are vulnerable subgroups of aged adults who should receive increased attention, specifically women, those with low income, those over 80, and persons with joint or eye diseases. Physical activity, obesity and malnutrition were identified as modifiable factors for future targeted interventions. PMID:23410010

  4. Sexual challenges with aging: integrating the GES approach in an elderly couple.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Barry; Pierpaoli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of sexuality after 60 years of age is the increased need for couple involvement to promote desire, pleasure, eroticism, and satisfaction inherent to the healthy aging process. This case study clinically explores the complex psychobiosocial interactions for understanding, assessing, and treating sexual problems for couples age 60 years and older, emphasizing the Good Enough Sex approach of variable, flexible, and shared sexual pleasure. Aging couples are discouraged from appraising their sexual experiences within the parameters of the pass/fail binary of the traditional individual performance model and are instead encouraged to embrace the evolving elasticity of their sexual experiences. The Good Enough Sex model espouses an approachable and satisfying alternative for the promotion of sexual function and satisfaction throughout the life span, with particular interest in late adulthood sexual health.

  5. An anatomy of old-age disability: Time use, affect and experienced utility.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; Ingenhaag, Michael; Maurer, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Complementing the commonly used concepts of evaluative wellbeing and decision utility, emotional wellbeing and experienced utility are important welfare criteria to assess individuals' subjective wellbeing, especially for valuing health and disability. Yet, almost all empirical evidences on the link between disability and experienced wellbeing come from developed countries. This paper studies the relationship between old-age disability and experienced utility in five low- and middle-income countries. Using data on individual time use and activity-specific affective experiences from an abbreviated version of the Day Reconstruction Method, we document a strong negative association between disability and experienced utility. These differences in experienced utility by disability status are exclusively due to worse activity-specific affective experiences among persons with disabilities. By contrast, disability-related differences in time use provide small compensating effects. Interventions or technologies that facilitate daily life hold most promise to improve experienced utility among persons with disabilities in the developing world.

  6. Comparison of intellectually disabled offenders with a combined history of sexual offenses and other offenses versus intellectually disabled offenders without a history of sexual offenses on dynamic client and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, K J H M; Embregts, P J C M; Hendriks, A H C; Heestermans, M

    2013-10-01

    Sexually offensive behavior is prevalent among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and many sex offenders also commit other offenses such as vandalism or assault. We examined the differences between sex offenders with ID and a history of combined sex and other types of offenses (mixed sex offenders) versus offenders with no history of sexual offenses (non-sex offenders). Dynamic client and environmental factors were measured using the Adult Behaviour Checklist (ABCL) and the Risk Inventarization Scale on Sexually Offensive Behavior of Clients with intellectual disabilities (RISC-V). Item, subscale, and total scores were then compared for the two groups. Most of the comparisons did not reveal significant differences between the two groups. The findings call for a general theory of offending behavior to explain the absence of differences between the mixed sex offenders and non-sex offenders with ID.

  7. Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2011-01-01

    Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than…

  8. Subjective Age in the Transition to Adulthood for Persons with and without Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined subjective age (how old one feels) and associated variables in 148 emerging adults, ages 20-30 years. Seventy-six participants had a motor disability (cerebral palsy, spina bifida) and 72 had no motor disability. Participants completed questionnaires and were interviewed. There was no significant difference in subjective age…

  9. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  10. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA...

  11. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  12. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Methods: Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild…

  13. Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders With Intellectual and Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Characteristics, Referral Patterns, and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Smith, Anne H. W.; Law, Jacqueline; Quinn, Kathleen; Anderson, Andrew; Smith, Astrid; Allan, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a community intellectual disability offender service over the period from 1990 to 2001. Men who committed sex offenses or sexually abusive incidents (n = 106) and men who committed other types of offenses and serious incidents (n = 78) are compared on personal characteristics, referral sources, forensic…

  14. "I Just Want to Be Myself": Adolescents with Disabilities Who Identify as a Sexual or Gender Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Laurie Gutmann; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities who identify as a sexual or gender minority are at high risk for negative school experiences and poor outcomes, including peer rejection, bullying, and dropping out. Using an intersectionality framework, this study examined how multiple marginalized identities influence sense of self and school experience for this…

  15. 20 CFR 404.284 - Recomputations for people who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. 404.284 Section 404.284 Employees' Benefits... who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. (a) General. Years of your... disabled or died before age 62. (e) Minimum increase in primary insurance amounts. Your primary...

  16. 20 CFR 404.284 - Recomputations for people who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. 404.284 Section 404.284 Employees' Benefits... who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. (a) General. Years of your... disabled or died before age 62. (e) Minimum increase in primary insurance amounts. Your primary...

  17. 20 CFR 404.284 - Recomputations for people who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. 404.284 Section 404.284 Employees' Benefits... who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. (a) General. Years of your... disabled or died before age 62. (e) Minimum increase in primary insurance amounts. Your primary...

  18. 20 CFR 404.284 - Recomputations for people who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. 404.284 Section 404.284 Employees' Benefits... who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. (a) General. Years of your... disabled or died before age 62. (e) Minimum increase in primary insurance amounts. Your primary...

  19. 20 CFR 404.284 - Recomputations for people who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. 404.284 Section 404.284 Employees' Benefits... who reach age 62, or become disabled, or die before age 62 after 1978. (a) General. Years of your... disabled or died before age 62. (e) Minimum increase in primary insurance amounts. Your primary...

  20. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  1. The influence of gender and age on disability following ischemic stroke: the Framingham study.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Beiser, Alexa; Kase, Carlos S; Scaramucci, Amy; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Wolf, Philip A

    2003-01-01

    The magnitude of disability among elderly stroke survivors is substantial. There have been few community-based estimates of the contribution gender and older age make to stroke-related disability and outcome. Using the original Framingham Study cohort, we documented gender-specific neurological deficits and disability differences in stroke survivors at six months post-stroke. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios, comparing men and women, and adjusting for age, and age and stroke subtype. Age and gender-matched controls were then compared to distinguish stroke-related disability from disability associated with general aging. Results showed that almost half (43%) of all elderly stroke survivors in the cohort had moderate to severe neurological deficits. In the crude analyses, women were more dependent in ADLs (33.9% vs 15.6%), less likely to walk unassisted (40.3% vs 17.8%), and living in nursing homes (34.9 % vs 13.3%). After adjusting for age and stroke subtype, it was older age that accounted for the severity of disability. When compared to age and gender-matched controls, stroke cases were significantly more disabled in all domains studied. In this elderly cohort, more women experienced initial strokes and were more disabled at 6 months post-stroke than men. However, older age at stroke onset, not gender or stroke subtype, was associated with greater disability. Health care providers need to understand that strokes occur later in life for women and that because of age, women are at greater risk for disability and institutionalization.

  2. Age of Partner at First Adolescent Intercourse and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescent females who have early sexual experiences with older male partners report high rates of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, but little is known about whether these early sexual experiences are associated with adult sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having first consensual sex with an older partner was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Methods Participants were 292 women (66% African American, mean age = 26 years) attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic who reported having voluntary vaginal sex before age 18. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing child/adolescent sexual experiences and current adult sexual risk behavior. Results Participants were, on average, 14.6 years at first vaginal intercourse; their partners were, on average, 17.5 years. After controlling for covariates, a greater partner age difference at first intercourse was associated with more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner and a greater proportion of episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Conclusions Having an older first sex partner during adolescence was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Early sexual experiences may be important life events that influence subsequent sexual behavior. Sexual health interventions need to target female adolescents before they initiate sexual intercourse to reduce risk for STDs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:21128817

  3. Rehabilitation Counselor Knowledge, Comfort, Approach, and Attitude toward Sex and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pebdani, Roxanna N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…

  4. An update on female sexual function and dysfunction in old age and its relevance to old age psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Runciman, Ross; Wylie, Kevan R; McManus, Ross

    2012-10-01

    Numerous studies have now demonstrated that many older women retain an interest in their sexual lives. Yet, how many old age psychiatrists commonly check with older women about whether the depression they are treating, or the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) they have prescribed, have adversely affected their patient's sexual lives? We consider the latest evidence regarding cultural, social and medical influences on older women's sexual lives and some specific issues which affect lesbian and transsexual people. We examine how mental illness and psychotropic medication in particular can adversely affect older women's sexual functioning and at how difficult it often proves to be for women to seek help. We also focus on why doctors and in particular psychiatrists may not take a sexual history, look for sexual side effects or refer for appropriate treatment, especially when interviewing older women patients. Most published information about psychiatric training and sexual issues focuses on the younger male patient. We therefore aimed to provide a broad-ranging review of the literature regarding female sexual functioning in old age, the difficulties that can arise and the role that old age psychiatrists have an opportunity to fulfil, in this often neglected aspect of their patients' treatment. From our review it was clear that, in the light of the increasing cultural acceptability of discussions regarding sexuality and older women, the training of student doctors and trainee psychiatrists needs to reflect this change so that old age psychiatrists can enhance the quality of their patient care.

  5. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  6. The valuation of states of ill-health: the impact of age and disability.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, S; Brittis, S; Wu, A

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age and disability on valuations of health states used in deriving QALYs have not been examined. We compared the valuations of seven states of immobility and pain given by 88 subjects aged 20-89 years, and of various degrees of disability. They were asked to score each state, their present health and death, on a range from 'best' to 'worst' health. Only two states of health (no disability but moderate pain, and slight disability and moderate pain) were valued differently by older subjects. Disabled subjects tended to rate most ill-health states more adversely, and to rate death as substantially better than more severe states of ill-health. The development of explicit valuations of survival should take into account differences caused by disability, and examine other dimensions of illness experience.

  7. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie L.; Kydd, Robyn M.; Dickson, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO) frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs), from 26–32 and 32–38 years of age. Methods Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years. Results Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported “usually/always”), and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to “use alcohol to make it easier to have sex” and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32–38. Conclusions Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour. PMID:26267272

  8. Perceptions of Aging and Disability among College Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nicholas J.; Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Stephens, Emily; Omi, Keita; Kanaoka, Ana; Ishikawa, Ai; Yamanaka, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan launched the Long-term Care Insurance program in 2000, and ratified the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2014. Japan has been taking significant steps to support their elderly population and individuals with disabilities. However, information is lacking on the understanding and opinions of either of…

  9. Aged and Dependency Ratios among Autism, Intellectual Disability and Other Disabilities: 10-Year Trend Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Dependency ratios are useful as general indicators of future economic and social health. The present paper focuses on the description of dependency ratios and over time change in different kind of disability which include autism, intellectual disability, vision, hearing, and limb impairments. We analyzed data mainly from the public web-access…

  10. Medicalization and the refashioning of age-related limits on sexuality.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Barbara L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the convergence of sexual medicine and anti-aging medicine as they have refashioned standards of sexual functionality and reconstructed sexual life courses. Reversing the long-held stereotypes of asexual or post-sexual seniors, expectations of continued sexual functionality as an indicator of health in later life now underpin a growing medical and therapeutic industry. While more positive images of eldersex are certainly an improvement over past views that saw older people as both undesiring and undesirable, this article suggests that caution should be exercised regarding an overly celebratory reading of the medicalized construction of "sexy seniors." PMID:22720825

  11. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  12. How Do People with Learning Disabilities Experience and Make Sense of the Ageing Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…

  13. Predicting the Motivation in College-Aged Learning Disabled Students Based on the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Alberto D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…

  14. "Away with the Fairies?" Disability within Primary-Age Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Angharad; Ellison, Nick; Barrett, Sam; Shah, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the findings of a new study that explores the portrayal of disability within a sample of the primary-age children's literature most readily available to UK schools. The kind of literature to which children are exposed is likely to influence their general perceptions of social life. How disability is handled by authors is…

  15. Quality of Life for Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Carter, Erik W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the subjective health and well-being of 389 transition-age youth with autism or intellectual disability using the parent proxy version of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents reported well-being of youth with autism and youth with intellectual disability lower than a normative sample in the domains of Physical Well-being, Psychological…

  16. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  17. Association between Self-Reported Health and Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Experienced before Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated the association between women's health and physical and sexual abuse suffered before age 18. Methods: A total of 3,568 randomly sampled insured women ages 18-64 completed a telephone interview to assess history of physical only, sexual only, or both physical and sexual abuse before age 18 (Behavioral Risk…

  18. "I thought . . . maybe this is my chance": sexual abuse against girls and women with disabilities in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Marit Hoem; Braathen, Stine Hellum

    2008-03-01

    This article is based on a pilot study conducted in Malawi in 2006 that intended to uncover episodes of violence and abuse against women and girls with disabilities and furthermore to explore the mechanisms behind such acts. The stories of 23 women with disabilities were obtained through in-depth semistructured interviews that covered, among other topics, aspects of sexual abuse experienced by or known to these women. None of the informants reported having been sexually abused during childhood. In adulthood, several had experienced what they themselves defined as sexual abuse: Men came and wanted to "marry" them. When the woman became pregnant, the man disappeared and left her alone. The interviewees were very opinionated regarding this theme and sought both social and political action in this matter, especially a means to enforce men to take economic responsibility for their biological children. The informants stressed that adapted education for women with disabilities would allow them to become more economically independent and be better able to refuse the advances of unserious suitors.

  19. Age-Related Differences in Learning Disabled and Skilled Readers' Working Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether age-related working memory deficits in learning disabled (LD) readers across four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 20) reflected retrieval efficiency or storage capacity problems. Found that LD readers' working memory performance was inferior to skilled readers' on verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks across all ages.…

  20. Still Off-Limits? Staff Views on Supporting Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People with Intellectual Disabilities to Develop Sexual and Intimate Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Howarth, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the UK and elsewhere, there is a growing policy and legislative imperative to ensure that people with intellectual disabilities are supported to develop relationships, including sexual ones. However, gay, lesbian and bisexual people with intellectual disabilities may have additional needs or face particular barriers in this area of…

  1. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization... for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five. (a) General... children with disabilities aged three through five on reservations served by elementary schools...

  2. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization... for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five. (a) General... children with disabilities aged three through five on reservations served by elementary schools...

  3. Sexuality and Physical Contact in National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Martha K.; Waite, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample. Method. We describe the new measures and compare the distributions of each across gender and age groups, in some cases by partnership status. Results. Two components of sexuality decrease with age among both men and women: frequency of finding an unknown person sexually attractive and receptivity to a partner’s sexual overtures. In contrast, the inclination to make one’s self sexually attractive to others was a more complicated function of partner status, gender, and age: partnered women and unpartnered men made the most effort, with the more effortful gender’s effort decreasing with age. Both men and women find nonsexual physical contact appealing but sexual physical contact is more appealing to men than women. Finally, two fifths of men and women report dissatisfaction with their partner’s frequency of caring behaviors that make later sexual interactions pleasurable, and a fifth of women and a quarter of men who had vaginal sex in the past year report dissatisfaction with amount of foreplay. Discussion. These data offer the opportunity to characterize sexual motivation in older adulthood more precisely and richly and to examine how the context of sexual experience and the nonsexual aspects of physical intimacy correlate with sexual behavior, enjoyment, and problems. PMID:25360027

  4. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.

  5. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband’s health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband’s healths and sexual knowledge explained women’s sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women’s sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women’s sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups’ sexual function. PMID:25931738

  6. "My Great Hope in Life Is to Have a House, a Family and a Daughter": Relationships and Sexuality in Intellectually Disabled People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Susana; Haya, Ignacio; Lázaro-Visa, Susana

    2016-01-01

    This study starts from the premise that we are sexual beings, and therefore, sexuality is part of our lives and defines us as human beings. This is also true with regard to intellectually disabled people. Within the framework of broader qualitative research carried out in Spain, some partial results of an ongoing study aimed at finding out what a…

  7. Pharmacological Management of Inappropriate Sexual Behaviours: A Review of Its Evidence, Rationale and Scope in Relation to Men with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajith, S. G.; Morgan, C.; Clarke, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The management of inappropriate sexual behaviours (ISB) including sexual offending is difficult, especially when the person treated has intellectual disabilities (ID). Psychological therapies are the accepted first line of treatment. Pharmacological treatments have also been advocated, particularly for people who have committed serious…

  8. Survivor: For People with Developmental Disabilities, Who Have Been Sexually Assaulted. Booklet III: For Family Members, Advocates and Care Providers. Special Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baladerian, Nora J.; And Others

    This is the third in a series of booklets written to assist developmentally disabled people who have been sexually assaulted. This booklet is designed for family members, advocates, and care-providers, to help them in assisting someone through a sexual assault crisis or in teaching clients about prevention and safety measures. The booklet defines…

  9. "I Don't Want to Be the Mother of a Paedophile": The Perspectives of Mothers Whose Adolescent Sons with Learning Disabilities Sexually Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, Jane; Flynn, Margaret; Nicholls, Leanne; Hollins, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    The subject of sexual abuse is a major focus of professional and public concern. Sexual abuse of (and by) people with learning disabilities evokes even greater disquieting emotions, and makes severe demands on the social services, and the criminal justice system. The aims of the project were: 1) to determine whether group psychotherapy produced…

  10. Dating age and stage as correlates of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, B C; Mccoy, J K; Olson, T D

    1986-01-01

    Dating experiences, especially the type or stage of dating, have consistently been found to be related to premarital sexual behavior. Findings regarding the age at 1st date and sexual behavior have been less consistent. This paper examined the age at which dating began and the type of dating relationship as correlates of premarital sexual attitudes and behavior among mid-teen adolescents. The analyses were based on a sample of high school students (n=836), most of whom were between the ages of 15 and 18 when the surveys were conducted. Early dating, especially early steady dating, was related to permissive attitudes and to premarital sexual experience among both males and females. The relationship between early dating and intercourse experience was particulary strong among Mormons, a religious group which has institutionalized age 16 as the legitimate age to begin dating. PMID:12341601

  11. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-Home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…

  12. The Potential for Technology to Enhance Independence for Those Aging with a Disability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Technologies of all kinds can sustain and accelerate improvements in health and quality of life for an aging population, and enhance the independence of persons with disabilities. Assistive technologies are widely used to promote independent functioning, but the aging of users and their devices produces unique challenges to individuals, their families, and the health care system. The emergence of new “smart” technologies that integrate information technology with assistive technologies has opened a portal to the development of increasingly powerful, individualized tools to assist individuals with disabilities to meet their needs. Yet, issues of access and usability remain to be solved for their usefulness to be fully realized. New cohorts aging with disabilities will have more resources and more experience with integrated technologies than current elders. Attention to technological solutions that help them adapt to the challenges of later life is needed to improve quality of life for those living long lives with disabilities. PMID:24456682

  13. The potential for technology to enhance independence for those aging with a disability.

    PubMed

    Agree, Emily M

    2014-01-01

    Technologies of all kinds can sustain and accelerate improvements in health and quality of life for an aging population, and enhance the independence of persons with disabilities. Assistive technologies are widely used to promote independent functioning, but the aging of users and their devices produces unique challenges to individuals, their families, and the health care system. The emergence of new "smart" technologies that integrate information technology with assistive technologies has opened a portal to the development of increasingly powerful, individualized tools to assist individuals with disabilities to meet their needs. Yet, issues of access and usability remain to be solved for their usefulness to be fully realized. New cohorts aging with disabilities will have more resources and more experience with integrated technologies than current elders. Attention to technological solutions that help them adapt to the challenges of later life is needed to improve quality of life for those living long lives with disabilities.

  14. Inclusion of School-Age Children with Disabilities in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.; Kolchenko, Kateryna

    2007-01-01

    For many years, children with developmental problems, sensory disorders, brain dysfunction, and complex disorders have remained at the margins of the Ukrainian regular education system or have been excluded from it. In 2004, 1.8 percent of the children in Ukraine were registered as having disabilities. In this article, the authors describe the…

  15. Simultaneous age-dependent and age-independent sexual selection in the lekking black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix).

    PubMed

    Kervinen, Matti; Lebigre, Christophe; Soulsbury, Carl D

    2016-05-01

    Individuals' reproductive success is often strongly associated with their age, with typical patterns of early-life reproductive improvement and late-life senescence. These age-related patterns are due to the inherent trade-offs between life-history traits competing for a limited amount of resources available to the organisms. In males, such trade-offs are exacerbated by the resource requirements associated with the expression of costly sexual traits, leading to dynamic changes in trait expression throughout their life span. Due to the age dependency of male phenotypes, the relationship between the expression of male traits and mating success can also vary with male age. Hence, using longitudinal data in a lekking species with strong sexual selection - the black grouse Lyrurus tetrix - we quantified the effects of age, life span and age of first lek attendance (AFL) on male annual mating success (AMS) to separate the effects of within-individual improvement and senescence on AMS from selective (dis)appearance of certain phenotypes. Then, we used male AMS to quantify univariate and multivariate sexual selection gradients on male morphological and behavioural traits with and without accounting for age and age-related effects of other traits. Male AMS increased with age, and there was no significant reproductive senescence. Most males never copulated, and of the ones that did, the majority had only one successful year. Life span was unrelated to AMS, but early AFL tended to lead to higher AMS at ages 1-3. AMS was related to most morphological and behavioural traits when male age was ignored. Accounting for age and age-specific trait effects (i.e. the interaction between a trait and age) reduced the magnitude of the selection gradients and revealed that behavioural traits are under consistent sexual selection, while sexual selection on morphological traits is stronger in old males. Therefore, sexual selection in black grouse operates primarily on male behaviour and

  16. Simultaneous age-dependent and age-independent sexual selection in the lekking black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix).

    PubMed

    Kervinen, Matti; Lebigre, Christophe; Soulsbury, Carl D

    2016-05-01

    Individuals' reproductive success is often strongly associated with their age, with typical patterns of early-life reproductive improvement and late-life senescence. These age-related patterns are due to the inherent trade-offs between life-history traits competing for a limited amount of resources available to the organisms. In males, such trade-offs are exacerbated by the resource requirements associated with the expression of costly sexual traits, leading to dynamic changes in trait expression throughout their life span. Due to the age dependency of male phenotypes, the relationship between the expression of male traits and mating success can also vary with male age. Hence, using longitudinal data in a lekking species with strong sexual selection - the black grouse Lyrurus tetrix - we quantified the effects of age, life span and age of first lek attendance (AFL) on male annual mating success (AMS) to separate the effects of within-individual improvement and senescence on AMS from selective (dis)appearance of certain phenotypes. Then, we used male AMS to quantify univariate and multivariate sexual selection gradients on male morphological and behavioural traits with and without accounting for age and age-related effects of other traits. Male AMS increased with age, and there was no significant reproductive senescence. Most males never copulated, and of the ones that did, the majority had only one successful year. Life span was unrelated to AMS, but early AFL tended to lead to higher AMS at ages 1-3. AMS was related to most morphological and behavioural traits when male age was ignored. Accounting for age and age-specific trait effects (i.e. the interaction between a trait and age) reduced the magnitude of the selection gradients and revealed that behavioural traits are under consistent sexual selection, while sexual selection on morphological traits is stronger in old males. Therefore, sexual selection in black grouse operates primarily on male behaviour and

  17. What It's Like to Grow Older: The Aging Perceptions of People with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Eilish; McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; McGlinchey, Eimear; McCallion, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing is a national longitudinal study on the aging of people with an intellectual disability (ID) using a randomly selected sample of people with ID over the age of 40. In total, 367 people with an ID completed the aging perception self-report only section. Over 57% of…

  18. Socioeconomics and Major Disabilities: Characteristics of Working-Age Adults in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given

  19. Efficacy of Cinnamomum cassia Blume. in age induced sexual dysfunction of rats

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jamwal, Rohitash; Dethe, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cinnamomum cassia has been suggested in Ayurveda for the management of sexual dysfunction. This research work was conducted to shed some light on the mechanism of action of the extract, and evaluate the efficacy of its methanol extract in age induced sexual dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Secondary objective of the project was to study the effect of treatment on sperm parameters and smooth muscle:collagen level in rat penile tissue. Methods Young and aged male rats were treated with methanol extract of Cinnamomum cassia at a dose of 100 mg/kg and sexual behavior was observed on 28th day in presence of female rats in estrous phase. Sildenafil was used as standard medicine. Effect of treatment was studied on epididymal sperm parameters, and Massons trichrome staining of rat penile tissues was performed to know the level of smooth muscle:collagen. Results The treatment significantly increased sexual function in aged rats that had decreased in comparison to young rats, but did not have any significant effect on sperm count, live and defective sperm percentage. However, treatment induced an increase in smooth muscle level and a decrease in collagen level in the aged rat penile tissue in comparison to that of age matched control. Conclusion Based on our studies, we found that Cinnamomum cassia extract was effective in management of sexual dysfunction in aged rats and hence we propose a possible mechanism of action for Cinnamomum cassia which could be responsible for restoring sexual activity in aged rat. PMID:24563594

  20. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA.

  1. Abuse, neglect, and exploitation: considerations in aging with lifelong disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ansello, Edward F; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Persons with lifelong disabilities are newcomers to later life. Many are relatively high functioning, engaged, and happy members of their communities. Some are, and have been, victims of abuse, neglect, and exploitation. This article reviews factors that contribute to the current incomplete picture of the victimization of these older adults, reports the state of existing data on prevalence and treatments, and suggests initiatives to strengthen continued community living and improve both prevention and identification strategies.

  2. Association between comorbid conditions and BADL/IADL disability in hypertension patients over age 45

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiahui; Ren, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension usually coexists with other chronic conditions and can cause disability in relation to activities of daily living. We examined the association between the number and categories of comorbid conditions and disability affecting activities of daily living in hypertension patients. The data were collected from the 2013 follow-up survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which contains information about chronic conditions and disability. Additionally, socio-demographic characteristics of 3754 hypertension patients aged 45 and older were included in this study. Comorbid conditions included dyslipidemia, stroke, and 12 other chronic conditions. Disability in relation to activities of daily living was assessed using the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) instruments. Differences in BADL/IADL disability among patients with different comorbid conditions were compared using the chi-square test, and the influence of chronic conditions and socio-demographic characteristics on BADL/IADL disability was analyzed using logistic models. Without considering the influence of specific chronic conditions on BADL/IADL, hypertension patients with additional comorbid conditions were more likely to suffer from BADL/IADL disability. When considering the effect of specific chronic conditions, the number of comorbid conditions did not significantly influence BADL/IADL disability. Dyslipidemia, chronic lung disease, stroke, memory-related diseases, and arthritis/rheumatism were associated with BADL disability. Chronic lung diseases, heart diseases, stroke, stomach/digestive system diseases, emotional/nervous/psychiatric problems, memory-related diseases, arthritis/rheumatism, and asthma were associated with IADL disability. Additionally, female, people with lower education level, people living in village, and people living in middle and western China were more likely suffer from BADL

  3. Policy Concerns Raised by the Growing U.S. Population Aging with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I.

    2014-01-01

    Narrative Summary The number of Americans aging with disabilities will grow substantially in coming decades. Promulgating policies and practices to improve their independent functioning within communities and participation in daily life is therefore imperative, but the most effective approaches for meeting various needs are generally unknown. Historically, research addressing approaches targeting elderly individuals have differed in important ways (e.g., underlying models of disability) from studies involving younger persons aging with disabilities. Participants in a conference addressing this discordance identified six major areas requiring study: (1) resources to support independent living; (2) improving quality of life and participation in daily activities; (3) performing activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs; (4) role of families; (5) medical care; and (6) concerns transcending sectors. As these investigations move forward, bridging the divide between approaches addressing elderly individuals versus persons with disabilities will be critical. PMID:24456688

  4. Median ages at stages of sexual maturity and excess weight in school children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the median ages at specific stages of sexual maturity stratified by excess weight in boys and girls. Materials and method This was a cross-sectional study made in 2007 in Florianopolis, Brazil, with 2,339 schoolchildren between 8 to 14 years of age (1,107 boys) selected at random in two steps (by region and type of school). The schoolchildren were divided into: i) those with excess weight and ii) those without excess weight, according to the WHO 2007 cut-off points for gender and age. Sexual maturity was self-evaluated by the subjects according to the Tanner sexual development stages, and utilizing median ages for the genitalia, breasts, and pubic hair stages. Results In the boys with excess weight, precocity was observed in the stages 4 for genitals and pubic hair and 2 for pubic hair, with the values for excess and normal weight. The median ages at the beginning of puberty (stage 2–sexual development) for boys and girls in Florianopolis were 10.8 and 10.3 years, respectively. Conclusion Excess weight is associated with lower median ages in the sexual maturity stages in boys and girls and that it should be taken into account when evaluating sexual maturity in children and adolescents. PMID:24139334

  5. Old-Age Disability and Wealth among Return Mexican Migrants from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the old-age consequences of international migration with a focus on disability and wealth from the perspective of the origin country. Methods Analysis sample includes persons aged 60+ from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a national survey of older-adults in Mexico in 2001. Univariate methods are used to present a comparative profile of return migrants. Multivariate models are estimated for physical disability and wealth. Results Gender differences are profound. Return migrant women are more likely to be disabled while men are wealthier than comparable older adults in Mexico. Discussion Compared to current older adults, younger cohorts of Mexico-U.S. migrants increasingly include women, and more migrants seem likely to remain in the United States rather than return, thus more research will be needed on the old-age conditions of migrants in both countries. PMID:20876848

  6. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, "N" = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas…

  7. Mediators of Well-Being in Ageing Family Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnes, Patricia; Woodford, Lynn; Passey, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increasing numbers of adults with an intellectual disability are being cared for at home by ageing parents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether carer resources (i.e. social support and formal service use) and carer appraisals of ageing and stress/burden mediate the relationships between (1) maladaptive behaviour and…

  8. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  9. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  10. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age

  11. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs.

  12. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  13. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI< 26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (p< 0.0001), orgasm (p= 0.002) and satisfaction (p= 0.002) were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important

  14. Sexuality and Disability: The Male Client with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodwin, Martin G.; Wada, Michael A.

    Modern medical technology has increased the length and improved the quality of the lives of physically injured and disabled individuals. Knowledge and attitudes toward social and psychological factors associated with disability have not kept pace with these advances. Professionals working with disabled have not significantly changed their…

  15. The geriatric clinic: dry and limp: aging queers, zombies, and sexual reanimation.

    PubMed

    McGlotten, Shaka; Moore, Lisa Jean

    2013-06-01

    This essay looks to the omission of aging queer bodies from new medical technologies of sex. We extend the Foucauldian space of the clinic to the mediascape, a space not only of representations but where the imagination is conditioned and different worlds dreamed into being. We specifically examine the relationship between aging queers and the marketing of technologies of sexual function. We highlight the ways queers are excluded from the spaces of the clinic, specifically the heternormative sexual scripts that organize biomedical care. Finally, using recent zombie theory, we gesture toward both the constraints and possibilities of queer inclusion within the discourses and practices that aim to reanimate sexual function. We suggest that zombies usefully frame extant articulations of aging queers with sex and the dangerous lure of medical treatments that promise revitalized, but normative, sexual function at the cost of other, perhaps queerer intimacies.

  16. The geriatric clinic: dry and limp: aging queers, zombies, and sexual reanimation.

    PubMed

    McGlotten, Shaka; Moore, Lisa Jean

    2013-06-01

    This essay looks to the omission of aging queer bodies from new medical technologies of sex. We extend the Foucauldian space of the clinic to the mediascape, a space not only of representations but where the imagination is conditioned and different worlds dreamed into being. We specifically examine the relationship between aging queers and the marketing of technologies of sexual function. We highlight the ways queers are excluded from the spaces of the clinic, specifically the heternormative sexual scripts that organize biomedical care. Finally, using recent zombie theory, we gesture toward both the constraints and possibilities of queer inclusion within the discourses and practices that aim to reanimate sexual function. We suggest that zombies usefully frame extant articulations of aging queers with sex and the dangerous lure of medical treatments that promise revitalized, but normative, sexual function at the cost of other, perhaps queerer intimacies. PMID:23468397

  17. 76 FR 67570 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2012 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... persons aged 65 and older who are uninsured under the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI... (CY) 2012. This premium is paid by enrollees age 65 and over who are not otherwise eligible...

  18. 75 FR 68798 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2011 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... persons aged 65 and older who are uninsured under the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI... (CY) 2011. This premium is paid by enrollees age 65 and over who are not otherwise eligible...

  19. 78 FR 64951 - Medicare Program; Part A Premiums for CY 2014 for the Uninsured Aged and for Certain Disabled...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... persons aged 65 and older who are uninsured under the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI... (CY) 2014. This premium is paid by enrollees age 65 and over who are not otherwise eligible...

  20. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved.

  1. What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.

  2. Age Got to Do With It? Partner Age Difference, Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Risk in Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (−.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572

  3. The Sexual Knowledge, Experience, Feelings and Needs of People with Mild Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Cummins, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty adults with mild mental retardation and 50 first-year psychology students were surveyed regarding their sexual knowledge, experience, feelings, and needs. Subjects with mental retardation had less knowledge, more negative attitudes toward sexual issues, and less experience in intimacy and sexual intercourse, but more experience in…

  4. Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexuality With the Aged, Family Members of the Aged, and People Who Work With the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles B.; Catania, Joseph A.

    Sexual attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors evolve throughout life. Today's older persons were socialized in an environment which viewed sexuality as a procreative activity reserved for married persons in the childbearing years, thus neglecting the interpersonal and individual aspects of sexuality. A sexual psycho-educational intervention was…

  5. Researching and Theorizing the "Age Taboo" on Intergenerational Sexualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuill, Richard; Elliot, David

    2012-01-01

    By means of an ethnographic project, Sarah Goode's Understanding and Addressing Adult Sexual Attraction to Children aspires to better understand the self-conception and self-identification of pedophiles, with the ultimate aim of deconstructing the phenomenon by which culture demonizes pedophiles in order to better protect children. However, the…

  6. Sexuality and Aging: Implications for Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    With increasing emphasis on treating the whole person, on the maintenance of an individual's former life style, and on patients' rights, long-term care personnel need to become aware that many nursing home residents experience needs related to their sexuality. A model two-day workshop is presented wlth a focus on the following topics: (1) a broad…

  7. Calf circumference predicts mobility disability: A secondary analysis of the Mexican health and ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations.

  8. Calf circumference predicts mobility disability: A secondary analysis of the Mexican health and ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations. PMID:27656259

  9. Tools for Improving Clinical Preventive Services Receipt Among Women with Disabilities of Childbearing Ages and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Kate E.; Sloan, Michelle L.; Stevens, Alissa C.; Krahn, Gloria L.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve clinical preventive services (CPS) receipt among women with disabilities are poorly understood and not widely disseminated. The reported results represent a 2-year, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs partnership to develop a central resource for existing tools that are of potential use to maternal and child health practitioners who work with women with disabilities. Steps included contacting experts in the fields of disability and women’s health, searching the Internet to locate examples of existing tools that may facilitate CPS receipt, convening key stakeholders from state and community-based programs to determine their potential use of the tools, and developing an online Toolbox. Nine examples of existing tools were located. The tools focused on facilitating use of the CPS guidelines, monitoring CPS receipt among women with disabilities, improving the accessibility of communities and local transportation, and training clinicians and women with disabilities. Stakeholders affirmed the relevance of these tools to their work and encouraged developing a Toolbox. The Toolbox, launched in May 2013, provides information and links to existing tools and accepts feedback and proposals for additional tools. This Toolbox offers central access to existing tools. Maternal and child health stakeholders and other service providers can better locate, adopt and implement existing tools to facilitate CPS receipt among adolescent girls with disabilities who are transitioning into adult care as well as women with disabilities of child-bearing ages and beyond. PMID:25359095

  10. Aging with Developmental Disabilities: Changes in Vision. Aging with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Marshall E.; Luchterhand, Charlene

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about changes in vision for older adults and what kind of services are needed particularly adults with developmental disabilities. Questions address the following topics: the importance of eye exams for adults with developmental disabilities; the need for eye exams even…

  11. The predictive validity of common risk assessment tools in men with intellectual disabilities and problematic sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, J Paul; Richards, Deborah; Ranger, Rebekah; Curry, Susan

    2016-10-01

    This CIHR-funded study examined whether certain current risk assessment tools were effective in appraising risk of recidivism in a sample of sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty men with ID who had engaged in problematic sexual behavior (PSB) were followed for an average of 2.5 years. Recidivism was defined and measured as any illegal or problematic behavior, as well as any problematic but not necessarily illegal behavior. At the beginning of the study, each participant was rated on two risk assessment tools: the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG). During each month of follow-up, participants were also rated on the Short-Dynamic Risk Scale (SDRS), an assessment tool intended to measure the risk of future problematic behaviors. Data was analyzed using t-tests, Cohen's d and area under the curve (AUC) to test predictive validity of the assessment tools. Using the AUC, results showed that the VRAG was predictive of sexual (AUC=0.74), sexual and/or violent (AUC=0.71) and of any criminally chargeable event (AUC=0.69). The SORAG was only significantly predictive of sexual events (AUC=0.70) and the SDRS was predictive of violent events (AUC=0.71). The t-test and Cohen's d analyses, which are less robust to deviations from the assumptions of normal and continuous distribution than AUC, did not yield significant results in each category, and therefore, while the results of this study suggest that the VRAG and the SORAG may be effective tools in measuring the short term risk of sexual recidivism; and the VRAG and SDRS may be effective tools in appraising long term risk of sexual and/or violent recidivism in this population, it should be used with caution. Regardless of the assessment tool used, risk assessments should take into account the differences between sex offenders with and without ID to ensure effective measurement.

  12. The predictive validity of common risk assessment tools in men with intellectual disabilities and problematic sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, J Paul; Richards, Deborah; Ranger, Rebekah; Curry, Susan

    2016-10-01

    This CIHR-funded study examined whether certain current risk assessment tools were effective in appraising risk of recidivism in a sample of sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty men with ID who had engaged in problematic sexual behavior (PSB) were followed for an average of 2.5 years. Recidivism was defined and measured as any illegal or problematic behavior, as well as any problematic but not necessarily illegal behavior. At the beginning of the study, each participant was rated on two risk assessment tools: the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG). During each month of follow-up, participants were also rated on the Short-Dynamic Risk Scale (SDRS), an assessment tool intended to measure the risk of future problematic behaviors. Data was analyzed using t-tests, Cohen's d and area under the curve (AUC) to test predictive validity of the assessment tools. Using the AUC, results showed that the VRAG was predictive of sexual (AUC=0.74), sexual and/or violent (AUC=0.71) and of any criminally chargeable event (AUC=0.69). The SORAG was only significantly predictive of sexual events (AUC=0.70) and the SDRS was predictive of violent events (AUC=0.71). The t-test and Cohen's d analyses, which are less robust to deviations from the assumptions of normal and continuous distribution than AUC, did not yield significant results in each category, and therefore, while the results of this study suggest that the VRAG and the SORAG may be effective tools in measuring the short term risk of sexual recidivism; and the VRAG and SDRS may be effective tools in appraising long term risk of sexual and/or violent recidivism in this population, it should be used with caution. Regardless of the assessment tool used, risk assessments should take into account the differences between sex offenders with and without ID to ensure effective measurement. PMID:27372881

  13. Correlates of age at first sexual intercourse in a national sample of young women.

    PubMed

    Bingham, C R; Miller, B C; Adams, G R

    1990-01-01

    A subsample of 814 sexually experienced adolescent females from the 1979 U.S. National Survey of Young Women was analyzed to assess the correlates of age at 1st sexual intercourse. Multiple regression procedures were used to examine sets of variables sequentially. In the hierarchical regression model, the control variables (respondent's age, race, religion, and age at menarche), along with 3 independent variables (household income, ideal age at 1st marriage, and ideal age for 1st birth), predicted age at 1st intercourse. The control variables accounted for a major portion of the variance in the model. Of the controls, chronological age and age at menarche were highly significant across all models tested. PMID:12343095

  14. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  15. A critical assessment of supported decision-making for persons aging with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Nina A; Blumenthal, Jeremy A

    2014-01-01

    Supported decision-making is increasingly being promoted as an alternative to guardianship for persons aging with intellectual disabilities. Proponents argue that supported decision-making, unlike guardianship, empowers persons with disabilities by providing them with help in making their own decisions, rather than simply providing someone else to make decisions for them. To evaluate the empirical support for these claims, we reviewed the evidence base on supported decision-making. Our review found little such empirical research, suggesting that significant further research is warranted to determine whether--and under what conditions--supported decision-making can benefit persons with intellectual disabilities. Indeed, without more empirical evidence as to how supported decision-making functions in practice, it is too early to rule out the possibility it may actually disempower individuals with disabilities by facilitating undue influence by their alleged supporters. We therefore suggest several key areas for future research.

  16. Impact of a multicomponent support services program on informal caregivers of adults aging with disabilities.

    PubMed

    LaVela, Sherri L; Johnson, Brenda W; Miskevics, Scott; Weaver, Frances M

    2012-01-01

    A multicomponent support services program was implemented for veterans aging with disabilities and their informal caregivers (n = 42 dyads). Caregiver outcomes (satisfaction, physical and mental health status, burden, and benefits) were evaluated before and after program use. Caregivers reported significant improvements in mental health post-program. Caregivers who provided care to individuals with impaired physical health experienced meaningful improvements in burden after the support services were rendered. Supporting caregiver health status through such programs is vital to preserve noninstitutional long-term care for persons aging with disabilities, particularly when care is provided over many years to an individual with physical impairments.

  17. Aging with a disability: views from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

    PubMed

    Seelman, K

    1999-01-01

    As I move toward the completion of my term as Director of the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), I see many examples of renewal in our field. For example, disability studies and rehabilitation science are emerging new areas of academic specialization, and we will all be involved in shaping the future of these endeavors. The field is recapturing its identity and relevance locally and internationally. Also, I see a considerable number of challenges that range from acute care in medical rehabilitation to universal design in engineering to overall technology policy. I see a challenge in moving research to practice, a challenge in funding, a challenge in service delivery locations, and a challenge in defining the role of the professional in order to build capacity for the future. I believe that the research field ignores practice at its own peril, including practice in older fields such as vocational rehabilitation and in newer fields such as cognitive science and access engineering. Practice must be determined by today's needs and those we foresee for tomorrow. For the NIDRR family, the Long-Range Plan provides a beacon to direct us into the new millennium.

  18. Determinants of locomotor disability in people aged 55 years and over: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Odding, E; Valkenburg, H A; Stam, H J; Hofman, A

    2001-01-01

    Locomotor disability, as defined by difficulties in activities of daily living related to lower limb function, can be the consequence of diseases and impairments of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, nervous, sensory and musculoskeletal system. We estimated the associations between specific diseases and impairments and locomotor disability, and the proportion of disability attributable to each condition, controlling for age and comorbidity. The Rotterdam Study is a prospective follow-up study among people aged 55 years and over in the general population. Locomotor disability in 1219 men and 1856 women was assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Diseases and impairments were radiological osteoarthritis, pain of the hips and knees, morning stiffness, fractures, hypertension, vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and low vision. Adjusted odds ratios, etiologic and attributable fractions were calculated for locomotor disability. The occurrence of locomotor disability can partly be ascribed to joint pain, COPD, morning stiffness, diabetes and heart failure in both men and women. In addition in women osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low vision, fractures, stroke and Parkinson's disease are significant etiologic fractions. In men with morning stiffness, joint pain, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and COPD a significant proportion of their disability is attributable to this impairment. In women this was the case for Parkinson's disease, morning stiffness, low vision, heart failure, joint pain, diabetes, radiological osteoarthritis, stroke, COPD, osteoporosis, and fractures of the lower limbs, in that order. We conclude that locomotor complaints, heart failure, COPD and diabetes mellitus contribute considerably to locomotor disability in non-institutionalized elderly people. PMID:12380718

  19. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  20. Sexual selection, multiple male ornaments, and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat.

    PubMed

    Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Taff, Conor C; Morin, Douglas F; Dunn, Peter O; Whittingham, Linda A; Tsang, Susan M

    2010-04-01

    In many animals, sexual selection has resulted in complex signaling systems in which males advertise aspects of their phenotypic or genetic quality through elaborate ornamentation and display behaviors. Different ornaments might convey different information or be directed at different receivers, but they might also be redundant signals of quality that function reliably at different times (ages) or in different contexts. We explored sexual selection and age- and condition-dependent signaling in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), a sexually dichromatic warbler with two prominent plumage ornaments--a melanin-based, black facial "mask" and carotenoid-based, UV-yellow "bib." In a three-year study, variance among males in the number of social (M(w)) and extra-pair (M(e)) mates generated strong sexual selection on mask and bib attributes. Some traits (mask size, bib yellow brightness) were correlated with male age and did not experience selection beyond age-related increases in M(w) and M(e). Other traits showed age-specific (bib size) or age-reversed (ultraviolet brightness) patterns of selection that paralleled changes in the information-content of each ornament. The components of male fitness generating selection in young versus old males were distinct, reflecting different sources of variation in male fertilization success. Age- and context-dependent changes in the strength, direction, and target of selection may help explain the maintenance of multiple ornaments in this and other species.

  1. Children's Sexual Thinking: A Comparative Study of Children Aged 5 to 15 Years in Australia, North America, Britain and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ronald; Goldman, Juliette

    The purpose of this cross-national descriptive study is to measure the extent of children's sexual knowledge and sexual understanding at various ages and to identify what processes of thought children use in trying to explain biological functions and the phenomena of their own bodies as they grow and change. Sexual thinking is defined as thinking…

  2. Gamete Recognition and Complementary Haplotypes in Sexual Penna Ageing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    In simulations of sexual reproduction with diploid individuals, we introduce female haploid gametes that recognize one specific allele of the genomes as a marker of the male haploid gametes. They fuse to zygotes preferably with male gametes having a different marker than their own. This gamete recognition enhances the advantage of complementary bit-strings in the simulated diploid individuals, at low recombination rates. Thus with rare recombinations the bit-strings evolve to be complementary; with recombination rates above approximately 0.1 they instead evolve under Darwinian purification selection, with few bits mutated.

  3. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  4. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  5. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as Biomarkers of Premature Aging in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2012-01-01

    The decline in cognitive ability and physical performance in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is accompanied by less participation in social activities and a sedentary lifestyle; however the pathogenesis is not clear yet. It was recently suggested that chronic disease, adverse drug reactions, and aging create a cascade of events…

  6. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  7. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  8. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  9. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  10. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  11. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  12. Promoting Positive Attitudes of Kindergarten-Age Children toward People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Odom, Samuel L.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effects of contact, books, and discussions on attitudes of kindergarten-age children (N=46) toward people with disabilities. At posttest, significant gains in acceptance were found only in a high-contact group who participated in a program designed to promote acceptance through storytime at school and home, structured play,…

  13. Factors Influencing the Self-Determination of Transition-Age Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Melinda R.; Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Glaeser, Barbara C.

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the contributions of self-determination to improved outcomes for transition-age youth with disabilities, researchers are increasingly directing their efforts toward identifying factors associated with (a) these students' acquisition of skills that enhance self-determination and (b) educators' efforts to promote opportunities to be…

  14. Does Providing Transition Services by Age 14 Produce Better Vocational Outcomes for Students with Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert; Burgess, Sloane; Bedesem, Peña L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the potential impact providing transition services early had on the vocational outcomes achieved by young adults with intellectual disability. Two groups were compared: 7,520 individuals from states requiring transition services be addressed in individualized educational programs (IEPs) by age 14 and 7,520 individuals from…

  15. Self-Determination among Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability: Parent Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…

  16. The Housing and Support Needs of People with an Intellectual Disability into Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…

  17. Effects of Assistive Technology on Functional Decline in People Aging with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dorothy J.; Mitchell, Judith M.; Kemp, Bryan J.; Adkins, Rodney H.; Mann, William

    2009-01-01

    This study used a randomized control group design to investigate the impact of an assistive technology and home modification intervention on function for individuals who are aging with a disability. There were 91 participants with polio, rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, stroke, and other impairments. Outcome data were…

  18. Communication-Based Assessment of Developmental Age for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Cress, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared a multiple-domain strategy for assessing developmental age of young children with developmental disabilities who were at risk for long-term reliance on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with a communication-based strategy composed of receptive language and communication indices that may…

  19. Unique and Universal Barriers: Hospice Care for Aging Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sandra L.; Helm, David T.; Woodman, Ashley C.

    2012-01-01

    As life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) has increased, there has been a concurrent increase in age-related illnesses and conditions similar to that of the general population. These circumstances result in people with ID dying from typical life-ending conditions, and thus, they require similar end-of-life services such as…

  20. Validating Functional Measures of Physical Ability for Aging People with Intellectual Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Joyce R.; Costello, Ellen; Birkmeier, Marisa C.; Richards, Maggie; Alexander, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the aging population without intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), few standardized performance measures exist to assess physical function and risk for adverse outcomes such as nonfatal, unintentional injuries. We modified 3 selected standardized performance tools in the areas of general fitness (2-Minute Walk Test), balance…

  1. Brief Report: State of the Science Symposium on Aging and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Janicki, Matthew P.; Marks, Beth; Hammel, Joy; Factor, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of the "2007 State of the Science Symposium on Aging with Developmental Disabilities: Charting Lifespan Trajectories and Supportive Environments for Healthy Community Living" (held in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.) was to increase the understanding and definition of how to improve the health, psychosocial well-being, and community…

  2. Age at Menarche and Premenstrual Syndrome in Adolescent Girls with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris

    2010-01-01

    The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…

  3. Active Aging for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: Meaningful Community Participation through Employment, Retirement, Service, and Volunteerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Hall, Allison Cohen; Quinlan, Jerrilyn; Jockell, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    As individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities become more engaged in community employment, it will be critical to consider how their employment experience changes as they age. Similar to other seniors, individuals will need to consider whether they want to maintain their employment, reduce their work commitment, or retire…

  4. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes.

  5. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes. PMID:26548377

  6. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual. 4.17 Section 4.17 Pensions, Bonuses... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the...

  7. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual. 4.17 Section 4.17 Pensions, Bonuses... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the...

  8. Effects of Age, Intelligence and Executive Control Function on Saccadic Reaction Time in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    The current research aimed to clarify the influence of age, intelligence and executive control function on the central tendency and intraindividual variability of saccadic reaction time in persons with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 44 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 13 and 57 years whose IQs were between 14 and…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Sexual Entitlement and Self-Efficacy among Young Women and Men: Gender Differences and Associations with Age and Sexual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt-Stubbs, Gillian; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Mastro, Shawna; Boislard, Marie-Aude

    2016-01-01

    Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1), young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate. PMID:26797642

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Sexual Entitlement and Self-Efficacy among Young Women and Men: Gender Differences and Associations with Age and Sexual Experience.

    PubMed

    Hewitt-Stubbs, Gillian; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Mastro, Shawna; Boislard, Marie-Aude

    2016-01-01

    Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17-25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1), young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate. PMID:26797642

  11. Correlates of age at onset of sexual intercourse in African American adolescents living in urban public housing.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Lombe, Margaret; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Stokes, Charu

    2010-11-01

    Research has found the early onset of sexual activity (having sexual intercourse before age 13) among adolescents to be related to teen pregnancy and a range of health-risk behaviors and higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. These findings are most prevalent in urban African American adolescents. Using a sample of 299 sexually active African American adolescents living in public housing developments in a large Northeast and a large Mid-Atlantic city, this study assesses the influence of family, peers, and the individual on the age of onset of sexual intercourse. All participants completed surveys in their housing developments. Results indicate an average age of onset of 14. Males reported a significantly younger age of onset and more sexual partners than females. Exposure to delinquent peers and self-efficacy were significant predictors of age of onset. Implications for practice are discussed.

  12. Aging and Developmental Disabilities: Perspectives from Nine Countries. Monograph #52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Steve, Ed.

    This monograph presents nine author-contributed papers which look at issues of aging and mental retardation from the perspectives of nine nations: Australia (by Trevor R. Parmenter), Great Britain (by Steve Moss), Canada (by Gerrit Groeneweg), Germany (by Gottfried Adam), Hong Kong (by John W. L. Tse), Indonesia (by D. Lianta), Japan (by Takeo…

  13. Effect of age-at-release on long term sexual re-offense rates in civilly committed sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Prentky, Robert Alan; Lee, Austin F S

    2007-03-01

    A cohort of 136 rapists and 115 child molesters civilly committed to a prison in Massachusetts and followed for 25 years (see Prentky, Lee, Knight, & Cerce, 1997) was examined for the effect of age at time of release on sexual recidivism. The present study (1) examined the recidivism rates for each of five age-at-release groups, separately for rapists and child molesters, (2) tested the fit of linear and quadratic models for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25-year windows using Cox regression analysis, (3) presented the predicted failure rates for rapists (up to five years post-release) and child molesters (out 21 years post-release), and (4) provided a computational formula for estimating the sexual recidivism rate given an individual's age and number of years post-release. For rapists, a linear model extending 5 years best captured our data (LR=5.62, p<.02). Going out any further than 5 years did not enhance the predictive efficacy of the model. By contrast, a quadratic model extending the full duration of the study (25 years) provided the best fit (LR=6.30, p<.04) for child molesters. Our data supported the general conclusion that risk of sexual recidivism diminishes as a function of increasing age at time of release for rapists. We found marked differences, however, in the re-offense patterns of rapists and child molesters, with the latter group evidencing a distinct quadratic, rather than linear, pattern. Since these findings derive from a population screened for civil commitment by virtue of their presumptive dangerousness, they may not be generalizable to samples of sex offenders drawn from the general prison population. PMID:17334931

  14. Effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual functioning in aging men: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J; Nakhai-Pour, H R; Grobbee, D E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Serum testosterone levels decline significantly with aging and this has been associated with reduced sexual function. We have conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual function in 237 elderly men with a testosterone level <13.7 nmol l(-1). Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral testosterone undecanoate or a placebo for 6 months. A total of 207 men completed the study. After treatment, there were no differences in scores on sexual function between the groups. Subanalysis showed that although a baseline testosterone level in the lowest tertile was associated with significantly lower scores for sexual fantasies, desire of sexual contact and frequency of sexual contact, supplementation of testosterone did not result in improvement on any of these items in this group. In conclusion, the findings do not support the view that testosterone undecanoate supplementation for 6 months to elderly men with low-normal testosterone concentrations favorably affects sexual function. PMID:19225466

  15. Black-white differences in risk of becoming disabled and recovering from disability in old age: a longitudinal analysis of two EPESE populations.

    PubMed

    Mendes de Leon, C F; Beckett, L A; Fillenbaum, G G; Brock, D B; Branch, L G; Evans, D A; Berkman, L F

    1997-03-15

    This study compared the odds of becoming disabled and recovering from disability among blacks and whites aged 65 years and over in two sites of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) project. The authors examined the influence of mortality differences, socioeconomic status, and health-related factors on racial differences in risk of disability and recovery. A Markov model was employed using nine waves of data from the New Haven, Connecticut, site (529 blacks, 2,219 whites) and seven waves of the North Carolina (Piedmont) site (2,260 blacks, 1,876 whites), collected between 1982 and 1992. Blacks below age 75 years had an increased risk of developing disability relative to whites in New Haven (odds ratio (OR) at age 65 years = 3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.13-5.22) as well as in North Carolina (OR at age 65 years = 1.58, 95% CI 1.25-1.99). This excess risk diminished with increasing age, and crossed over in New Haven (OR at age 85 years = 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.95), but not in North Carolina (OR at age 85 years = 1.22, 95% CI 0.98-1.51). Adjustment for socioeconomic and health-related factors only partially reduced the excess disability risk among blacks below age 75 years in New Haven, but eliminated the difference in disability risk between blacks and whites in North Carolina. Blacks below age 75 years also had higher mortality risks at both sites. There were no consistent racial differences in recovery from disability.

  16. Bespoke program design for school-aged therapy disability service delivery.

    PubMed

    Weatherill, Pamela; Bahn, Susanne; Cooper, Trudi

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the evaluation of a school-aged therapy service for children with disabilities in Western Australia to investigate models of service delivery. The current literature on family-centered practice, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches, and 4 models of service are reviewed. The models include the life needs model, the relational goal-orientated model of optimal service delivery to children and families, the quality of life model, and the collaborative model of service delivery. Analysis of the data is presented together with a bespoke model of service delivery for children with disabilities, arguing that local contexts benefit from custom-made service design.

  17. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  18. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  19. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L.; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001–2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9–10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  20. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Hunt, John; Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Jennions, Michael D; Brooks, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females) were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  1. The exclusion of intimacy in the sexuality of the contemporary college-age population.

    PubMed

    Cobliner, W G

    1988-01-01

    The sexual mores of the contemporary college population have undergone some fundamental changes in the past twenty-five years. Converging evidence from a variety of reliable sources obtained from a wide range of seemingly adjusted subjects, including personal interviews by the author, indicates that sexual involvement between partners of the opposite sex has been sporadic, episodic, without commitment, and accompanied by a deliberate effort of both partners to suppress tender, romantic feelings and intimacy. The sources of this situation are linked to changes in five domains: the ethos, the ascent of women, advances in contraceptive methods, residential mobility, and changes in child-rearing patterns. This premeditated restraint of affect has led to a noticeable diminishment of gratification derived from sexual union. It has contributed to sexual apathy, to discord, and a substantial rise in the incidence of two types of psychiatric disturbance--depersonalization and derealization. Sexual union, instead of enhancing sociability, acts as a barrier and inhibitor of enduring attachment and a sense of continuity. The repercussions on the social fabric are unexplored and merit systematic study. It is suggested that the prevailing sexual conventions of college-age youth clash with the fundamental urge to form human attachments; diminish and often shut out the experience of passion in sexual unions; and bring about inner turmoil that weakens self-confidence. As a result, it is concluded that the prevailing college-age mores are maladaptive on the individual as well as the interpersonal level. In due time, they will be replaced by more fitting conventions. This process of replacement can be hastened by an appropriate educational intervention involving younger age groups.

  2. Attributions of Blame and Credibility in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Victim Disability, Victim Resistance and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Titterington, Leigh; Davies, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects victim disability (physical vs. intellectual vs. none), victim resistance (physical vs. verbal vs. none) and respondent gender (male vs. female) have on attributions of blame and credibility in a hypothetical case of child sexual abuse. Three hundred and thirty-five respondents read a fictional police statement…

  3. Beliefs of Professional and Family Caregivers about the Sexuality of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Examining Beliefs Using a Q-Methodology Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Randel D.; Pirtle, Trace

    2008-01-01

    This investigation described the perceptions of involved adults concerning the sexuality of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Participants completed a Q-sort with a concourse of 36 items. Analysis produced four different belief systems: advocates, supporters, regulators, and humanists. These belief systems describe the respondents' views…

  4. Complainants With Learning Disabilities In Sexual Abuse Cases: A 10-Year Review Of A Psycho-Legal Project In Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Beverley Jo; Roux, Amanda Jane

    2005-01-01

    We describe a project established in 1990 to assist complainants with learning disabilities in sexual assault cases in Cape Town, South Africa. Complainants are prepared for court and psychologists advise investigating officers and prosecutors, and provide expert testimony. There has been an enormous increase in the utilization of the project by…

  5. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  6. HIV Risk Behavior of Runaway Youth in San Francisco: Age of Onset and Relation to Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Martha W.; McFarland, William; Kellogg, Timothy; Baxter, Michael; Katz, Mitchell H.; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    Examined HIV risk behaviors among runaway youth by age at onset and sexual orientation. Adolescents age 12-21 years seeking health care at two clinics completed interviews and blood testing. Gay/lesbian/bisexual youth reported higher levels and earlier onset of sexual and drug-using behavior than heterosexual youth and were at exceptionally high…

  7. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  8. [The ReWiKs project : Current results of research into participation opportunities for adults with disabilities in the area of sexual self-determination].

    PubMed

    Ortland, Barbara; Jennessen, Sven; Römisch, Kathrin; Kusber-Merkens, Dorothea; Reichert, Leonie; Arlabosse, Anneke

    2016-09-01

    Several studies point to various barriers in achieving sexual self-determination for people with disabilities as well as a high degree of thematic uncertainty among staff in residential homes. In addition, women with disabilities and people in institutions are especially at risk in a particular way, to be victims of sexual violence. The ReWiKs project develops, based on evaluated guidelines for sexual self-determination, materials in order to reflect the institutional handling of the subject. Training modules and recommendations are also developed. In addition, extracts of materials are created in simple language. All materials are evaluated before their publication in an intensive theory-practice dialogue. PMID:27507039

  9. [The ReWiKs project : Current results of research into participation opportunities for adults with disabilities in the area of sexual self-determination].

    PubMed

    Ortland, Barbara; Jennessen, Sven; Römisch, Kathrin; Kusber-Merkens, Dorothea; Reichert, Leonie; Arlabosse, Anneke

    2016-09-01

    Several studies point to various barriers in achieving sexual self-determination for people with disabilities as well as a high degree of thematic uncertainty among staff in residential homes. In addition, women with disabilities and people in institutions are especially at risk in a particular way, to be victims of sexual violence. The ReWiKs project develops, based on evaluated guidelines for sexual self-determination, materials in order to reflect the institutional handling of the subject. Training modules and recommendations are also developed. In addition, extracts of materials are created in simple language. All materials are evaluated before their publication in an intensive theory-practice dialogue.

  10. Can People With Intellectual Disability Resist Implications of Fault When Police Question Their Allegations of Sexual Assault and Rape?

    PubMed

    Antaki, Charles; Richardson, Emma; Stokoe, Elizabeth; Willott, Sara

    2015-10-01

    When people alleging sexual assault are interviewed by police, their accounts are tested to see if they would stand up in court. Some tests are in the form of tendentious questions carrying implications (e.g., that the sex was consensual) damaging to the complainant's allegation. In a qualitative analysis of 19 English police interviews with people with intellectual disability (ID) defined in a variety of ways, we show how people with ID deal with the pragmatic complexity of such tendentious questions. We give examples in which the complainants detect and resist the questions' damaging implications; but we focus on occasions when the complainants do not do so. We discuss the use of tendentious questions in the light of national United Kingdom guidelines on the treatment of vulnerable witnesses. PMID:26458170

  11. Middle-Aged and Mobility-Limited: Prevalence of Disability and Symptom Attributions in a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, Elizabeth A; Huppert, Felicia A; Guralnik, Jack M; Melzer, David

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb mobility disabilities are well understood in older people, but the causes in middle age have attracted little attention. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of mobility disabilities among noninstitutionalized adults in England and to compare the disabling symptoms reported by middle-aged and older people. DESIGN Cross-sectional data from the 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Mobility disability was identified by level of reported difficulty walking a quarter mile. PARTICIPANTS Eleven thousand two hundred sixteen respondents aged 50 years and older living in private households in 2002. RESULTS The prevalence of difficulty walking a quarter mile increases sharply with age, but even in the middle-aged (50 to 64 years age-group) 18% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16% to 19%) of men and 19% (95% CI: 17% to 20%) of women reported some degree of difficulty. Of the 16 main symptoms reported as causing mobility disability in middle age, 2 dominated: pain in the leg or the foot (43%; 95% CI: 40% to 46%) and shortness of breath/dyspnea (21%; 95% CI: 18% to 23%). Fatigue or tiredness, and stability problems were cited by only 5% and 6%, respectively. These proportions were slightly different from those in the 65 to 79-year age group: 40%, 23%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Mobility (walking) disabilities in the middle-aged are relatively common. The symptoms reported as causes in this age group differ little from those reported by older groups, and are dominated by lower limb pain and shortness of breath. More clinical attention paid to disabling symptoms may lead to disability reductions in later life. PMID:16970558

  12. 'Comfortable in my own skin': a new form of sexual freedom for ageing baby boomers.

    PubMed

    Rowntree, Margaret R

    2014-12-01

    'Freedom of sexual expression' is a slogan that has long been synonymous with the generation known as the baby boomers during the 1960s and 1970s. But does this catchphrase still have currency for the men and women in this cohort who are mostly now over the age of fifty? This paper explores the question by reporting on qualitative data from a multi-method Australian study about the influence of growing older on baby boomers' sexual expression. The sample comprised ten interview participants and fifty-seven Internet survey respondents, aged between 50 and 70 years. Following a theoretical perspective known as the sociology of emotions, the analysis of data reveals that baby boomers' emotional experiences range from constraining to liberating sexual expression, to a paradoxical combination of both. The article argues that while sexual freedom is still an important concept to baby boomers, there are new emotional dimensions to its expression, particularly in the form of comfort and confidence, that come with age.

  13. Future Need of Ageing People with an Intellectual Disability in the Republic of Ireland: Lessons Learned from the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doody, Catriona M.; Markey, Kathleen; Doody, Owen

    2013-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability are living longer, and the numbers continue to rise. Ireland has and is seeing a dramatic change in the age pro?le of clients and the support services they require. While Ireland had speci?cally trained nurses in intellectual disability, they predominately work in residential settings. This can be seen as…

  14. A Rising Tide: The Increasing Age and Psychiatric Length of Stay for Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, D.; Keown, P.; Scott, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether the substantial decline in number and duration of admissions for patients with intellectual disability (ID) have occurred uniformly over time with respect to age, gender, severity of disability, legal status and location of treatment. Method: A retrospective analysis of NHS (National Health Service) admissions for…

  15. Known for My Strengths: Positive Traits of Transition-Age Youth With Intellectual Disability and/or Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Boehm, Thomas L.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Annandale, Naomi H.; Taylor, Courtney E.; Loock, Aimee K.; Liu, Rosemary Y.

    2015-01-01

    Can young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities be known for their strengths? This mixed-method study explored the strengths of 427 youth and young adults with intellectual disability and/or autism (ages 13-21) from the vantage point of their parents. Using the Assessment Scale for Positive Character Traits-Developmental…

  16. Staff Characteristics and Attitudes towards the Sexuality of People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney-Tavares, Rebecca; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The identification of individual staff characteristics that have a relationship with specific attitudes of staff caring for people with intellectual disability (ID) may enable targeted training and better support. Method: Sixty-six participants from services for people with ID in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, completed a survey,…

  17. Treatment of Intellectually Disabled Individuals Who Have Committed Sexual Offences: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Daniel T.

    2004-01-01

    The development of comprehensive treatment services for intellectually disabled sex offenders has been slow in comparison with mainstream sex offender treatment services, which have now achieved Home Office accreditation within the National Probation Service. The author discusses some of the reasons for this failure to keep pace, focusing on the…

  18. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  19. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  20. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg−1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  1. Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life

    PubMed Central

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. Methods A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Results Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age. Conclusion Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers. PMID:25213099

  2. The enduring effect of education-socioeconomic differences in disability trajectories from age 85 years in the Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Andrew; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel; Kirkwood, Thomas B.L.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about disability progression in very old age despite this being vital for care planning. We investigate whether distinct trajectories of disability are evident from age 85 to 90 and their association with socio-economic status (SES). Methods The Newcastle 85+ Study recruited people born in 1921 through participating general practices in Newcastle and North Tyneside. Participants underwent a health assessment (HA) at baseline, 18, 36 and 60 months and a GP record review (GPRR) at baseline, 36 and 60 months. Disability was measured via difficulty in 17 Activities of Daily Living. Trajectory identification was assessed by gender stratified, mortality adjusted, group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) and the impact of life-course SES (level of education; occupational class; deprivation) on trajectory membership evaluated (adjusting for confounding variables). Results 851 participants agreed to HA and GPRR, 840 (98.7%) with complete disability data. Four distinct trajectories were evident for both sexes. A disability-free trajectory between age 85 and 90 was identified in men only (9% of the sample). The most disabled trajectories had severe disability at age 85 progressing to profound disability by age 90. After adjusting for confounders education remained significant; men and women with most education being less likely to be in the most disabled trajectory (Men: OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98; women: OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.42–0.83). Conclusion Distinct disability trajectories are evident in the very old and these are influenced by education, suggesting SES disadvantages cumulate throughout the life-course to create health and mortality inequalities later. PMID:25747850

  3. Long-term care of the aging population with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nae-Hwa; Hoyek, Georges El; Chau, Diane

    2011-05-01

    The aging population with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) deserves appropriate health care and social support. This population poses unique medical and social challenges to the multidisciplinary team that provides care. In the past, long-term care (LTC) facilities played an essential role in the livelihood of this population. The likelihood that the geriatric LTC system must prepare for adequately caring for this population is high. This article conveys the need to prepare for the inclusion of the growing aging population with I/DD into long-term care with the general elderly population in the near future.

  4. Accelerating the translation of research into practice in long term services and supports: a critical need for federal infrastructure at the nexus of aging and disability.

    PubMed

    Washko, Michelle M; Campbell, Margaret; Tilly, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The nexus of aging and disability, characterized by the phenomenon of aging with a disability, will become more visible as the population ages and the number of people with disabilities surviving to midlife increases. This article addresses 3 interrelated issues critical to the fields of aging and disability: increasing demand for community-based long-term services and supports, a paucity of evidence-based programs demonstrating effectiveness in facilitating independence for those aging with a disability, and lack of a federal infrastructure to support coordinated investments in research-to-practice for this population. Suggestions for federal interagency collaborations are given, along with roles for key stakeholders.

  5. Genitourinary disorders of old age: therapeutic considerations including counseling for sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Finkle, A L

    1978-10-01

    Genitourinary tissues undergo physical changes with advancing age, due partly to hormonal alterations. However, the greatest influence on continuing sexual function during aging is emotional and is directly related to the psychologic history of the individual patient. The interested professional can help his patient substantially by simply taking time to listen, a process which permits identification of any psychogenic basis for the sexual dysfunction. The entire approach and method of counseling presuppose that psychogenic impotence is the most common form of the problem. This preliminary effort can do no harm. Should it fail, the patient can be referred to other consultants who use more protracted or sophisticated modalities. With the elderly, the clinician can advise patients to share interpersonal warmth and to enjoy the satisfaction of body contact at any age at which this desire and capacity persist. To the aging person, the totality of sexual meaning is more significant than performance or technique. The sympathetic counselor who renders supportive reassurance to the patient usually can expect beneficial results. PMID:701694

  6. Genitourinary disorders of old age: therapeutic considerations including counseling for sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Finkle, A L

    1978-10-01

    Genitourinary tissues undergo physical changes with advancing age, due partly to hormonal alterations. However, the greatest influence on continuing sexual function during aging is emotional and is directly related to the psychologic history of the individual patient. The interested professional can help his patient substantially by simply taking time to listen, a process which permits identification of any psychogenic basis for the sexual dysfunction. The entire approach and method of counseling presuppose that psychogenic impotence is the most common form of the problem. This preliminary effort can do no harm. Should it fail, the patient can be referred to other consultants who use more protracted or sophisticated modalities. With the elderly, the clinician can advise patients to share interpersonal warmth and to enjoy the satisfaction of body contact at any age at which this desire and capacity persist. To the aging person, the totality of sexual meaning is more significant than performance or technique. The sympathetic counselor who renders supportive reassurance to the patient usually can expect beneficial results.

  7. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  8. [Sociocultural paradigm, integration and sexual education in people with intellectual disability].

    PubMed

    Abreu Guerra, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on the approach of the Sociocultural paradigm of L.S.Vigotsky, consider that this allows a adecuadal conceptual base for an understanding of the process of Integration of the people with mental incapacity approaching them the social life. Explicit the necessity to include within this integrative process the Education of the Sexuality from a perspective of the supports and the conceptions of Vigotsky, mainly in referred to the call the Zone of potential Development.

  9. Ten Years of Longitudinal Research on U.S. Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Developmental Correlates of Sexual Intercourse, and the Importance of Age, Gender and Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Helfand, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We integrated findings from 35 recent, longitudinal studies of the onset of heterosexual intercourse. Correlates of adolescent sexual intercourse onset, whether in early (before age 16) or middle (ages 16-18) adolescence, included living with other than two biological parents, being less monitored by parents, having more advanced physical maturity…

  10. Cumulative financial stress and strain in palliative radiation outpatients: The role of age and disability

    PubMed Central

    FRANCOEUR, RICHARD BENOIT

    2007-01-01

    Objective financial stress, which incorporates all medical and non-medical financial stressors by households, shapes patients’ subjective perceptions of financial strain. This study addresses whether patient age and disability days reveal patients to have different perceptions of financial strain even when their households incur the same level of financial stress. Among patients with the same level of household financial stress, older patients perceived less financial strain from difficulty paying bills than younger patients. However, among patients reporting above-average disability days, older patients also perceived more financial strain than younger patients about the adequacy of their health insurance and finances in the future. Thus, financial strain measures that focus on projected health needs should supplement those that describe current household circumstances to improve screenings of older patients who are under-prescribed, or unable to adhere to, a regimen for all necessary health care. PMID:16120546

  11. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  12. Nonverbal Visual Short-Term Memory as a Function of Age and Dimensionality in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee

    Evaluated with two age groups (mean age 8.1 years or 10.6 years) totaling 22 learning disabled children was whether there is an age related increase in recognition for visual nonverbal short term memory (STM) and the effects on STM of stimulus dimensionality, primacy, recency, and second choice responses. A serial recognition task was used to…

  13. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights,…

  14. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25542523

  16. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: biological, social, cultural, and political influences on age at first sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.

  17. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained.

  18. The occurrence of disability and early old-age pensions among members of the carpenters and cabinet makers' trade union.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, S; Olsen, J

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of receiving an early retirement pension among a group of skilled workers and to examine the pattern of the major categories of diagnoses for which pensions were awarded. During the period April 1, 1971 to March 31, 1976, 589 union members were awarded disability pensions and 361 were awarded early old-age pensions. The incidence density of disability pensions is very low among young union members but is observed to increase with age. The Standard Disability Ratio also increases with age, indicating that the age-specific disability pensioning rate increases more rapidly among union members than among the standard population of all men in Denmark. The low rate of pensioning observed among young union members is probably due to healthy worker selection. Low Standard Disability Ratios are found for early old-age pensioners when a standard population of all men in Denmark is used. An examination was made of the diagnoses for which disability pensions were awarded in the two largest occupational sub-groups of the union, cabinet makers and carpenters. Carpenters were found to have high Standard Proportional Ratio for the category "accidents" while cabinet makers have high ratio for the category "diseases of the nervous system".

  19. Trajectories of Unhealthy Behaviors in Midlife and Risk of Disability at Older Ages in the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Dugravot, Aline; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the evidence on the association between unhealthy behaviors and disability comes from studies in the elderly, where reverse causation and selection bias may distort associations; thus, studies based on midlife trajectories of health behaviors are needed. We examined the association of trajectories of four health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, smoking, alcohol), starting in midlife and over 20 years, with subsequent disability risk in early old age (range = 54–84 years) in the Whitehall II cohort study. Methods: Disability was assessed three times over 3 years. A hierarchical disability indicator was constructed; participants were considered disabled if they reported difficulties with mobility and instrumental activities of daily living or with mobility and instrumental and basic activities of daily living. Behavior trajectories were defined using group-based trajectory models. Multivariable generalized estimating equations logistic models were used to examine their independent associations with disability. Results: Of 6,825 participants, 19.2% reported being disabled at least once. In mutually adjusted models, participants with persistent inactivity or declining physical activity, recent ex- or current smokers, and persistent/recent abstainers or persistent heavy drinkers had a higher disability risk, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with disability. Disability risk increased progressively with the number of unhealthy behavior trajectories: the odds ratio of disability for 2–3 unhealthy trajectories was 2.69 (95% confidence interval = 2.26–3.19); these associations remained after adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavior trajectories in midlife are associated with greater disability risk later in life. PMID:27034508

  20. Impediments to community-based care for people ageing with intellectual disability in rural New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Edwards, Helen

    2014-11-01

    The emerging phenomenon of ageing with an intellectual disability has become subject to an increasing research focus in recent years. However, there remains little knowledge regarding the specific impediments that community workers face in supporting this cohort. The aims of the current study were to identify the major factors that, direct care staff believe, have most impact upon individuals ageing with an intellectual disability in the community. A three-round Delphi project was conducted across rural areas of New South Wales in Australia with 31 disability support workers to gain their perspectives on the main impediments facing a person ageing with intellectual disability. The 2010 study identified that the issue of ageing with an intellectual disability was presenting significant problems for community-based service delivery to this group of people. The panel identified 25 different impediments to the provision of support. A thematic analysis of the items indicated three main themes of 'funding', 'training' and 'access to services'. By identifying these impediments to supporting people ageing with an intellectual disability in the community, both services and government funding bodies have the ability to plan to overcome both current and future problem areas. This identification of impediments may facilitate individuals to receive more appropriate assistance, which in turn may lead to an improved quality of life and maintenance of a community-based placement rather than premature admission to the congregate-care system. This study is particularly timely, given that Australia is in the midst of implementing a National Disability Insurance Scheme, and is an opportunity for all levels of government to agree on the mechanisms to appropriately assist individuals with an intellectual disability to continue to be supported in the community as they age.

  1. Impediments to community-based care for people ageing with intellectual disability in rural New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Edwards, Helen

    2014-11-01

    The emerging phenomenon of ageing with an intellectual disability has become subject to an increasing research focus in recent years. However, there remains little knowledge regarding the specific impediments that community workers face in supporting this cohort. The aims of the current study were to identify the major factors that, direct care staff believe, have most impact upon individuals ageing with an intellectual disability in the community. A three-round Delphi project was conducted across rural areas of New South Wales in Australia with 31 disability support workers to gain their perspectives on the main impediments facing a person ageing with intellectual disability. The 2010 study identified that the issue of ageing with an intellectual disability was presenting significant problems for community-based service delivery to this group of people. The panel identified 25 different impediments to the provision of support. A thematic analysis of the items indicated three main themes of 'funding', 'training' and 'access to services'. By identifying these impediments to supporting people ageing with an intellectual disability in the community, both services and government funding bodies have the ability to plan to overcome both current and future problem areas. This identification of impediments may facilitate individuals to receive more appropriate assistance, which in turn may lead to an improved quality of life and maintenance of a community-based placement rather than premature admission to the congregate-care system. This study is particularly timely, given that Australia is in the midst of implementing a National Disability Insurance Scheme, and is an opportunity for all levels of government to agree on the mechanisms to appropriately assist individuals with an intellectual disability to continue to be supported in the community as they age. PMID:25252081

  2. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children With Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, N = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  3. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ...

  4. Sexual rest and post-meiotic sperm ageing in house mice.

    PubMed

    Firman, R C; Young, F J; Rowe, D C; Duong, H T; Gasparini, C

    2015-07-01

    Fertilization by aged sperm can result in adverse fitness consequences for both males and females. Sperm storage during male sexual rest could provide an environment for post-meiotic sperm senescence causing a deterioration in the quality of stored sperm, possibly impacting on both sperm performance (e.g. swimming ability) and DNA quality. Here, we compared the proportion of sperm with fragmented DNA, an indicator of structural damage of DNA within the sperm cell, among males that had been sexually rested for approximately 2 months, to that of males that had mated recently. We found no evidence of intra-epididymal sperm DNA damage or any impairment in sperm performance, and consequently no evidence of post-meiotic sperm senescence. Our results suggest that male house mice are likely to possess mechanisms that function to ensure that their sperm reserves remain stocked with 'young', viable sperm during periods of sexual inactivity. We also discuss the possibility that our experimental design leads to no difference in the age of sperm among males from the two mating treatments. Post-meiotic sperm senescence is especially relevant under sperm competition. Thus, we sourced mice from populations that differed in their levels of post-copulatory sexual selection, enabling us to gain insight into how selection for higher sperm production influences the rate of sperm ageing and levels of DNA fragmentation. We found that males from the population that produced the highest number of sperm also had the smallest proportion of DNA-fragmented sperm and discuss this outcome in relation to selection acting upon males to ensure that they produce ejaculates with high-quality sperm that are successful in achieving fertilizations under competitive conditions. PMID:26012513

  5. Effects of assistive technology on functional decline in people aging with a disability.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dorothy J; Mitchell, Judith M; Kemp, Bryan J; Adkins, Rodney H; Mann, William

    2009-01-01

    This study used a randomized control group design to investigate the impact of an assistive technology and home modification intervention on function for individuals who are aging with a disability. There were 91 participants with polio, rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, stroke, and other impairments. Outcome data were collected at 12 and 24 months through in-home interviews using the Older Americans Resources and Services Instrument (OARS) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and through monthly telephone contact on the hours of in-home care, hospitalizations, and acquisition of AT. The treatment group received an in-home evaluation of their equipment and home modification needs. All recommended AT and home modifications were provided and paid for in full or in part by the study. The control group received the standard community-available health care. A significant "group by time" interaction for the FIM suggested a slower decline in function for the treatment group over 2 years. Further analyses found that the treatment group was more likely to use equipment to maintain independence vs. personal assistance. This study supports the value of assistive technology for adults aging with a disability and suggests that it be provided earlier in the aging process. PMID:20066887

  6. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. PMID:27242369

  7. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  8. The generational effect on age disparate partnerships and the risk for human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections acquisition.

    PubMed

    Street, Renée A; Reddy, Tarylee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-08-01

    In South Africa, a large proportion of young women are in age disparate relationships, which is believed to be a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this study was to determine the generational effect of age disparity on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence. Socio-demographic and behavioural data were collected from women, aged 16 and older, who were followed for up to 24 months. Women who reported having a steady sexual partner older than themselves were categorised into: (1) non-age disparate partnerships (age difference between partners was 0-4 years); (2) intra-generational age disparate partnerships (5-9 year age gap between sexual partners); and (3) inter-generational age disparate partnerships (age gap of 10 years or more between sexual partners). Of the 1355 women included in the analysis, 759, 429 and 167 were in non-age disparate, intra-generational age disparate and inter-generational age disparate partnerships, respectively. Strong predictors of inter-generational age disparate partnerships include age, marital status and concurrency of sexual partners. No significant relationship between age disparity and risk of HIV acquisition was found. The highest crude STI incidence was observed among those in intra-generational age disparate relationships followed by those in non-age disparate relationships (31.86 [26.41-38.44] and 25.60 [21.92-29.91] per 100 person-years, respectively). Reduction of multiple partnerships remains key to HIV prevention; however, in light of partner concurrency being more prevalent than individual concurrency partnerships, female-initiated HIV prevention options remain critical.

  9. Factors associated with age at first sexual initiation among youths in Gamo Gofa, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early sexual initiation increases the risk of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study aimed to determine age at first sexual initiation and associated factors among youths in south west Ethiopia. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in South west Ethiopia from January 15 – March 20, 2012. A sample of youths aged 15–24 years was taken from six health centers and three hospitals using systematic sampling technique. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess the association between the outcome and explanatory variables. Result A total of 405 youths participated in the study and the mean ( ±SD ) age of sexual initiation was 17.07 years (±2.12). Age at first sexual initiation was positively associated with lack of employment [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.372 (1.455, 37.357)], lack of comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 8.247 (2.121, 32.067)], alcohol use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 3.815 (1.315, 11.070)] and khat use [Adj. HR & (95% CI) = 7.241 (1.871, 28.016)]. Conclusion Majority of the study participants experienced sexual initiation. Strategies should be designed to control the use of substances like alcohol and khat which were found to be responsible for first sexual initiation. PMID:23819567

  10. Extramarital sexual relationships of middle-aged Danish men: attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Solstad, K; Mucic, D

    1999-05-31

    This study explored Danish men's attitudes and behavior towards extramarital sexual relations (ESR), seen from two sides: men who had engaged in such relations (involved) and men who had not (non-involved). The participants, 439 men aged 51, completed a questionnaire concerning sexuality (behavior, attitudes and experience) as a part of a Danish cohort-investigation of health risk-factors. Thereafter 100 of the 439 men were interviewed. A high degree of permissiveness toward ESR emerged in both involved and non-involved individuals but approval of ESR was higher among the participants who were involved in ESR. The frequency of ESR increased with higher social rank. Both involved and non-involved participants mostly did not consider the ESR as a serious threat to the marital happiness. Attitudes-behavior discrepancies are discussed seen in the light of the social norms and known attitudes-behavior models.

  11. How do working-age people with disabilities spend their time? New evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    PubMed

    Anand, Priyanka; Ben-Shalom, Yonatan

    2014-12-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey to examine the extent to which adults with disabilities-defined using both the new six-question sequence on disability and the traditional work-limitation question-spend more time on health-related activities and less time on other activities than those without disabilities. We find that men and women who both reported a work limitation and responded "yes" to any of the questions in the six-question disability sequence spend approximately 40 to 50 more minutes per week, respectively, on health-related activities. We also find that most working-age men and women who report a disability work fewer hours per day than men and women without disabilities. The largest difference is for men and women who report both types of disability; these individuals spend, on average, 5 fewer hours per day in paid work than men and women without disabilities. On average, most of the decrease in paid work time is offset by more time spent on leisure activities (defined as activities that provide direct utility, such as entertainment, social activities, attending recreational events, and general relaxation) and sleeping, which is likely due to these being default activities for individuals whose medical issues and environment constrain them from participating in other activities.

  12. Health, disability, and life insurance experiences of working-age persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, L I; Ngo, L

    2007-05-01

    Working-age Americans with multiple sclerosis (MS) may face considerable financial insecurities when they become unable to work and lack the health, disability, and life insurance typically offered through employers. In order to estimate the rates of having these insurance policies, as well as how insurance status affects reports of financial stress, we conducted half-hour telephone interviews with 983 working-age persons across the US, who reported being diagnosed with MS. The interviews occurred from May through November 2005, and among the sampled individuals contacted and confirmed eligible, 93.2% completed the interview. The study population was largely female (78.9%), Caucasian (86.4%), married (68.6%), with at least some college education (71.5%), and unemployed (60.2%). Overall, 96.3% had some health insurance (40.3% with public health insurance, primarily Medicare), 56.7% had long-term disability insurance (36.4% with public programs), and 68.3% had life insurance. Notably, 27.4% indicated that, since being diagnosed with MS, health insurance concerns had significantly affected employment decisions. In addition, 16.4% reported considerable difficulty paying for health care, 27.4% put off or postponed seeking needed health care because of costs, and 22.3% delayed filling prescriptions, skipped medication doses, or split pills because of costs. Overall, 26.6% reported considerable worries about affording even basic necessities, such as food, utilities, and housing.

  13. Virtual reality applications for addressing the needs of those aging with disability.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Requejo, Phil; Winstein, Carolee J; Lange, Belinda; Ragusa, Gisele; Merians, Alma; Patton, James; Banerjee, Pat; Aisen, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    As persons with disabilities age, progressive declines in health and medical status can challenge the adaptive resources required to maintain functional independence and quality of life [1]. These challenges are further compounded by economic factors, medication side effects, loss of a spouse or caregiver, and psychosocial disorders [1-2]. With the gradual loss of functional independence and increased reliance on others for transportation, access to general medical and rehabilitation care can be jeopardized [2]. The combination of these factors when seen in the context of the average increase in lifespan in industrialized societies has lead to a growing crisis that is truly global in proportion. While research indicates that functional motor capacity can be improved, maintained, or recovered via consistent participation in a motor exercise and rehabilitation regimen [3], independent adherence to such preventative and/or rehabilitative programming outside the clinic setting is notoriously low [1]. This state of affairs has produced a compelling and ethical motivation to address the needs of individuals who are aging with disabilities by promoting home-based access to low-cost, interactive virtual reality (VR) systems designed to engage and motivate individuals to participate with "game"-driven physical activities and rehabilitation programming. The creation of such systems could serve to enhance, maintain and rehabilitate the sensorimotor processes that are needed to maximize independence and quality of life. This is the theme of the research to be presented at this MMVR workshop. PMID:21335848

  14. Beset by Obstacles: A Review of Australian Policy Development to Support Ageing in Place for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Australian government policy regards people with intellectual disability (ID) as citizens with equal rights, which means that they should have access to the same opportunities as the wider community. Ageing in place is central to aged care policy in Australia for the general population. Method: This paper reviews policy to support the…

  15. "We Cannot Be Greek Now": Age Difference, Corruption of Youth and the Making of Sexual Inversion.

    PubMed

    Funke, Jana

    2013-04-01

    A Problem in Greek Ethics, A Problem in Modern Ethics and "Soldier Love" indicate that John Addington Symonds responded carefully to social anxieties regarding the influence and corruption of youth and placed increasing emphasis on presenting male same-sex desire as consensual and age-consistent. Situating Symonds's work in the social and political context of the 1880s and 1890s, the article opens up a more complex understanding of Symonds's reception of Greece. It also offers a new reading of his collaboration with Havelock Ellis by arguing that Symonds's insistence on age-equal and reciprocal relationships between men strongly shaped Sexual Inversion. This shows that concerns about age difference and ideals of equality and reciprocity began to impact debates about male same-sex desire in the late nineteenth century - earlier than is generally assumed.

  16. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  17. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  18. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  19. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  20. What it's like to grow older: the aging perceptions of people with an intellectual disability in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burke, Eilish; McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; McGlinchey, Eimear; McCallion, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing is a national longitudinal study on the aging of people with an intellectual disability (ID) using a randomly selected sample of people with ID over the age of 40. In total, 367 people with an ID completed the aging perception self-report only section. Over 57% of people described their health as very good to excellent with no significant difference in health perceptions found for gender, level of ID, or living circumstance. Exploring people's perceptions utilizing PASW Text Analytics for Surveys 4.1 perceptions often supported negative views of the consequences of aging. These findings suggest challenging negative aging concepts is essential to promote positivity with associated improved health and wellbeing.

  1. Age-related alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in sexually impotent males.

    PubMed

    Benkert, O; Witt, W

    1980-01-01

    On 7 healthy normal men and 32 sexual impotent males aging between 45 and 75 years, total testosterone (T), oestradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were measured. Additionally LH and FSH was measured after injection of 25 and 100 micrograms LHRH. The main criteria for inclusion in the study were a reduced or nonexistent capacity to have an erection during intercourse and no clinical signs of endocrine disease. The group was divided in young impotent males (group I, less than 60 years) and old impotent males (group II, at least 60 years). The healthy males served as controls (group III). None of the intergroup differences for the basal hormones were statistically significant. But 7 of the man in group I and II showed pathological low T levels (less than or equal to 300 micrograms/100 mg). The high incidence of pathological low T levels in these patients suggests that measurement of plasma T levels is recommendable in the routine diagnostic examination of all sexual impotent males. Plasma levels of LH and FSH increased significantly in all groups following injection of LHRH. At delta 25 min LH was increased significantly in group II following 100 micrograms LHRH compared to group I and III; following 25 micrograms LH and FSH was increased significantly in group II compared to group I. The present findings suggest that, while pituitary function is normal in young and old sexual impotent males, T production may be inadequate in some older patients. Since the present patients failed to show clinical signs of endocrine disease, the abnormal response to LHRH in some of the older sexual impotent males indicates that these patients had a subclinical endocrine disorder.U

  2. Cross-national comparison of disability in Latin American and Caribbean persons aged 75 and older.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Ostir, Glenn V; Pelaez, Martha; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare rates of instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) and activity of daily living (ADL) difficulties and examine sociodemographic and health correlates of IADL and ADL difficulties. Data were extracted from the first interview of Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (abbreviated from Spanish name as: SABE = salud, bienestar y envejecimiento en America Latina y el Caribe). This analysis included 3225 subjects aged 75 and older living in seven capital cities during 1999-2000. Reporting either IADL or ADL difficulties were the outcomes. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between IADL or ADL difficulties and sociodemographics, and health characteristics. The highest prevalence of IADL difficulties was reported in Sao Paulo (33.8%) and the lowest in Montevideo (12.0%). The highest prevalence of ADL difficulties was reported in Santiago (34.7%) and the lowest in Bridgetown (16.9%). In a combined analysis across cities, increased age, fewer years of education, lower body mass index (BMI) (<20), and high number of medical conditions were independently significantly associated with IADL and ADL difficulties. In conclusion, about a third of persons aged 75 and older reported difficulty in at least one IADL or ADL. There was a wide variation on disability rates and correlates across cities. PMID:16126289

  3. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  4. Nonverbal visual short-term memory as a function of age and dimensionality in learning-disabled children.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H L

    1977-03-01

    A serial recognition task was used to compare performance of 2 learning disability age groups with 2- and 3-dimensional representations of nonlabeled 8-point random shapes. Age-related increases in short-term memory (STM) performance for both dimensions were found. No significant differences were found between 2- or 3-dimensional stimuli. Contrary to reports of STM performance with normal children, learning-disabled children showed no primacy effect for the 2-dimensional treatment, and second choices were not consistently correct when the first choice was incorrect, These findings were interpreted according to Flavell's notions of mediational inefficiencies.

  5. Age, growth, sexual maturity, and food of channel catfish in central Lake Oahe, 1968-69

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starostka, Victor J.; Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were collected with gill nets, trawl, and trap nets at three localities in Lake Oahe for the study of year-class strength, growth in length and weight, age composition, sexual maturity, and food. Fish were recruited to all the collection gears at age II. Relatively strong year classes were produced in 1962, 1965, and 1966. Youngest fish were captured in the upper end of the Moreau River embayment, which apparently serves as a nursery area. Growth of age 0 fish was poor probably because the growing season was short; optimum spawning temperature were not reached until mid-summer. Growth of age II and older fish reached a peak in 1963 and declined rather steadily in 1964-68. Males began to mature at age VIII, and all fish of both sexes were mature at age XI. The diet changed from zooplankton to fish as channel catfish increased in length; aquatic insects (primarily chironomid larvae and pupae) were important foods for fish of all sizes. Fish less than 300 mm long selected large zooplankters -- Leptodora kindtii and Daphnia spp -- over smaller copepods. Larger channel catfish ate principally yellow perch, Perca flavescens.

  6. Sexuality & Dementia: An eLearning Resource to Improve Knowledge and Attitudes of Aged-Care Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy; Moyle, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Expression of sexuality by older people, particularly those with dementia, can be challenging and confronting for aged-care staff. Education on this topic is often a low priority area for aged-care organizations, and there appears to be limited training programs available. Results from our study highlighted the value of an eLearning education…

  7. Informing school sex education using the stages of change construct: sexual behaviour and attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use of children aged 13-16 in England.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Louise M; Evers, Kerry E; Wareing, Hilary; Dunn, Orla M; Newby, Kate; Paiva, Andrea; Johnson, Janet L

    2007-01-01

    A survey of 3820 school children in England aged 13-16 years examined sexual activity using the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages of Change. A quarter (26%) of teens were sexually experienced, 44.8 per cent did not use contraception and 48.9 per cent did not use condoms, every time. Past history of condom and contraceptive use, and partner willingness to use condoms were the best predictors of being in Action or Maintenance stage for condom use. Of virgins, 19.82 per cent were in Contemplation or Preparation stages for intercourse, and 85.4 per cent would use condoms every time. Sex education should be tailored to Stage, and signposting to sexual health and contraception services.

  8. Unique and universal barriers: hospice care for aging adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Sandra L; Helm, David T; Woodman, Ashley C

    2012-11-01

    As life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) has increased, there has been a concurrent increase in age-related illnesses and conditions similar to that of the general population. These circumstances result in people with ID dying from typical life-ending conditions, and thus, they require similar end-of-life services such as palliative and hospice care. Although there are notable barriers to hospice for all, people with ID face additional challenges in accessing the benefits of these services. This article presents a review of the literature on these issues, underscoring the multiple challenges and the importance of a more collaborative approach between hospice and palliative care workers with people with ID, their families, and other important stakeholders.

  9. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    GIRON, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background: To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. Methods: The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011–12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Results: Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Conclusion: Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability. PMID:27141490

  10. Sleep disturbances and sexual function among men aged 45–75 years in an urban area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammadalizadeh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Khatami, Shiva; valizadeh, Reza; Azadi, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Aging in men is associated with various physical and mental symptoms, including sleep problems and sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the status of sleep disorders and sexual dysfunction in men aged 45–75 years in Ilam, Iran. Materials and methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 390 men aged 45–75 years were selected by cluster randomization in Ilam–Iran. Data were collected using 0–100 brief sexual function inventory and the sleep disorder questionnaires. Results Totally, 34.6% of men complained about sleep disorders: 17.4% about falling asleep, 12.8% about frequent nocturnal awakenings, 12.8% about waking up in the early hours in the morning and problem in falling asleep again, and 24.9% about fatigue and tiredness despite getting enough sleep. There was a significant relationship between all aspects of sexual function and the common problems related to sleep (p<0.001). The older, unemployed, illiterate men, those with inadequate income, those affected by chronic diseases, and/or urinary incontinence had significantly inferior sexual function compared with the others. Conclusion According to the high prevalence of sleep disorders in men as well as its association with sexual dysfunction, adopting health measures in this regard is necessary. PMID:27217906

  11. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women. PMID:25828990

  12. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  13. Home-Based Care Program Reduces Disability And Promotes Aging In Place.

    PubMed

    Szanton, Sarah L; Leff, Bruce; Wolff, Jennifer L; Roberts, Laken; Gitlin, Laura N

    2016-09-01

    The Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE) program, funded by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, aims to reduce the impact of disability among low-income older adults by addressing individual capacities and the home environment. The program, described in this innovation profile, uses an interprofessional team (an occupational therapist, a registered nurse, and a handyman) to help participants achieve goals they set. For example, it provides assistive devices and makes home repairs and modifications that enable participants to navigate their homes more easily and safely. In the period 2012-15, a demonstration project enrolled 281 adults ages sixty-five and older who were dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid and who had difficulty performing activities of daily living (ADLs). After completing the five-month program, 75 percent of participants had improved their performance of ADLs. Participants had difficulty with an average of 3.9 out of 8.0 ADLs at baseline, compared to 2.0 after five months. Symptoms of depression and the ability to perform instrumental ADLs such as shopping and managing medications also improved. Health systems are testing CAPABLE on a larger scale. The program has the potential to improve older adults' ability to age in place. PMID:27605633

  14. Midlife and Aging Parents of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan; Hong, Jinkuk

    2011-01-01

    Using population data, this study included parents of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (n = 220) and parents of individuals without disabilities (n = 1,042). Parents of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities were further divided into those who co-resided with their adult child and those whose adult…

  15. Sexual discounting among high-risk youth ages 18–24: Implications for sexual and substance use risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18–24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex vs. waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with four hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they (1) most wanted to have sex with, (2) least wanted to have sex with, (3) judged most likely to have an STI, and (4) judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with, and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the 'most want to have sex with' and ‘least likely to have an STI' conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was un-delayed, but delay affected condom use similarly between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior. PMID:25545764

  16. Socioeconomic Inequalities and Multi-Disability among the Population Aged 15–64 Years from 1987 to 2006 in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenjie; Chen, Gong; Guo, Chao; Pang, Lihua; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities associated with multiple disabilities have not been explored in China. This is the first study to explore changes in multiple disabilities among persons aged 15–64 years in China. Data were derived from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Surveys on Disability, which are nationally representative population-based surveys. Both surveys used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size to derive nationally representative samples. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities on multiple disabilities was examined by using logistic regression. Higher prevalence rates among rural residents than urban residents were observed. Male was more vulnerable than female in the present study. Minority ethnicity did increase the risk of multiple disabilities, but this association inversed in the logistic regression model. The widening discrepancy between urban and rural areas indicates that the most important priorities of disability prevention in China are to reinforce health promotion and to improve health services in rural communities. PMID:27775678

  17. Assessing Restrictiveness: A Closer Look at the Foster Care Placements and Perceptions of Youth With and Without Disabilities Aging Out of Care

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Miranda; Dalton, Lawrence D.; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Orozco, Claudia Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the experience of restrictiveness among transition-aged youth with disabilities in foster care. Utilizing a sample of 207 youth, placement types were explored for differences in disability status, race and sex. Further, youth perceptions of restriction around communication, movement around one’s home, and access to the community were examined for youth receiving special education services (SPED), youth receiving developmental disability services (DD), and youth without disabilities. Youth with disabilities were more likely to be placed in more restrictive placement types and had significantly higher levels of perceived restriction around communication, movement, and community when compared to youth without disabilities. Additionally, males with disabilities experienced higher levels of restrictiveness, particularly those who received DD services, while White youth with disabilities also experienced greater community restrictiveness. PMID:24489523

  18. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  19. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  20. Consumer-Directed Goal Planning in the Delivery of Assistive Technology Services for People Who Are Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Mansha; Hammel, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Background: A consumer-directed service-delivery approach to assistive technology and environmental modification intervention was examined with people who were ageing with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: The intervention was based on a collaborative approach involving consumers, their social supports and service deliverers. Thirty…

  1. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  2. Schooling Transitions within the Lifespan of People with an Intellectual Disability: Perceptions and Recommendations of Ageing Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadova, Iva; Evans, David

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the perceptions of mothers about the schooling transitions, including transitions to postschool options, made by their adult child with an intellectual disability (ID). Twenty mothers of an adult child with an ID living in New South Wales, Australia, and the Czech Republic, aged 48 years or older, were recruited…

  3. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five. 300.712 Section 300.712 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE...

  4. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five. 300.712 Section 300.712 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE...

  5. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  6. 42 CFR 435.230 - Aged, blind, and disabled individuals in States that use more restrictive requirements for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aged, blind, and disabled individuals in States that use more restrictive requirements for Medicaid than SSI requirements: Optional coverage. 435.230 Section 435.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE...

  7. Effects of Video Self-Modeling on Eliminating Public Undressing by Elementary-Aged Students with Developmental Disabilities during Urination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Takeuchi, Ai; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) for eliminating the public undressing of two elementary-aged students with developmental disabilities during urination. A multiple-probe design across participants revealed that the degree of exposed body parts decreased immediately after introduction of VSM. However, exposure…

  8. Three Students with Developmental Disabilities Learn to Operate an iPod to Access Age-Appropriate Entertainment Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagohara, Debora M.

    2011-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities may not have the necessary skills or the same opportunities to access multimedia-based leisure materials as their typical peers. Portable multimedia devices such as the iPod Touch[R] may provide them with a useful tool for accessing age-appropriate leisure material. The present study examined the…

  9. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman Brief…

  10. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  11. Profiles and Cognitive Predictors of Motor Functions among Early School-Age Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Y.-P.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, M.-H.; Su, C.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to describe sensorimotor profile in children with mild intellectual disability (ID), and to examine the association between cognitive and motor function. Methods: A total of 233 children with mild ID aged 7 to 8 years were evaluated with measures of cognitive, motor and sensory integrative functioning.…

  12. Patterns of Close Relationships and Socioemotional and Academic Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Mikulincer, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of close relationships among school-age children with learning disabilities (LD) as manifested in their attachment style, their self-perceived loneliness, their sense of coherence, and teacher ratings of their academic functioning. In line with resilience theory, this study also aimed to further explore predictors of…

  13. Age-Related Change of the Mean Level and Intraindividual Variability of Saccadic Reaction Time Performance in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined age-related change of saccadic reaction time (SRT) in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 29 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 14 and 34 years whose IQs were between 14 and 70. Participants were divided into Group I (IQ greater than or equal to 35) and Group II (IQ less than…

  14. Difference in Leukocyte Composition between Women before and after Menopausal Age, and Distinct Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Yang, Peixuan; Ye, Shu; Tan, Xuerui

    2016-01-01

    There are sex differences in many inflammatory and immune diseases, and the differences tend to diminish after menopause. The underlying reasons are unclear, but sex hormone levels are likely to be an important factor. Blood leukocyte count and composition provide an indicator of the inflammatory and immune status of an individual. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of blood leukocyte data from 46,879 individuals (26,212 men and 20,667 women, aged 18 to 93 years) who underwent a routine health checkup. In women aged around 50 years, neutrophil percentage (NE%) dropped whilst lymphocyte percentage (LY%) rose. Accordingly, women before age 50 had significantly higher NE%, lower LY%, and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than women of 51–70 years of age (p = 1.35×10−82, p = 5.32×10−100, and p = 1.25×10−26, respectively). In age groups of <50 years, women had higher NE%, lower LY% and higher NLR than men (p = 1.82×10−206, p = 1.46×10−69, and p = 2.30×10−118, respectively), whereas in age groups of >51 years, it was the reverse (p = 1.92×10−15, p = 1.43×10−84, and p = 1.51×10−48, respectively). These results show that blood leukocyte composition differs between women before and after menopausal age, with distinct sexual dimorphism. PMID:27657912

  15. Prepubertal Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Age at Sexual Maturity in Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development. Objective We evaluated associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (βHCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys. Methods From 2003 through 2005, 350 8- to 9-year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for 8 years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume (TV) ≥ 20 mL in either testis. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations achieved sexual maturity reflected by TV ≥ 20 mL a mean of 3.1 months (95% CI: –1.7, 7.8), 5.3 months (95% CI: 0.6, 10.1), and 5.0 months (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.04). Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth was attained a mean of 2.2 months (95% CI: –3.1, 7.5), 5.7 months (95% CI: 0.4, 11.0), and 3.7 months (95% CI: –1.7, 9.1) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, of βHCH compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.09). Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth occurred 6–9 months later on average for boys in the highest versus lowest quartile for HCB (p trend < 0.001), βHCH (trend p = 0.01), and p,p´-DDE (p trend = 0.04). No associations were observed between p,p´-DDE and Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth or TV ≥ 20 mL. Conclusions and relevance Higher prepubertal serum HCB and βHCH concentrations were associated with a later age at attainment of sexual maturity. Only the highest quartile of serum p,p´-DDE was associated with later pubic hair maturation. Citation Lam T, Williams PL, Lee MM, Korrick SA, Birnbaum LS, Burns JS, Sergeyev O

  16. Adolescents in the age of AIDS: myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings regarding sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cohall, A; Kassotis, J; Parks, R; Vaughan, R; Bannister, H; Northridge, M

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to evaluate the extent of knowledge possessed by young people residing in an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) and AIDS epicenter about STDs, including AIDS; and to determine whether knowledge levels varied by age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and/or previous health instruction. A total of 867 adolescents (472 females and 395 males) attending a large public high school in New York City completed a self-administered survey. Levels of knowledge about AIDS transmission and prevention were high (mean percentage correct = 91.8%). Nonetheless, adolescent respondents locked awareness about the prevalence of common STDs, had limited understanding of the ways in which these diseases can be transmitted and prevented, and were unaware of potentially serious sequelae resulting from exposure to infectious agents (e.g., infertility from chlamydial infections). Young people who had taken a health education course in which STDs were discussed did slightly better on the knowledge survey than did their peers. While the prevention of HIV infection is, and should be, a national priority, more concerted efforts are needed to better educate young people about other STDs in the overall context of sexual health.

  17. The influence of male age and simulated pathogenic infection on producing a dishonest sexual signal

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Emily K.; Fedorka, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, studies have shown that reproductive effort decelerates in response to pathogenic infection. If infection substantially reduces a host's residual reproductive value (RRV), however, then an acceleration of effort may instead occur (e.g. terminal investment). Reproductive acceleration would theoretically allow hosts to maintain or exaggerate their sexual signal upon infection. This would create a deceptive message from the perspective of the chooser, who may unwittingly copulate with an infected mate to their detriment. Using the cricket Allonemobius socius, we assessed the potential for reduced RRV to accelerate male reproductive effort and create a dishonest signal. RRV was manipulated through male age and simulated pathogenic insult. Reproductive effort was measured as calling song energetics, mating success, latency to mate and nuptial gift size. We show that males adopted either an accelerated or decelerated reproductive strategy upon infection, and that this decision was probably mediated by RRV. Moreover, males who accelerated their effort produced a dishonest signal by increasing their song energetics while providing fewer paternal resources (i.e. smaller gifts). Our study is one of the few to document the existence of dishonest signals and relate dishonesty to a potential reduction in female fitness, underscoring the conflict inherent in sexual reproduction. PMID:23034704

  18. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  19. Barriers and facilitators to maternal communication with preadolescents about age-relevant sexual topics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kim S; Fasula, Amy M; Dittus, Patricia; Wiegand, Ryan E; Wyckoff, Sarah C; McNair, Lily

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined factors that promote parent-child discussions about sex topics. A sample of 1,066 dyads of African American mothers and their 9-12-year-old children participated completing computer-administered surveys. After controlling for all other covariates, mother's sexual communication responsiveness (i.e., knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence) was the most consistent predictor of discussions. Mothers with higher responsiveness had significantly increased odds of discussions about abstinence, puberty, and reproduction, based on both mother and child reports. In addition, child's age, pubertal development, readiness to learn about sex, and being female were positively associated with an increase in the odds of discussions in most models. Findings indicate that encouraging parents to talk with their children early may not be sufficient to promote parent-child sex discussions. Parents also need the knowledge, comfort, skills, and confidence to communicate effectively and keep them from avoiding these often difficult and emotional conversations with their children.

  20. Individual heterogeneity in growth and age at sexual maturity: a gamma process analysis of capture–mark–recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, William; Hesed, Kyle Miller

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of organisms’ growth rates and ages at sexual maturity is important for conservation efforts and a wide variety of studies in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, these life history parameters may be difficult to obtain from natural populations: individuals encountered may be of unknown age, information on age at sexual maturity may be uncertain and interval-censored, and growth data may include both individual heterogeneity and measurement errors. We analyzed mark–recapture data for Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to compare sex-specific growth rates and ages at sexual maturity. Aging of individuals was made possible by the use of a von Bertalanffy model of growth, complemented with models for interval-censored and imperfect observations at sexual maturation. Individual heterogeneity in growth was modeled through the use of Gamma processes. Our analysis indicates that female P. cinereus mature earlier and grow more quickly than males, growing to nearly identical asymptotic size distributions as males.

  1. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    Background Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. Objective To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. Materials and methods This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Results Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Conclusion Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse. PMID:26811695

  2. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  3. Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lisa; Mann, Janice; McMahon, Sharon; Wong, Thomas

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. KEY FINDINGS: Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15-24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  4. Can Norm Theory Explain the Effects of Victim Age and Level of Physical Maturity on Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle; Anderson, Irina; Potton, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of victim age, victim physical maturity, and respondent gender on attributions toward victims, perpetrator, and the nonoffending members of the victim's family in a hypothetical child sexual abuse (CSA) case. Participants read a brief CSA vignette in which the male perpetrator (a school caretaker) sexually…

  5. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  6. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  7. A Transformative Subfield in Rehabilitation Science at the Nexus of New Technologies, Aging, and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Winstein, Carolee J.; Requejo, Philip S.; Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Mulroy, Sara J.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that a silo research and training approach is no longer sufficient to provide real solutions to the complex humanitarian, social, and financial problems brought about by global trends in aging and the increased prevalence of multiple chronic conditions that limit independence and activities of daily living. This perspective highlights the opportunities for collaborative research and training in a new multidisciplinary science of rehabilitation enabled by growing knowledge and information along scientifically and clinically meaningful lines. The recent proliferation of eHealth technologies offers opportunities for development of low-cost, simple, interactive media prevention, health maintenance, and continued functional recovery programs using a chronic care model designed to promote engagement and participation. With two examples – long-term disability consequential to (1) hip fracture and (2) manual wheelchair use – we outline the developing science for a collaborative and transformative nexus team capable of accelerating an understanding of ways to restore independence and improve quality of life, in the long-term. We conclude with a set of recommendations for the design of interactive media systems to both increase acceptability and stimulate research. PMID:23049517

  8. Long Term Trend Analysis of Geographical Disparity in Aging and Disability: Taiwanese Population Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yong-Chen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    Purposes of the present paper were to describe the overtime change of disability prevalence among the elderly (65 years and older), and to analyze the geographic disparity of the disability prevalence during the year 2000-2010 in Taiwan. Study data mainly come from two public web-access information: (1) The physically and mentally disabled…

  9. Support Networks for the Greek Family with Preschool or School-Age Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsibidaki, Assimina; Tsamparli, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The interaction of the family with disabled children with the support networks is a research area of high interest (Hendriks, De Moor, Oud & Savelberg, 2000). It has been shown that support networks may prove to be very helpful for a family and especially for a family with a disabled child. Support networks play a primordial role in…

  10. The Importance of Attitudes toward and Understanding of Disability and Science in the Age of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Matthew J.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford; Pence, Ray; Rack, Jennifer; Schrandt, Suzanne; Laub, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This article reports concerns among disability community members that the implications of genetic research will be driven by mistaken beliefs about genetics and negative attitudes toward disability as identified in a qualitative study funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute. In addition to reporting the nature and the context of…

  11. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  12. Cumulative Expenditures under the DI, SSI, Medicare, and Medicaid Programs for a Cohort of Disabled Working-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Gerald F; Rupp, Kalman

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate cumulative DI, SSI, Medicare, and Medicaid expenditures from initial disability benefit award to death or age 65. Data Sources Administrative records for a cohort of new CY2000 DI and SSI awardees aged 18–64. Study Design Actual expenditures were obtained for 2000–2006/7. Subsequent expenditures were simulated using a regression-adjusted Markov process to assign individuals to annual disability benefit coverage states. Program expenditures were simulated conditional on assigned benefit coverage status. Estimates reflect present value of expenditures at initial award in 2000 and are expressed in constant 2012 dollars. Expenditure estimates were also updated to reflect benefit levels and characteristics of new awardees in 2012. Data Collection We matched records for a 10 percent nationally representative sample. Principal Findings Overall average cumulative expenditures are $292,401 through death or age 65, with 51.4 percent for cash benefits and 48.6 percent for health care. Expenditures are about twice the average for individuals first awarded benefits at age 18–30. Overall average expenditures increased by 10 percent when updated for a simulated 2012 cohort. Conclusions Data on cumulative expenditures, especially combined across programs, are useful for evaluating the long-term payoff of investments designed to modify entry to and exit from the disability rolls. PMID:25109322

  13. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  14. Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  15. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  16. Sexually dimorphic brain volume interaction in college-aged binge drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kvamme, Timo L.; Schmidt, Casper; Strelchuk, Daniela; Chang-Webb, Yee Chien; Baek, Kwangyeol; Voon, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Background Binge consumption of alcohol is a major societal problem associated with important cognitive, physiological and neurotoxic consequences. Converging evidence highlights the need to assess binge drinking (BD) and its effects on the developing brain while taking into account gender differences. Here, we compared the brain volumetric differences between genders in college-aged binge drinkers and healthy volunteers. Method T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 30 binge drinkers (18 males) and 46 matched healthy volunteers (23 males) were examined using voxel-based morphometry. The anatomical scans were covaried with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores. Whole brain voxel-wise group comparisons were performed using a cluster extent threshold correction. Results Several large clusters qualified with group-by-gender interactions were observed in prefrontal, striatal and medial temporal areas, whereby BD females had more volume than non-BD females, while males showed the inverse pattern of decreased volume in BD males and increased volume in non-BD males. AUDIT scores negatively correlated with volume in the right superior frontal cortex and precentral gyrus. Conclusions These findings dovetail with previous studies reporting that a state effect of BD in college-aged drinkers and the severity of alcohol use are associated with volumetric alterations in the cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. Our study indicates that these widespread volumetric changes vary differentially by gender, suggesting either sexual dimorphic endophenotypic risk factors, or differential neurotoxic sensitivities for males and females. PMID:26900571

  17. The Relationship of Self-Injurious Behavior and Other Maladaptive Behaviors among Individuals with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cooper, Christopher; Malone, Carrie J.; Moskow, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    Participants were 101 individuals with self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe or profound intellectual disability who were matched by gender, age, and level of intellectual disability to controls. Persons with SIB were more likely to exhibit the challenging behaviors of physical aggression, property destruction, sexually inappropriate behaviors…

  18. Out of sight, out of mind: including group quarters residents with household residents can change what we know about working-age people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, David; Honeycutt, Todd; Schechter, Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Information about residents of institutional and noninstitutional group quarters (GQ), particularly those with disabilities, has been limited by gaps in survey data, and statistics based on data that exclude some or all GQ residents are biased as estimates of total population statistics. We used the 2006 and 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) to identify the distribution of working-age populations with and without disabilities by major residence type and to assess the sensitivity of disability statistics to GQ residence. Our findings show that (1) of those with disabilities, about 1 in 13 males and 1 in 33 females live in GQ; (2) GQ rates are higher for individuals reporting mental, self-care, or go-outside-the-home disabilities than for those reporting sensory, physical, or employment disabilities; (3) younger males with disabilities are more likely to reside there, particularly at institutional GQ, reflecting their relatively high incarceration rate; (4) individuals with and without disabilities who are black, American Indian, were never married, or have less than a high school education have higher GQ residence rates; (5) 40% of male and 62% of female GQ residents have a disability; (6) adding GQ residents to household residents increases estimated disability prevalence for males by 6%, and the estimated difference between disability prevalence rates by gender nearly disappears; and (7) inclusion of the GQ population substantially lowers employment rate estimates for young males, blacks, and American Indians. PMID:22109082

  19. Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of Westslope cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downs, Christopher C.; White, R.G.; Shepard, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and their fecundities could not be estimated. Mean fecundities (SD) were 227 eggs (41.1) for 150-174-mm fish, 346 eggs (85.6) for 175-199-mm fish, and 459 eggs (150.8) for 200-mm and larger fish. A linear regression model (two stream samples combined) to predict fecundity (E) from fork length was developed (E = -494.9 + 4.4.FL: r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001) for westslope cutthroat trout in the upper Missouri River drainage. Regression slopes of fecundity against fish length differed significantly (P < 0.01) between these and some of the previously studied populations. Steeper slopes were associated with lacustrine-adfluvial populations. The average sex ratio was 1.3 males per female across all sampled streams. Males began to mature sexually at age 2 and all were mature by age 4. Some females (27%) were sexually mature at age 3 and most of them (93%) were mature by age 5. Length was a better predictor of sexual maturity than age. Males matured at 110-160 mm and females at 150-180 mm FL. The maximum estimated age was 8 years based on otoliths from 475 fish collected from our 19 study streams and 14 additional streams.

  20. HandiVIH—A population-based survey to understand the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and other sexual and reproductive health problems in Cameroon: protocol and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Pasquier, Estelle; Tchoumkeu, Alice; Touko, Adonis; Essomba, Frida; Brus, Aude; Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Eide, Arne Henning; Mont, Daniel; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Beninguisse, Gervais

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In resource-limited countries, people with disabilities seem to be particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to barriers to accessing information and services, frequent exposure to sexual violence and social exclusion. However, they have often been left behind in the HIV response, probably because of the lack of reliable epidemiological data measuring this vulnerability. Multiple challenges in conducting good quality epidemiological surveys on people with disabilities require innovative methods to better understand the link between disability and HIV. This paper describes how the design and methods of the HandiVIH study were adapted to document the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV, and to compare their situation with that of people without disabilities. Methods and analysis The HandiVIH project aims to combine quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative component is a cross-sectional survey with a control group conducted in Yaoundé (Cameroon). A two-phase random sampling is used (1) to screen people with disabilities from the general population using the Washington Group questionnaire and, (2) to create a matched control group. An HIV test is proposed to each study participant. Additionally, a questionnaire including a life-event interview is used to collect data on respondents’ life-course history of social isolation, employment, sexual partnership, HIV risk factors and fertility. Before the cross-sectional survey, a qualitative exploratory study was implemented to identify challenges in conducting the survey and possible solutions. Information on people with disabilities begging in the streets and members of disabled people's organisations is collected separately. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the two ethical committees. Special attention has been paid on how to adapt the consenting process to persons with intellectual disabilities. The methodological considerations discussed in this paper may

  1. Fitness for the Aged, Disabled, and Industrial Worker. Proceedings of the Symposium of the International Council for Physical Fitness Research (Osaka, Japan, September 5-7, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Masahiro, Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of current research on the health and fitness of the aged, the disabled, and the industrial worker examines the growing health problems in those populations. These problems are the result of the rising proportion of elderly and disabled citizens in Western countries and the increasing exposure of industrial workers to…

  2. Factors influencing administration of hepatitis B vaccine to community-dwelling teenagers aged 12-18 with an intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan," which was a cross-sectional survey of 1111 intellectually disabled (ID) teenagers ranging from 12 to 18 years of age. The results showed that the completed hepatitis B vaccination rate was 72.9%, a rate lower than that in the general population of Taiwan considering the same age group. There was no gender difference between each age group in the vaccination rate in this population. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that those ID individuals whose primary caregivers were parents or siblings (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.29-4.64), whose household monthly income was 20,000-59,999 NTD vs. less than 20,000 NTD (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.00-6.12), and who had ever undergone an oral health exam (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.24-4.01) were more likely to receive a complete hepatitis B vaccination than their counterparts. The study highlighted that most teenagers had received complete hepatitis B vaccination. Nonetheless, better public health strategies may be needed to deliver the hepatitis B vaccine to those who do not comply with the vaccination schedule in the community.

  3. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending.

  4. Searching for Love in all the “Write” Places: Exploring Internet Personals Use by Sexual Orientation, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Janet; Grov, Christian; Royce, Tracy; Gillespie, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Few researchers of Internet sexual exploration have systematically compared variance of use across sexual orientations, with even fewer surveying bisexual respondents. In 2004, 15,246 individuals responded to an online survey of their use of Internet personals and adult websites. Gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs) were more likely than heterosexuals to have exchanged correspondence, met others offline, and had sex with someone they met through personal ads. Whereas gay men and lesbians of all ages were most likely to have established a long-term relationship as a result of personals, heterosexuals over age 40 were more likely to have established a long-term relationship than younger heterosexuals. Further, compared to men, women were approximately two times as likely to have established a serious relationship as a result of personals. Qualitative findings suggest that the Internet functions not only as a means of screening for desired characteristics, but also as a shield against prejudice in real life encounters. GLBs and heterosexuals alike used online venues as a means of sexual identity development, sexual exploration, and community building. PMID:20502618

  5. Knowledge and Skills of Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Study on School-Aged Children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yichen; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the level of child sexual abuse prevention knowledge and skills in a sample of school-aged children, a total of 559 children from first to fifth grade were recruited from one primary school in Beijing, China. Participants were asked to finish a questionnaire surveying their knowledge and skills of child sexual abuse prevention. Results showed that accurate rate of knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention were between 44.0% and 80.0%. Percentage of participants having applied the self-protection skills of "saying 'no,'" "going away," and "telling adults" properly in hypothetical situations was 57.4%, 28.3%, and 48.3%, respectively. Third-to-fifth graders had a better performance than first-to-second graders, and girls performed better than boys. Findings suggest that Chinese school-aged children are in need of knowledge and skills related to child sexual abuse prevention, and education programs should be developed as soon as possible. PMID:27561123

  6. Aging and Risk: Physical and Sexual Abuse of Elders in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozowski, Kari; Hall, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on physical and sexual elder abuse within the context of risk theory and feminist sociology. Employing data from the 1999 General Social Survey, we also examine several variables potentially associated with the risk for physical or sexual abuse of elders. Women, Aboriginal Canadians, and elders who are…

  7. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  8. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  9. Flaccid theory and the geographies of sexual health in the age of Viagra.

    PubMed

    Del Casino, Vincent J

    2007-12-01

    The discipline of geography is largely absent in discussions and debates about drug use practices and their relationships to sexual health. Given the important relationships among the use of drugs, performances of sexualized identities, and the practices of sex, it behooves medical and health geographers particularly, and social and cultural geographers more generally, to engage in the wider interdisciplinary debates about these relationships. Through a discussion of one drug, Viagra, this brief intervention offers an agenda for studying the geographies of sex, sexuality, and drug use. It is argued that drug use is an inherently geographic practice that reshapes how places are resituated in relation to the fluid and dynamic meanings of sex, sexuality, and sexual health, areas of research and practice that medical and health geographers ought to consider more seriously.

  10. True love waits? A sibling-comparison study of age at first sexual intercourse and romantic relationships in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether the timing of first sexual intercourse in adolescence predicts romantic outcomes in adulthood, including union formation, number of romantic partners, and relationship dissatisfaction. Participants were 1,659 same-sex sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, who were followed from adolescence (mean age = 16 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 29 years). The timing of participants' first sexual intercourse was classified as early (at age 14 or earlier), on time (between the ages of 15 and 19), or late (at age 19 or older). Compared with early and on-time age at first sex, late age at first sex was associated with decreased odds of marriage or nonmarital cohabitation and fewer romantic partners in adulthood. Among individuals who had married or cohabited with a partner, late timing of first sex was associated with significantly reduced levels of relationship dissatisfaction, even after controlling for genetic and environmental differences between families (using a sibling-comparison model), demographic outcomes in adulthood, and involvement in dating during adolescence. These results underscore the contribution of a life-span approach to our understanding of romantic relationships.

  11. Parametric Cognitive Modeling of Information and Computer Technology Usage by People with Aging- and Disability-Derived Functional Impairments.

    PubMed

    García-Betances, Rebeca I; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda; Ottaviano, Manuel; Pastorino, Matteo; Arredondo, María T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the speedy evolution of Information and Computer Technology (ICT), and the growing recognition of the importance of the concept of universal design in all domains of daily living, mainstream ICT-based product designers and developers still work without any truly structured tools, guidance or support to effectively adapt their products and services to users' real needs. This paper presents the approach used to define and evaluate parametric cognitive models that describe interaction and usage of ICT by people with aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. A multisensorial training platform was used to train, based on real user measurements in real conditions, the virtual parameterized user models that act as subjects of the test-bed during all stages of simulated disabilities-friendly ICT-based products design. An analytical study was carried out to identify the relevant cognitive functions involved, together with their corresponding parameters as related to aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. Evaluation of the final cognitive virtual user models in a real application has confirmed that the use of these models produce concrete valuable benefits to the design and testing process of accessible ICT-based applications and services. Parameterization of cognitive virtual user models allows incorporating cognitive and perceptual aspects during the design process. PMID:26907296

  12. Parametric Cognitive Modeling of Information and Computer Technology Usage by People with Aging- and Disability-Derived Functional Impairments

    PubMed Central

    García-Betances, Rebeca I.; Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María Fernanda; Ottaviano, Manuel; Pastorino, Matteo; Arredondo, María T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the speedy evolution of Information and Computer Technology (ICT), and the growing recognition of the importance of the concept of universal design in all domains of daily living, mainstream ICT-based product designers and developers still work without any truly structured tools, guidance or support to effectively adapt their products and services to users’ real needs. This paper presents the approach used to define and evaluate parametric cognitive models that describe interaction and usage of ICT by people with aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. A multisensorial training platform was used to train, based on real user measurements in real conditions, the virtual parameterized user models that act as subjects of the test-bed during all stages of simulated disabilities-friendly ICT-based products design. An analytical study was carried out to identify the relevant cognitive functions involved, together with their corresponding parameters as related to aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. Evaluation of the final cognitive virtual user models in a real application has confirmed that the use of these models produce concrete valuable benefits to the design and testing process of accessible ICT-based applications and services. Parameterization of cognitive virtual user models allows incorporating cognitive and perceptual aspects during the design process. PMID:26907296

  13. Effect of growth rate from 6 to 16 months of age on sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Wilde, R E; Kastelic, J P

    2012-04-15

    Sexual development and reproductive function were studied in 22 Angus × Charolais and 17 Angus bulls from 6 to 16 mo of age. Associations of average daily gain (ADG) and body weight with ages at puberty and at maturity (satisfactory semen quality), scrotal circumference, paired-testes volume and weight, testicular vascular cone diameter and fat thickness, scrotal temperature, sperm production and morphology, and testicular histology, were determined. There were no significant correlations between cumulative average daily gain and any of the end points investigated. Body weight at various ages was negatively correlated with ages at puberty and maturity in Angus × Charolais bulls, positively correlated with paired-testes weight in Angus × Charolais and Angus bulls, and positively correlated with seminiferous tubule volume in Angus bulls (P < 0.05). Semen quality improved gradually with age and the interval between puberty and maturity (mean ± SD; 309.4 ± 29.7 and 357 ± 42 days of age) was approximately 50 days. Age, weight, scrotal circumference, and paired-testes volume were all good predictors of pubertal and mature status, with moderate to high sensitivity and specificity (71.6% to 92.4%). In summary, growth rate between 6 and 16 mo of age did not affect sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls. However, greater body weight at various ages was associated with reduced age at puberty and maturity, and with larger testes at 16 mo of age, indicating that improved nutrition might be beneficial, but only when offered before 6 mo of age. Average daily gains of approximately 1 to 1.6 kg/day did not result in excessive fat accumulation in the scrotum, increased scrotal temperature, or reduction in sperm production and semen quality, and could be considered "safe" targets for growing beef bulls.

  14. Moderating Effect of Age on the Association between Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk in MSM: Evidence for Elevated Risk among Younger MSM

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. Alcohol use is frequently studied as a predictor of sexual risk in MSM, but findings for this association have been mixed. Developmental differences in this effect may help to explain equivocal findings. 143 MSM (analytic sample 137) ages 16–40 completed weekly diaries of sexual encounters and associated situational factors for 12 weeks. Analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Alcohol use before sex was not associated with sexual risk across all participants. Participant age moderated this effect; alcohol use before sex was associated with increased odds of sexual risk in younger MSM only. These analyses expand on previous findings by utilizing a wider age range than most prior studies and adjusting for the effects of several theoretically-selected covariates. Young MSM are an important group to target for addressing alcohol use in the context of sexual behavior. PMID:23553348

  15. The Clinical Correlates of Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Association between Age at Trauma Onset and Severity of Depression and PTSD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedl, Aline Ferri; Costa, Mariana Cadrobbi Pupo; Mari, Jair J.; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the age of self-reported sexual abuse occurrence and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms in adulthood. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms as well as for a self-reported history of sexual abuse…

  16. Sexual Dysfunction among Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors from a Nationally Representative U.S. Probability Sample of Men and Women 57–85 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Edward O.; Das, Aniruddha; Waite, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Despite increasing demand for clinical interventions into sexual problems in an aging population, epidemiological data on the subject are scarce. Aims To examine the prevalence of sexual problems across different sociodemographic groups, and risk factors for these problems in multiple domains of life. Methods Statistical analysis of data from the 2005–2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative U.S. probability sample of 1,550 women and 1,455 men aged 57–85 at the time of interview. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of experiencing sexual dysfunction in the preceding 12 months. Results Sexual problems among the elderly are not an inevitable consequence of aging, but instead are responses to the presence of stressors in multiple life domains. This impact may partly be gender differentiated, with older women's sexual health more sensitive to their physical health than is true for men. The mechanism linking life stress with sexual problems is likely to be poor mental health and relationship dissatisfaction. The NSHAP results demonstrate the consistent impact of poor mental health on women's reports of sexual problems and the less consistent association with men's problems. Conclusions The results point to a need for physicians who are treating older adults experiencing sexual problems to take into account not simply their physical health, but also their psychosocial health and satisfaction with their intimate relationship. PMID:18702640

  17. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  18. 'These pushful days': time and disability in the age of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Baynton, Douglas C

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, social attitudes toward disability turned sharply negative. An international eugenics movement brought about restrictive immigration laws in the United States and other immigrant nations. One cause was the changing understanding of time, both historical and quotidian, that accompanied the advent of evolutionary theory and a competitive industrial economy. As analogies of competition became culturally ubiquitous, new words to talk about disability such as 'handicapped', 'retarded', 'abnormal', 'degenerate', and 'defective', came into everyday use, all of them explicitly or implicitly rooted in new ways of thinking about time. The intense fear of disability that characterised the eugenics movement grew, in good part, from this new and unsettling vision of time.

  19. Medicaid expansions for the working age disabled: Revisiting the crowd-out of private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kathryn L

    2015-03-01

    Disabled individuals under 65 years old account for 15% of Medicaid recipients but half of all Medicaid spending. Despite their large cost, few studies have investigated the effects of Medicaid expansions for disabled individuals on insurance coverage and crowd-out of private insurance. Using an eligibility expansion that allowed states to provide Medicaid to disabled individuals with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, I address these issues. Crowd-out estimates range from 49% using an ordinary least squares procedure to 100% using two-stage least-squares analysis. This potentially large degree of crowd-out could have fiscal implications for the Affordable Care Act which has greatly expanded Medicaid eligibility in 2014.

  20. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.

  1. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  2. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Exploring the Experiences of Abuse of College Students With Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Findley, Patricia A; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence and sexual assault of college students has garnered increased attention and publicity. Current studies have focused primarily on general campus populations with little to no attention to students with disabilities. While studies suggest the rate of abuse of individuals with disabilities is similar or higher compared to the general population, there remains a lack of focus on this issue. Individuals with disabilities are at particularly high risk for abuse, both through typical forms of violence (physical, sexual, emotional, and economic) and those that target one's disability. In an effort highlight and explore this issue further, an exploratory study was conducted to learn the rates of abuse among university students who have identified as having a disability. This is a cross-sectional survey of 101 students of students with disabilities from a large northeastern public university. Experiences of abuse were measured through the use of the Abuse Assessment Screen- Disability (AAS-D) scale. Students were asked about experiences of physical, sexual, psychological, and disability related abuse within the last year and help seeking behaviors when an incident of abuse occurred. We found that 22 % of participants reported some form of abuse over the last and nearly 62% (n= 63) had experienced some form of physical or sexual abuse before the age of 17. Those who were abused in the past year, 40% reported little or no knowledge of abuse-related resources and only 27% reported the incident. Authors discuss implications results have for programs and policies on campus for individuals with disabilities.

  4. Elucidation of nucleus-cytoplasm interaction: change in ability of the nucleus to express sexuality according to clonal age in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Haga, N

    1995-12-01

    The expression of sexual activity in Paramecium caudatum is repressed for about 50 fissions after conjugation. The ability of the macronucleus to affect the expression of sexual activity according to the age of clonal development was investigated using the macronuclear fusion-reorganization method. When a mature macronucleus was transplanted into an immature cell and fused with a macronucleus in the immature cell, the clones derived from the recipient showed sexual immaturity. In a reverse experiment, an immature macronucleus was transplanted into a mature cell, and the clones also showed sexual immaturity. The ability of the macronucleus to transform mature cells to immature cells was clonal age-dependent. The characteristics of the immature-mature hybrid macronucleus indicate that the immature macronucleus is dominant over the mature macronucleus with respect to the ability to express sexual activity. On the other hand, in cells of the early immaturity period, the micronucleus, known as the germ nucleus, shows the ability to undergo meiosis and eventually to produce progeny under control of the mature macronucleus. The expression of sexual activity is thought to be governed by the clonal age of the macronucleus and not by the clonal age of the micronucleus or cytoplasm. The macronucleus seems to determine the ability to express sexual activity by counting post-conjugation divisions and keeping track of the age of the clone.

  5. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  6. Subtypes of Attachment Security in School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This study explored children's secure attachment with both parents versus one parent, as well as the unique role of children's patterns of close relationships with father and mother, for a deeper understanding of maladjustment problems among children with learning disabilities (LD). Specifically, this study identified subgroups of children with…

  7. Summer Employment and Community Experiences of Transition-Age Youth with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Ditchman, Nicole; Sun, Ye; Trainor, Audrey A.; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Although early work experiences during high school represent one of the most consistent predictors of postschool employment for young adults with disabilities, little is known about how these adolescents might access these valuable transition experiences. This study examined the summer employment and community activities of 136 high school…

  8. An Analysis of the Linguistic and Reading Comprehension Abilities of Severely Reading Disabled School Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, John Michael

    The study utilized standardized testing procedures to identify the reading comprehension and verbal language characteristics of 12 fourth and fifth grade disabled readers. Reading comprehension was assessed with a standardized test of reading comprehension. Verbal language was assessed with a standardized test of verbal language. Descriptive,…

  9. 45 CFR 234.70 - Protective payments for the aged, blind, or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disabled. 234.70 Section 234.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect to determine that needy individuals have, by reason of physical or mental condition,...

  10. 45 CFR 234.70 - Protective payments for the aged, blind, or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disabled. 234.70 Section 234.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect to determine that needy individuals have, by reason of physical or mental condition,...

  11. 45 CFR 234.70 - Protective payments for the aged, blind, or disabled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disabled. 234.70 Section 234.70 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effect to determine that needy individuals have, by reason of physical or mental condition,...

  12. Financial Well-Being of Single, Working-Age Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Dababnah, Sarah; Mayra, Ellen Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the financial well-being of single mothers who care for children with developmental disabilities is important to ensure that public policies can be effectively targeted to support these vulnerable families. The authors analyze data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to describe income poverty, asset poverty, income,…

  13. Analysis Matrix of Resilience in the Face of Disability, Old Age and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Andrea; Lopez, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of the development of the "Resilience Theoretical Analysis Matrix" (RTAM) (or in its Spanish translation: MATR), a tool designed to facilitate a coherent and organised approach to the assessment of a wide spectrum of factors influencing the development of resilience in the face of disability,…

  14. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  15. Aging and Intellectual Disability: Insights from Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Pearn, Matthew L.; Mobley, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of many causes of intellectual disability (ID), others including but not limited to, fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams syndrome, hypoxia, and infection. Down syndrome is characterized by a number of neurobiological problems resulting in learning and memory deficits and early onset…

  16. Population with Intellectual Disability Based on 2000-2007 National Registers in Taiwan: Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding

    2009-01-01

    Primary prevention of intellectual disability (ID) has long been a goal of public health professionals, without a clear picture of the ID population, efforts to understand its nature and improve the lives for this group of people will be impossible. The purpose of this paper was to describe the over time prevalence of ID from 2000 to 2007 in…

  17. Health Profile of Aging Family Caregivers Supporting Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The health status of 206 female caregivers supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities at home was investigated using objective (i.e., presence of chronic health conditions and activity limitations) and subjective (i.e., self-perceived health status) health measures compared with those of women in the general population in 2…

  18. Increasing Effective Self-Advocacy Skills in Elementary Age Children with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Mary Jane Thompson

    2013-01-01

    For students with physical and health disabilities, the development of self-advocacy skills is critical to their future success. Characteristics that may inhibit the development of self-advocacy skills in this population include reliance on others for assistance across multiple areas requiring physical abilities, deficits in communication skills,…

  19. Distressed Neighborhoods and Child Disability Rates: Analyses of 157,000 School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msall, Michael E.; Avery, Roger C.; Msall, Emily R.; Hogan, Dennis P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess rates of childhood disability as indicated by functional limitation of motor, sensory, or self-care skills in children living in severely-distressed neighborhoods. For a neighborhood in the US Census Track to be considered severely distressed, three of the following four characteristics need to be present:…

  20. Video gaming and sexual violence: rethinking forensic nursing in a digital age.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Dave; Parkinson, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study into how forensic nurses, and male personality disordered sexual offenders, talked about "pornography" in one U.K. high-security hospital. Research rationale was rooted in current professional and political debates, adopting a discourse analytic design to situate the project in a clinical context. Semistructured interviews, as co-constructed accounts, explored talk about sexual media, offending, treatment, and risk. Data were analyzed using a version of discourse analysis popular in healthcare research, identifying discursive repertoires, or collective language use, characteristic of the institutional culture. Findings revealed that masculine discourse marginalized female nurses and contradicted therapeutic goals, where men's talk about pornography, sex, and sexual crime represented discriminatory and gendered language. Nursing definitions of pornography were constructed in the context of the client group and an organizational need to manage risk. In a highly controlled environment, with a long-stay population, priority in respondent talk was given to mainstream commercial sexual media and everyday items/images perceived to have embedded sexual meaning. However, little mention was made of contemporary modes of producing/distributing pornography, where sex and sexual violence are enacted in virtual realities of cyberspace. Failure to engage with information technology, and globally mediated sex, is discussed as a growing concern for forensic health workers.

  1. Video gaming and sexual violence: rethinking forensic nursing in a digital age.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Dave; Parkinson, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study into how forensic nurses, and male personality disordered sexual offenders, talked about "pornography" in one U.K. high-security hospital. Research rationale was rooted in current professional and political debates, adopting a discourse analytic design to situate the project in a clinical context. Semistructured interviews, as co-constructed accounts, explored talk about sexual media, offending, treatment, and risk. Data were analyzed using a version of discourse analysis popular in healthcare research, identifying discursive repertoires, or collective language use, characteristic of the institutional culture. Findings revealed that masculine discourse marginalized female nurses and contradicted therapeutic goals, where men's talk about pornography, sex, and sexual crime represented discriminatory and gendered language. Nursing definitions of pornography were constructed in the context of the client group and an organizational need to manage risk. In a highly controlled environment, with a long-stay population, priority in respondent talk was given to mainstream commercial sexual media and everyday items/images perceived to have embedded sexual meaning. However, little mention was made of contemporary modes of producing/distributing pornography, where sex and sexual violence are enacted in virtual realities of cyberspace. Failure to engage with information technology, and globally mediated sex, is discussed as a growing concern for forensic health workers. PMID:24434946

  2. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33 223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4 years in never-married and 14 years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  3. From Nonissue to Healthcare Crisis: A Historical Review of Aging and Dying With an Intellectual and Developmental Disability.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Jacqueline M

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are living unprecedentedly longer lives primarily due to the long-term benefits of the deinstitutionalization movement and widespread improvements in health outcomes. However, the consequences of this protracted aging process are significant, complex, and often poor not only for the individuals and their caregivers but for the mainstream healthcare community. This article will explore, utilizing a constructionist perspective, how these challenges evolved from a nonissue to an impending crisis in less than 25 years. Additionally, present-day efforts by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to address these challenges will be explored and recommendations will be made for future directions. PMID:27028256

  4. HIV sexual risk behaviors in youth 15-24 years of age in Cali, Colombia: Do differences exist among neighborhoods?

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Hannia; Mateus, Julio C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a global health priority. About 40% of new infections occur among heterosexual youth by means of sexual contact. In Cali, district 13, 15 and 20 account for 11.5% of the prevalent cases and 18.0% of incident cases. Objective: To establish differences in risk behaviors for HIV among young people 15-24 yrs of age from two areas of Cali, Colombia. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among young people between 15 and 24 yrs of age in these districts. The selection was done with a two-stage probability sampling. We estimated the prevalence of sexual relationships without condom usage, sex with multiple partners, and sex under the effects of alcohol and through logistical regression we identified the related factors. Results: In district 13, 15 and 20, the prevalence of unprotected sexual relationships in the last 12 months and the prevalence of sex with two or more partners was 70%; and 38% of young people had sex under the effects of alcohol. In both areas, the intention was positively related to the risk behaviors. We found socio-demographic factors, intentions, and beliefs that increase the opportunity to display these behaviors. The effect of these factors differs by district. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence of risk behaviors for HIV related to socio-demographic factors, intentions and beliefs that warrant interventions appropriate for local realities. PMID:24892451

  5. Does victim age differentiate between perpetrators of sexual child abuse? A study of mental health, psychosocial circumstances, and crimes.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Anita; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Brimse, Agneta; Innala, Sune; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-12-01

    To test the theory that sexual offenders who abuse very young children (0-5 years) have more severe mental health and psychosocial problems than those who victimize older children, authors compared psychiatric diagnoses, social circumstances, and crime-related data in all sexual offenders against minors referred to forensic psychiatric investigation in Sweden during a 5-year period. Thirty-one men had committed index crimes involving victims between the ages of 0 and 5 years (Group 1), 90 had 6-to 11-year-old victims (Group 2), and 41 had 12- to 15-year-old victims (Group 3). All three offender groups were characterized by severe mental health problems, in many cases fulfilling American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for both Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, but these problems did not differ between groups. Neither did social situation or sexual orientation. Offenders with 0- to 5-year-old victims significantly more often abused both boys and girls. Frequencies of retrospectively diagnosed childhood-onset behavior disorders were high in all three offender groups. The authors' data did not support previous findings of increasingly severe mental health problems with decreasing victim age. PMID:19901238

  6. Effect of age of release from light or food restriction on age at sexual maturity and egg production of laying pullets.

    PubMed

    Gous, R M; Bradford, G D; Johnson, S A; Morris, T R

    2000-07-01

    1. Lohmann Brown pullets, in one trial, and Hyline Brown pullets in another, were reared from day 2 on short daylengths, and from week 8 in trial 1 (week 16 in trial 2) on food restriction. These restrictions were lifted at various times during the rearing period as a means of determining the relative importance of the day length and food restriction stimuli on the attainment of sexual maturity and subsequent laying performance. 2. A total of 2304 pullets were used in each trial. The birds were reared in light proof rooms, and subjected to 8L:16D until they were moved to a laying facility where a light stimulus of 16L:8D was applied. In trial 1 the six ages at which light stimulation was applied were 115, 122, 129, 136, 143 and 171 d. Within each light treatment, food restriction of pullets, which consisted of feeding 72 g of food/bird d, was lifted at six different ages, namely, 115, 129, 143, 157, 171 and 185 d. In trial 2 both the light stimulation and the lifting of food restriction occured at 111, 125, 139, 153, 167 and 181 d of age, producing 6x6=36 treatments in both trials. 3. The first trial was terminated when the pullets were 28 weeks old, soon after all the birds had commenced laying, because of an outbreak of Egg Drop Syndrome. However, because age at maturity was the variable of major interest, data from this experiment could be used in the analysis. The second trial ended when the birds reached 40 weeks of age. Variables measured were age at maturity, food intake and body weight gain subsequent to the lifting of restrictions and, in the second experiment, rate of lay, peak rate of lay and egg weight at various ages. 4. The mean age at sexual maturity was influenced by the date of release from light restriction (P<0.001) and from food restriction (P<0.001) in both trials. In addition, the interaction between the age at release from light and from food restriction was significant. Regression equations were produced for each trial to describe the

  7. Association between comorbid conditions and BADL/IADL disability in hypertension patients over age 45: Based on the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS).

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiahui; Ren, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension usually coexists with other chronic conditions and can cause disability in relation to activities of daily living. We examined the association between the number and categories of comorbid conditions and disability affecting activities of daily living in hypertension patients.The data were collected from the 2013 follow-up survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which contains information about chronic conditions and disability. Additionally, socio-demographic characteristics of 3754 hypertension patients aged 45 and older were included in this study. Comorbid conditions included dyslipidemia, stroke, and 12 other chronic conditions. Disability in relation to activities of daily living was assessed using the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) instruments. Differences in BADL/IADL disability among patients with different comorbid conditions were compared using the chi-square test, and the influence of chronic conditions and socio-demographic characteristics on BADL/IADL disability was analyzed using logistic models.Without considering the influence of specific chronic conditions on BADL/IADL, hypertension patients with additional comorbid conditions were more likely to suffer from BADL/IADL disability. When considering the effect of specific chronic conditions, the number of comorbid conditions did not significantly influence BADL/IADL disability. Dyslipidemia, chronic lung disease, stroke, memory-related diseases, and arthritis/rheumatism were associated with BADL disability. Chronic lung diseases, heart diseases, stroke, stomach/digestive system diseases, emotional/nervous/psychiatric problems, memory-related diseases, arthritis/rheumatism, and asthma were associated with IADL disability. Additionally, female, people with lower education level, people living in village, and people living in middle and western China were more likely suffer from BADL

  8. College women who had sexual intercourse when they were underage minors (13-15): age of their male partners, relation to current adjustment, and statutory rape implications.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, Harold; Saltzman, Heidi

    2003-04-01

    In a survey of 1,439 female college students, 24% reported that they had what they considered consensual sexual intercourse between ages 13 and 15 (2% at age 13, 7% at age 14, and 15% at age 15). Contrary to the impression left by studies of teenage mothers, the majority of their male sexual partners were not substantially older than them but instead were more typically "somewhat older" (2-4 years apart) or similar aged (less than 2 years apart). The percentage of "much older" partners (5 or more years older) was 31% for those who had intercourse at age 13, 17% for those who had intercourse at age 14, and 13% for those who had intercourse at age 15. Women who had intercourse at age 13 endorsed more current symptoms of psychological distress than those who first had intercourse at age 14 or 15. There were no significant differences between the groups in current levels of sexual satisfaction. Partner's age difference was not significantly associated with current levels of either psychological distress or sexual satisfaction. The implications of these results were discussed in light of recent calls in the United States for more strict and rigorous enforcement of statutory rape laws.

  9. Effects of age, intelligence and executive control function on saccadic reaction time in persons with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    The current research aimed to clarify the influence of age, intelligence and executive control function on the central tendency and intraindividual variability of saccadic reaction time in persons with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 44 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 13 and 57 years whose IQs were between 14 and 70. Executive control function was evaluated by a test of sustained simple motor action. To elicit saccades, a predictive visually guided saccade paradigm was used. Intelligence and executive control function were significantly associated with saccadic reaction time. The central tendency of saccadic reaction time was negatively correlated with intelligence. The more serious the degree of executive control dysfunction was, the larger the intraindividual variability of saccadic reaction time. It is thought that intelligence and executive control function have relatively independent influences on saccadic reaction time. However, there is a possibility that the increase of intraindividual variability in saccadic reaction time due to the problem of executive control function extends the central tendency of saccadic reaction time. PMID:21742468

  10. Headache in children: young age at onset does not imply a harmful etiology or predict a harsh headache disability.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Sarit; Gordon, Shirie; Schiff, Aharon; Shahar, Eli

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare headache etiology, type, and burden and the learning and behavioral profile in children with early-onset (under 6 years) and late-onset (8-12 years) headaches. The study included 133 patients, 35 in the early-onset group and 98 in the late-onset group. Headache diagnosis was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders -II (ICHD-II) criteria. Learning profile and behavioral problems were assessed by parental reports. Tension headache was the most common diagnosis in the early-onset headache group (51.4%). No significant differences were found between the age groups with regard to headache etiology, disability, abnormal neuroimaging results, school performance, or attention problems. Nevertheless, the early-onset group patients had a significantly higher prevalence of behavioral problems: 25.7% versus 11.2% (P < .02). The authors suggest that early age of headache onset does not imply a harmful etiology or a relentless headache disability or burden. PMID:22914375

  11. Preparation of Trainers of Volunteer Parent Service Providers (Including Parents) for Vermont's School-Age Learners with Severe Developmental Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaver-Reid, Mary Ellen; And Others

    The report describes Volunteers for Families (VFF), a 3-year project to develop a statewide (Vermont) network of trained volunteers to advocate for and to provide and coordinate services to, families of school-age learners (ages 3-21) with severe developmental disabilities. A three-phase process for establishing a VFF program is outlined,…

  12. Coming of age: how young women in the Northwest Territories understand the barriers and facilitators to positive, empowered, and safer sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Lys, Candice; Reading, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Compared to other young Canadians, youth in the Northwest Territories (NWT) suffer disproportionately from negative sexual health outcomes, including high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. This study aimed to identify the self-perceived barriers and facilitators to positive, empowered, and safer sexual health that impact female youth in the NWT. Study design and methods A total of 12 females aged 15–19 who live in the NWT were recruited through purposive sampling to participate in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Inductive coding and thematic analysis of transcribed data occurred using Atlas.ti. Results Overall 4 main themes influenced the sexual health of these women: sexual health knowledge, relationships with the self and others, access to quality sexual health resources, and alcohol use/abuse. Conclusion Recommendations for future action include improving the content and delivery of sexual health education, enhancing parent–adolescent sexual health communication, providing workshops to empower young women to assert themselves within relationships, and supporting an environment that normalizes youth sexuality. PMID:22765935

  13. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  14. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  15. The Psychosexual Profile of Sexual Assistants: An Internet-Based Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Limoncin, Erika; Galli, Debora; Ciocca, Giacomo; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assistance may have some aspects that resemble prostitution and others that might lead one to think of sexual assistants as similar to a group of subjects whose sexual object is disability (devotees). In this study, we investigate whether a rigorous selection and training process on the part of specialised organisations may reduce the risk of training subjects with an atypical sexual interest and behaviours resembling prostitution. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 152 subjects defining themselves as sexual assistants. Subjects were initially contacted on websites specifically dedicated to sexual assistants and prostitutes. One hundred and twenty subjects were selected, by propensity score analysis, and studied by means of a modified version of a semi-structured questionnaire previously developed to investigate a population of subjects attracted by disability. Results The study group was composed of 80 trained and 40 untrained sexual assistants, with mean ages of 41.5 (SD +/−12.58) and 44.5 (SD +/−11.62), respectively. A significant number of untrained subjects affirmed that their motivation in carrying out sexual assistance was of a remunerative nature, while this number was lower among the trained assistants (p = 0.001). Nearly all untrained subjects claimed to do one or more of the following activities during sexual assistance: sexual intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation. Among the trained subjects, however, only 47.5% claimed to do one or more of these activities, which means that there is a significant gap between trained and untrained assistants (p<0.0001). The existence of an atypical sexual interest was more evident between untrained rather than between trained subjects (p<0.0001). Conclusions Sexual assistance represents a way through which people affected by disabilities may attain the right to explore their sexuality in a safe setting. This can be guaranteed only if sexual assistants are trained and

  16. “We Cannot Be Greek Now”: Age Difference, Corruption of Youth and the Making of Sexual Inversion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A Problem in Greek Ethics, A Problem in Modern Ethics and “Soldier Love” indicate that John Addington Symonds responded carefully to social anxieties regarding the influence and corruption of youth and placed increasing emphasis on presenting male same-sex desire as consensual and age-consistent. Situating Symonds's work in the social and political context of the 1880s and 1890s, the article opens up a more complex understanding of Symonds's reception of Greece. It also offers a new reading of his collaboration with Havelock Ellis by arguing that Symonds's insistence on age-equal and reciprocal relationships between men strongly shaped Sexual Inversion. This shows that concerns about age difference and ideals of equality and reciprocity began to impact debates about male same-sex desire in the late nineteenth century – earlier than is generally assumed. PMID:25400291

  17. Prescription Errors in Older Individuals with an Intellectual Disability: Prevalence and Risk Factors in the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Rianne J.; van der Kaaij, Annemieke D. M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing pharmacotherapy for older individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) is a complex process, possibly leading to an increased risk of prescription errors. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of older individuals with an intellectual disability with at least one prescription error and (2) to identify…

  18. Supplemental Security Income: determining disability for a child under age 18. Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2000-09-11

    On February 11, 1997, we published interim final rules with a request for comments to implement the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) childhood disability provisions of sections 211 and 212 of Public Law (Pub. L.) 104-193, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. We are now publishing revised final rules in response to public comments. We are also conforming our rules to amendments to Public Law 104-193 made by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Public Law 105-33. Finally, we are simplifying and clarifying some rules in keeping with the President's goal of using plain language in regulations. PMID:11503639

  19. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim's Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered. PMID:26854588

  20. Paradigm shift: implementing MEGA, a new tool proposed to define and assess sexually abusive dynamics in youth ages 19 and under.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A; Miccio-Fonseca, L C

    2007-01-01

    Previous definitions of sexually abusive behavior in children and adolescents were deficient in failing to (1) highlight salient neuropsychological elements and antisocial behaviors that may contribute to a youth's functioning; (2) discriminate among possible types of coercion (e.g., manipulation, threats, physical force, and use of weapons); and (3) include predatory elements of sexual abuse against strangers or casual acquaintances. This article discusses a new comprehensive assessment tool that assists in defining sexually abusive youth. This tool, the Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Children and Adolescents (Ages 19 and under) (MEGA; Miccio-Fonseca, 2006b), encompasses neuropsychological elements, coercive aspects, and predatory elements as essential factors to consider in comprehensive assessments of sexually abusive youth. PMID:17255078